A common paradigm is that chernozem soils developed in the Holocene under grassland steppes, with their formation largely determined by three factors, parent material, climate and faunal mixing. For European chernozems, however, pollen records  show that steppes were rare. Here, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, micro Raman spectroscopy and radiocarbon dating, we characterized the nanomorphology and chemical structure of soil organic carbon (SOC) from central European chernozems. We identified submicron remnants of burned biomass (15–45 percent of SOC), coexisting as amorphous charblack carbon (BC) derived from pyrolized cellulose or soot-BC. The BC was several millenia in age (1160–5040 carbon-14 years) and up to 3990 radiocarbon years older than bulk SOC, indicating significant residence times for BC in soils.

In black Australian grassland soils, under aboriginal fire management for thousands of years, up to 30% of the soil organic carbon (SOC) was present as BC, whereas adjacent forested soils that were not subjected to regular aboriginal burning were gray and contained little BC [Skjemstad et al., 1997].

Pottery Neolithic landscape modification at Dhra’
This report of the discovery of low walls running across the slopes east of the Dead Sea presents an important landmark in the history of farming, for these were terrace walls put in place to conserve soil and control water around 6000 cal BC. The authors point to some of the implications of what they see as early landscape modification at the scale of a small community or household.


The Hebrew Pardes, DTjB (Syr. pardaisa, Gk. TT&p<\AeiCOc) is from Old Pers. pairidaeza, ‘an enclosure, a place walled in’ (see Justi, Handbuch der Zendsprache}.

The word occurs in Neh. 2:8, Cant. 4:13, Eccles. 2:5 in the sense of ‘park’ ; LXX in irapa&. [parad] =|3, ‘garden’ (see GARDEN, begin.). Evidently napaS [parad] suggested the idea of abundance of water (cp Ecclus. 24:30-31; Susan. 15 [Theod.]); the tree of life and the water of life naturally go together. On the occurrence of the word pardesu in Assyrian, see PSBA, Dec. 1896; ZA 6290, and on the late non-literary Greek usage, cp Deissmann, Bibelstudien, 146. At the present day, TO napaSitri [to paradisi] is still the popular term for the valley descending southward from the sacred hill-forest at Idalion in Cyprus (Ohnefalsch-Richter, Kypros, no).

A ‘paradise’ is properly a garden or orchard ; but we shall here restrict ourselves to what we may quite simply and naturally call the mythical Paradise, a belief in which sprang up ages before the birth of history, and the significance of which is independent of historical criticism. There are many mythic paradises ; the region in which that of the Hebrews was located bears the name of py, Eden, Gen. 28 io4i6 (eSe/u. 1 ). Hence Paradise itself is called pjrja, ‘the garden of Eden’, 2:15 (TrapdSetcros [paradeisos]), 3:23-24 (irapad. TTJS Tpv<f>TJs [parad tes tryphes], so LXX{L} in 2:15), Ezek. 36:35 (KTJTTOS rp. [kepos tr]), Joel 2:3 (ir. rp.), or more shortly jiy, ‘Eden’, Is. 51:3 (irapdd. [parad]), Ezek. 28:13, 31:9, 31:16, 31:18 (i) rpixferi [e tryphe]). In Ecclus. 40:27 the Heb. text says that the fear of God is ‘like Eden a blessing’ – i.e. , full of blessing (.ina pjn)- We also find Paradise described by the phrases (DTI^N) rn,T”[a, ‘the garden of Yahwe’ (or ‘of God’ ), Gen. 13:10, Is. 51:3, Ezek. 28:13 ; and ‘the holy mountain of God’, Ezek. 28:14.

…And a stream went out from Eden to water the garden, and afterwards it spread itself out – and watered the whole of Misrite Arabia’ (nnso 3njrS|-nN njJtrrn -na< DB DI).

By a mistake such as occurs again and again, 3 i-iy, ‘Arabia’, was misread nyaiN, ‘four’ ; D en (which our dictionaries boldly render ‘arms’ or ‘branches’ ) comes from n”iB : K [AShRYM]; ii^ X is frequently substituted in the traditional text for i?jtp or -nate (one cannot always be quite sure which is right). When the ‘four heads’ had thus been brought into existence, it only remained to identify them. The old Babylonian myth had been naturalised in Jerahmeel, and, even when adopted by the Hebrews, its geography long continued to be purely Jerahmeelite. Consequently, if Jerahmeel, as known to the editor of the corrupt text, could not furnish the requisite four Streams, all that could be done was to imagine that, at a distant period, while the enchanted garden existed, there were four streams. The following may be nearly what the editor, and the interpolator who followed him, 4 wrote in explanation of the partly misread words in v. 10, ‘it spread itself and became four heads’ :
The name of the first is Pishon ; that is it which encircles the whole land of Hahavilah [the land of Cusham, Missur,

Jerahmeel, and the bne Ishmael]. And the name of the second stream is Rehobothon ; that is it which encircles the whole land of Cush. And the name of the third stream is Jerahmeel ; that is it which flows E. of Geshur (or Missur?), and the fourth stream is Ephrath.

The parents of the primeval heroes, including Nimrod, whom J1 identifies with the ‘Nephilim’, are the founders of civilisation, and their sons carry on the arduous work. The supposed dissension among the divine ones is in accordance with the Deluge story and other Babylonian myths.

Gen. 11:1+ began thus, ‘And the whole earth was a single family in the wilderness of Jerahmeel’, and ends with ‘and they left off building the city’, after which may have come the account of the true Noah (Gen. 9:20-27), and of Cush and (especially) Nimrod (Gen. 10:8-12) who was regarded as one of the ‘famous men’, the heroes of Jerahmeel.

Jerahmeelite form of story.

We shall return presently to the very different form of text which now represents this early insertion. What it is most important to call attention to just now is the fact that the early Hebrew legends are predominantly Jerahmeelite. We do not of course deny the potent influence of Babylon, which indeed we have already pointed out in 2:4b-7. We also affirm the probability of a revival of Babylonian influence on Hebrew traditions at a later period (cp CREATION, 23). But we assert that the original Hebrew legends were received from the Jerahmeelites, among whom, both on the N. Arabian border and in Palestine itself, the early Israelites lived. The Jerahmeelite colouring of the Hebrew legends may have been injured by scribes, but by no means have all traces of it been effaced. Thus the traditional text may tell us that Yahwe [Elohim] planted a garden in Eden eastward (Gen. 2:8); but it is certain that cip and cp-] are common corruptions of SKDPIT I and with the Paradise-story of Ezekiel before us we cannot hesitate to read, ‘Yahwe [Elohim] planted a garden in Eden of Jerahmeel’. A recent writer, 1 noticing features of the Paradise-story which every scholar feels never originated on Jewish soil, and for which Babylonian lore fails to account, asks what inland country in or near a desert like Arabia can have been the source of the narrative. It may be hoped that this question has been answered.

So too, it is plausible to hold that the deluge was originally described as overwhelming the land of the Jerahmeelites, and the ark as settling on the mountains ot Jerahmeel (^KDlTVi partly miswritten, partly emended in the traditional text as QVIN, ‘Ararat’ ). So too ‘the beginning of Nimrod’s kingdom was Jerahmeel’ (on this reading of Gen. 10:10 see NIMROD), and it was ‘as they journeyed in Jerahmeel’ (Gen. 11:2, text, oipO 2 – i.e. (1) eastwards, Dillmann ; (2) in the E., Kalisch, Kautzsch, Holzinger; (3) from the E., Gunkel; cp LXX dn-b aixxToAwi- [apo anatoloon]) that the primitive men ‘found a plain in the land of Geshur’ (text, SHINAR, q.v.). So too the warlike story in Gen. 14 is largely concerned with ‘Jerahmeel’, and the region chosen by Lot (13:10-11), where lay the cities destroyed by a judgment, was originally placed in Jerahmeel (133 and 123 ->D in vv. 10-11 and mpa in v. 11 being corruptions of ^xsm la] , see SODOM, MELCHIZEDEK).

Ezekiel’s Eden.

(a) As to Ezekiel. In certain very remarkable passages of this prophet, 2 two royal personages are stated to have been (metaphorically) in ‘Eden, the garden of Elohim’ – the wise and wealthy king of Tyre (28:12-13) and Pharaoh, king of Egypt (31:8-9, 31:11, 31:16, 31:18). Why this metaphorical description is selected for these two kings is not clear. The king of Egypt, in particular, seems misplaced there, for the Jews cannot be supposed to have known that the Egyptians had their own very full conception of the supernal Paradise, 3 and geographically the OT Paradise is specially Asiatic. And why too should it be said that the king (or prince, as he is strangely called in 282) of Tyre was perfect in wisdom (vv. 3-5, 7, 12, 17)? The explanation we can offer is one which would be very surprising if there were not parallels for it both in the prophetic and in the narrative books. The prophecies in Ezek. 26-32 have probably been edited by some later writer than Ezekiel, and made to refer to Tyre and Egypt, whereas originally they referred to the king (or prince) and people of the N. Arabian Musri. 4 The case is precisely similar to that of Jer. 46-51, and (as we shall see) to that of Gen. 2:10-14, as in Critica Biblica we shall develop at some length. We can now understand the wisdom ascribed to the divinely favoured king in Ezek. 28. The Misrites, like the Edomites, enjoyed a high reputation for wisdom ; to say that Solomon was wiser than the Jerahmeelites and the Misrites was the highest possible eulogy (1 K. 4:30). Of course in his original perfectness the king of Missur was just as exceptionally wise as Solomon ; he was indeed the equal of the sons of God ; for he dwelt in the mountain and garden of Elohim (see CHERUB, 2). No Babylonian monarch could be more conscious of his supernatural privileges than this king. There he walked to and fro in his ‘holiness’, like the first man before he yielded to temptation. His ‘guilty acts’, however, or, more precisely, his ‘unrighteous traffic’ – here we pass from allegory into history – offended Yahwe, and the cherub (the mythic allegory resumed) which guarded the sacred mountain and its precious stones, destroyed him, by casting him, like the Etana of a Babylonian legend (see ETHAN), with his ‘holiness profaned’ 2 to the lower earth ; or, to leave mythology, a fire came forth from the very midst of his kingdom which con sumed him.

