Bishop Titcomb says : “After the arrival into South Britain of the Kelts from Spain, there came another arrival, viz., the Cimbri from Denmark. These finally settled in Wales, where they are known as the Cymri (Cumry), and they are of the same race as the Cimerii who occupied the country around the north and west of the Moetic Lake a few hundred miles from the place of the Israelitish exile.”

John Pairmann Brown has called our attention to the many similarities that exist between Greek, Latin and Hebrew sacrificial practice. Even the words used as the “technical terms” of the cult are identical:
sjor – taurus (“bull”)
lebonah – libanos – libanum (“incense”)
kuttonet – chiton (“garment”)
keren – cornu (“horn”)
Even the characteristic biblical phrases originally built on ritual: to lift one’s horn, to sink the horn into the dust and Exod4,39 has its parallels in classical literature.


And Canaan begat Sidon his first born, and Heth, and the Jebusite, and the Amonite, and the Girgasite, and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Ilanutthite

REMPHAN, an idol or Pagan god whom St Stephen says the Israelites worshipped in the wilderness as they passed from Egypt to the land of Promise: ” Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star of your god Remphan; figures which ye made to worship them.” That the martyr here quotes the following greed: “Ye have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch, — and Chion your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves.” But if this coincidence between the Christian preacher and the Jewish prophet be admitted, it follows, that Chiun and Remphan are two names of one and the same deity. This is indeed farther evident from the LXX translators having substituted in their version the word Fatpxr, instead of Chiun, which we read in the Hebrew and English bibles. But the question which still remains to be answered is, what god was worshipped by the name of Remphan, Raiphan, or Chiun ,a for about the other divinity here mentioned there is no dispute.

That Chiun or Remphan was an Egyptian divinity, cannot be questioned; for at the era of the Erodus the  Hebrews must have been strangers to the idolatrous worship of all other nations; nor are they ever accused of any other than Egyptian idolatries during their 44 years wanderings in the wilderness, till towards the end of that period that they became infected by the Моabites with the worship of Baal-peor. That Moloch, Moleck, Melek, or Milcom, in its original acceptation, denotes a king or chief, is known to every oriental scholar; and therefore when it is used as the name of a god, it undoubtedly signifies the sun, and is the same divinity with the Egyptian Osiris. Reasoning in this way, many critics, and we believe Selden is in the number, have concluded that Chiun, and of course Remphan, is the planet Saturn; because Chiun is written Ciun, Cevan, Ceuan, Chevvin ; all of which are modern oriental names of that planet.

But against this hypothesis insurmountable objections present themselves to our minds. It is universally allowed, that the first objects of idolatrous worship were the sun and moon, considered as the king and queen of heaven. The fixed stars, indeed, and the planets, were afterwards gradually admitted into the Pagan rubric; but we may be sure that those would be first associated with the two prime luminaries which most resembled them in brightness, and were supposed to be most benignant to man. But the planet Saturn appears to the naked eye with so feeble a lustre, that, in the infancy of astronomy, it could not make such an impression on the mind as to excite that admiration which we must conceive to have always preceded planetary worship. It is to be observed, too, that by the Pagan writers of antiquity Saturn is constantly represented as a star of baleful influence. He is termed the leaden planet ; the planet of malevolent aspect; the dismal, the inhuman star. That the Egyptians, at so early a period as that under consideration, should have adored as one of their greatest gods a planet obscure in its appearance, distant in its situation, and baleful in its influence, in wholly incredible.

There is, however, another star which they might naturally adore, and which we know they actually did adore, as one of their most beneficent gods, at a very early period. This is canis or stella canicularis of the Romans, and the dog-star of modern Europe. By the, Egyptians it was called Sothis or Soth, which signifies safely, beneficence, fecundity; and it received this name, because making its appearance in the heavens at the very time when the Nile overflowed the country, it was supposed to regulate the inundation. On this account Plutarch tells us, they believed the soul of their illustrious benefactress Isis to have transmigrated into the star Sothis, which they therefore worshipped as the divinity which rendered their country fruitful. It made its appearance, too, on the first day of the month Thoth (a), ‘which was the beginning of the Egyptian year, and is such celebrated with feasting and festivity; and being by much the brightest star in the heavens, Horapollo (cap. 3. informs us it was considered as sovereign over the rest. A combination of so many important circumstances might have induced a people less superstitious than the Egyptians to pay divine homage to that glorious luminary, which was confounded with Isis, who had been long regarded with the highest veneration ; and ¡is Isis is the wife and sister of Osiris, and always associated with him, the star of Isis or Remphan was naturally associated with Moloch, the same with Osiris.

But it will he asked, how the star which by the Egyptians was called Soth or Sothis came to be worshipped by the Hebrews under the appellation of Chiun or Remphan? This is a very pertinent question, and we shall endeavour to answer it.

Every one knows that the pronunciation of oriental words is very uncertain; and that as the vowels were often omitted in writing, it is of very little importance to the meaning how they be supplied, provided we retain the radical consonants. The word Chiun may with equal propriety be written Kiun, Kion, or even Kyon, the Hebrew can being convertible into the Greek v or the Roman y; but the words Cane, Chan, Kan, or Khan, which are often diversified into Khen,Kyn, Cohen, Cohan, signifying Head, Chief, Prince, King, &c. are diffused through a great part of Asia and Europe. Kaian or Kain, which is manifestly cognate of the word Chiun or Kiun, is, in the Pthevi or old Persian language, the epithet applied to the dynasty of princes which succeeded Cyrus the Great. Among the Scythians or ancient Tartars, Ghiun signifies the Sun and likewise the day; and Kung, Kinung, Кun, runs through all the dialects of the Gothic tongue, everywhere denoting a chief or sovereign. In the Syrian dialect, Kan signifies a prince -, and hence the Almighty is styled (Gen. xiv. 19.) Konah, which is translated possessor, but might have, with perhaps more propriety, been rendered Sovereign of heaven and earth. In Hebrew, the word Kalian or Kahen, which is the very same with Khan or Кan, signifies either a priest or a prince; and in Egyptian Kon was the name of the first Hercules or the sun. Hence the same word in composition denotes greatness, as Сап-obus the great serpent; Can-athoth, the great Thoth or Mercury; Can-osiris, the great Osiris.

From this deduction we would conclude, that the word, which is found in so many tongues, and always denotes Chief, Prince, Sovereign, is the very word Chiun which the Egyptians and Hebrews applied to Sothis, a; being, in their conceptions, the chief or sovereign ol all the stars. This will appear still more probable, when we have ascertained the import of the word Remphan, or, as the LXX have it, Raiphan.

Phan, the latter part of this word, ¡s unquestionably the same with Pan, the most ancient of the Egyptian gods (Pan). It is likewise a cognate of the Hebrew Phanah; and the radical word seems to be PHAH, which signifies sometimes the countenance, and sometimes light. Hence Phaethon which is compounded of pha ” light,” eth or esh, ” fire,” and on, ” strength,” came to be one of the names of the sun. Rai, which we commonly write rajah, has long signified, among the Indians, a subordinate prince ; and we know, that between India and Egypt there was a verv early intercourse. Raiphan, therefore, may be either the royal light or the bright prince, subordinate to Osiris; and in either sense, it was a very proper epithet of Sothis in the Egyptian calendar. The word Rem or Rom, again (for it is sometimes written Remphan, and sometimes Rompha), is no other than the Hebrew, Rum, ” high, exalted.” Hence Remphan is the high or exalted light, which Sothis certainly was.


Baal Saphon means the “Lord of the Look-out” Mountain. The same meaning must be attached to the holy Mt. Ida from Greek myth. Saphon also becomes the word for “North”, for the Look-out mountain is the cosmic mountain with its top in the North Star, the centre and turning-point of the universe. It is also the paradise-mountain, marked out by its beautiful smell. When the Song of Songs 8,14 calls upon “the stag on balsam mountains” it is the Highgod living on the paradise mountain, and the leafy hut (Cant 1,16, Theokrit 100ff.) is the primeval hut on the paradise mountain (Ps 76,7), the bridal chamber for the holy wedlock between the God of blossoming spring and the black Sulamit symbolising Jerusalem and the black earth. There is a kind of hierogamy linked to the epiphany of this god of blossoming nature, cf. that Eliun loved Beruth (Philo,I,10,15).

And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughter of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men (heroes) which were of old, men of renown (Genesis 6:1-2,4) After which man grows extremely wicked and is eventually destroyed by a flood The account in the Book of Enoch mentions the earth tilting on its axis during which the earth “labours and is violently shaken ” (I Enoch LXIV 1-3) Two of the most surprising (and mistranslated) verses in the Old Testament probably concerns Atlantis The passage is found in the Book of Job, and in the respected King James version reads like this: Dead things are formed from under the waters, and the inhabitants thereof Hell is naked before him, and destruction hath no covering (Job 26:5-6) The very first word in the above passage is the Hebrew word Rephaim, a reference to the descendants of Repha In other words, this is a direct reference to the sons of King Cronos – the famed Titans of Greek mythology And the Hebrew verb translated “formed” should have been translated “tremble” or “writhe” What a change this makes! In our modern terms it would now read: The Titans tremble beneath the waters and the inhabitants thereof Hell is naked before him, and destruction hath no covering (Job 26:5-6) Dr James Moffett (1922) of Oxford University is almost poetic in his translation: Before him the primaeval giants writhe, under the ocean in their prison; the underworld lies open to his eyes, the nether regions are unveiled (Job 26:5-6)

The Westsemitic Highgod has a name that means “God”. He is the original god and creator: In Palmyra he is called ´lqwnr & ´lqnr meaning “God the creator”. In the Bible he is mostly called Elohim, but also “Elion (= Highest) creator of heaven and earth” (Gen 14,19) In a Hittite text he is called Elkunirsa (El, the creator). But he has most often become a very distant god with Baal/Resheph, the hunter, Anat the very violent huntress, Astarte the prostitute, and Qadshu the stark naked filling the gap.

Obviously he is the Uranos castrated by El Cronos/Resheph and the Hypsuranios (“Highest Heaven”) fought by his brother Usoos in a myth told by Philo. Usoos was the first to hunt animals and make clothes of their skin (he is a new version of the great hunter). Hypsuranios was living in a hut of reeds. They both lived in Tyre so Usoos must be East Tyre or Palaityros also called Usu. This means that Hypsouranios must be West Tyre, situated on the small island which, judging from coins, was called “Ambrosian rocks” and where, acc to Nonnos and Achilles Tatios, a wonderful tree, was growing in the “navel” of the island with a snake coiling up its trunk and a bowl in the top (THE WORLD TREE IN THE NAVEL OF COSMOS). So the conflict between Usoos and Hypsouranios in the hut made of green vegetation must be the conflict between hunter and highgod.

In the longest Ugarittext, the epos about the fightings of Baal, El is not directly killed by Baal, but his two sons Jamm, and Mot (= Death) are, and they are obviously personifications of the duality latent in El as primeval totality, living inside the Mountain of night (Lel). Jamm is “Sea” going beyond its borders and Mot (“Death”) is summer heat going beyond its limits. So Baal is seen as the creator of fixed order. He is the ruler of this world while El is exiled to some distant transcendence from where he can only rule over the streams of life-giving water. But also Usoos has to survive a universe exposed to the flood of great rainstorms, and afterwards the burning down of the forestland. As the one who accomplished the first journey over the sea he must be identified with Heracles/Melqart who acc to Nonnos, was the first to take steps to sail the sea. By this the first people of Tyre reached the holy swimming island where the world-tree with the coiling snake was growing. In its top an eagle was flying. This bird they had to capture and bring as a sacrifice to Poseidon and by this act the swimming island was grounded outside Tyre. Here again the hunter Usoos-Melqart creates fixed order in a very floating universe. Now the eagle was a symbol of Baalshamem, the Highgod of Tyre, so the pattern is everywhere the same: The Highgod is killed by a god becoming the ruler of this visible world.

It should not be denied that the religion in Byblos was a kind of “Death-of-God” theology. First the “Highest” (Elioun) is killed, then Uranos is castrated and killed by the cruel El Kronos, who then introduced the sacrifice of children. Inscriptions show that there were both a Baalshamem and a Baal ´adar in Byblos about 500 B.C., probably identical with Uranos and El Kronos. In Tyre both a Hypsuranios and a Melqart Usoos, in the Osiris myth brought to us by Plutarch both Osiris and Malk-ander, king of Byblos, cf. Bata and Pharao. There seems always to be a Highgod and a younger god closely connected to the king.

When El Cronos is followed by the “gods” as his allied it is the train of demons who have rebelled against the highest. Chwolson´s description of Cronos in Harran shows that he was definitely the black and scarying god (see below), and Resheph is finally apotheosized as Cronos. The sacrifice of children is depicted as a magic-occult ritual. The children were immolated as a “ransom to revenging demons after a secret ritual” (mystikôs) says Philo I,10,44. It is by the help of “the magic spells” of Hermes Trismegistos “used on the allies of Cronos” that “the lusting/ the desire” (pothos) for battle with Uranos “is instilled in them”. Acc. to Helck,

Resheph in Egypt under Amenophis II becomes the model taken by the king dashing forward in battle. There is a plural form of his name rshfm, he is like Odin the ecstatic warrior dashing forward followed by his band of demons. With his own hand he killed his son Sadidos, a brother, Atlas, was cast down and buried in the depths of the earth, and he beheaded his own daughter “so all the gods were terrified by the thinking of Cronos” (I,10,21) It is the old ecstatic warrior-ideology described by Widengren and Wikander, taking force from the dark side in man, but in the long run having tragic consequences for even his own family.

Resheph is related to the Mesopotamian Nergal, by A.Parrot on the basis of seals and figurines described as a man lying in a sarcophagus with sickle swords in both hands, surrounded by jars, and accompanied by two monsters: snakes rising out of a lion’s mouth on the sarcophagi.

“The word Elohim in Hebrew is employed both as a singular and a plural noun for god and gods, or spirits, with no known origin in phenomena by which the plurality could be explained For this we must consult the Egyptian wisdom in the mythos which preceded the eschatology In the “Dispatches from Palestine” there is a perfect parallel to the twofold use of Elohim in the plural and singular forms employed in the Hebrew book

The scribe addressing the Egyptian Pharaoh says, “To the king, my lord, my gods, my sun-god” (Records of the Past, vol ii , p 62, 2nd series ) Here the gods were the powers gathered into the one god as supreme These when seven-fold were called the souls of Ra

They become the eight in the paradise of Am-Khemen They are nine in the Put-cycle of Ptah, they were ten as the sephiroth of the kabalists, they are twelve in the final heaven of Atum-Ra. In a word, they are the Elohim as a form of the Egyptian Ali or Ari, a companionship of workers, and later creators

In the beginning Elohim created the heaven and the earth” The astronomical mythology of Egypt, from the time of Sut to that of Ptah, is involved in that brief staTument There are at least three different groups of the Elohim – that is, the Ali or Ili – with the plural ending of the name as Semitic The first group of these creators was seven in number, with Sut at their head The second was that of the eight in Am-Khemen, with Anup added to the seven The third is the company of Ptah, who formed the Put-circle of the nine

These preceded Atum, who was Ra in his first sovereignty And to show how the past of Egypt opens into immensity, Ptah is credited with being the supreme ruler for 9,000 years Still earlier the followers of Horus reigned for 14,000 years and, as the astronomical legends show, the primary seven creators had previously marked out one great year in the circle of precession before they could become those lords of eternity at, the north celestial pole, which were represented by a group of seven stars that never set

Under the title of Elohim, both the one god and the company of gods are present, though concealed, just as Ptah and his associates the Ali were included in the Put-cycle, as Ptah the god, Iu the son of god, and the paut as the group of gods And if the Put-cycle of the Ali, as now maintained, are the originals of the Phoenician and Hebrew Elohim, it follows that the deity Ptah is the one god of the group in the Genesis as well as in the original mythos

Although the name of Ptah may not be given, yet the creator as the worker in earth, the potter, the moulder or carver, is plainly apparent in the Hebrew Genesis

The Garden of Eden “The Aarru paradise in Amenta is also the garden of the two trees, the same as the Hebrew garden of Eden

A form of Eden is undoubtedly Babylonian, even by name According to ‘the native tradition, the type was localized in Eridu, the place of the eternal tree or stalk at the centre of the circumpolar paradise, or of Eridu in the firmamental water termed “the abyss”

In the mythos the Great Mother is called ” the divine lady of Edin”, and also “the goddess of the tree of life” As the tree she brings forth her child, the branch, the same as Hathor does in Egypt The name of Hathor signifies the house of Horus, as the tree

So the Great Mother Zikum is the house of Tammuz, as the tree that grew in Eridu But the Egyptian stalk of the uat or papyrus plant is indefinitely earlier than the typical tree

One fact of itself will serve to show that the biblical Eden was not derived from the Assyrian Edin, because in this garden there is but a single tree, which is apparently the tree of life The divine lady of Edin is the goddess of the tree of life, and there is no mention of a tree of knowledge Secondly, the serpent as a type of evil in the book of Genesis is not the Babylonian dragon Tiamat The biblical dragon is of neither sex, whereas Tiamat is female The Hebrew dragon or evil serpent is the Apap of Egypt from Genesis to Revelation Apap is a water-reptile whose dwelling is at the bottom of the dark waters called the void of Apap, from which it rises in rebellion as the representative of drought This is the serpent described by Amos: “Though they be hid from my sight in the bottom of the sea, thence will I command the serpent, and he shall bite them” (Amos ix) Another reason The Hebrew Eden is in a land that was watered by a mist that went up from the ground, and where no rain fell on the earth (Genesis 2:5-6)

That land above all earthly prototypes was Egypt, which assuredly did not suffer like Babylonia from the “curse of rain”, from which the Akkadian month “As-an” was named But there was a pre-solar paradise enclosure which had but one tree in it This as Egyptian is the paradise of Am-Khemen, which Shu uplifted with his two-pronged prop that images the pole, when he divided earth from heaven and raised the upper circumpolar paradise Paradise, says Ibn Ezra, is the place of one tree Mount Hetep in the northern heaven is a kind of typical one-tree-hill The two trees in the garden of Eden can be accounted for upon Egyptian ground, but on no other; one being the tree of the pole in the stellar mythos, the other the tree of life or of dawn in the garden eastward The two typical trees are recognizable as Egyptian in the Book of the Dead

In one chapter (97th) they are called the two divine sycamores of heaven and earth The sycamore of heaven is identified as the tree of Nut It stands in “the lake of equipoise”, which is at the celestial pole The tree of earth is the tree of Hathor and of dawn Atum-Ra, the solar god, is also described as coming forth from betwixt the two trees “I know those two sycamores of emerald, between which Ra cometh forth as he advances over the firmament”

The tree of earth, or Hathor, and the tree of heaven, or Nut, were brought on together and united in the tree of burial for the mummy Wherever it was possible the Egyptian-coffin was made from the wood of the sycamore tree, the khat-en-ankhu, or tree of life, so that the dead might be taken in the embrace of the mother of life, who was represented by the tree

This was Hathor as bringer to birth in the mythology, and Nut the bringer of-souls to their rebirth in the eschatology The relative positions of these two goddesses with the tree were illustrated by the pictures painted on the coffin Hathor as a form of the mother-earth, the tree-form, is portrayed inside the coffin on the board upon which the mummy rested, taking the dead to her embrace as the mother of life Nut, the mother-heaven, was represented on the inner part of the coffin-lid arching over the mummy as bringer of the manes to new life above It was burial in the tree when the tree had come to be elaborately carved in the shape of a coffin This symbolized a resurrection of the spirit from the tree of life as Horus rose again from out the tree of dawn Now when Amenta was planted by Ptah, the father of Atum, several features of the circumpolar paradise, as before said, were not only repeated, they were duplicated One of these was the typical tree

The tree of the pole remained as the central support of the universe, the tree of the three worlds, i e , of Amenta, earth and heaven (Egyptian) Arali, earth and heaven (Babylonian) hell, mid-gard and heaven (Norse), and others that might be added In Egypt this was almost superseded by the tat of Ptah, which is a pillar of the four corners based upon the tree as type of the pole when this was erected in Amenta

Thus, the primal paradise was the place of one tree The paradise or garden in Amenta is the place of two trees – because the ground-rootage had been doubled in phenomena These two trees appear in the Ritual as the tree of Hathor and the tree of Nut; the tree of earth and the tree of heaven; the tree of the north and the tree of the east

Sacred History 1 Menes is he who ruled the first men
1 Noah, of which the name in Hebrew is Né or Mnée, which means repose, is the common father of all peoples: he is in the Scriptures the first man who reigned in a sense after the deluge: he who found himself the chief and natural sovereign of all humanity then reduced to his family
2 At the time of Menes all Egypt was only a marsh with the exception of the single nome or canton of Thebes, that is to say, it was totally inundated
2 At the time of Noah, not only Egypt, but the entire earth was inundated by a deluge, and that nome of Thebes, which was the only one that wasn’t, was the ark which escaped the deluge THBE or as one pronounces it THEBAH, is the word constantly employed in the Hebrew text to signify ark
3 The inhabitants of Thebes called themselves the oldest men
3 Thbe or Thebah (the ark of Noah) contained in effect the fathers of all men, and consequently the oldest men of all, dating from the deluge which was a renewal of the human race
4 At Thebes was constructed a great ship nearly three hundred cubits long
4 The Thbe or Thebah, the ark of Noah, was three hundred cubits long
5 Herodotus says that two doves flew from Thebes to different regions
5 Noah let fly a dove two times from his Thbe or from his ark, to assure himself, before going out, that the earth was dried up
6 The animals, following the Egyptians, were formed first in the land of Thebes
6 Scripture says that all the animals were contained in the ark, and in coming out, Thbe in Hebrew means ark, there is how all the animals came out of Thebes
7 Menes taught the people to honor the gods and to make sacrifices to them
7 Mnée otherwise Noah on coming out of the ark raised an altar to the Lord, says Scripture and made burnt offerings on that altar, consequently, sacrifices
8 Menes was the first to introduce table luxury [luxe de la table]
8 Noah after the deluge gave express permission to eat meat
9 The inhabitants of Thebes boast of having been the first to know the vine
9 Noah after leaving the ark (Thbe) was the first who planted the vine

In the Hebrew Bible, after God creates the world, he forms the first man out of dust When he creates man, he names him Adam, which is not just a name but also the word for “human” The word sounds like and is related to the Hebrew word for ground, adamah Since there is no capitalization in Hebrew, the passage could just as easily be translated as God naming the first man “Human” After God forms Eve from Adam’s rib, Genesis reads that “The human called his woman “Hawah,” because she was the mother of all living ” (Gen:20) He calls her this because hawah is the Hebrew word for life

“El, the Sun-God of the Syrians, the Egyptians, and the Semites, is declared by Pleyte to be no other
than Set or Seth, and El is the primeval Saturn – Israel. Siva, is an Aethiopian God, the same as the Chaldean Baal – Bel; thus he is
also Saturn. Saturn, El, Seth and Khiyun, or the Biblical Chiun of Amos, are all one and the same deity, and may be all regarded in
their worst spect as Typhon the Destroyer. When the religious Pantheon assumed a more definite expression, Typhon was separated
from his androgyne – the good deity, and fell into degradatio a a brutal unintellectual power.

Strictly speaking, it is difficult to view the Jewish Book of Genesis otherwise than as a chip from the
trunk of the mundane tree of universal cosmogony, rendered in Oriental allegories. As cycle succeeded cycle, and one nation after
another came upon the world’s state ot play its brief part in the majestic drama of human life, each new people evolved from ancestral
traditions its own religion, giving it a local color, and stamping it with it individual characteristics. While each of these religions had its distinguishing traits, by which, were there o other archaic vestiges, the physical and psychological status of its creators could be estimate,
all preserved a common likeness to one prototype. This parent cult was none other than the primitive ‘wisdom-religion’. the Israelitihsh
Scriptures are no exception. Their national history – if they can claim any autonomy before the return from Babylon, and were nothing
more than migratory septs of Hindu pariahs, cannot be carried back a day beyond Moses; and if this ex-Egyptian priest must, from
theological necessity, be transformed into a Hebrew patriarch, we must insist that the Jewish nation was lifted with that smiling infant
out of the bulrushes of Lake Moeris. Abraham, their alleged father, belongs tot he universal mythology. Most likely he is but one of
other numerous aliases of Zeruan (Saturn), the king of the golden age, who is also called the old man (emblem of time).

It is now demonstrated by Assyriologists that in the old Chaldean books. Abraham is called Zeru-an, or Zerb-an – meaning one very rich
in gold and silver, and a mighty prince. He is also callled Zarouan and Zarman – a decrepit old man.


Aaberamenthu [: Montu who crossed over]

As shown by M. Tardieu, Aberamentho or, actually, Aberamentho[o]uth, derives from the Hebrew phrase, μym ryba, “power of waters”, and the Greek version of the name of the Egyptian god Thoth.32 From the XXVIth Dynasty onwards, Thot was seen as the god bringing forth and exercising power over the waters of the Nile. In Greco-Roman times, Thoth was also identified with Hermes, the messenger and spokesman of the gods. As the “Lord of the Holy Words”, Thoth-Hermes knew the formulas by which the cosmic powers could be controlled.

i. The Hebrew Scriptures, if not so ancient as was once supposed, are sufficiently venerable and valuable to deserve a more perfect and liberal translation than any we now possess. Great as are the difficulties of a translation, and these cannot be wholly overcome, there is no satisfactory excuse to the truth-seeker for some of the short-coming now presented. Throughout the narrative portions especially there is a narrowness of interpretation arising from ignorance, or from exclusion of the religious practices and language of contemporary peoples. The invaluable services of Gesenius himself, which have contributed so freely to Bible exegesis, are painfully defective for that he relies almost entirely on Arabic
and Syrian for his philology, and even treats the Ethiopic and the Greek with far more consideration than he does the Chaldean, while he slights the Egyptian almost wholly. It is true that these latter languages have received their largest attention since Gesenius began his labors, but the Rosetta stone and Champolion had begun to reveal the riches of the Egyptian lore during the life of Gesenius, and the contiguity of Palestine and Egypt, to say naught of their alleged historic association, should have moved the learned linguist in that direction. The laborers who have wrought the ponderous tomes of Webster and Worcester are perhaps more culpable than Gesenius, since they set or follow the fashion of going even to the Hindoos for their radicals and analogues, and refer scores of times to Icelandic or Welsh for these and scarcely once to Egyptian or even Hebrew; seeming to forget that it is to the peoples of the Levant and the Euphrates that we are mainly indebted for our religion and literature, and to them also for the descriptive and technical branches of the languages of southern Europe and of Britain.

The Phoenicians first, and afterwards the Greeks, must have adopted and spread much of the language and practices of the ancient Egyptians, since a sea-faring people are generally intelligent and therefore liberal. To me it seems that the influence of Egypt on the southern part of Syria was paramount, at least to the time of Ezra, or to that of Cambyses and Ochus. That the language and religions of the Hebrews were composite and changeable seems certain, but it seems also true that the relations of Egypt with the Euphratic peoples were much closer than is generally allowed; nearer perhaps than that which at the present period exists between France and Britain, in most respects. That there should be any prejudices to bar the influence of Egypt would be some argument if the story of the Exodus “from Zera-im” or “from enemies” or Mi-Zera-im was not disputed by the silence of the Jeremiah in the pleas of that prophet against a migration to Egypt, and the silence of Ezekiel in the three chapters on the iniquities of that people, but these were positively favored in the Deutcronomic code (Deut. 23:3-7).

2. It would have been well, on philological grounds, that our versions of the Hebrew writings had correctly given the names of persons and places. We have in this respect followed the letter and the custom of the Greeks, to some extent, and that people habitually euphonised names of persons and places, or even rendered these in their own tongue. It must surprise the mass of devout persons to know that there are no such words as “Hebrews,” “Moses,” “Eve,” “Solomon,” “Samson,” “Jepthah,” “Saul,” “Abel,” &c, in the original Hebrew. That this alteration is a serious error all lovers of truth as well as of philology must confess. Some leading examples may be cited in this place : “Jehovah” for Iehoah; “Hebrews” for Aabera-im; “Moses” for Msheh; “Joshua” for Iehoshu-aa; “Aaron” for Aharon; “Eli-Jah” for Eli-Iahu; “Samu-El” for Shamu-El; “Ishma-El” for I- Shem-aa-El; “Esau” for Ms-Av; “Jacob” for Ia-Aa-Kob; “Noah” for Noa c h; “Eve” for c Hav-ah; “Hann-ah” for c Hann-ah ; “Huld-ah” for c Huled-ah; “Samson” for Shimesh-On; “Solomon” for Shelomeh; “Jesse” for Ishai; “Saul” for Sha-aul; “Absalom” for Abesha- lom; “Jepthah” for Ie-Patha c h; “Isaiah” for Iesh-aa-Iahu ; “Samaria” for Shomeron; “Tyre” for Zur or Tsur; “Gaza” for Aaz-ah; “Gomorr-ah” for Aa-Morr-ah; “Beth Lehem” for Beth Le c hem, &.c, &c.