Isiah. 14:4-20.

To understand this passage it will be well to compare it with Is. 14:4-20, which, as is pointed out elsewhere, 3 refers not to some Babylonian or Assyrian king but to the king of Jerahmeel in N. Arabia, by whom in the Chaldaean period the Jews were oppressed. In v. 12 this king is called, not ‘Lucifer’ or ‘the daystar’, but ‘Jerahmeel’, 4 and the ‘mount of congregation’ (ti io ~n – i.e. , the mountain of Elohim) where he claims to dwell, but from which (cp Ezek. 28:16) he shall be cast out, is described as being pss n2T3 – i.e., probably, ‘in the recesses of Safon’ (Safan) – which seems to have been a name nearly equivalent to Missur (the ethnic belonging to it is Sefoni = Sefani) ; cp SHAPHAN, ZAPHON, ZKPHANIAH. It is not impossible that a very unlikely phrase in Ezek. 28:14 (EV, ‘thou art, or wast, the anointed cherub that covereth’ ) 5 should, by critical emendation, be read ‘(thy dwelling was) in the recesses of Cusham [see CUSH, 2] ; thy throne (thou exaltest)’.

See further Crit. Bib. It may be noted here that a particular phrase (C S 3^2) which at first sight appears destructive of the above hypothesis is corrupt. Any one can see this in Ezek. 28:2, where ‘I sit in a seat of God in the heart of the seas’ cannot be right. But if one passage in the group is corrupt, all the other passages are so too – i.e., the original prophecy became corrupt in one place, and because it suited the editor’s interest to read ‘Tyre’ for ‘Missur’, he harmonised the other passages (27:4, 27:25, 27:27, 28:8) with it. The original reading most probably was D ri?K 7313, ‘in the mansion of God’, except in 28:8, where we must read ^K ?3?D /MCTTV rHOni, ‘and thou shall die, O Jerahmeel, (cast out) from the mansion of God’. There is also corruption in Is. 148, which in its original form referred probably to the songs of the cities of Benjamin, which had suffered so greatly from the raids of the Cherethites (i.e., Rehobothites), a section of the Jerahmeelites.

This form of the Paradise-story is remarkable for its mention of the divine mountain in Eden with its garden or grove (on the summit?) and its ‘stones of fire’ 1 (i.e., precious stones; see CHERUB, 2, n. 2), also from its affirmation of the original blamelessness of the man who dwelt in Eden. This important feature of the story may perhaps refer to the time when the Kenites were the tutors of the Israelites in the worship of Yahwe (see MOSES, 14). The ‘unrighteous traffic’ by which the Misrite king provoked Yahwe may be the traffic in Israelite slaves – captives of war (Am. 1:9, reading -ijtp for -is). Plainly the garden of Eden was, according to Ezekiel, in the Jerahmeelite land – i.e. , in N. Arabia.

Origin of ‘Nephilim’.

It still remains
(i. ) to explain the name ‘Nephilim’, and
(ii. ) to account for the troublesome phrases ne-x cSij C and J3 nnt< D3i in Gen. 6:4 ; cp also Ezek. 32:27.

i. It is not a matter of merely linguistic interest to explain D Sl IsJ ; the race so designated, though mentioned under this name only twice or thrice in the OT, evidently filled a large place in Israelitish tradition. It is a mistake to regard the name as a mere appellative ; from Nu. 13:28-33 it is plain that Nephilim (if the reading is correct) has as definite a reference as the parallel phrase, b’ne Anak, 1 which, as Dt. 2:11 shows, was the name of a branch of the REPHAIM [q.v.]. It is therefore enough simply to mention the supposed connection with ^/^BJ [root NPL]. ‘to fall’ (as if ‘those who fall on the weak’, or ‘those who have fallen from heaven’, or ‘those who had been born contrary to nature’ ), 2 with sjn^s [root PLA] (as if ‘extra ordinary ones’ ), 3 and with /y/Ss: ( = “?3J = Ass. nabalu, ‘to destroy’ ). The name has, very possibly, been distorted through corruption of the text either of Gen. 6:4 or, more probably, of Nu. 13:33 (an editor adjusted the reading of the other passage or passages accordingly). What then are the best authenticated names of the pre-Israelitish peoples of Canaan, and more especially of that part of Canaan which was referred to in the original story which probably underlies Nu. 13:17-33? They are Amorites and Jerahmeelites, and it so happens that the city with which originally the b’ne Anak were connected was the Jerahmeelite city of REHOBOTH [q. v. ]. Among the many distortions of the name Jerahme’el or Jerahme’elim which the OT contains, it is very credible that o ^an was one, 4 and from D-^ST [RPLYM] to D ^SJ [NPLYM] the step is easy. This, consequently, was what E said in Nu. 18:33, ‘And there we saw the Jerahmeelites’ [gloss, ‘the sons of Anak, who belong to the Jerahmeelites’ ]; and the true words of J1 in Gen. 6:4 are these, ‘The Jerahmeelites arose in the land in those days’. Cp JERAHMEEL, 4.

ii. It is now very easy to explain o^tyo “iB N and QJI iD- inN. The former phrase comes from D !?KDrlTn. ‘the Jerahmeelites’, and the latter is simply an editor’s endeavour to make sense of n ririND, the disarranged letters of D^MDITT, ‘Jerahmeelites’, inserted as the earliest editor’s correction of D ^BJ- In Ezek. 32:27 a similar correction is necessary. n Stj D (like n ^ny in Judg. 14:3 etc. ) is a corruption of Q 7Kbm .

Thus the origin of the Jerahmeelites is traced by an early Hebrew writer and also by Ezekiel to the semi- divine heroes of primitive culture, such as NIMROD [q.v.], the beginning of whose kingdom was Jerahmeel. The idea that these heroes and their divine fathers are leaders in sin is late. T. K. C.


Deucalion is probably himself a symbol of the chief god whose worship he founded, his sons being sons of Zeus

It was said to have been Deucalion, the great ancestor or god of the Aeolian .tribes, the presumed father of Amphictyon, or the Amphictyonic league, whose renown, spread over all the countries from Epirus to Athens, accompanied the migrations of the tribes who worshipped him, who first established the worship of the twelve great gods, the same as those afterwards canonised by the Dorians, or by Hercules

Poseidon split the mountains at the Vale of Tempe to release the waters trapped in the Great Thessalian Plain.

Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3. 1085 ff (trans. Seaton) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :
“There is a land [Thessalia] encircled by lofty mountains, rich in sheep and in pasture, where Prometheus, son of Iapetos, begat goodly Deukalion, who first founded cities and reared temples to the immortal gods, and first ruled over men. This land the neighbours who dwell around call Haemonia.”

Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 2. 14 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) :
“[A description of an ancient Greek painting at Naples :] This painting suggests . . . it deals with the Thessalians . . . The Thessalians in early times were not permitted by the [river] Peneios to have any land at all, since mountains encompassed the level spaces, which the stream continually flooded because it had as yet no outlet. Therefore Poseidon will break through the mountains with his trident and open a gateway for the river. Indeed, this is the work which he has now undertaken, the mighty task of uncovering the plains; his hand is raised to break the mountains apart, but, before the blow has fallen, they separate a sufficient space to let the river through. In the painter’s effort to make the action clear, the right side of Poseidon has been at the same time both drawn back and advanced and he threatens to strike his blow, not merely with his hand but with his whole body. He is painted, not dark blue nor yet as a god of the sea, but as a god of the mainland. Accordingly he greets the plains as he sees that they are both broad and level like stretches of the sea. The river also rejoices as one exulting . . . Thessalia [the land personified] emerges, the water already subsiding; she wears tresses of olive and grain and grasps a colt that emerges along with her. For the horse also is to be her gift from Poseidon, when the earth shall receive the seed of the god while he sleeps and shall bear a horse.”

Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 152A (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
“Phaethon, son of Sol [Helios the sun] and Clymene, who had secretly mounted his father’s car, and had been borne too high above the earth, from fear fell into the river Eridanus. When Jupiter [Zeus] struck him with a thunderbolt, everything started to burn. In order to have a reason for destroying the whole race of mortals, Jove pretended he wanted to put out the fire; he let loose the rivers everywhere, and all the human race perished except Deucalion and Pyrrha.”

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 3. 204 ff :
“For the third time a deluge of rain had flooded the world’s foundations with towering billows. Ogygos [the first king of Attica] made proof of the first roaring Deluge, as he cut the air through the highclimbing waters, when all the earth was hidden under the flood, when the tops of the Thessalian rocks were covered, when the summit of the Pythian rock near the clouds on high was bathed in the snow-cooled flood. There was a second Deluge, when tempestuous waters covered the circuit of the round earth in a furious flood, when all mortal men perished, and Deukalion alone with his mate Pyrrha in a hollow ark cutting the swirling flood of infinite deluge went on his eddying voyage through the air turned water. When the third time rain from Zeus flooded the solid earth and covered the hills, and even the unwetted slopes of Sithonia with Mount Athos itself, then Dardanos, cutting through the stream of the uplifted flood, landed on the ancient mountain of Ida his neighbour.” [N.B. Usually the Floods of Ogygos, Deukalion and Dardanos were regarded as one and the same.]