3. Now the vice of these unwarrantable changes, mostly due to the Greek Septuaegint, appears more clear when we consider a few instances. Thus, the divine name Iehoah, if in this correct form, would satisfactorily connect with the definition of “being,” “existent,” as expressed in the word E-Hieh or “I am,” which is the Egyptian Au-A or “I am”; the first personal pronoun, here abbreviated to “A,” standing for Anuk, which in both Hebrew and Egyptian is the same, as are practically all the personal pronouns of the two tongues; yet I am more disposed to take the Ie-Hoah as the Egyptian words Iu-Aa or the “Coming-One,” or possibly their word c He c h or “Eternal”; but as Iu-Aa or “Coming-One” we get the concept of the Meshia c h. Then the word Aabera-im, whence the deformity “Hebrews,” gives us the remarkable word Aaber, usually rendered “pass over,” “pass through” (say, “to Molech”), my “sake” or “sake” of, “ford,” and “ferry-boat,” thus connecting with the Bar-is or boat of the Egyptian dead, with Iber-ia or with Hyperi-on, &c. The prophet Shemu-El has a name that should not be distorted, since Shem is a word of more than one important meaning; and so the name Sha-Aul the first Ma-Lech and first Meshia c h, whose name is still applied by the Arabs to the month Tamuz or August.

4. There is also the name Noa c h, the flood-hero, which in its correct form readily suggests I-Nach-os the founder, perhaps name of Deity, at Arg-os in Greece, son of Ocean and of Teth-ys (Tut, “vestal” in Egyptian) the mother of the Nile and other rivers; and the daughter of I-Nach-os was the wanderer Io, as Naa-Am-ah or “wandering-mother” was sister of Noa c h, and as Naa-Am-i was wife of Eli-Melech at the old shrine Beth Le c hem, though elsewhere daughter of “Lamech” or Malech, while in Phoenicia she was called
Aashthar-Noema. At Sippara on the Euphrates the Chaldean flood-hero dwelt, and the name of Deity there was Malich, doubtless the Akkad deity Mulge who was lord of the Abyss or Underworld, and thus as son of Malech (for “Lamech” is formed by transposition of the M and L) we connect the two deluge stories, and Ocean as father of I-Nach-os with Mulge or Malech. And Noa c h is called Tubal Kain in the Jahvist version, and made an aspect of Hephaestos or Ptah or Khnum, the Latin Vulcan, as well as Horus of Edfu the Mesen or “smith”; but as Ma-Noa c h he is father of Shimesh-on or the “Sun,” and yet Noa c h himself is solar, for the Sun goes into its Teb or “ark” during the winter month Teb-eth; Teb meaning “box,” “mummy-case” in Egyptian; hence Arg-os is from the Hebrew word Aregaz or “coffer” (i Sam. 6:8, n, 15), and Ragusa in Sicily and in Dalmatia, argosy, as well as Latin Area, English “Ark”; all of which connect with I-Nach-us, as his son Ph-Oron-eus suggests the Aron or “ark” of the
Covenant. Noa c h or Ma-Noa c h is rendered “comfort,” “rest,” and Ne c h-ath is “descend,” “drop-down”; and still in Egypt the 17th June is Lilat en Nukt-ah or “Night-of-the-Drop” when the miraculous “drop” impregnates the rising Nile; and in Egyptian Me-Ne k h means “beneficent,” “gracious”; while Ne c h is “supplication,” where one drops down, and the ideograph of Ne c h is a pigeon or dove, so that the Flood-hero Noa c h seems somehow connected with this emblem, and the more as the pigeon was called Kal-em-Pe or “Bird-of- Heaven,” whence the Latin Colombo, a word for the dove species, and as Columbia and Columbus is a favorite word in the Americas, and preferable to the word America which comes from the Latin god Mercury;* and so the dove as Holy Spirit which descended upon Jesus while in the water with John, connected as it is with the Jon-ah which brought the olive leaf to Noa c h, seems a version of this anointing or fecundating “drop” which wrought new life in Egypt; in which land Baa c h was the name of the “inundation” and
its deity, and that from this name we have the classic Bakch-os may appear when it is found that Noa c h drank Ian or Jan and was Sachar or “drunk” (Asar-Sekar), whereupon his son c Ham or “Egypt” told his brothers Ba c huz or “without” ; and they drew over him the Simel-ah, for Semele was mother of Bakch-os. “Dove” and “wine” are both Jon-ah in Hebrew, as Men is “dove” and Mena is a “wine-jar” in Egyptian; hence the name Jon-ah is applied to the famous satire on the destruction of Nineveh, “great city of Elohim” (Jonah 3:3), where dwelt many that knew not their “right” or Iamin (also “sea”) to their Semol; and the A c heron-ith or “backwards” that the Simel-ah was drawn over Noa c h is represented by the “ship” or Spin-ah in which Jon-ah started for Tarshish ; the Assyrian city Nina is suggested by the Hebrew word Nun or “fish,” or by the Egyptian word Nen or “rest”; while the “gourd” or Kiki-on which Jehoah drew over Jon-ah seems the word Kek or “darkness” of the Egyptian tongue which responds to the Simel-ah or “garment” drawn over Noa c h, for Kek-ut was personified into a goddess, and would fit the death of Semele whether dying in the glory of Zeus or in the Baris or “ark” in which her father Kadem-os shut her up (Pausanias:24).

5. In the instance of the name our version renders “Eve” we should read c Hav-ah; so called because she became “the mother of all c Hai.” But c Hav-ah does not mean “life” or “living,” nor is it elsewhere so rendered. Strictly speaking there is no such word elsewhere unless we take A- c Hav-ah, an unusual word, rendered to “shew,” “declare” (Job 32:10, 17), and which Gesenius says is poetic for the prose Negid, usually so rendered, as also to “tell,” &c. ; and this view is supported when it is said “I will make to him a helper as his Neged” (Gen. 2:18), which might well be understood as his “developer,” or “to show him off,” to refine him, &c. Adam does not name her till after the Na c hash had seduced her, and so it is natural that the Egyptian word c Hefi or “serpent”* should be considered, since it is the same as the word c Hav-ah, as the Egyptian has no V. So, k Heft in that tongue is “enemy,” corresponding with Neged as “opposite,” “over-against” ; and hence it is probable that her name is one of these words.

6. In the Egyptian myth the Sun or god Ra begets his first children by union with his k Haibet or “shadow/’ and k Haibet is not very different from c Hav-ah. It is at least clear to any view that Jehoah did not give her to Adam with any intent that they should generate their species, nor does Neged in the least suggest this, but the Na c hash taught the woman to eat the fruit, saying the Ain-i or “fountains” of the two would be opened thereby, though Ain-i means “eyes” also; and she ate, finding the fruit, evidently figs, “it like Ta-Av-ah to the fountains,”* or caused desire, as Af or Ta-Af is “the flesh” (fern.) in Egyttian ; so when both had eaten of the Per-i they knew they were naked, and they ite-Per or “more-fruitful” above a fig-tree; Te-Enah being both “fig-tree” and “coitus”; yet the play on Aal-ah, “above,” also “leaf,” recalls the statement of Plutarch (“Isis and Osiris,”6) that the fig-leaf was an emblem of Osiris “since it somewhat resembles the virilities of a man.”

7. Greek polytheists believed that one deity could not undo the act of another, but could neutralise the action by compensation or curse. So, Jehoah Elohim, who had told the pair that in the day they should eat of the tree they should surely die, finding that they had eaten and were yet alive, as the Na c hash had told them they would be, knowing that now the female would bear, told her she should greatly bear, but this would be in Aezeb or “pain,” and that her ta-Shukath (a word of delicate sense*) should be to her man, thus excluding the Na c hash. Adam and the Adam-ah in his Aabur (“sake”!) or that he “passed-over” was also Arur or “cursed”; and he was to return to the Adam-ah because he was dust, but it is not clear that this is a sentence of death. The Na c hash or “Enchanter” (Num. 23:23) is also Arur or “cursed,” and condemned to henceforth crawl on his belly, for he was Aa-Rom (rendered “more-crafty,” “naked”) or “higher” than all the c Hai-ath or “live-things” of the wilderness, that is, a giant satyr like the classic Pan. Hearing the words which reduced Na c hash to the serpent-form, Adam, to punish or revile the incontinent woman, whom the Na c hash had practically taught, calls her by a name corresponding to the new condition of the enchanter; so, c Hav-ah or c Hefi became mother of every c Hai or “live-thing,” though in Arabic a serpent is yet called c Hai, and c Haiees are yet “snake-charmers” in Egypt, while in ancient Egyptian c Hai means “fallen.” But Jehoah Elohim clothed the pair in skins in derision of their alliance with the satyr-charmer.

8. Adam seems the same as Edom or /Es-Av, the local aspect of Deity in the hills south of Judea, who was also displaced by the wiles of a woman; besides which we have Ia-Aakob at birth clutching the Aakeb of iEs-av who had gone out Rosh-on Adem-oni, and we have Na c hash told that the seed of Adam and c Hav-ah shall bruise his Rosh and his seed shall bruise their Aakeb; a statement which shows the correspondence of these legends; and the Shuph or “bruise” they are to do to one another is recalled (Gen. 49:17) when Dan is told that he shall be “a Na c hash in the way, a Sheph-iph-on in the path, that biteth the horse’s Aakeb”; which Shephiph-on is construed to be the Cerastes; but in the Daniel (1:20; 2:2, 27, &c.) we find A-Sheph to be “enchanter,” like the Na c hash or “diviner” Jo-Seph, yet the snake-charmers did not make use of the Cerastes; but the meaning of these ideas is difficult to ascertain. At “Pi-Thom” in Egypt, correctly Per-Atem or “place of A-Tum” or Tern, the sunset god, Mr. Budge assures us there was serpent cult of some kind, and, as I insist that TEsav or Edom was this Tern or A-Tum, we may thus connect him with Adam. The “giant” or Aapap serpent was in Egypt the persistent foe of the Sun, and hence was the personification of night and darkness and all evil, for the worship of the Sun was general throughout that land as every elsewhere; and yet, while the Cerastes, the deadly c Hefi, does not figure religiously, the AaRa or “asp” is closely associated with the Sun, and with sovereignty, especially queen-hood, and with several goddesses; indeed, was a guardian-emblem of lower Egypt; hence the Arur or “curse” which was pronounced by Jehoah-God on Na c hash and Adam and his wife, since it condemns enchanters and serpent cults, seems to have been from an Egyptian source, and to have been directed by the Ezraite scribes or Jehoist sectaries at the Na c hash Tan or “enchanter-serpent” (2 K. 18:4) kept doubtless as an oracle in the temple at Jerushalem, like the Py-Thon at Delphi, at least down to the time of Ezekiel (8:10), ascribed by its votaries to Mosheh, of whom they told a miraculous tale in connection with it (Num. 21:4-9). ^ ne curse inflicted on the parties to the drama, however, does not conceal the insidious power of the Na c hash, who had outwitted Iehoah-God, and made himself the author of propagated life by means of that “sensual pleasure” or Te-En-ah, rendered “fig-leaf,” for which the first pair paid with the loss of earthly immortality, not to themselves only, but to all vegetation that fed them ; as women were to also suffer pain under the plan of propagation originated by the enchanter; the garden of Eden or “pleasure” being the Pa-Rad or Per-Rad of the Egyptians, the Parad-ise of the later time, meaning the “place of growth,” and from this they were excluded. But c Hav-ah then bore off-spring; that is if we are allowed to add to this “Lord-God” story the “Lord” story of Kain that follows or the “God” narrative. In all this certainly we may observe the advantage if not necessity of adhering to the correct form of the personal names.

9. This is particularly apparent in the name “Samson” of English versions, which as Shimesh-On would clearly indicate Shemesh or the “Sun,” almost the only Hebrew name of that almost universal divinity of the ancients, and who as Shamash the warrior was the Sun of the dry autumn which withers vegetation. Semes-u or the “oldest” was an Egyptian title of the Sun-god Ra; hence it is strange to find that the only time the word Shamesh-Un is used is (Dan. 7:10) when before the Ancient of Days thousand of thousands “ministered” or Shemesh-Un him; perhaps “reverenced” or “venerated” him, which would hamonise better with the Egyptian word; and that it has a solar reference must appear when this genius of the Sun has “a throne of fiery flames with wheels of burning fire” (v. g.) besides the fiery stream that came forth from before him. This description accords with the angel of Iehoah who went up in a flame after the annunciation and probably his fatherhood of Shimesh-On ; while the Nore or “terrible” countenance of the angel was probably the Nur or “fiery” chariot and wheels and stream of the Ancient of Days. Then the Rua c h of Jehoah began to move Shimesh-On in Ma- c Hann-ah of Dan, suggestive of the c Hennu boat and of A-Don or Adon-is, for the Phoenician “year”-god or A-Din had a great shrine in the hills of Lebanon, called Dan ; and the original story of Shimesh-On must have made this Ma- c Hannah more clear than the Jehoist makes it, since it must be an early mythus of Melach-Aareth or Bes. And so, with more excuse, is hidden the name of his first wife, “for he sought Tho-An-ah from the Philistines” (Judges 14:4), as Tanith was the Phoenician name of a daughter of El and Aash-Thor-eth or “Astarte,” doubtless the Egyptian An-ath as they called the Syrian goddess, and easily Ta-An or An-t as feminine of On or “Helio-polis” ; but as the Greeks called the Phoenician Tanith by the name of the Moon- goddess Artemis we may see why Shimesh-On’s wife is also called in another legend De-Lil-ah, which seems the “nights-goddess Lilian with the Egyptian feminine definite article Te prefixed, as in the Greek form De-Meter for Te-Mut or “the mother,” a name usually applied but not restricted to the wife of Amen-Ra at Thebes. But Tho-An-ah was burned, and so perhaps was Je-Petha c h’s daughter whom the daughters of Israel went yearly to Tanoth; and such was the fate of Semele the mother of Dion-Ussos, for the Moon fades and dies in the light of the Sun. De-Lil-ah, who poetically shears the rays of Shimesh-On, is noted elsewhere in these pages as the Lil of the Akkadians or the succubus of the night, the Alil-at of the Chaldeans and the Arabs, who appears to Abram (Gen. 15:17) as Aalat-ah or “dark,” or as in verse 12 Aim-ah c Ha-shech-ah or “horror-of-darkness” and Teredam-ah or “deep-sleep” ; nor can it well be doubted that this is Rer-et or Lel-et of Egypt, the terror aspect of the goddess Hathor, called Ta-Ur-t and Shepu-t, whose constellation was the Great Bear or “hairy” Seair-ah, or the Aash or “wagon” or “bear,” which perhaps gave name to Aash-Tor-eth. On the Euphrates the wife of Shemeshu was Ishtar, who probably suggested the /Esheta-Aol of Shemesh-On, perhaps a shrine of “stout- woman.” To connect De-Lil-ah as “night” with the other legend of her as Tho-An-ah, we must consider that the Phoenician Tanith was called Artemis by the Greeks, and the Moon was the symbol of Ar-temis; besides, Tho-An-ah was of Timen-ath-ah, and Ta-Man-u in Egyptian was “land of Sun-set” or “the Sun-set” (fern.), probably connecting with the Greek word Mena or “Moon”; and the Ti-Men-ath of c Her-es (Judges 2:9) of Ie-Hoshu-aa, which shows him to have been “Horus,” and the c Hares-ah (14:18) or “the Sun” (fern.) in the treachery of Shimesh-On’s wife, whom he calls 7E-Gel-ath or “heifer,” the favorite form of Hathor, that is, c Het- c Hor or “house-of-Horus,” clearly indicate that his wife was the female Horus, that is, the sunset goddess “Hathor.” But the other story, in its giving name to De-Lil-ah, plays on the previous one which tells that when Shimesh-On was with a harlot in Aaz-ah he arose “in the half of the Lil-ah and laid hold of the Dal-eth-oth”* (16:3), &c, as if it was meant to connect Dal-eth or “door” with Lil-ah, making “door of the night,” which would be Sun-set, and thus according with her home at Sorek or “wine-color” (Zach. 1:8, “speckled”). His retreat to ^Ei-Tam suggests that he was A-Tem or the Egyptian god of Sunset. His use of the Le c h-i or “jaw-bones” indicates that his “rays of light” were those of the archer Apollo, called Loxi-as, and hence I-Shemaa-El the archer and his well of La c h-ai-Ro-i or “Shining Vision.”* His Ain ha Kore or “fountain of the Quail” shows that he was Melach-Aareth to whom quails were offered, and the “skin-king” must have been hairy; the Greek Hercules being a well known phase of him.

10. The shrine of Shimesh-On was apparently called Zar-Aa-ah, not “Zorah,” and is said to have been near Beth Shemesh. Zar-aa is rendered “smiter” from an Arab word, but is the “hornet” that went before the Israelites (Ex. 23:28), as did the ^im-eth or “terror” of the previous verse, which iEimeth seems the Am Mit or “Eater of the Dead” in the judgment scenes of Egypt. But Zaar was “Tan-is” or “Zo-Aan” on the most easterly branch of the Nile, also called Deb-t, perhaps “David,” and “Zion” as names of Jerush-Alem; and the particular aspects of Deity worshipped at Zaar or “Tan-is” was that fierce phase of the Sun called Horus Be c hud, a form of Menathu-Ra ; Be c hud being the modern Edfu, the Greek Apollino-polis Magna, also called Deb, and also Zar-ed, also Mesen or “foundry,” for the Mesen-u or “metal-workers” there made the Aten or “disk” of the Sun; so from Zered-et we have Zered-ah (2 Chr. 4:17) where Shelom-eh and c Hir-am cast the bronze vessels of the temple, and where Iere-bo-Aam was born the son of Nebat and of the widow Zeru-aa-ah, for he was also a head-workman, evidently a similar of c Hiram the son of a widow and of a man of Zor-i. The cultus at Zaar or Tan-is and at Zar-ed or Edfu was therefore the same; that of Apollo or Horus or David in their severest aspect; hence it is reasonable that Shimesh-On should have his shrine at Zar-Aa-ah, as his Le c h-i or “jaw-bones” gave name to Apollo-Loxi-as ; as also that David should be born at Beth Le c h-em, and also that c Heru or “Horus” and Set should be the two Le c h-i or “combatants.” Moreover, Menathu-Raa, “lord of Man-u” and “governor of Be c hud,” must connect with Je-Hoshu-Aa, whose “portion”’ or Menath was at Ti-Menath c Her-es, which seems the Egyptian feminine of Menath Horus, though Ti or Ta is also “land”; hence Shimesh-On gets his wife Tho-An-ah at Ti-Menath-ah, as his phase Je-Hud-ah was on his way to Ti-Menath-ah when he met Ta-Mar, a name of Egypt. The “Sepun-i Ti-Mun-i of c Hol” (Deut.3:19), however, is not this word Ti-Manath, but Sepun (“treasure”) and the Ti- Mun-i or “west” of the c Hol or “disk” of the Sun must refer to Man-u or Amen-t, the “west” of the Egyptians; while Te-Mun-ah (Ex. 20:4) or “likeness,” “form,” may allude to the “disk” images of the Sun.

11. Zaar or Zoaan or Tan-is was the city given as dowry to his wife Thi or Tai by Amenophis III or Amen- c Hetep; and she was a foreigner, daughter of Juaa, whose name sounds like Jehoah ; and it is probably to her influence that was due the sudden prominence of the cult of Aten or the “disk” of the Sun, to the neglect of that of Amen-Raa, which as “hidden” Ra must have been rather the Sun of the unseen world or the dead, while Aten was that of the visible disk, and has been urged as Adon, which is the Hebrew word rendered “lord,” the name of Deity at Bybl-os in Phoenicia; the Greek Adon-is, and son of Myrrha by the Assyrian King Thei-as, or of Kunir-as (“Cyn-iras”) King of Cyprus. The son of the royal reformers, Amenoph IV, was so zealous for Aten that he removed from Thebes to a town he built to the new concept, and changed his own name to Khu-en-Aten or “glory-of-Aten” ; but with him passed away the ascendency of this foreign cultus. With Zaar as her dowry,

Thi must have urged her reformation there, and at its collapse there may have been foreigners there of that faith who went back to their own land, for the Ra-Meses of the Exodus was probably Zaar, since the Hebrew word Za-Oan is once used for “to remove,” and the Isaiah (33:20) tries to make it connect with Zion, as it makes Sha-Anan or “quiet” respond to Jeru-Shalem in the same sentence ; but Ie-Zoa itself means to “go-forth,” and so Zoa and other of its forms; and the Egyptian Zaar or Zaal has the ideograph “legs” suffixed to the word; the Hebrew meaning of Aan being “afflicted,” “oppressed.” Amenoph III, about B. C. 1425, has left evidence that he ruled from Mesopotamia to southern Ethiopia, and the accepted Biblical chronology has it that the conquest by Je-Hoshu-Aa was twenty-five years before this date, so that at the time of the alleged conquest of Canaan by the Israelites the Egyptians possessed it, and did for many years before and after. The inscriptions confirm Manetho as to the occupancy of the Delta by the Hyksos,* who, expelled about B. C. 1500, then the Egyptians subjugated and held the region all the way to the Euphrates. But the last place taken from the Hyksos was c Het-Ual,t the A-Var-is of the Greek, which is Zaar or Zo-Aan or “Tan-is.” They assimilated their Ba-Aal with the old deity Set or Sute k h, perhaps the Greek Styx, whose name Nubti seems the “golden” sunset god ; and from that period the name of Set began to be odious to Egyptians, as he later became the Sat-an of the Jews, for he and Ba-Aal were the same to the Egyptians, though Ba-Aal and Horus mean the same, “in the Above” or “Over” ; yet Set himself was solar. The accounts of the Le c h-i or “combatants,” Horus-Be c hud and Set, are late, are based on the old conflict between Ra and Aa-Pep, but may have been emphasized by the expulsion of the Hyksos, for the last battle was also at Zaar or Tan-is ; and in this fight Horus assumed the form of a lion, and was so worshipped there ; Sekhet being “lady” or Neb-t of Zaar, and as Ma-She c hath or “destroyer” she was worshipped at Zi-On or Jerusalem.

* Greek for c Hak or “ruler” and Sin or “sheep”; and
so the Hebrew is c Hekk or “ruler” and Seh or “lamb” (Gen.
49:10; Ex. 12:3).

fUal Neter Semes-u of Ual the “ancient god” is mentioned in the Book of the Dead, suggesting that the “house of Ual” and Shinush-On were connected at Zaar or Tan-is, hence the Zor-aa-ah of Shimesh-On.

12. Shimesh-On and David were both lion-slayers, like Hercules; David being also a Ro-ah or “shepherd,” while Shimesh-On slew his lion on the way to Ti-Menath-ah. It seems probable that the Zer-Aa-ah or “hornet” that went before the Israelites, and where Shimesh-On dwelt, and who was mother of Jereboaam of Zered-ah or Edfu, was meant as some “smiter” form of Horus of Tanis or Zaar and of Zered-ah. There is no allusion in the Hebrew writings to the Hyksos or to a forceful occupancy of Egypt, but TEzeRa and his scribes were Babylonians who lived a thousand years after the time of the Hyksos; yet their reduction of this old folklore of the Sun-god in order to subordinate him to Jehoah could not well disconnect him from names which transmit to us his identity with Horus of Zaar and Melach-Aareth of Zur or “Tyre.” If, however, our versions had called him, not “Sam-son,” but Shimesh-On, a well known name of the Sun in Assyria as well as in Palestine, as Annu or “On” was the Sun-city Helio-polis in Egypt,* the beauty of his story would have been more apparent, and the Scriptures relieved of marvels which when offered to us as human events wholly discredit its pretensions to authenticity.

13. “Solomon” is a flagrant misnomer for Shelom-eh. He is son of David and the daughter of Sheb-aa, reverse of which a ia-Besh, otherwise Eli-Aam. Shelom-eh is also “called Ie-Did-Jah in the Aabur of Jehoah” (2 Sam. 12:25), which follows the statement “and Jehoah Ahab him, and sent by hand of Nathan,” &c. In Egyptian religious concept naught was more sure than that the Sun-god “passed-over” in the Uaa or “boat” daily, and Uaa-Bar-i seems Aa-Ber or the Hebrew word “pass-over” in this boat; and only the elect could enter it (comp. “ferry-boat,” Aa-Ber-ah, 2 Sam. 19:18). Pa-Sa c h or “the Traverser” is “the Pass-over” in Egyptian, and a Spring festival of the Sun; evidently mingled with the Maz-eth or “finding” of Osiris, rendered “unleavened”-bread, and perhaps with the Spring festival of the “Delivery of Isis,” though the two latter were more human or man-god concepts as compared in other places with the return of the Sun after its journey through the lower world or winter, as Adon-is was allowed to return for half the year. The name Shelom-eh, usually “peace,” also means “to finish,” “to complete,” and at Memphis the third person of the triad, son of Ptah and Sekhet or Bas-et, was Nefar Tern or the “good complete,” thus connecting with Tern the sunset concept, of whom Ra says “I am k Hepher at morning, Ra at noon, Tern at “evening” or Mashel, which Ma-Shel in Hebrew means both a “ruler” and a “parable” or “proverb,” and Shel-oM in the name of the wise ruler may have some connection with this word. As a builder he must be classed with worker or creator concepts like Ptah. But another aspect of the third person at Memphis was that son of Ptah called I-em-c Hetep or “Coming-in-Peace,” and in Hebrew “peace” is Shelom. I-em- c Hetep, the I-Mouthes of the Greeks, was recognized by them as ^Eskulapi-os, the wise and the healer, a son or aspect of Apollo; but in Egypt he seems an aspect of Ta c hut or “Thoth.” The name Ashekel-on or “Askel-on,” a town of Philistia, indicates that /Esekel-Api-os was a familiar name there, and Aaz-ah or “Gaza” may be the Egyptian word Uzaa or “weigher,” the Hebrew Shekel or “weigh,” for Ta c hut was the “weigher-of-words,” and Te k h in Egyptian also means “weight,” and Te k h was perhaps Dag-on (Te k h-on) ; though if Dag-on was of “fish” or Dag form he would more directly connect with Ea or Hoa and Nin on the Euphrates, deities of the fish form, though in Chaldaic Sakkul means the same as Ma-Leach or “angel,” divine “workman,” in Hebrew, the same that Thoth was and c Heram of Tyre, and the Greek Herm-es ; hence Pap Sakul was the Chaldean herald of the gods; and yet Hab or Pa-Hab, “the Messenger,” and so Phoeb-us a name of Apollo, was the most frequent name of Ta c hut, and the expression as to Shelom-eh, “and Jehoah A-Hab him” or “loved” him, is significant in this connection. The identification of Shelomeh with I-em- c Hetep is recalled by a song that was sung in the temple of Ontuf (Budge, vol. i, p. 524), a stanza of which reads “I have heard the words of I-em- c Hetep and of c Heru-Daad-Aa-f, which are frequently repeated, but where are their places this day?

Their walls are overthrown, their places have no longer any being, and they are as if they had never existed. No man cometh to tell us what manner of beings they were, none telleth of their possessions,” &c. ; all in the pessimistic vein of the Ecclesiastes, but from which it must seem the two were wise men of letters. In other places c Heru-Daadaa-f is called royal son, and he is said to have discovered a famous manuscript under the feet of a statue of Thoth; but his name recalls the “mandrakes” or Daadaa sent for by Ra to renew the race of mankind, hence the Doda-im that Reuben gave Ra c hel, and so Dad or “David” means the amorous, the generator, while ordinarily Daadaa in Egyptian would mean the “two-fold-Giver,” hence Osar-Daa-daa or Deddu seems the De-us of the Latins.