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 6. 206 ff :
“[Nonnos describes the great Deluge in astrological terms :] After the first Dionysos [i.e. Zagreus] had been slaughtered [by the Titanes], Father Zeus learnt the trick of the mirror with its reflected image. He attacked [Gaia, earth] the mother of the Titanes with avenging brand, and shut up the murderers of horned Dionysos within the gate of Tartaros: the trees blazed, the hair of suffering Gaia (Earth) was scorched with heat. He kindled the East: the dawnlands of Baktria blazed under blazing bolts, the Assyrian waves set afire the neighbouring Kaspian Sea and the Indian mountains, the Red Sea rolled billows of flame and warmed Arabian Nereus. The opposite West also fiery Zeus blasted with his thunderbolt in love for his child; and under the foot of Zephyros the western brine half-burnt spat out a shining stream; the Northern ridges– even the surface of the frozen Northern Sea bubbled and burned : under the clime of snowy Aigokeros [i.e. the constellation Capricorn] the Southern corner boiled with hotter sparks.
Now Oceanos poured rivers of tears from his watery eyes, a libation of suppliant prayer. Then Zeus calmed his wrath at the sight of the scorched earth; he pitied her, and wished to wash with water the ashes of ruin and the fiery wounds of the land. The Rainy Zeus covered the whole sky with clouds and flooded all the earth. Zeus’s heavenly trumpet bellowed with its thunderclaps, while all the stars moved in their appointed houses : when Helios (the Sun) in his four-horse chariot drove shining over the Lion’s [Leo’s] back, his own house; the Moon of threefold form rolled in her onrunning car over the eightfoot Crab [Cancer]; Kypris [i.e. the planet Venus] in her equinoctial course under the dewy region had left the Ram’s [Aries] horn behind, and held her spring-time house in the heavenly Bull [Taurus] which knows no winter; the Sun’s neighbour Ares [i.e. the planet Mars] possessed the Scorpion, harbinger of the Plow, encircled by the blazing Bull, and ogled Aphrodite [star Venus] opposite with a sidelong glance; Zeus of nightfall [i.e. the planet Jupiter], the twelvemonth traveller who completes the lichtgang, was treading on the starry Fishes [Pisces], having on his right he round-faced Moon in trine; Kronos [i.e. the planet Saturn] passed through the showery back of Aigokeros [Capricorn] drenched in the frosty light; round the bright Maiden [Virgo], Hermes [i.e. the planet Mercury] was poised on his pinions, because as a dispenser of justice he had Justice for his house.
Now the barriers of the sevenzoned watery sky were opened, when Zeus poured down his showers. The mountain-torrents roared with fuller fountains of the loudsplashing gulf. The lakes, liquid daughters cut off from Okeanos, raised their surface. The fountains shot spouts of the lower water of Okeanos into the air. The cliffs were besprinkled, the dry thirsty hills were drenched as with rivers streaming over the heights: the sea rose until Nereïds became Oreades on the hills over the woodland. O poor thing! Maid Ekho had to swim with unpractised hands, and felt a new fear for that old maiden zone–Pan she had escaped, but she might be cause by Poseidon! Sea-lions now leaped with dripping limbs in the land-lions’ cave among rocks they knew not, and in the depths of a mountain-torrent a stray boar met with a dolphin of the sea. Wild beasts and fishes navigated in common stormy floods that poured from the mountains. The many-footed squid dragged his many coils into the hills, and pounced on the hare. The dripping Tritons at the edge of a secret wood wagged their green forked tails against their flanks, and hid in the mountain vaults where Pan had his habitation, leaving their familiar speckled conchs to sail about with the winds. Nereus on his travels met rock-loving Pan on a submerged hill, the rock-dweller left his sea and changed it for the hill, leaving the waterlogged pan’s-pipes that floated; while he took to the watery cave where Ekho had sheltered.
Then the bodies of poor fellows swollen in their watery death were buried in the waters. Heaps of corpses were floating one upon another carried along by the rolling currents; there fell the lion, there fell the boar into the roaring torrent, with open throat gulping draughts of the cascades that poured from rocks and mountains. With mingling streams, lakes and rivers, torrents of rain, waters of the sea were all combined together, and the four winds united their blasts in one, to flog the universal inundation.
Earthshaker [Poseidon] saw from the deep the earth all flooded, while Zeus alone with stronger push made it quake under his threatening torrents: he threw away his prongs, wondering in his anger what earth now he could heave with a trident! Nereïdes in battalions swam over the flooding waves; Thetis travelled over the water riding on the green hip of a Triton with broad beard; Agauë on a fish’s back drove her pilotfish in the open air, and an exile dolphin with the water swirling round his neck lifted Doris and carried her along. A whale of the deep sea leaped about the hills and sought the cave of the earthbedded lioness . . .
As the irresistible torrent swelled on and on, every city, every nation was a flood; not one corner was undrenched, not one hill was then bare–not the peak of Ossa, not the top of Pelion. Under the three peaks roared the Tyrrhenian Sea; the Adriatic rocks rebounded with Sicilian waters in showers of foam from the flogging sea. The sparkling rays of Phaëthon [Helios the sun] in his airy course became soft and womanish in the torrents. Selene (the Moon) in her seventh zone over the low rim of the earth cooled her light in the mounting waves, and checked her cattle with drenched and soaking necks. The rainwater mixed with the starry battalions, and made the Milky Way whiter with foam.
The Neilos (Nile), pouring his lifegiving stream through his seven mouths, went astray and met love-sick Alpheios . . . `The earth quakes, the sky attacks us, the sea compels us, the unnavigable upper air itself swells in a foaming flood! I care not for the wild deluge. See what a great miracle! The blazing earth, the flaming sea, the rivers–all have been swept clean by the downpour of Zeus . . .’
Then also Deukalion passed over the mounting flood, to navigate far out of reach on a sky-traversing voyage; and the course of his ark selfguided selfmoving, without sheet and without harbour, scored the stormy waters.
Then the whole frame of the universe would have been unframed, then all-breeding Time would have dissolved the whole structure of the unsown generations of mankind: but by the divine ordination of Zeus, Poseidon Seabluehair with earthsplitting trident split the midmost peak of the Thessalian mountain, and dug a cleft through it by which the water ran sparkling down. Earth shook off the stormy flood which travelled so high, and showed herself risen again; the streams were driven into the deep hollows and the cliffs were laid bare. The sun poured his thirsty rays on the wet face of earth, and dried it; the water grew thick under the hotter beams, and he mud was dried again as before. Cities were fashioned by men with better skill and established upon stone foundations, palaces were built, and the streets of the new-founded cities were made strong for later generations of men. Nature laughed once more; the air once more was paddled by the wings of birds that flew in the winds.”

Poseidon is repeated in Ogyges, -Egeus, Glaucus, Nauplius, Hipponous, Halirrhothios, Nestor, Bellerophon, &c.; Hermes in Cadmus, Dardanus, Iasion, Erichthonius, Plutus; Pluto in Clymenus, Eurypylus, Polydamas, Polydectes. Several of these again are referred back by ancient testimony to the supreme object of worship. Cadmus, for instance, sometimes directly as well as indirectly made identical with Hermes, is brother or son-in-law of Zeus, wedded like him to the empress of the shades or of the world, the bull-symbol teaching arts and letters, establishing the world (Thebes), and becoming father of the gods. His nuptials were one of the most ancient themes of sacred song; his destroying the dragon of Mars is analogous to the victory of Apollo, of Hercules, or of Zeus over the Titans, dragons being in the opinion of the ancient Greeks Titanic or Typhonian. There were many seemingly distinct personages claiming the name of Zeus. There was a son of Aether, a son of Cronus, and a son of Prometheus; but the son of Prometheus was Deucalion; and since it was a common practice to blend the dynasties and genealogies of gods with those of men, Deucalion, the “first king of men”, who reigned in Thessaly, may be compared with the ancient Zeus of the Thessalian or Thesprotian Dodona, whose oracle he founded. The same region from whence came the notion of a great mother, seems to have been the channel through which the primary idea of Zeus passed into Greece through Thrace and Thesssly. Here may be traced the memorials of a many-named and many-featured Being, sometimes resembling Hercules, sometimes more akin to Dionysus or Poseidon, or the oriental symbols of Vishnou, Cannes, or Ninus, who, as representing the waters, takes his distinguishing emblem from the fish, yet at the same time gives assurance of renewed fertility and stability by the pledge of the rainbow in the sky, or by the impression of his footstep in the Boil. Such a being often recurs in the legends of Greece, in Buto, Ogyges, Inachus, Danaus, and Erectheus; in Boreas, the appropriate kinsman and ally of the Attic man-snake ; in Hercules identified as husband of Echidna, as in many other particulars with his father Zeus; and again in Cadmus, who slew the dragon, yet afterwards became what he had destroyed. The general idea of a god rising and rescuing from the waters, which the contracted view which flouted rather than consulted antiquity once imagined to have arisen from scattered reminiscences of the true history of Noah, reappears in the Scythian or Thessalian Patriarch landing from his ark at the oak of Dodona or on the summit of the mountains of Greece2* to found the human race.

The ancient connection of Troes and Dardani with Thracians, and even with Emathia, seems to presume the continuity of a race of Thraces, Trausi, or Odrysee, worshippers of the god Tor, Tyr, or Targitaus, connecting Bithynia and Phrygia with the Italian Tyrrheni, and on the other hand with the Scythian Tyrite, Tyragetee, and Agathyrsi. In the sense of a common origin there may have been a real foundation for the theory of Dionysius that the Troes were of Hellenic extraction.