But of the amorous Shelom-eh it is said “and Jehoah A-Hab him,” and sent Nathan to name him Je-Did-Jah, “beloved-of-Jehoah,” and Nathan means “gift,” “giver;” but this must seem a singular combination of the Hebrew and the Egyptian, and of love and the giver; further explained by the Egyptian words De-t or “hand” and Du-t or “desire,” while A-Hab or Hab in Hebrew, in the sense of loving or nourishing, becomes synonymous with Ab or “father” or “teacher,” so that the Hab or “Ib-is” is yet called Aboo Hannes or “Father Hannes” in Ethiopia and Aboo or “father” of the sick in Egypt, and the stork is “father of the shoe”; as from the wise Ta c hut it may be that we derive the Greek word Diakon, English “deacon,” just as the Philistine Da-gon was an aspect of Ta c hut or ^Eskulapios; while from Du-t or “desire” or from Tet or “handmaid” we have A-Pha-Raa-Di-te, “Aphrodite,” the “love” or “handmaid” of Pha-Ra or “the Sun,” which seems the Epherath-ah whose shrine was at Beth Le c h-Em, otherwise Mat-t or “beloved” in Egyptian, and so Naa- Ami calls herself Mara or “Mary,” mother or nurse of Aob-Ed, which as Ab-Du is Egyptian for “heart’s-desire,” the chief shrine of Osiris being Ab-Du or “Abyd-os;” and so in classic legend Myrrha or Mary is mother of Adon or Adon-is.

*An was also a name of Osiris; Aan is the warrior Horus in an inscription of him attacking a constellation represented by a bull, and it is possible that Zo-Aan (“Zoan”) is an Egyptian name of the city, as Gide-Aon seems also this Aan of Horus.

14. Shelom-eh or Ie-Did-Jah, made the son of Dad or David, as c Her or Horus, though a much older concept than Osar or Osiris, is made his son, may be from his name an eponymous Deity or man-god of Jeru-Shalem. She-lom-eh may, indeed, with all his wealth and wives and wisdom, be an expansion of the solar hero David, as appears in I. K. 8:66. In the Ruth (4:20-21) we have Salem-ah as son of Na c hash-on or “enchanter,” and father of Bo-Aaz; and one of the pillars of the Chal or “temple” that Shelom-eh ie-Chal or “finished” was called Bo-Aaz, evidently BaDaddu or “ram of Daddu” or Mendes, called Pan by the Greeks, perhaps /Es-av of Seaire or “Sair.”

15. Without doing any prodigies or miracles, which would attest his mythical character, yet Shelom-eh must seem even a more certain myth than David. The conceit was general among the ancients that there had been a Golden Age (comp. I. K. 4:20. 25, &c.) ; the Greeks having this to happen in the reign of Kronos or “Cron-us,” whose name Curtius says is derived from Kra, to “accomplish,” which accords precisely with the Hebrew word Shelem, to “finish,” and with Ie-Chal or “finished” so often used with reference to the building of the temple; and the Greeks identified Kronos with the Phoenician El or Il-Ma-lech, whose minister and adviser was the wise Taut, whom Greeks called Herm-es, that is, c Heram or “Hiram,” while the Italian god Saturn was also considered the same as Kronos. In Egypt the star Saturn, called c Heru-Ka or “Horus the Bull,” of which Horus was deity, was depicted as a man with the head of a Ka or “bull,” and the Rabbins say that Mo-lech, to whom at Jerushalem children were sacrificed, had the head of a bull; but the Akkadian name of this star was Sak-Ush, the Assyrian name was Chavvan, which latter explains the famous passage of the Amos (5 126), “Ye have borne the Sichuth of your Malech and Chivvan of your images, star of your god,” &c, which seems to connect Molech or Kronos with this star, for Sak-Ush means in Akkadian “chief-lofty,” Chivvan in Hebrew is the “erect,” while the Septuagint interprets Horus or the god and planet Saturn as Chivvan by the word Rem-Pan or “high- chief,”* and in the Samaritan version Chivvan is rendered the planet Saturn; for the Chaldeans, Lenorman says, deemed Saturn the leader and highest of the planets. In Egypt it was c Heru or “Horus,” the last of their god-kings, who reigned during the Golden Age, and we see that he was god of this star, and that it was called c Heru Ka. Thus the identity of Shelom-eh with Kronos or El-Malech are more than probable. This “peace on Earth” &c. is the Messianic hope (Micah. 5:2; comp. Shelom, v. 5), the Christian “New Jeru-Sha-lem”; the “Moslem” or Ma-Shelem, that is, “Islam” or I-Shelam, of the Arabs, taught by Mo- c Hamed, as of old peace was sought through the c Hemed-ath of Israel (1 Sam. 9: 20).

16. Many other instances, equally flagrant, of the incorrect rendering of names will be pointed out in this volume. If everyone was familiar with the original Hebrew this would count for little; otherwise, in cases where the reader is acquainted only with other ancient languages and literature, he is estopped by these errors from investigations which when approached from an unbiased basis would tend to relieve the secular narratives of the Bible of much of that isolation which it is so generally assumed that they possess, and which all experiences of society, all study of human institutions, go to show is largely devoid of such foundation.


i . The origin of the name I-Sera-El is probably Egyptian. The name k Har-u or S h ar-u* was applied by Egyptians to some portion of Palestine, and from Shar-u we seem to have the word Syr-ia, and perhaps Shar-on. Sheru-El would be the “Syrian-God,” and hence the Bene I-Sera-El or Aam I-Sera-El were children or people of the Syrian-God. Even after the overthrow of the little monarchy around Shechem and Samaria, and the carrying away of the Israelites, B. C. 720, to the Euphratic countries, where they forever disappeared from history, the Jews at Jerushalem claimed the name Israel as if it was their own, and their writers speak of Jehoah as God of Israel. But these writers, in giving their account of the Kingdom of Israel, which they say was established by Jereboaam who came out of Egypt, about B. C. 950, are positive in the as- sertion that not one of the Kings of Israel worshipped Jehoah; and these scribes, who wrote of these Israelites some three centuries after their disappearance, say (2 K. 17:3 23) they served Gillul-im and Ba-Aal, &c, these Gillul-im not being “idols,” perhaps, but a form of the Arab word “Ghoul.”

2. The political union of these Israelites with the people at and south of Jerushalem is stated to have ended about five hundred years before the return of /EzeRa and Ne chemiah, and to have lasted only during the reigns of the divine David and the impossible Shelomeh ; a misty and ecclesiastical past, with which historic facts are little to be reckoned. Even in that account, however, the scribes at Jerusha-lem show that the Jehud-im or Aabera-im were not in political union with the Iserael-im, but were allies of the Philistines (1 Sam. 14:21) till considered treacherous (29:3); indeed, we read (13:7) “And the Aabera-im they Aa-ber the Jordan, a land of Gad and Gile-Aad,” so that it seems the earliest locality of the “Hebrews” was the mountainous region called the Aabera-im, somewhat southeast of the Dead Sea.

3. One account (2 Sam. 24:20) has it that these “Hebrews” took possession of Jerushalem, for “Araven-ah saw the King and his servants Aabera-im going up,” &c. ; but the several accounts of the occupation of Jerush-alem (2 Sam. 5 :6-8; Josh. 15 163; Judges 1 :2i) leave the impression that the old hill tribe Je-Bus-i were the main element of the town’s population; accounts, however, of events antecedent to the historic period, and scarcely to be dealt with under that head.

4. But we may see that the claim of these several peoples to be called Israelites, no matter what the name of their tribal or city deity, would arise from the fact that I-Sheru-El was god of the land, and perhaps had a lion aspect (2 K. 17:24-26), like Malach-Aareth the “skin-king” at Tyre. All who recognized themselves under this Egyptian name of Syria as Syrians would consider the god of the land as their common ancestor; while Sar-ah or A-Sher-ah, feminine of I-Sera-El, was the common ancestress. Jeroboaam, said to have dwelt in Egypt, who built Shechem, or probably renamed it for Se k hem or Leto-polis in Egypt, where the Shechem or “shoulder” of Asar or “Osiris” was buried, was likely to give his people an Egyptian name, or retain a name which that people had given the country; but this view might suggest that I-Sera-El was Asare-El or “Osiris” himself; and the statement that the bones of Joseph were brought out of Egypt by Bene Isera-El and buried at Shechem tends to support the Osiris opinion, for Joseph is made son of Isera-El. Either view would support the case of the continuance of the name I-Sera-El after the deportation of the Israelites. Besides, Sar means “prince” in both Egyptian and Hebrew, and Osiris had the name Sar, while the god Ra declares himself Sar-son-of-a-Sar. And the tablets found lately at Tel Amarneh, between Memphis and Thebes, prove that the Egyptians were in possession of Palestine at the time or shortly after the Bene Isera-El are supposed to have gone there from Mi-Zera-im, and of course diffused both their language and religion.

5. Howbeit, I incline to the view that I-Sera-El means the Syrian-God. The Hebrew word for Syria is Aram, and in one of the confessions of faith (Deut. 26:5) the Jew is required to declare “My father an Aram-i Abed, and went down to Egypt,” and was a Gar or “Stranger,” “fugitive,” there. This Syrian “Bedouin” or “wanderer” might, by so calling himself, be deemed a Rem-i or “weeper,” “wailer,” by the Egyptians, and their word Aakeb also means “weeper,” “wailer,” which fact perhaps was known to his biographer, since Ja-Aakob wept when he met Ra c hel, when he met ysav, when he lost Joseph, and there was great mourning at his death; but if this be the legend we may suppose the facetious author of it was creating an opposite of Iza c hak or “laughter.” A more subtle meaning, however, must attach to the name of this “weeper” when we understand that his story is told after the flight of Jo c hanan and the Jews into Egypt for fear of the Chaldeans, as told in what appears to me the oldest authentic annals of the Jews, the book Jeremiah. The fierce anathemas and imprecations of the man Je-Rem-Jah to prevent this Ha-Gar-ah or “the Flight” seem to me to have originated these stories of the patriarchs as well as that of the Exodus; a hypothesis to which much exposition is given in this volume, as will be observed further on.

6. That the stories of Aberaham and Iza c hak and Ja-Aakob are late, and a preface to Jewish conditions, must appear when we find there is no notice ever made of the cave Ma-Chepel-ah save when it is said they were buried there; far less any pilgrimage to it, while the large building which is supposed to stand over the cavern is assigned on architectural grounds to the time of Herod. The Jeremiah mentions Ja-Aakob only in passages which have been rejected as by a different and later writer, such as 10:1-16;0:3:;5o: 52:, and I would add 46:27-28, as well as 10:25, since both are in the vein of later conditions. Both the Jeremiah (31:38) and the Zechariah (14:10) speak of the tower of c Ha-nan-El, built by Ne c hemiah (Ne c he.:1).
Abraham and Iza c hak are mentioned once, and in the interpolated part (Jere.3:26). Ja-Aakob as a “weeper” would be understood by the fugitives in Egypt, the Chaldean faction must have thought, and so the enslavement of his descendants was written as a warning. Even Aberaham has Sarah taken from him there.

7. That there is a long story of David, and that he is mentioned several times by the “prophets” is explained by the fact that the name of Jerushalem was City of David; yet the details of the story of this eponymous hero seem suggested by the Ezekiel, which has four or five remarks as to “my servant David,” who when scattered Isera-El shall be gathered together (34:12-13) is to be a shepherd and a prince and a king (34:23-34;7:24-35), and so when the history was afterwards written David was made all these.

8. But in the Jeremiah the expression “brought out of Mi-Zera-im” is found several times, and in the regular parts. Zer or Ma-Zer, as explained herein, means “adversary,” “enemy,” or “trouble” generally; the Lamentations (i 13) using Me-Zera-im as an evil condition or “straits,” and (v. 5) Zar-ei and Zar; with which compare a woman Me-Zer- ah (Jere. 48:41; 49:22). The Jeremiah’s “brought ye up out of Mi-Zera-im” (2:6, 18, &c.) was not a name of Egypt, nor intended in places as a reference to Egypt, but to any place or condition the Latin word Miser or “miserable” now expresses, since it seems the Hebrew word; but the Jeremiah, having applied the word to the “wretched” situation in which the fugitive Jews under Jo c Hanan would find themselves, the word seems to have been applied in the subsequent Pentateuch and other books;* always bearing in mind the postulate that the Jeremiah is the oldest of the historic books. Brought ye out of troubles or from enemies is what every deity is supposed by the devotee to do. The I. Isaiah and the Ezekiel are as silent as to Aberaham and the bondage in Egypt as their leader the Jeremiah, and so are the minor prophets, save in two or three instances. The II. Isaiah (40: &c.) tells of Abram and Sarah, and of Noa c h, for the Genesis must have appeared during the Captivity or soon after, but this fragmentary part of II. Isaiah is earlier than the Exodus, since the only sojourn in Egypt it has heard of (52:4) is that of which the Jeremiah (42:- 15:19; 43:7-11) threatens the fugitives from before the Chaldeans ; and yet a still later poem of the Isaiah (63:11-14) is after the story of Msheh has appeared.* An addendum to the Jeremiah, chapters 50: 51:, relating the overthrow of Babylon by Cyrus, speaks of Sodom and Aamor-ah, showing that the Genesis had been written; but the mention of Msheh (15:1) in a sermon which appears to have been written shortly after the Captivity begun (v. 14), or after the fugitives were in Egypt (comp. 16:13; 17:4), indicates that perhaps Je-Rem-Jah himself, in Egypt, had begun to prepare, as an admonition to the immigrant Jews, an imaginary account of the treatment of his people in that country some nine centuries before; yet neither in the Jeremiah nor any of the other “prophets” or rhapsodists save the late copyist Malachi do we hear aught of Msheh; and the wonders done in Egypt and at Sinai are as thoroughly unknown to them as were the prodigies at the birth and death of Jesus and his miracles to Paul; and the reason is that yEzeRa and his scribes had not elaborated these illustrative arguments, and they did not then exist.

* Verses 12 and 14 use the words eternal Shem and glori-
ous Shem as if the name Msheh was reverse of ha-Shem “the Name.”

*The city Tanis, as the Greeks called it, on the Egyptian frontier toward Judea, was the Zar or Zal or Zan of the
Egyptian. Mi-Zer may be from his name.

9. Aam Isera-El or “people of Isera-El” seems the Egyptian word Aa-Aam-u or “big Eaters/’ which they applied to the Arab nomads. The word Shem-ti or “movers/’ “comers,” “strangers,” was an Egyptian term whence we have Shem the son of Noa c h as father of all the Bene Aaber (Gen. 10:21) or “passers-through.”