The close resemblance of Trojans and Greeks is familiar to every reader of Homer, and cannot be wholly accounted for by supposing the traces of national individuality to have been already obliterated in the sources from whence Homer drew. The Troad, which, subsequent to the far-famed war, was a possession of the Thracian Treres, continued long after to be the seat of a worship analogous to that of Athena and Apollo, and in the Iliad Tros is son of Erichthonius, while Dardanus can only be regarded as a repetition of liis father, a sort of Hermes or Zeus. The opposite coasts of the Hellespont seem to have been inhabited by kindred races, similar in customs and language, and interwoven by complicated emigrations. The Homeric relation between the Trojans and the great Peeonian nation on the Strymon, who sent auxiliaries under the starry son of Pelagon, is explained by the story of a great emigration of Mysians and Teucrians who, in a remote age crossing the Hellespont from Asia, subdued Thrace, and extended themselves as far as the Peneus and the Ionian Sea. The Trojans were connected not only with this distant colony, but with European Thrace generally. Among their allies were Acamas, Iphidamas, Rhesus; and the close relation intimated by the poet is confirmed by many collateral circumstances of identity in names and legends. While the Peeonians of the Strymon announced themselves to be descended from the ancient Asiatic Teucrians, the race of Dardanus reappears in the remote region of the Thracian Orbelus, and in the mountain districts of Illyria. It has been hence inferred that the aboriginal population of Greece and Hither Asia was a connected race spread in ante-historic times from the North, and that the Teucri and Dardani may have been to the Trojans what the Pelasgi were to the Hellenes. It has been further supposed that the similarity of the ancient Teucri and Dardani to allied Pelasgic races gave occasion to an assumption that the aborigines of the Troad were themselves Pelasgic, and that hence arose the theory deriving Dardanus from Arcadia, ” where Pelasgus first grew out of the black earth, i. e. from the country where the primitive race was most familiarly known to exist in the unaltered individuality of its original character.

Kerenyi 1959 p 78 suggests that “sea-green” Glaucus is a double for Poseidon, god of the sea, who looms behind many of the elements in Bellerophon’s myth, not least as the sire of Pegasus and of Chrysaor, but also as the protector of Bellerophon.
The suggestion, made by Kerenyi and others, makes the name “Bellerophontes” the “killer of Belleros”, just as Hermes Argeiphontes is “Hermes the killer of Argus”. Rhys Carpenter, in “Argeiphontes: A Suggestion” American Journal of Archaeology 54.3 (July 1950), pp. 177–183, makes a carefully-argued case for Bellerophontes as the “bane-slayer” of the “bane to mankind” in Iliad II.329, derived from a rare Greek word έλλερον, explained by the grammarians as κακόν, “evil”. This έλλερον is connected by J. Katz (“How to be a Dragon in Indo-European: Hittite illuyankas and its Linguistic and Cultural Congeners in Latin, Greek, and Germanic”, in: Mír Curad. Studies in Honor of Calvert Watkins, ed. Jasanoff, Melchert, Oliver, Innsbruck 1998, 317–334) with a Hesychius golss ελυες “water animal”, and an Indo-European word for “snake” or “dragon”, cognate to English eel, also found in Hittite Illuyanka, which would make Bellerophon the dragon slayer of Indo-European myth, represented by Indra slaying Vrtra in Indo-Aryan, and by Thor slaying the Midgard Serpent in Germanic. Robert Graves in The Greek Myths rev. ed. 1960 suggested a translation “bearing darts”.

Pelonius, from Pelorus, a stranger, who, during the celehration of a Thessalian festival (from him suhsequently termed Peloria) in honour of Jupiter, communicated the intelligence that the mountains of Tempe had heen separated hy an earthquake, and that the waters of the lake, which had hitherto heen stagnant, had found a passage into the Alpheus, and left hehind a heautiful and extensive plain.

In the Homeric scale she is daughter, not wife, of Zeus; but in old Ionian theogony she appears to have been wife of his equal, or superior, the first Pthah, or son of Uranus, thus becoming Mother of the Sun, or of the Ionian Apollo

The idea of her being born from the head of Zeus was probably a relic of pantheism, and of the ancient physical conception, so far justly estimated by philosophical interpreters, representing her as that clear and invigorating eether, the true sister of the fire-element, sublimed from terrestrial evaporation””; the subtle material of the luminaries of the sky; the female and superior heaven imagined by the Egyptians”, from whence, rather than from her supposed Neptunian origin, she derived those azure eyes of the ” Glaukopis” of the Troad

Erecthonius, is both father, son, and hushand of Athene, in whose temple he is buried.

GLAUCUS. One of the Argonauts ; son of Sisyphus, king of Corinth, and Merope, daughter of Atlas; father of Bellerophon and Chrysaor; and king of Potnia (thence his name Potniades), in Bocotia He was present at the funeral games celebrated in honour of Pelias, and was there trampled to death by his own horses: this story is metaphorically applied by Palsphatus to those who waste their fortunes in maintaining an useless number of these animals.

BELLEROPHON (originally called Hipponous) was son of Glaucus, the son of Sisyphus and Eurymede. After the murder of his brother Alcimenes, or Beller, which procured him the name of Bellerophon, he fled to the court of Proetus (see l’roclus, II. vi 197.), whence he was banished by the intrigues of Antiua, the wife of that monarch (who was irritated at his disregard of her admiration of him), to Lycia, with an injunction from Pnvtus to his father-in-law Jobates, who governed the country, to effect bis destruction. Jobates accordingly imposed upon Bellerophon the task of conquering the horrible monster called Chimtera (see (.’hiiua-ra), whose resort was the top of a burning mountain in Lycia, to which the name Chisuera was subsequently applied. Bellerophon accomplished his destruction by the aid of Minerva, from whom, according lo some, he received the winged horse Pegasus: upon his returning victorious, Jobates despatched him successively against the Solymi (an ancient name for the inhabitants of Lycia, see Solymi) and the Amazons. The success which also crowned these expeditions so conciliated Jobates, that he not only abstained from farther attempts on his life (11. vi. 235.), but gave him his daughter Achemone, or Philonor, in marriage, and appointed him his successor on the throne of Lycia. Bellerophon had two sons, bander, who was killed in the war against the Solymi, and Hippolochus (father of Glaucus, see Glaucus, 11. ii. 1069.), who succeeded to the throne of Lycia at his death. He had also a daughter named Laodamia, who was beloved by Jupiter, and was the mother of Sarpedou, the leader with Glaucus of the Lycian band. Laodamia is said by Homer (II. vi. £50.) to have fallen by ” Phoebe’s (Diana’s) dart.” The effect produced upon Bellerophon by his domestic calamities, is affectingly described by Homer (II. vi. 245.); but neither the Greek poet nor the best mycologists support the 6ction related by Pindar, that Bellerophon having attempted to fly to heaven upon the horse Pegasus, Jupiter sent an insect which stung the animal, and consequently occasioned the fall of the rider, who ever after wandered in the most dejected state upon the earth. Pegasus is by some esteemed the horse of Neptune, and is often called by a name which signifies cup or tessel; Pegasus being, according to the figurative system adopted by some mythologists, one of the emblems of the ark.

Dardanus, the Alalcomeneis descended from the water god Ogyges, whose worship retired to the upper country before the inundations of the Copais, and the better known divinity of the Erectheum, associated with Poseidon and served there by the hereditary descendants of Buto

Copais …. The fabulous lake and river Triton, affording to the Argonauts an egress from Oceanus (Dckert, vol. i. pt. 2, p. 322. Apoll. Rh. iv. 1552), is akin probably to Oceanus himself. Paus. ix. 33. 5.

The Pheeacians had been exposcd, when in ” Hypereia,” to the annoyances and violences of the Cyclopes, who •were stronger than themselves, and, on this account, they had been removed to ” Scheria,” by the now deceased Nausithous, son of Poseidon, who, as emblem of the waters. is general author of repose and restoration to the heavenly powers (Comp. Iliad, i. 403; viii. 440. 485, &c.)

The gods of Tartarus. This region of hell, according to some mythologists, was appropriated to the wicked, and was under the dominion of Pluto, while that of Elysium was the abode of the souls of the virtuous, after death, and was governed by Saturn.

The many discordant opinions relative to ihe situation of these places seem to arise from an ancient notion that the river Tartessus in Spain was the Tartarus of the poets (see Pluto). Homer places the infernal regions in the country of the Cimmerians, in which district were the Styx, the Phlegethon, and the other rivers usually assigned to hell; but whether the situation of that country is to be referred to the province of Baetica in Hispania, which, according to the ancients, was at the extremity of the ocean or the world, and therefore enveloped in darkness; or to the Hyperborean regions, which, during several months, are deprived of the light of the sun; or to the country of the Cimmerii, near the Palus Mocotis ; or to that of the people on the western coast of Italy, generally imagined to have lived in caves (thence the expression ” Cimmerian darkness”), near the sea-shore of Campania, authors are undetermined.

Virgil adopts the opinion of Homer. In reference to the general position of creation, Tartarus is the immense gulf beneath Hades : above Hades is the earth ; and then, in order, the air and the aether. But, in general, the poets describe Tartarus as a terrific prison of inconceivable depth, surrounded by the miry swamps of the Cocytus, and of the Phlegethon, the region being encompassed by a triple wall closed with gates of brass (-‘En. vi. 741.), which renders it inaccessible.

The Book of Jubilees terms the river (Tina) the border between Japheth and Shem beginning at its westernmost point to its mouth. The mouth discharges into the Sea of Azov.

In Jubilees 8:10-9:15 we see the divisions of the people of the sons of Noah and the distribution, and the curses for breaking boundaries.

Jubilees identifies the origin of the term Celt in 8:26, where it says that the inheritance went “towards the mountains of Qelt toward the north, toward the Ma’uk Sea”; in other words, to the Caucasus. The term Ma’uk Sea means “the world ocean known to the Greeks as Okeanos” (cf. Jubilees to James H Charlesworth, Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, vol. 2, p. 73, fn. s). In other words, the boundary for Japheth was the world sea that surrounds Europe and Asia from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Jubilees makes this clearer by saying that the border was also to the east of Cadiz, where it is at the edge of the water of the sea (i.e. the Atlantic).