The Jeremiah (43:5) seems to mean that the Jews were a collection of fugitives from different nations, “driven to Ha-Gur in the land of Jehudah;” and the Ezekiel (16:2-3) tells Jerushalem who her people were, descendants of Amor-i and c Hitith. The observance called Pa-Sa c h, Egyptian for “the Flight” or “journey,” was a Spring festival at the beginning of the Jewish year, and evidently of like origin with Ha-Gir-ah or “the Flight” which in July begins the Arabian year; but the Jews associate their observance with their supposed flight from Egypt, and the Arabs associate the He-Jir-ah with the flight of Mo c hammed, which occurred Sept. 13. The Arab observance must be ancient, as the Jewish story of the Arab ancestress Ha-Gar shows. It may be, however, that, as the Egyptian harvest is in Spring, Pa-Sa k h or “the Field’ is the Hebrew observance Pa-Sa c h, which would explain the curious passage “And they did eat of the Aabur of the land on the morrow after the Pa-Sa c h” (Josh. 5:11), for Aabur or “pass-over” is not elsewhere rendered “old 0301”; besides which Gerah is “grain” in Hebrew, Gar-on is rendered “threshing-floor,” and the Latin word Granum or “grain” may be thus derived. The word Sa k h or “field” seems to me, none the less, to be the harvest festival of the Jews called Such-oth, the Greek O-Socha-phoria, both celebrated in Autumn; but the Greeks connected their observance with Dionysus, with whom they identified Asar or “Osiris.”

Chapter 69 of the Egyptian Book of the Dead says “I am Osiris ; * * * I am Sa c h, who travels over his realm, and who journeys before the stars,” &c, and Sa c h was the giant constellation Orion, which came with the beneficent inundation in the month July. Amid these several terms it is difficult to aver that the Jewish celebration did not refer to some sort of flight or journey, as Aaber also does; but the Ezekiel (45:21), the sole prophetic book that mentions the Pa-Sa c h, and written much more than a century before the book Exodus, gives no historic reason for the observance, though it seems clear the author had not heard of any enslavement in Egypt, since in its several chapters given to the motive for that country’s ruin Jehoah says (29:6-7) this ruin was because it had been a staff of reed to Beth Iserael; that is, had failed to support them against Chaldea, as its leader the Jeremiah (37:6) had said; but in another passage Ma-Zera-im is given to Nebuchadnezzar for his service wrought for Jehoah against Zur (Ezek. 29:17-20), the play of words in this instance being Ma-Zur or “from Tyre” (v. 18).

10. As I suggest herein, the origin of Pa-Sa c h as a political observance very probably arose from the “passage” of Pharaoh Nechoh, and the defeat and death of Joshi-Jahu at Megiddo, for lamentation for him was made an ordinance in Iserael (2 Chr.5:24-25), says the later history, and this by Je-Rem-Jah and the Chaldean faction, that is, the Jehoists, who are particular in saying that Joshi-Jahu kept the Pa-Sa c h; and his words (v. 23) “The Aabir-un-i, for I am sore wounded/’ coupled with “And they ia-Aabir-uh him,” Aaber meaning “pass-over,” are evidence in this direction; for his words seem to mean “The passing-away of me,” which, as the first Jehoist King, made him a saint, and the event a yearly observance ; for the Chaldean or Jehoist faction finally prevailed, and learned to detest Egypt, wherefore Nebuchadnezzar was “my servant” (Jere. 43:10) despite his destruction of Jerushalem Pa-Sa c h is thus connected with Egypt, if it connects with the death of Joshi-Jahu; and that the two words Pasa c h and Nechah are both rendered “lame” when Mephi-Besheth or “Memphis-Shame” (as lame like the figures of Ptah or c Hephses-tos at Moph or Memphis; 2 Sam. 4:4) was let fall by his nurse, who fled in c Hephez (comp. Ex. 12:11; Deut. 16:3), implying “fright” as well as “haste”; these words, I say, coupled with the connection of “all Iserael they ne-Behal” (2 Sam. 4:1) with the “God bade me Behal” (2 Chr.5:21) of Pharaoh Necho, and the “the Aabir me” of Jeshi-Jahu, lend strong support to my opinion that the old Spring observance Maz-oth had united with it this historic event. It is at least as easy to allude to Nechoh in the story of Mephi-Besheth as to Jeshi-Jahu the son of David two centuries and a half before his reign (i K. 13:1-2); and Elohim who bade Nechoh “make haste” was of course Ptah at Memphis. And there might be some further reference to Necho in the celebration the returned Jews called the Suchoth when they generously sent a portion to Ain Nach-on or he for whom “nothing-is- prepared,” correctly the “not erect” (Nehe. 8:10). Further remarks will appear herein on this subject, but it must be seen that between a miraculous and impossible Exodus and the historic Megiddo there is much in favor of the probable fact in place of the ecclesiastic fancy.*

11. The zealous Jeremiah (39:8) will not admit that his Chaldean friends burnt the house of Jehoah, as stated elsewhere (2 K. 25:9; comp. Ezra.:6; 4:1), and has this house existing after the destruction of the town (Jere. 41:5-9). The statement in the Jeremiah (52:13) is from the Kings, and is not part of the prophetic book properly, and neither are chapters 50 and 51 where the writer tells of the overthrow of Babel with much satisfaction.* The Ezekiel (8:1, 14, 16), dating in the sixth year of the Captivity, speaks of the house of Jehoah as if it was still standing. From what the Ezekiel says of the kinds of worship and the sacred objects in this Beth Jehoah it must seem strange it was thus called; and so from other authority (2 K. 23:-
4, 5, 11, &c.) we see that it may as well have had the name of house of Ba-Aal and Asher-ah and of the Sun. That can scarcely be termed defilement (Jere. 7:30) which seems to have been the usual custom; for the constant heresy of the kingdom of Israel is averred in the same chapter of the kingdom of Judah (2 K. 17:19). The Jeremiah, the oldest Hebrew writing, certainly calls it Beth Jehoah or Chal Jehoah (7:2, 4, &c), and if Jehoah is the Egyptian Aaa or “great” (Ai in both Chaldaic and Hebrew), Beth Aaa may be like Phar-Aoh, which very high authorities now say was a title taken by the Hebrew from Per Aaa or “house-great”; but I suggest the Egyptian words J-Uaa or the “Coming-One” ; in either of which cases Jehoah as a personality may have been called so from the name of the temple at Jerushalem, in which, as the chief house of worship, almost any aspect or name of Deity might be worshipped till the rise of Jahvism in the time of Je-Rem-Jah and Joshi-Jahu (but comp. Ezek. 8:), or the enforcement of it after the return from Captivity, when the Beth or Chal at Jerushalem ceased to be a Pantheon. The Jeremiah*, nor other of the rhapsodist books, have heard of King Shelomeh and his building. The reason is that all these books antedate the fanciful history; which history makes Shelomeh at the dedication of his temple talk of the Captivity and the return from it (i K. 8:33, 46-50); and of course the Ezraic scribes indulged both their fancy and their cupidity in embellishing a temple built by c Heram, the Greek Herm-es, since they wished for one like their picture.

Many of the Isaiah poems are later than the return, but none speak of Shelomeh, though one written during the Captivity (Cheyne, Encyc. Brit., “Isaiah”) has a signal opportunity for using his name. The Ezekiel is even more noteworthy in its ignorance of the Shelomeh house, since it tells of a dream during the Captivity in which the writer was taken to the temple at Jerushalem, the measurements of which are described in several of the later tedious chapters. There was a town, and as a town Jerushalem must have had one or more houses of worship before the Captivity, in which case Je-Rem-Jah should have admitted that “my servant Nebu-Chad-Nezzar” (Jere. 25:9; 43:10) destroyed it, but as he says naught of this it may be inferred that there was then no house of Jehoah.

12. I must point out in this place that the fierce and persistent partiality of Je-Rem-Jah for the Chaldeans could only have had its origin in or support from religious bias ; perfected as this was at Babylon upon his successors and disciples. The cultus of the saint or deity Nebo was evidently at its height at this period, as attested by the names of Nebu-Chad-Nezzar, his father, and the general Nebu-Zar-Adan, &c. Lenormant states that in both the Assyrian and Chaldean systems Nebo was father of Merodach or Marduk, and son of the Earth-god Ea or Hoa; but other evidence shows that the three were rather a triad; perhaps aspects of the same concept, or the same ideal in different towns or times. Yet the cylender of Sargon, who about B. C. 720 deported idolatrous Israel, speaks of the chief triad Anu and Bel and Ea, and then of Nabu as son of the lord of Shikeli or “understanding,” that is, Ea or Hoa, while Nabu is called “scribe of the universe,” “mover of all the gods” ; and in other places we find Marduk or Merodach called son of Ea or Hoa, and Abkal or “herald of the gods,” &c. The Jews had been constantly worshipping God under the name Ba-Aal (Jere. 9:14; 11:13, &c), Mo-lech, or other, when we find in the Jeremiah (10:10) “Je-Hoah a true God he, God of the living, an Aolem Malach,” &c, and this is followed by a verse (11) of instruction in Chaldaic, which tells the fate of other gods. The Isaiah (65:15-16) follows in like strain, as if a new cultus was being adopted. It was after the triumph of the Chaldean faction that the Hexateuch and historic books were written. In these, and to this day, the names Je-Hoah and Msheh the Nebie who disappeared at Nebo are the great names of Judaism; one, perhaps both, appearing as Maredachai son of I-Air or “light,” and a man Ie-Min-i* or of the “true,” not “Benjam-ite”; and the fact that Maredachai in this book Esther saves the Jews from destruction without the mention of Je-Hoah seems to indicate that at the time it was changed into a Jewish book the Jewish name of Deity was other than Jehoah, or that the Babylonian Marduk was Je-Hoah, or that they were the same, for such a great deliverance could not be entertained as a fact in the Oriental mind without reference to divine agency. But the tomb of Bel-Marduk was shown at Babylon, and he was perhaps considered there as a man-god, yet he may at some other town have been the highest concept of Deity; and the like may be said of Nebo the learned; still, the position and attributes of each of them, as well as Hoa or Ea, are recognized as generally corresponding with the positions of Je-Hoah and Mardechai and Msheh in the Hebrew books, though, as compared with the fierce, intolerant, and blood-thirsty Jehoah, the Chaldean Hoa was a far loftier concept.

13. Previous to the Chaldean ascendancy of Je-Rem-Jah and yEzeraa, however, Egyptian religious influences seem potent in Judea. Nor could this be elsewise if we consider the mere question of proximity. Besides, as far back as about B. C. 1500, that is, in the supposed time of the Exodus and Msheh, we yet find in the peninsular of Sinai rock inscriptions of Thotmes III and his successor Amen- c Hetep III, which prove that the Egyptians possessed that region, and there worked their captives and their criminals. Far more than this, in the year A. D. 1887, there were found about 300 clay tablets at Tel Almarick, between Memphis and Thebes, which are reports to this Amen- c Hetep and his successor Amen- c Hetep IV by Egyptian governors in Palestine and Phoenicia; and this at the precise date of the alegoric Exodus. Of course no sane man can believe that 600,000 men (Ex. 12 137) fled from Egypt and required to be saved from capture by a prodigy at the sea, but it is possible that a body of captives escaped from the quarries of Sinai. Alexander of Macedon set out with 35,000 men when he conquered western Asia as well as Egypt. The Jews of historic times were fiercely courageous, and their kinsmen of Tyre and Carthage were obstinately brave; insomuch that it seems facetious to assert that this 600,000 needed an angel and a terror and a hornet (Ex. 23:20, 23, 27, 28) to protect them in their flight. The infantile aspect of the Exodus and its prodigies reaches its amusing climax when we are told that at the order of Jehoah the Nile flowed blood for seven days, and that the only effect of this marvel on the Egyptian King was to cause him to retire into his house. It seems probable, withal, as the mountain Sinai or c Horeb-ah was the “mountain of Elohim” (Ex.:1), and as the laws are alleged to have been there given, that this region had some connection with Jewish annals.

The treatise of Josephus against Apion gives the names of several foreigners who give some account of the Jews. The date of none of these writings is stated. The preparation of the Septuagent at Alexandria was scarcely needed to call attention to Jewish claims when under the Ptolemys many of that faith were prominent and prosperous in Egypt, yet it must have been prepared before Manetho wrote, since he, an Egyptian, of uncertain date, was probably angered by its audacious pretensions and its reflections on Egypt, and hence fell into the error of reviving some old scandals against the Jews. It was from Manetho probably that Tacitus and perhaps Strabo derived their statements. But historians and geographers among the Goi-im or “Gentiles” were doubtless first attracted to the Jewish state by the bloody and successful resistance made by that people to the insults and oppressions of Antiochus Epiphanes Theos (Ba-Aal Piphi-oth or “teeth/’ Isaiah 41:15).

14. Ancient Egyptians, arrogant towards foreigners, seem to have regarded the mountainous regions and deserts of North Arabia and Syria as if inhabited by ruffians and marauders or even ogres. The name Pe-Le-Shet (whence the Greek name Palaistin), applied by the Hebrews to the “Philistines/’ seems the same as the Egyptian religious Pa-Le-Seta-u or “the mouth-of-Passages” to the Underworld; hence their city Aam or “devourer,” at the extreme frontier, was called by some name which the ancients had as Pelusium, and I think it was this Pe-Le-Seta-u ;* and the Luten-u or Ruthen-u appear as Syrians in some of the inscriptions. And yet the records still existing, left by Thotmes III., who claims that he subdued Syria as far as the Euphrates, as did his father Thotmes I., show by their lists of trophies and spoils that the Luten-u who chiefly opposed him, were ad- vanced in the arts. His son, Amen- c Hetep II, the inscriptions show, captured Ninevah. At this period, that of Jehoshuaa as believed, the Egyptians possessed Palestine for many years, and it is at this time Budge thinks the cultus of Ba-Aal was introduced into Egypt ; Thotmes also erecting a temple at Thebes to the Canaanite goddess Aanath, probably “Th-Oan-ah of the Philistines” (Judges 14:4), wife of Shimesh-on, and she is depicted in places wearing a panther skin, elsewhere with club and spear and shield. The cultus of Aashtharth, the Hebrew goddess Aashtoreth, also began at this period, and Budge says it lasted till Christian times; but I will make further remarks as to her and to the goddess Kedesh in other pages. Of this occupation of Canaan by the Egyptians, the evidence of which is clear, the Hebrew writings tell us naught.