The Book of Jubilees states that the inheritance of Tiras consisted of “four large islands in the midst of the sea which approaches the portion of Ham” (Jub. 9:13; cf. 8:29). This cannot be the islands of the Mediterranean as five of those islands were given to Javan and Crete was given to Arphaxad. They could not be the islands of the Aegean either as that does not approach the portion of Ham. They may have been occupied by the Tirasians in the beginning but their inheritance could appear to be in the Atlantic beyond the Pillars of Hercules.


XXIV. 3. The island called Panchea in Evhemerus’ sacred history.

Near the region, called by Evhemerus “Arabia felix”, he also mentions a territory with important cities, with mountains and expansive plains, called Panchea (Pagchaia), which was on the eastern part of the water Oceanos.

Panchea figures either as a continental region (chora), or as an island (nasos). This is evidence that his Panchea formed in fact only a geographical continuity of blessed Arabia, and was not situated in the open waters of the big sea.

The ancients, although in possession at that time of the whole text of this historian-philosopher, were themselves not entirely oriented regarding the geographic character of this region.

With Polybius, Evhemerus’ Panchea is called region (Hist. lib. XXXIV. 5. 9), with Strabo (Geogr. lib. II. c. 4. 2; Ibid. lib. VII. 3. 6), it is called tera (TN – country), and with Diodorus Siculus it appears as region and island (chora and nasos). Evhemerus’ Panchea was definitely an island, but not a sea island.

According to Evhemerus, the region, or the island, called Panchea, was situated close to another smaller island, but considered sacred, which can not be other than Leuce island, which had the epithets sacred, divine and bright (Scylax, Periplus, c. 68; see Ch.V.6) attributed to it until late antiquity.

The region, or island, Panchea, situated close to the sea, between the Scythians and the Getes, appears to have been even in Evhemerus’ times a blessed corner of the earth, where the economic and commercial interests compelled different groups of inhabitants of the neighboring lands, and of the islands of the Aegean Sea, to meet and settle there.

Panchea’s population, Evhemerus tells us, apart from the native inhabitants, who called themselves Panchei, was composed from the following tribes, which had migrated there in later times, namely Scythians, Oceanites (or inhabitants from the upper parts of the Ocean, the Istru), Cretans, Indians and finally Doi.

These Doi, about whom Evhemerus tells us that had once dwelt in Panchea in considerable numbers, but had been later expelled, are Strabo’s Daii (lib. VII. 3. 12), a name under which the ancients understood the Daci(ans), or the pastoral tribes from the Carpathians. Theirs were the cities Doia and Dalis.

As regards the immigrant Cretans of Panchea, they were only the pre-historical avant-garde of the Milesian commercial colonies from the Lower Danube. Miletus itself, this flowering and powerful city from the shores of Asia Minor, had been in the beginning only a Cretan colony. Finally, Evhemerus, in describing Panchea, mentions also a group of immigrants, whom he calls Indi. According to Apollonius Rhodius, on the vast and deserted plain which stretched from the mouths of the Istru upwards, dwelt in older times the so-called Sindi (lib. IV. v. 322).

According to the historian Timonax, the plain of the Sindi stretched as far as the point where the Istru separated in two beds, or to the cataracts, as we shall see later (Fragm. Hist. graec. IV. 522. 1). Another group of Sindi dwelt according to Scylax near the Meotic lake.

To these refers Evhemerus when writing that, as it was said, from Panchea could be seen Indica shrouded in fog].

The Indi of Evhemerus, immigrated in the island of Panchea, and the Sindi of Apollonius Rhodius, to an area north of the Danube.

Evhemerus mentions also the cities Hyracia, Oceanis and Panara among the more important centers of the population of Panchea, apart from Doia and Dalis.

Hyracia seems to be the old city encircled by walls Heraclea, which had once existed close to the mouths of the Istru, but had disappeared in the times of Pliny (lib. IV. 18. 5).

In regard to the political and social organization of the inhabitants of Panchea, it presents all the characteristics of the traditional institutions of the Hyperboreans.

In all the cities of Panchea, according to Evhemerus, the priests were the dominant class. They were not only the ministers of the altars, but the rulers of the people at the same time. Apart from their sacerdotal functions the priests of Panchea had concentrated in their hands all the political and juridical powers.

We find the same form of government with the Hyperboreans. As Hecateus tells us, the descendants of king Boreas had not only the political reign over the sacred island of the Hyperboreans, but were at the same time the administrators of Apollo’s great temple (Diodorus Siculus, lib. II. 47). The Dacians too had the same theocratic national institutions (Strabo, lib. VII. 3. 11; Ibid, XvI. 2. 39; Jornandis, De Get. Orig. c. 5. We find a similar constitution with the Pelasgian tribes of Cappadocia – Strabo, lib. XII. 2. 3).

Olympus Triphylius in Panchea island.

In Panchea island, as Evhemerus tells us, there was a mountain consecrated to the gods, which in the beginning had been called the Chair of Uranos, and later Olympus Triphylius.

This holy mountain of Panchea had the co-name Triphylios because, according to Evhemerus, the inhabitants of this memorable island were of three tribes, tris and phyle, tribe.


Djedi the Magician

Then prince Hordjedef stood up to speak, and he said: ” /// of things that happened /// of the wisdom of those who have passed on, and one does not know truth from falsehood. But there is one (living) under Your Majesty, during your own reign, whom (Your Majesty) does not know ///”.

His Majesty said: “Who is it, Hordjedef, my son?”.

And prince Hordjedef said: “There is a man named Djedi, who lives in Djed-Snofru. He is a man of 110 years (of age), but he eats 500 loaves of bread, the side of an ox for meat and he drinks 100 jugs of beer to this day. He can join a severed head, he can make a lion walk behind him with its leash on the ground and he knows the number of secret rooms in the sanctuary of Thot”.

Now the Majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt Kheops, justified, had spent days in looking for these secret chambers of the sanctuary of Thot, in order to build something similar for his tomb and thus he spoke: “You yourself, Hordjedef my son, shall bring him to me”.

The ships of prince Hordjedef were prepared and he travelled southward to Djed-Snofru. Now after that the ships had moored on the banks, he (continued) travelling by land, seated in a carrying-chair made of ebony, with its carrying poles made in sesnedjem-wood and its mounting poles in gold.

Now when he arrived at Djedi’s, the carrying chair was set down and he inquiered after him. He found him, resting on a mat on the treshould /// his house, with a servant beside him, annointing him, and another one rubbing his legs. Prince Hordjedef said: “Your condition is like that of one who lives above age, for old age is the place of death, the place of being placed in a coffin and the place of burial, (it is like that) of one who sleeps until daytime, free of illness, without the hacking of coughs. So greetings, venerable one. I have come here to summon you with a message from my father, Kheops, justified. You shall eat the delicacies that the king gives, the food of those who are in his following and he will send you in good time to your ancestors who are in the necropolis”.

And this Djedi said: “In peace, in peace, Hordjedef, son of the king, beloved by his father. May your father Kheops, justified, praise you. May he advance your rank among the elders. May your ka prevail over your enemies. May your ba know the ways that lead to the gate that conceals the sight. So, greetings, prince”.

Prince Hordjedef held out his hand to help him up. He went with him to the shore, lending him his arm. Djedi said: “Give me one of these travelling barges so that it may bring my children and my writings to me”, and two boats along with their crews were given to him.

Then Djedi travelled north in the boat in which prince Hordjedef was.

Now then, after he had reached the residence, prince Hordjedef entered in to report to the Majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Kheops, justified. Prince Hordjedef said: “Sovereign, my Lord, I have brought Djedi”.

And His Majesty said: “Go and bring him to me”.

His Majesty went to the columned forecourt of the palace and Djedi was sent to him. His Majesty then said: “How is it, Djedi, that I was never made to see you?”.

And Djedi said: “It is he who is summoned, who comes, Sovereign. I have been summoned and behold, I have come”.

Then His Majesty said: “Is it true what one says? Can you join a severed head?”.

And Djedi said: “Yes, I can, Sovereign, my Lord”.

Then His Majesty said: “Have a prisoner brought to me from the prisons, so that he may be executed”.

But Djedi said: “Not, pray, with a human being, Sovereign, my Lord! Behold, it cannot be commanded that one does this to the noble cattle”.

And so a goose was brought to him. Its head was cut off and the goose was placed on the West side of the columned hall while its head was on the East side of the columned hall. Then Djedi said his magic spell and the goose stood up waddling, its head doing the same. Now then, after one had reached the other, the goose stood up cackling.

Then he had a long legged bird brought to him and the same was done to it. Then His Majesty had a bull brought to him. Its head was cut off on the floor and Djed said his magic spell. The bull stood up behind him and it … that which had fallen to the floor.

Then the king Kheops, justified, said: “It is also said that you know the number of secret chambers of the sanctuary of Thot”.

Djedi said: “So please you, I do not know the number thereof, Sovereign, my Lord, but I do know the place where they are”.

His Majesty said: “Where are they, then?”

And this Djedi said: “There is a box of flint in this room named ‘Investigation’ in Heliopolis. Behold it is in (this) box”.

Then Djedi said: “Sovereign, my Lord. Behold, it is not me who will bring it to you”.

And His Majesty said: “Who will bring it to me, then?”

Djedi said: “It is the eldest of the children that are still in the whomb of Reddjedet who will bring it to you”.

His Majesty said: “I want it, so may you say who is this Reddjedet?”

And Djedi said: “She is the wife of a wab-priest of Re, the Lord of Sakhbu. She is pregnant with the children of Re, the Lord of Sakhbu and he said about them that they shall assume the most excellent office of the entire land and the eldest of them shall be Great Seer in Heliopolis”.

Now the heart of His Majesty fell into sadness because of this and so Djedi said: “What is wrong with your heart, Sovereign, my Lord? Is it because of these children? I say, first your son, then his son and then one among them”.

His Majesty said: “When will Redjedet give birth?”

And Djedi said: “She will give birth in the first month of peret, on the 15th day”.

His Majesty said: “Just when the sandbanks of the Two-Fishes channel are dry. I would set out to go to her myself, for I plan to see the temple of Re, Lord of Sakhbu”.

Djedi said: “Then I shall create 4 cubits of water on the sandbanks of the Two-Fishes channel”.

His Majesty went into the palace and His Majesty then said: “Let Djedi be appointed to the house of prince Hordjedef, so that he shall dwell with him. Make his provisions to be a thousand loaves of bread, a hundred jugs of beer, one bull and a hundred bundles of vegetables”.

And one acted in accordance to all that His Majesty had ordered.


Alfheim The Realm of the Alfar, in English, the Elves. It was sometimes called “Ljossalfheim” the home of the bright elves. This was a region of forest and meadow, sea and islands; a pleasant and sunny place where dwelt the Elven peoples. They don’t seem to have been drastically different than Humans; perhaps somewhat taller, much more nobly proportioned and fair to look upon, certainly longer lived. J.R.R. Tolkien portrays the Nordic Elven type quite fairly in his famous fantasy trilogy. In that Jotunheim lies in the East, Muspellheim is clearly South, and Niflheim is just as obviously North, one can imply that Alfheim is in the West, beyond the seas.

Asgarð The home and Realm of the Æsir Gods; located high up in the branches of the World-Tree, and not unexpectedly the most difficult of access – the only entry seems to have been across Bifrost, the rainbow, and one had to get past Heimdall the sentry as well. Within this divine region were many halls and bright dwellings, usually roofed in precious metals. The geography and nature of the region was not much otherwise specified, beyond off-hand suggestions that it comprised a Nordic style paradise: tall mountains, bright sunlight, crisp and bracing air, green forests and meadows.

Hel An underworld region; black, frigid, fetid, dreary, and toxic. It is both the name of the land, and the name of it’s ruler, the Goddess Hel, Queen of the Dead. This region seems to have been the final destination of most of humanity; only heroes gained admittance to Valhalla, in Asgarð (but, see an exception in the Hall of Ran). About the best that can be said of the place is that the Dead seem not to have been tortured and tormented as in the Christian redaction of this Realm, but rather they seem to have been assigned to drag out their destinies until Ragnarok, when they would be freed (in a sense) to fight with Hel’s legions against the Gods and heroes.

JotunheimThe Realm of the Giants or, more particularly, the Frost-Giants. The Jotunar were an archaic race of humanoids, arising out of the primeval Ice at the beginning of days. They are portrayed in Nordic poetry and religious writing as being almost wholly evil, and dedicated to the destruction of the Aesir Gods and Mankind. “Giant” is a somewhat ambiguous term, and seems to be used to describe everything from beings larger than worlds (such as Ymir), down to Trolls and Ogres not much larger than men. Nevertheless, it should be noted that there is Giant blood among the Aesir, some Giantesses being considered quite attractive and marriageable. Jotunheim itself seems to have been a land much like its inhabitants; a vast and frigid reach of taiga forest, fen, glacier, and lifeless, stony mountains. Note that Jotunheim lies in the East: at Ragnarok, the Frost Giants are said to invade westward, not southward.

MidgarðThe world of Mankind, within a Nordic context, Northern Europe and the surrounding seas. A varied landscape of oceans, fjords, mountains, forests, meadows, and islands. The Midrealm is, in one sense, much too well known and understood to need much description, and yet it must be insisted upon that it, and its primary inhabitants (Humanity) were considered an integral part of the Great Ash-tree, no more or less important than any of the other regions.

MuspellheimA southern land of fire, desert, and dryness, the Realm of the Fire-Giants. Like their close cousins the Frost-Giants, Surt’s Folk were huge humanoids who were inimicable enemies of Mankind and the Gods. They do not loom large in Nordic tales, it being suggested that they bide their time in their distant land, until the day of Ragnarok when their King, Surt, will lead them in final battle.

Niflheim A northern land of fog, pack ice, glacier, and tundra. Inhabited by demons, spirits of the dead, and dragons, it seems to have been closely connected to Hel, perhaps containing within its borders the entrance into that underground abode.

Svartalfheim Another underground Realm, this was inhabited by the Svartalfar, the Dark Elves (English “Drow”), a euphemism used to refer to the Dwarven race. Dwarves were said to have arisen out of dead Ymir’s flesh, like maggots upon rotting meat. They burrowed underground, and most dwell there still. Regarded as being generally hostile to mankind and the Gods, and despised as being of grotesque and vile appearance, it was nevertheless conceded that they had no peers in the working of metal, crafting of devices, and cutting of stone and gems. The Dwarves are responsible for any number of fabulous creations, usually obtained at great cost.

Vanaheim The elder home of the Vanir, the other race of Divinities; located perhaps, like Asgarð, high up in the World-Tree (on a different branch ?). The Vanir seem to have been more concerned with fertility, land-use, magic, and craft, as opposed to the Æsir obsession with warfare and personal heroism. Originally, the two fell into early and calamitous conflict; a series of devastating wars is hinted at. Eventually, though, the two groups seem to have reached an accord, and hostages were exchanged to insure fidelity. Freyr, Freyja, Njord, and possibly Uller were Vanir among the Aesir. Gullveig was an important Vanir opponent. The Realm of Vanaheim seems to have not been much described, beyond suggestions of a lovely, rather bright Elven sort of region.

In a parallel to the Nine Worlds discussed above. From the nearest to the earth, to the highest and most inaccessible, they are described thusly: 1). Vindblain, Heidthornir, or Hregg-Mimir (Wind-Dark, Cloudy-Bright, or Storm-Mimir). 2).Andlang (Extended). 3).Vidblain (Wide-Dark). 4).Vidfedmir (Wide-Embracer) 5).Hriod (Coverer). 6).Hlyrnir (Twin-Lit). 7).Gimir (Fiery, or Dazzling). 8).Vet-Mimir (Winter-Mimir). 9).Skatyrnir (Rich-Wetter).


Fayum a was a solutrean migration from the Caucasus
Badari was a migration from the Caucasus
Amration was a Libyan invasion
Gerzean was eastern desert people
Dynastic Egypt from elam by way of Ethiopia

Fukui Cave, Japan (Jomon), calibrated at 13,900 BC to 12,300 BC.
Gaysia site, Amur river, Russia, calibrated at 14,050 to 13,200 BC.
Khummi site, Amur river, Russia, calibrated at 14,300 to 13,650 BC.
Odai Yamamoto 1 site, Japan, calibrated at 14,900 to 14,250 BC.
Ust-Karenga , nearer lake Baikal, calibrated at 11,800 to 10,500 BC.



Geomorphological development of the Lake Basin Radovljica

Almost two million years has been on our planet to major climatic changes that affect its ekstremnostjo a change in vegetation, fauna as well as previously existing exogenous processes. It was at that time there was a significant cooling of the climate, which is an end to several hundred million years of tropical period the earth’s history and the beginning of a new era, which was domesticated Quaternary name. This new era is also characterized by strong cooling: a volatility of Extraordinary Climate change is reflected in extreme cold and warm intermediate periods. The coldest odde4kih these periods there was also a large-scale glaciation. Beneath the ice was all the northern half of Eurasia and America. Large glaciers are well developed in the Alps, which were at that time already very highly Hills. This also applies to the Slovenian Al: Fri Thus, already at the onset of the Quaternary above the Lake-Radovljica basin upward central Karavanke (Stol 2236 m, 2133 m Košuta), western part of the minimum Steiner Alps (Dobrča 1634 m, 1131 m shoulder) as well as the eastern part of the most magnificent Julian Alps, which winds in a curve, convex to the west above the neck, Kota and feed through the Triglav (2863 m), set around Hribarice, Komen Bohinj mountains and mountains all the way to Ratitovec (1678 m).

In the embrace of the highest Alps are at different levels to preserve remnants of a number of Tertiary planation, which met in Pokljuka Jelovica and Mežaklji most extensive ~ g. The bottom BlejskoRadovljiške kotli.ne was at the beginning of the Quaternary of around 600 m ozirom.a as 150-200 m above the present plain of the Sava River (Fig. 1). Proper shallower notches were also the Upper Sava River valley, I ~ rams, and the river is, but later widely and deeply Bohinj alpine ravine.

In view of this orographic situation, in periods of strong cooling in the Quaternary in the high karst plateaus around Triglav and Bohinj in the hinterland, in Karavanke and mountains piled up huge amounts of ice and feed into the valley. In particular, the large bid Bohinj glacier, which he reached through the Bohinj valley the river is down to Bled. Meet is all-Radovljica Lake Basin and reached at its maximum extent to Vintgarja, Žirovnica, Begunj and again after today until Radovljica Kamna Gorica. From the valley of the river is close, in which the ice is over 800 m thick, the ice masses also touch on the gorge from cold spring, towards the south, they would run over Jelovico against Baca, further through the Sorica Soriška mountains and through Rovtarice in the upper part of the valley Češnjice, affluent Selščice. In the gorge and towards the Lake Basin-Radovljica shook glaciers with Pokljuka ridge and valley Radovne and Upper Sava River. Reduced glacier is also filled up the upper part of the valley and Tržiška Završnica Bistrica, which is at its greatest extent reached again after Monfalcone and ended in the Bistrica and Ročevnico.