15. I will also refer to the extraordinary episode of the alteration of religion in Egypt by Amen- c Hetep III., supposed to be due to Syrian influence. The reformation was from the worship of God as Amen-Raa, under symbolic beast forms, to the worship of God as the Sun-disk or Aten-Raa. It is possible that Canaanites then resident in Egypt were adherents, maybe instigators, of this reform, for it can be scarcely doubted that Aten and the Hebrew-Phoenician word Adon or “Lord” are the same; whereupon, at the subsequent triumph of the old cultus, their heresy may have caused persecution and subsequent flight. Naught of this, however, accords with the Bible story of the bondage and flight of Bene Isera-El. It seems impossible that as descendants of Canaanites they should be suspected of an order to destroy all the Canaanites, but the scribes probably explain this by averring that Canaan was son of c Ham, who is understood to stand for Egypt, and hence the wholesale massacre of Canaanites ordered by Jehoah (Deut. 7:1-2; 20:16, 17) may thus appear as that of Egyptians; yet this is not the reason assigned for the ferocious order (Deut. 7:4; 20:18); an order ^Ezeraa, a thousand years later, had not heard of else he would have surely cited it (Ezra 9:1, &c. ; later, Nehe. 13:23-28).

16. My conclusion is that we cannot date the Jews as a nationality or separate people beyond the time of ^zeRa and Ne c hemiah, and certainly Jehoah as their name of Deity perhaps originated with Je-Rem-Jah but did not prevail in his time. When carried into Egypt Jeremiah (44:14) told those who fled thither that all would perish there, but the Pelit-im or “escapes” were safe; that is, those who were carried to Chaldea, as we see from the Ezra (9:8; 14-15); Pelit in Egyptian meaning one who goes and returns, also to come forth. The scribes say Zerubabel had brought some 49,700 from Babylonia about seventy years before ; but this statement is suspicious because it was made to fulfil the word of Je-Rem-Jah (Ezra 1:1), and a “remnant” (9:8) could scarcely be so many, especially as only 4600 were carried away some seventy years before (Jere. 52:30). Howbeit, ^EzeRa is said to have set to work to separate the Jews from intermarriage with other peoples, which is said to have been accomplished some years later (Nehe. 13:3) when the Deuteronomy had been written, doubtless by ^Ezeraa, but certainly after the Captivity (Deut. 28:37, 41, &c). The commandment Lo te-Neaph, “not shalt adulterate,” that is, not Nup-tual-is or inter-marry with other peoples, must also have been the product of the restless ^EzeRa and the scribes who wrote the Exodus and other “historic” books. And now the shrine at Jerushalem began to have about it a peculiar people.


i. This work of separation or exclusiveness, with its sequence of in-breeding, leading in all animals to a morbid or tense disposition, was the great work of yEzeRa and his immediate successors. The promise to make of them a Segul-ah people (Ex. 19:5; Deut. 7:6, &c.) seems now to have been made. Segul or Segal is rendered “particular,” “treasure,” and Gesenius connects it with Segur or “shut-up,” which is Seker in Egyptian, or Sekel, a name of Osir-is and of the c Hennu boat. It seems to me also to connect with the Akkad and Chaldaic word Shakkal or Shaggil, which was equivalent to the Hebrew word Maleach or “angel,” “workman”; and is depicted as a smaller figure beside each Deity; Pap-Sakul being herald of the gods (comp. Charaze, Dan. 3:4), and connecting with Bel-Marduk and his great E-Shaggil or E-Shakil at Babylon, the “house-of-Shaggil.” This connection would imply that Bene Isra-El was made by Jehoah the communicator of his word to mankind, as well as his own familiar; and so (Ex. 19:6-9), after calling them his Segul-ah people, “holy and priestly/’ we find Msheh illustrating this by bearing messages from Jehoah to this people and their reply back to him. This intermediary character, common to the religions of all peoples, is not clearly sustained by the idea of “exclusive” or “peculiar,” but, if Segal be a variant of Shukal or Shaggil, then both perhaps connect with the Malach and Me-Shia c h “Saul,” correctly Sha-Aul, for Aul and the Akkad word Gal both mean “great,” “mighty,” while the relation of a monarch to his deity was originally that of a Shakal or Segal. But another variant appears when Ne c hemiah (2:6) the Ma-Shek-ah or “cup-bearer” says “the Shegal also sitting beside him,” the king, for that this is not “queen” or “wives” (Dan. 5 12) the Daniel (5 :io) is evidence; and so the Psalm (45 19) speaks of daughters of Malach-un amid thy I-Kiri-oth, “and at thy right hand stands a Shegal in Chatam of Aophir,” which I-Kiri-oth is “precious-ones,” while Chatham or Catam in this place, like the “girded with Catham” of the Daniel (10:5), must be a womanly dress which the Shegal wore, and hence perhaps Catamit-us, the Latin name of Ganymede, for the Isaiah (13:16), Zechariah (14:2), and others had already rendered the word Shagal a verb which continued to become more odious in application. The Neshe-Chelai or “armor-bearer” of Sha-Aul and Jonathan were perhaps “men brides/’* as it is not Nesie or “carry.” That Bene Isera-El was borne on wings of eagles (Ex. 19:4) by Jehoah seems further to attach this curious passage to the classic myth of the divine waterer, the Egyptian Khnum, so odiously perverted from a beautiful original; and a reverse of the name k Hnem gives us the Hebrew Me-Ne c h or Noa c h, who “walked a god,” while Hebe is evidently c Hapi or the feminine “Nile” ; but an Egyptian word for a “workman” is Mane k h, the Hebrew Maleach in a divine sense.

2. And not only was this exclusiveness that yEzeRa insisted on illustrated by the Joshua stories of the extermination of the Canaan-i, but the people of Moab and Aam-on were said to be descendants of the incestuous relations of Lot and his daughters; the Arabs were said to be descendants of the concubines Hagar and Keturah, and the outcast ysav; Egypt was cursed in the story of c Ham, of whom Chan-Aan was made the son.

3. As pointed out herein, it must seem that the absence of almost any mention of what appears as the historic parts and personages of the Hebrew writings from the books of the prophets or rhapsodists lead me to the inference that these latter are older in most portions than the historic parts. At what point in these narratives we are to seek for something authentic is very difficult to decide. The accounts of early Rome, claimed to have been founded three centuries after the period assigned to Sha-Aul and David, are now rejected by historians. There are no monuments or inscriptions, native or foreign, to invest the Hebrew narratives in their present serial forms with probability. Certainly to the time of King A c he-Ab the son of Aameri we have prodigies and miracles, by EH-Jahu, Eli-Shaa, &c, which are fatal to historic accuracy. Beyond that period we are merely in Wonderland; among giants and genii.

4. Stress is laid on the Meshaa stone, a mutilated slab found a few years ago at Dibon in Moab.* This makes Me-Shaa tell that Aameri the King of Israel and his son (A c he-Ab) occupy and afflict Moab for many years, but that Me-Shaa made Israel perish forever. Me-Shaa further says that he built Ba-Aal Me-Aon and Kir-Ithan and Kir- c Hah and Aar-Aar; and this identifies him with Reu-ben or “shepherd-son” and Bene-Gad or the “goat-children” (Num.2:4-38); and he says the men of Gad had dwelt in the land of Aataroth from of old, and that the King of Israel buih Aataroth (comp. v.4). Against Aataroth fought Me-Shaa and took it, slaying all the people, for it was “a Rith to Chemosh and to Moab,” and he “brought back thence an Ari-El of David-ah, and dragged it before Che-Mosh” ; which Rith or Ruth or “terror” (Hosea 13:1) was evidently a “lioness” statue, as the Ari-El was a “lion-god,” such as Bena-Jahu the grandson of a “man-beast” slew (2 Sam. 23:20), hence a statue or lion-form of the fe-male David, say Did-o, Ruth, Bath-Shebaa. Me-Shaa also boasts that Chemosh bade him go against Neb-ah, where he slaughtered 7000 men and women, “for to Aashthor of Chemosh the c Haremeth-ah” or vow to “utterly-destroy” was in true Jeho-Shuaa manner. From Neb-ah he took the Chel-i of Jehoah, and dragged them before Chemosh, &c. ; Cheli being the people or priests of the Chal or “temple.”

5. If this tablet is by the Bible Mesha its date would be about B. C. 850. We are told that Aameri founded Shomeron (1 K. 16:24), and he is perhaps an aspect of Ba-Aal Shamar if not an actual personage; but his name is masculine plural of Aamor-ah, rendered “Gomorr-ah,” under which legend we may have the detested Shomeron or “Samaria/’ and its desired fate, for “the statutes of Aameri” and the deeds of the house of A c he-Ab provoke a desolation (Micah 6:16). The Meshaa stone connects Aameri with the worship of Jehoah, it seems, but this text of the Micah agrees with the historic statement of his heresy (1 K. 16:25); and the same narrative shows that not one of the Kings of Israel worshipped Jehoah. It is from this fact, if none other, that we may suspect that the Me-Shaa stone is either not genuine or is the production of a period in later centuries, for it is very doubtful if Jehoah was the name of Deity at Shom-eron at any time before the Makkabean revolt. But this is not to say that Jehoah was not the name at Neb-ah, which town seems the Nebo of the Jeremiah (48:1, 22) and the Isaiah (15:2) and the Numbers (32:3,8), but if so then Jehoah and the Chaldean god Nebo (Isa-iah 46:1) would seem the same, yet (47:4-6) we find them not the same. The Neb-ah of the tablet, however, may be Neba c h (Num. 32:42), otherwise Ken-ath; but this town’s names imply the worship of A-Nup or “A- Nub-is,” as Neba c h means “to bark” and Ken-az means a “hunter,” the Greek Kuon or Kuon-as, meaning “dog,” seeming involved as in the name of Chaleb or “dog” and Ken-az at c Heberon. But even if the tribe Reu-ben did build Nebo (32:38; Me-Shaa saying he built Ba-Aal Me- Aon), there is little evidence in the Hebrew Scriptures that Jehoah was ever the name of Deity among them or on that side of Joredan. . If we take Me-Shaa, which has the sense of “Saviour,” as a title of the divine son in Moab, as Na c hash was in Aammon, Malach in Hebrew, David in Jerushalem, c Heru or “Horus” in Egypt, we may solve the supposed question of the antiquity of this tablet, and his opening remark “I am Me-Shaa” would accord with the “I am Jehoah” so frequent in the conversations Jehoah had with his people, and such expression might have been applied centuries before or after the time of Aameri. But no one has ventured to suggest, nor should venture, that, because the Me-Shaa tablet was unearthed by an ecclesiastic it is subject to suspicion ; and the point that cannot be reconciled is that the King of Israel was a devotee of Je-hoah, which was never the case, it seems, with any of their Kings.

6. Now if at an early period the people of Moab had such records as this of Me-Shaa, it seems probable the Hebrews might have had them, though the more massive mural remains on the east side of Joredan imply a more advanced or more powerful social organization. But the association of the Bene Reu-ben, perhaps “son-of-a-shepherd,” and Bene Gad, Ged meaning a “Kid,” with the sheep-owner Me-Shaa, as founders of the same towns, suggests that the book Numbers was setting up a claim to Moab and Aam-on some six centuries after the date of the Me-Shaa stone, and this claim probably based on the Jeremiah (49:1); the
Joshua (13:15-28) being no older than the Numbers. Indeed, the Ezekiel (48:), some two or three centuries before, had divided the country, apparently for the first time, placing Reuben northward and Gad at the extreme south of the land (vv. 7, 27,1,4), so that Gad would be Seair, or border with it, while the Joredan was the eastern line of the whole country (47:18); nor could this division be made for twelve tribes in the Exile time if ten tribes had been carried away a century or two before, for the Ezekiel professes to be written by an exile ; so that the whole story as to there having been twelve tribes is thus rendered perplexing.

7. A doubt has generated in my mind that the twelve tribes were rather a religious idea, based on the solar and lunar phenomena, than a historic fact. That the Sun was the original of Ba-Aal and other Hebrew names of Deity there can be little doubt (Ezek. 8 :i6, &c). New Moon and Sabath were equally sacred. The dream of Joseph (Gen.7:9-10), in which his parents and eleven brothers were as Sun and Moon and stars to prostrate to him, may display a knowledge by the writer that Joseph as eleventh son was the eleventh month Shebat or Shebad (January-February), the month of rain and thick clouds on the Purat or Euphrates, and thus connecting nominally with the Egyptian star Seped or “Sirius,” which heralded the inundation there ; but in the month Shebat the celestial bodies are over-shadowed. The fourth son of Ja-Aakob was Je-Hud-ah, and the fourth month was Tam-Uz (Ezek. 8:14) as with the Syrians, but the Shawal (“Saul”) of the Arabs, and the Duz of the Assyrians and Chaldeans ; and it was Du-zi in the Shades for whom Ishtar made her descent in the Chaldean epic, and the same as Je-Hud-ah who was rescued by Eseter or Hadas-ah from the Agag Haman, whom Sha-Aul or “Saul” had also punished as Agag; the massacre of Aamalek being for that he set himself “in the way of the ascent from Mi-Zera-im,” where doubtless Zer-Esh the wife of Haman ruled ; but this massacre and that of the Persians were evidently suggested by that of Hamon-Gog in the Ezekiel (39) ; and, in any event, the identity of Du-zi and Jehud-ah and Sha-Aul is thus made out, with “the Tam-Uz” also, as the Sun of Summer, called Shamash by the Chaldeans ; and so Shimesh-on who like Jehud-ah found his deceitful wife at Ti-Men-ath-ah, the Egyptian Ta-Manu or “land-of-Sun-set,” the place where Jehoshuaa was buried (Judges 2:9); for the sunset goddess was evidently the Hades-queen, and easily Men-ah the “portioned’ of time, the Mene or “Moon” and Men or “month” of the Greek, with many shrines in Canaan; and the name A-Lil-at or “night”- goddess was usually applied to her in Arabia, hence De-Lill-ah, the Egyptian Lel-et; and Shimesh-on as a lion-slayer accords with Je-hudah as the lion in the death-song of his father (Gen. 49:9-12); both being aspects of Melach Aareth or the “skin-king” at Tyre, the Greek Her- Aides, the Egyptian c Heru-Akel or “Horus” under his aspect of Akel or lion-god. The supplementary five days of Ja-Aakob’s children were probably represented by the daughter Din-ah, whose name seems the Chaldean word A-Din or Ai-Din (Dan. 2:15 57:25), “then” or “that time,” and connecting with the harsher form A-Dar or “enlarged,” hence Ve-Adar or “and Adar” the Jewish additional month, called by Egyptians “additional” or Haru, whence perhaps the Hebrew word Herah or “pregnant,” “conceived” ; and so the Hebrew Dar or Dor-eth, “age,” “posterity,” “generation.”