Ice masses, who were gathering at the highest plateaus of the Slovenian Alps and then diverted into the valley, the tapered many peaks, extended plains and contributed to a significant trough form the Upper Sava River valley, neck, Kota, feed and valleys and the river is Radovne. These glaciers have left behind a huge amount of a completely unsorted Iedeniškega material (moraine or Groblje), which consists of different thick debris with very large individual boulders and plenty of soft mushy, and mud materials. In naspnotju the slope rubble in just ‘deniškem material in addition to coarse pieces more or less strong grind rocks. On the grind areas are beautifully reflected rays, which are caused by a collision of ice uklenjenega živoskalno debris on the ground and each other. Because apniške and dolomite composition of our Alps dominate the glacial rocks in odkladryinah. Places in between some igneous rocks and paleorojskih marl, sandstone and conglomerates. A significant part of this material is placed in a prominent earthworks, arising from the glacier at its stagnation in dolooenem place. Based on the reconstruction of these dams is therefore quite possible to accurately determine the extent of former glaciers. In particular, many fiovrstnega debris left behind the Bohinj glacier. It has covered a considerable part of western and southern Pokljuka from cold spring, as well as all the northern side Jelovica and valley gaps, by which he reached the glacier through it against Sorica and through the valley Rovtarice Češnjice. Many such traces have been preserved in its cavity in the front-Radovljica Lake Basin. On the east side of Pokljuka on Mežaklji and along the lower reaches Radovna morenski impose the debris of the glacier, which is moved along the valleys and the Upper Sava River Radovne. An abundance of glacial debris left after the bottom of glaciers once frozen alpine valleys.

Much of this material belongs to the last glacial ice age (würmu), but it is far from over poledenitvenih periods (Riss, Mindel, Gunz). Thus, in the front cavity in Lake Bohinj glacier-basin Radovljica Lancova, Kamno Gorizia and Šmidolom at Radovljica and scrotum preserved glacial material of four Ice Age (Gunz, Mindel, Riss, Wurm). In an even more complete series have been preserved here and the area south Dobrave then v Kranju traces of simultaneous ballast rivers which relate huge amounts of ice beneath the gravel. Remains of the ballast have been retained in the five leading Ice gravel and conglomerate terraces. We follow them to the corresponding front face of the former glacier in Lake-Radovljica basin down the valley towards the Sava Kranj (IB, IA, I, Ila, ILB). At the age of four Ice terraces (IA, I, Ila, ILB) were in their contact with former glacier still maintain adequate morenski embankments. Glaciofluvialno origin sold in the four terraces (IA, I, Ila, ILB), as well as a higher (IB), in which the glacial material is not retained, as evidenced by its typical rock composition and curvature. It is different than in the Holocene of deposit or interglacialni Save. Thus, apart from glaciofluvial of deposit toplodobne especially after a large percentage of limestone and dolomite and, much worse zaobIjenasti pebbles.

To understand the preservation of traces of different age glaciation and simultaneous ballast in the Lake-Radovljica basin and Dobrave, as well as for interpretation tamošnjega terrain is certainly the most important fact that the Bohinj glacier, which is filled up with his forehead Tues Basin, the largest in ever be certain evidence of the oldest period of glaciation, with each subsequent, younger and a little shorter. It is also important that after each period of glaciation Sava and its tributaries vrezovali extremely powerful and thus deepen their valleys. Scoring has been so extensively to re-ballast, which took place in each of the next ice age, no longer reach the previous level. This has created east of Šmidola at Radovljica five leading Ice terraces, each of which is also less and less so on the surface of less weathered. It therefore covers thinner preperelina and prod it is less zlepIjen, the youngest of the last ice age but still completely fresh.

The oldest ice age terrace (IB, Danube glaciation) starts east of the line you Begunje-manor-Lower Island. On the right side of the Sava is found only in Češnjice near swarms from where it pulled down against Poljšici. It rises about 150-200 m above the valley floor today, the Sava River and its tributaries. Conglomerate is preserved in it only in thin layers, sometimes it is completely rotted. Below wholesale preperelino follows immediately tertiary Šivic. Even gravel from sandstone and eruptive rocks in it already strongly weathered.

The next lower terrace (IA Gunz) is better preserved only on the right side of the Sava. It starts at the moraine between the villages of Leibnitz and Kamna Gorica, and to come between stream Lipnica and Savo against Prezrenju (Fig. 2). It consists of a thick layer of conglomerate (about 10 m) layer prepereline after it is thinner (5-6 m). Lighter belt showing preperelost individual glacial rocks and pebbles in preperelini, reaches around 10-15 mm deep. This terrace is characterized by numerous sinkholes in karst underground tunnels that go all the way to a rocky substrate (Fig. 3 and 4).

Terrace IAA is similar to decay, so we assume that it belongs to the younger section of the same ice age (Gunz). Having a lot of younger morenskih berms (Mind) at the western end of the roller coaster plateau further in Pusti castle and Ledevnici (Fig. 5) is starting already next lower and many younger terrace (I, Mind), which reaches a maximum width of Brezje. Also in this terrace has been sold at most dressed in the conglomerate, while giving glacial material due to the large admixture of clay particles fresher look. Glacial material, as well as glaciofluvial gravel, covering around 2.5 – 3 m thick preperelina which draws in around 1 to 1.5 m deep and up to 0.5 m wide pockets in the moraine and konglomerantno basis. In preperelini preserved glacial debris and gravel from sandstone and eruptive earths were 4-5 mm deep weathered.

There is much less preperelost show morenski dikes and glaciofluvial gravel last two glaciation (Riss and Wurm). Morenski embankments magnitude of the penultimate glaciation (Riss) were maintained on the roller coaster plateau, the cousins and the Ledevnici north of Gorizia, and south of the village Smokuč and Rodine (Fig. 5). Concerns are about 0.75 m thick preperelina. It preserved fragments of eruptive rocks and sandstone is 2-3 mm deep weathered. These moraines are based on a roller coaster plateau and Šmidolu embankment last ice age (Wurm 1). Bohinj glacier to the maximum extent in this period (Wurm 1) then correspond to dykes in the villages Hraše and concierge, on the right side Radovna that between Krnica rivers and estuary of the river Sava Dolinka. These dikes covers only about 0.30 m thick preperelina. It preserved fragments of eruptive rocks and sandstone is only about 0.1 – 0.5 mm deep weathered. In this preperelini are in contrast with older soils (from IB to II a) very well preserved even individual pieces of limestone.

Before the last two Ice Age moraine (Riss, Wurm) in Lake-Radovljica basin we find mostly only one main terrace [II, younger Zasip), which consists of gravel during the penultimate (Riss) and the last glaciation (Wurm). Prod deeper penultimate glaciation in the individual layers have a slightly dressed, though still quite gives a fresh look. Through it deferred prod last glaciation is still quite fresh and weathered like a istodobne moraines themselves. From Lake-Radovljica basin along the Sava River are down but you are one and the other of deposit back to a normal relationship. Older consists of a higher, younger, and a lower terrace, but there is a difference between them [IIa and IIb) is relatively insignificant, so that they can be in many places separated from one another only on the basis of various perperelosti their surfaces (Fig. 6, 7.

When we try to explain both the characteristic sedimentation II. terrace, we became aware of a completely different way of progress, and to remove the Bohinj glacier in the last two glaciation (Riss and Wurm). It is known that, following the pre-previous mindelski period of glaciation, which has left abundant traces of glacial and glaciofluvial appropriate gravel (conglomerate in the terrace I) to deep erosion (mindelsko-Risk interglacial). Sava, was formed in these sediments and Tertiary sivico below are over 100 m deep erosional trough. Emergency cooling of the climate at the onset of the penultimate glaciation (Riss) have caused a rapid increase in the Bohinj glacier, so that there is a major deadlock and extreme ballast from under him running water only after it reached the valley Zgoše or Begunjščica. Here is the glacier hold back a long time, so it was suspended before it is over 80 m thick layer of gravel. After postponing the sale, the Bohinj glacier very quickly withdrawn, the empty head cavity and has developed extensive and about 70 m deep lake. Occupied the entire basin of Lake-Radovljica, it ranged from Radovljica through Bled and Bohinj White over today to the West. The existence of this lake testify pasovitih thick layers of clays (adjacent to the springs under Radovljica and Šobec pond) and partly by means of an deltasto deposited layers of gravel, which is the lake zasipalo. This gravel is much more rounded as Ice Age and more than Recent, indicating that the publishers were deposited in warm, so real interglacialni (Riss-Wurm) age. Based on the extraordinary scale of this lake and the large thickness of lake sediments can be assumed that the lake was very time consuming. This is in addition to the extraordinary size of the lake also contributed much of his modest erosion capacity of runoff or Jezernica. It is therefore quite justified to believe that the valley of the Save the onset of the last ice age (Wurm) in the area of the lake only slightly deeper. Therefore, we also not surprising that the gravel-coated water in the last ice age fairly quickly fill a shallow pot and started to relate Save prod after the elderly and storage areas and this led to Prodi II. terrace (under Zasip) mostly as poledenitvenih two periods (from Rissa and Wurm).

For today’s image-Radovljica Lake Basin, it was very important beyond the height of the Age, Ice Age (from about 70,000 years ago), when the Bohinj glacier began retreating from here. In contrast to the penultimate ice age, when the withdrawal of the glacier is very fast, which was then in his head may have developed a large lake basin, it was glacier retreat Age, much slower and more violently, but periodically came right up to the bold to increase of its volume. At the time of each withdrawal took place along the Sava River to erosion, the congestion is to re-deposition of glacial dams and metalling beneath glaciers flowing waters. The result of this development was to occur in the direction of Bled, where the glacier gave way, a series of terraces, each of which is also the western lower. She became a terrace II b, which begins at the glacial maximum volume of earthworks Age, glaciers (Wurm 1 – by beryllium method reached its peak prior to 70,000 years ago) fossil at the first strong stanjšanju and contraction of the Bohinj glacier. It has a brake and then the moraine hill in forms and especially durable when hedgehogs III. terraces that follow it from the bank against Lesce and Radovljica. However, on this ride morenski embankments hardly be maintained, as they simultaneously metalling Upper Sava River, which has found its way on the glacier, promptly destroyed. Under high-ride III. terraces followed by IV. Terrace (at the train station it is located in Lesce) that passes to the west in a very impressive and almost the entire length preserved glacial dam. We follow him to the high left bank of the Sava River from the bank at all to Radovljica Žirovnici. Given that the age of the dyke is only about 20,000 years and so much as about 50,000 years younger than those in the east of Radovljica Šmidolu to delay the Bohinj glacier at the height of the last ice age (before about 70,000 years ago), can not help but believe that only do not constitute just a jam at a universal contraction lednikov, but that the outcome of the poledenitvenega blast, which occurred after a prolonged warm period in the middle Wurm. The next lower terrace (V) is pulling the right side of the Upper Sava River and consists of gravel that the water rose out of the Bohinj glacier. Only this one was, as shown by preserved morenski dykes had already so thin that he was striking hill town and the guard at the lake have been making three glacial tongues. First, the pan between the guards and plain Jelovico towards the river is against BODEŠČE. The second is interposed between the guard and through today Bled castle towards the Sava, which is not reached. And the third is west of Castle directed by Rečica north.

A similar engraving and ballast has been even further withdrawals and jams the Bohinj glacier. We must reckon with a longer period of erosion, especially at the retreating glaciers in moraines · stage · In Bohinj Bistrica. The deadlock on the glacier moraine that triggered the accumulation of new Savi again sold. By re-erosion and subsequent ballast is experiencing withdrawal and subsequent re-arrest on the glacier moraine at Old Fužina in Bohinj. It is thus obvious. there has been a powerful erosion along the Sava and Dolinka Bohinjka already at the very retreating glaciers in these valleys.

In doing so, it should not remain manufactures, even at the Bohinj glacier retreating at the last period of glaciation are not completely dam the lake not be possible. At the time of each withdrawal of the ice masses are depleted frontal depressions occurred more or less the lake, which is due to the rapid erosion and violent ballast from beneath glaciers flowing waters, especially very prodonosne Upper Sava River, quickly filled. Hence, it is east of the Upper Sava River flows today are very few traces ojezeritev. Clearer and more numerous then they just west of the front cavity around the village Bodešče and in the upper pitch. In the central front cavity, which is due to the unique orographic conditions did not reach metalling beneath the glacier running water, but we all have been preserved lake. Bohinj lake was formed for extensive glacial dams at Old Fužina. Can be maintained, because lying in totally the upper part of the valley the river is where the karst catchment there were no extreme gravel ballast.

Even the famous gorge near Bled is a thank you for your creation glaciaciji. River Radovna It is originally ran from Krnice to pitch the Southeast. By today’s harsh turn of its flow from north-east Krnice occurred only in the ice age, when she Bohinj glacier with its left wing blocking the way towards the southeast and forced to wrap around it in a new direction. Radovna has been forced to turn, a new bed in hard and resistant apniške funds and thus the forerunner Gorge. To understand so much erosion ability Radovne we know that in this area during the Ice Age collect huge quantities of water for those beneath the glacier in the valley Radovne, as well as water with ice Pokljuka and the left side of the Bohinj glacier.

The unique development is experienced in the Quaternary time nepoleden world. Here in particular we are very steep, the Lake Basin-Radovljica ascending slopes of the Kamnik Alps (Ovens, Smokuški top Dobrča, Storžič) and Karavanke (chair Košuta) on one side and the Julian Alps on the other hand Jelovico. Research has shown that each time period of glaciation, due to very low temperatures and the corresponding exogenous processes forest completely withdrew from those areas. There was a strong mechanical weathering of rocks and formation of thick layers of debris apniškega and dolomite. With him in the thick covered southern slopes of the furnace under Dobrčo and Storžičevo group, as well as the corresponding lower slopes Jelovice on the opposite side of the Ljubljana basin. Debris from the last ice age is still quite fresh, and it covers about 15-40 cm thick preperelina, while those from earlier ice ages, in part or completely cemented together (Fig. 8). Interesting is also the conclusion that the debris does not cover only slopes directly below apniškimi and dolomitic rocks, but it is also expanding at their lower, flatter parts of vododržnih Tertiary rocks, where there is often even after a kilometer and even further away from its origin (eg. Smokuškim the furnace and the top, bridge and Begunje under Dobrčo, Storžičevo group, etc.).. There is no doubt, therefore, is that in the era of the formation of this debris was not only to strong mechanical decay of a rocky substrate, but also to the very rapid creep of debris on the slopes of the valley soliflukcija. This is demonstrated by the typical stratification soliflukcijskega material that is on the sunny slopes of the furnace and on top of the Most Smokuškim and Begunje most pronounced. Here is the place in the then ledaniku poledenitvenih periods most often to fluctuations in temperature around zero. This also to intensive decomposition of limestone and dolomite and to move the debris along the slopes of the valley. All this has been particularly extreme warming in the spring and at the sections of cuttings warm and moist air masses when it came to the rapid melting of snow and thawing of surface ice drenched soil. At that time, Tekle water across the slopes and carry the debris after it slightly inclined surfaces (Fig. 8).

Because so much pretransportiranja debris along the slopes of the valley also saw in them a strong ballast. This material is zasipala Begunjščica Valley, as well as valleys in the basin Peračica, Lešnica and Kokrica. Similar situation also observed under Jelovico at Besnica, Nemiljščica, Kroparici and Kolnici. Much of this debris were tolerated River soot. It should be noted only in the largest such fan, which in the last ice age, and partly in the retreating glaciers of Lake Radovljica basin, poured Begunjščica and Gosa. To understand this fan it must be known that shook the Bohinj glacier at the height of the last Ice Age with his forehead, through the village and New Hlebce you to professional photographer, this has narrowed the reservoir domain Begunjščica to the area between the glacier and Begunje and the valley gap which then spreads to the manor village, Upper Island, and in the east of the castle against Podvin pouches, where at that time the river flowed. By ballast Begunjščica west and then southwest to the ball, new villages and village Vrbnje has occurred only after the sudden withdrawal of the Bohinj glacier in this part of Lake-Radovljica basin. Only after this period an ambitious ledanodobnega pack began Begunjščica as well as other periglacial river, greatly deepened its valley. By cutting probably occurred immediately after the onset of warmer climate porastla floor again with trees and has been blocked by the rapid flow of debris along the slopes of the valley. Again, this erosion has been fully air-conditioned (Fig. 9).

Like the rivers that flow beneath the glaciers, we have also observed the streams in the world then nepoledenelem würmsko terrace, three or four genetically very similar terrace which occurred when changing the ballast and Ice toplodobnih deepening valleys. Just as “glaciofluvial terraces are also in this zajedajo živoskalno basis, and covers them more or less maintained gravel fluvioperiglacialna of deposit. Differences, between the terraces is also reflected in their various conservation and preperelosti sold. Even in these, each lower terrace and also a younger be less weathered. All of these observations persuade us again that the next incoming exchange ballast and deep cutting the Quaternary fully air-conditioned and there has been very effective because of the depth of erosion after each ice age to an even deepening valleys (150-200 m) .

Malacological and sedimentological evidence for “warm” glacial climate from the Irig loess sequence, Vojvodina, Serbia

Slobodan B. Marković

Chair of Physical Geography, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia

Eric A. Oches

Department of Geology, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, SCA 528, Tampa, Florida 33620, USA

William D. McCoy

Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA

Manfred Frechen

Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences (GGA-Institut), Geochronology and Isotope Hydrology, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hanover, Germany

Tivadar Gaudenyi

Chair of Physical Geography, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia

Four loess units and three paleosol layers are preserved in the Irig brickyard, Vojvodina, Serbia. Amino acid geochronology provides stratigraphic correlations between loess units V-L1 and V-L2 at the Irig section with loess of glacial cycles B and C, respectively, described from other central European localities. Luminescence dating results for the upper loess layers V-L1L1 and V-L1S1L1 confirm the geological interpretations, although in samples below paleosol V-L1S1S2, the age increase with depth is less than in our proposed age model. Magnetic susceptibility and sedimentological evidence from the Irig loess-paleosol sequence show general similarities with the MIS 6-1 pattern of the SPECMAP oxygen-isotope curve. Malacogical investigations at the Irig site reveal the continuous presence of the Chondrula tridens and Helicopsis striata faunal assemblages throughout the last glacial and final part of the penultimate glacial loess. The loess snail fauna, which is characterized by the complete absence of cold-resistant species, suggests a stable, dry, and relatively warm glacial climate, compared with other central European loess localities. Furthermore, these data suggest that the southern slope of Fruška Gora was a refugium for warm-loving and xerophilus mollusc taxa during the otherwise unfavorable glacial climates of the Late Pleistocene.

Atlantean Iron Mines

Băişoara, Dognecea, Ghelari, Muncelu Mic, Ocna de Fier, Teliuc

Atlantean Coal Mines

Anina, Bărbăteni, Husnicioara, Jilţ, Livezeni, Lonea, Lupeni, Motru, Paroşeni, Petrila, Prigoria, Roşia – Peşteana,  Rovinari, Ţebea, Uricani, Voivozi, Vulcan

Atlantean Copper Mines

Moldova Nouă, Roşia Poieni

Atlantean Gold Mines

Certej, Cireşata, Colnic, Frasin, Rodu, Rovina, Săcărâmb


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