8. It is true that the names of the twelve sons of Ja-Aakob fail to be those of the Jewish months, but the months were apparently called by their number till the names of the Chaldean months were adopted. That the Chaldeans had, among their legion of genii, a patron saint for each month, we may be certain. The Persians had them, and their word Fra, “to protect,” and “first,” accords with the Greek word Pro or “before,” and so U-Fratu is perhaps “good-first” or first good, and so the Greek form Eu-Phrates ; and King Phraortes is from Fravartish which is the name of the Persian protecting geni of the Jewish first month Nisan. The six Amesha Spentas or “immortal saints” who attended the great Deity Ahura-Mazadao were protectors of so many
months, and the famous Mithra was guardian of the Jewish seventh month Tisheri, which F. Lenormant suggests is a name from a Chaldean word for “sanctuary/’ in which case we have the Jewish observances Suchoth or “tents” and day of Chepher or “atonement” as solemnities for the departing Sun, or “Sun-brilliance” as Lenormant interprets the Akkadic Amar-Atuki or Marduk, as they occur in Tisheri. And the genius of the month Shebat (Jan.-Feby.) was Vohu-Manu or “good-mind,” one of the six, corrupted to “Bahman”; while the next month Adar was that of Spenta Armaiti or “holy Armaiti,” who presided over all vegetation and husbandry, and in fact was the great Nature-Mother, evidently the Assyrian Sem-Iram-is as the Greeks called her since she was the Sum-at or “dove” borne “high” or A-Ram on the banners of Nineveh and Ashur,* and an aspect of the Babylonian Ishtar or “Esther.” But the names of none of the six “angels” or I-Zeds (comp. Nimrod as a Gibbor Zaid) of Angro Mainyu or “dark mind” appear as protectors of the months.

9. In Egypt we find several of the leading deities or saints in service as protectors of the month, but scarcely any of the months are the same in name as these guardians. The fact that the Egyptian harvest was in Spring and their seed-time in Autumn necessarily obscures the connection with the Asiatics. A conspicuous exception occurs in the fourth month or Tam-Uz of the Jewish calendar, for the great Memphian smith-god Ptah is its protector; thus connecting him with the fourth son Je-Hud-ah, and with the names Tam-Uz and Shawal and Duz which as said the western Asiatics give to the month August-September, when the Fire-God or “drouth” (Ja-Besh)-God, Bes or Je-Bus, Molech, &c, parches Earth, for Bes means “fire” in Egyptian, and Je-Bush means “maker” in Chaldean; but when, after the time of Exile, the Jeremiah (3:24, 25; 11 113), urged the cultus of Jehoah, Besh-eth became “shameful-thing,” while the scribes of course made Je-Petha c h the son of a harlot (Judges 11 :i), though no doubt the daughters of Isera-El still went yearly to Tan-ath the daughter of Ie-Petha c h (v. 40).

10. It thus seems that the story of the twelve tribes or sons of Ia-Aakob was first suggested by the fanciful book Ezekiel, and adopted when the Hexateuch and other purported history was written by the hierarchy. The story is too systematic to be a record of human events. Ie-Bus was a rocky stronghold, and in the barren region which outlaws and dervishes are likely to take refuge; hence it developed after some centuries a fierce and fanatical people. The shrine of the fiery god Bes or Je-Bus was almost as sacred to the people as that of its prototype at Tyre, which city submitted to Alexander after the defeat of Darius at Issus, but shut its gates against him and withstood a siege of seven months, ending in destruction, because he required that he should enter the temple of Melach-Aareth.

The book of Judges records the story of old local deities or saints or demi-gods, and the books of Samuel are similar, only they are more elaborate as to the like personages, called Shemu-El and Sha-Aul and David. The books of Kings give much attention to the monarchy at Shechem and Shomeron, though written after the Captivity when the cultus of Jehoah prevailed, and when the greatest crime was to worship elsewhere than at Jerushalem (1 K. 14:21-23, &c, &c.) ; and the object of the books is wholly religious. The effect of this single purpose is that facts are so presented that their original nature and sequence are scarecly traceable. I question, for instance, that the word Jah or Jeho was a part of the name of the list of monarchs and priests till the time of Josiah (Ioshi-Iahu, “founder-of-Jehoah”), about which time perhaps Jehoah became a prominent name of Deity, though it is more probable that this happened after the return of ^EzeRa ; and the names, where they are of actual persons, were perhaps coupled with El or Ba-Aal in place of Iah or Jahu, and so the son of Re c hoboaam is Abi-Jam in the Kings and Abi-jah in the Chronicles; but, as all this purported history was written by the priests of Jehoah after the Exile, the form of the name was at their disposal.

ii. Before the return, however, it seems probable that the fierce dervish and scribe Ie-Rem-Iahu or “Exalter-of-Jehoah” was the leader of the Jehoa-ists, as the scribes of the after times made him the hero of some verses of the Isaiah (52: 13 53:), beginning “Behold my servant shall be wise, exalted,” and “exalted” is Je-Rom, for Je-Rem-Jah was probably put to death at Ta c hapanes.* The books called Kings make all the monarchs of Israel of “Samaria” worshippers of Apis or the bull aspect of Deity, and occasionally, as in case of Jehue, hostile to Ba-Aal, against whom there seemed to have been occasional revolts in Jerushalem; but as Molech (Jere. 19:5) Ba-Aal probably had the bull aspect. Yet the Jahvists, who detested Samaria, summed up as the cause of its earlier Captivity (2 K. 17:6-23), with the assertion (v. 19) that Judah had done likewise.

12. The books called Chronicles are among the latest of the Hebrew Scriptures. They are written solely in the interests of the theocracy at Jerushalem, and possess no historical value whatever. They exaggerate every incident which elevates the ecclesiastical body at Jerushalem, and invent others than those of the books of Kings in order to fortify the assumptions of the priesthood there. Thus we find the speech of Abi-Jah against Jereboaam, and the slaughter of half a million of the Samaritans in one battle, as new matter, and the reason for the invention will be found in the speech (2 Chron. 13:9-10). Because Shelomeh built the temple at Jerushalem the Chronicler knows naught of his apostasy, and for the like connection with the temple naught is said of David’s villainy toward Auriah or his flight from Abeshalom. The Chronicler also supplies a marvelous fiction in favor of the successor of Abi-Jah, Asa, who had in the book of Kings brought vessels of gold and silver into the house of Jehoah, and Asa with half a million chosen men defeats an Ethiopian army of a million, of whom “there fell (so) that none lived” ; and then the story reverts to that of the Kings, and the mighty Asa is fain to buy the help of Damascus against the petty people of Samaria; nor does the Chronicler know of the great pit Asa made for fear of Ba-Aasha (Jere. 41 19) ; yet his successor Jeho-Shephat had 1,160,000 men of war, besides garrisons (2 Chron. 17:13-19) ; and with all the virtues of this Jeho-Shephat, whose career occupies ten verses of 1 Kings, and is expanded to four chapters by the Chronicler, and despite the ferocious covenant made by his grandfather Asa and the people (2 Chron. 15: 13), their successor forsook Jehoah, and the Arabs and Philistines plundered Jerushalem as if the million or so Gibor-i c Hail of his father had died with him. The Chronicler is also too devout to allow the peaceable reign of Ma-Nashah for fifty-odd years, and so sentences him to captivity at Babylon till he consents to worship Jehoah. The power of the priesthood is displayed in these pseudo Chronicles, which omit the stories of Eli-Jahu and Eli-Shaa, evidently because long before they were written the shrine at Charmel, consulted as an oracle by Vespasian a generation after the Crucifixion, was a formidable rival of the temple at Jerushalem. Besides, in the Chronicles it is the priest who has control of sacred and occult things, and the Nebie or “prophet” of the Samuel and the Kings had been superseded at Jerushalem, though perhaps not among the rustics of Galilee.

(Isaiah 53:3, 4) points to the person there depicted as Makkabe-os, the brave Jew who led against Antiochus Epiphanes Theos, the Ba-Aal Piphi-oth or “teeth” of the Isaiah (41:15), whose name Makkab-os is only found in this Greek form ; and it may mean “smiter-spirit” or “stricken-spirit” (comp. Much-ah of Elohim, v. 4), while the Daniel (12:1) calls him Micha-El. But Makkabe-os probably was familiar with and took name from the Isaiah. The chronicler (I Chron. 12:13) was seemingly of my opinion, and he makes him or them Gad-i or of the “goat”-skin wearers.

13. These older books seem to have been prepared after the flight of Jo c hanan into Egypt, against the anathemas of Ie-Rem-Jah, as “came into” (2 K. 23:34; 25:26; Jere. 43:7) imports, as compare “carried away” (2 K. 25:21) to Babylon; and this migration occurred about B. C. 585. The Chronicles are the production of the haughty and fierce priesthood a century or two before Christ, and the
Ezra-Nehemiah is considered part of them or by the same hands.

14. The number carried into the famous Exile or Captivity is itemised and summed up as 4600 (Jere. 52:28-30). It is distinctly said (2 K. 25 126; Jere. 43 14-6) that all the remaining population migrated to Egypt, and this must have been a larger number. “And a captive Jehudah from over his land” (2 K. 25 :2i) must have been written by the same Jahvist who says (24:14; 25:12) “None remained save the Deleth of the land.” An addendum to the Jeremiah, its chapter 52, seems to have a curious interpolation from the other side, verse 15 beginning “And the Mi-Deloth of the people, and the residue of the people left in the city, and the remnant of the fallen who fell to the King of Babylon, and the residue of the Amon,* to the captive of Nebu-Zar-Adan” ; but the next verse corrects this attack on the Pharisees and scribes of Babylonia. Contra, the Jeremiah (43:5) bitterly tells who fled to Egypt, saying “Jo- c Hanan took all the remainder of Jehudah which they came back from all nations which cast them out to wander in the land Jehudah.” But I suggest that Deleth or Mi-Deleth be reversed, since it is not rendered “poor” elsewhere than in these instances, whereupon we have “birth,” “generations,” “begat,” and the reference is then to the “natives,” the Thelad-im inhabitants or Canaan-i; the Goi-im that were round about Ne c hem-Jah, and who cried out against their brethren the Jehud-im (Nehe. 5:1, &c), who thus seem to have the attitude of foreigners. The emigrants to Egypt were worshippers of the Queen of Heaven after they arrived there (Jere. 4/4:15), and were formerly so, as well as their rulers and fathers (v. 17), and speak to Je-Rem-Iah of Jehoah “thy god” (42:2,). 15. It seems probable that Je-Rem-Jah was more than canonized by the Jahvists. He is probably the “of Libenah,” as well as “of Anath-oth”; in which case his sister Hamital was wife of “Josiah” or Joshi-Jahu and mother of the last king “Zekekiah” or Zideki-Jahu. The sudden conversion and zeal of Josiah, if conceded, were perhaps under the influence of Je-Rem-Jah, who must also have influenced the young prince to espouse the Chaldean interest, and attack Necho; and Josiah was not only made divine, but his advent was made the subject of prophecy (2 Chron.5:25; 1 K. 13:2). The hierophant of Jehoah, however, was Ie-Rem-Jah’ or “Exalter-of- Jehoah” (comp. 2 Chron.6:12), who made of Joshi-Jahu the man-god and martyr, and thus begun or at least revived the cultus of Jehoah, for the Chaldean faction at length triumphed. Indeed, the Zechariah (12:11), in one of its last six chapters, which Wellhausen holds are later than the Makkabean war, refers to Josiah as Hadad-Rimmon, seemingly identifying him with the name of Deity at Damascus (2 K. 5:18), the Ramanu of Chaldea and Assyria; but in such case of apotheosis we must find that Jehoah was at the first a subordinate type of Deity, as in case of Jesus.

16. Herodotus (2:159), writing about B. C. 450, is the first extant writer to mention Israelite history. He says Necho, coming to an engagement with the Syrians at Magdolus, “conquered them, and after the battle took Kadytus, a large city in Syria.” Magdolus is understood as Megiddo, and some have supposed Kadytus to be Kadesh or “holy” as a name of Jerushalem, but Necho does not appear to have taken Jerushalem, while the city Katesh in the inscriptions of Rameses II. is placed on a river.

17. Some eighty years prior to Josiah there was a King of Judah called c Hizek-Jahu, also dear to the Jahvists, who tell incredible stories of him. An inscribed cylender of an Assyrian monarch, Sin-aki-Irib, relates that he carried on a successful invasion of Palestine, about B. C. 700, took forty-six cities from c Hizek-Jahu, shut him up in Jerushalem, exacted a very large booty of him, and deported 200,150 of the inhabitants of the country. The Jewish account agrees as to the payment of the large tribute, but says the Assyrians insisted upon entering the town, whereupon a “prophet” name Isaiah came with his “thus saith Jehoah” to announce that the God forbade the entry of the foe; and so, that night, the Maleach of Jehoah went into the camp of the Assyrians and smote 185,000, “and when they arose in the morning, behold, all of them corpses dead.” It is not stated what the 185,000 smitten things were, but the result was to cause Sena c h-Ereb to withdraw to Nineveh, and the Jewish writer of three or four centuries after could safely pun on the name of the monarch, as Sena c hem in Egyptian and Ereb in Hebrew mean “locust” or “grasshopper.”* Herodotus (2:141) speaks of Senacherib, and says he advanced to Pelusium at the frontier of Egypt, but that the night before the fortress was to be assaulted numerous field-mice gnawed the quivers and bow-strings and shield-thongs of the Assyrians, whereupon they retired, suffering severe loss; and Herodotus saw the statue of the Egyptian royal victor Sethos in the temple of Ptah, and in one hand was the figure of a mouse.* The Hebrew account is not reconcilable with the many subsequent conquests Sena c h-Ereb records on his cylender, but seems borrowed from Herodotus, who says the god appeared to Sethos in a vision, saying assistants would be sent to him. The Greek assimilation of c Heru and Apollo enables me to point out that the Jewish writer drew upon this deliverance by mice for the account (1 Sam. 5:6, &c.) of the deliverance of the Aron from the Peleshet-im, where the Septuagint reads (v. 6) “And heavy a hand Jehoah to the Ashdod-im, and destroyed or I-Shem them, and smote them in Aapol-im; and in the midst of the land mice were brought forth, and there was a great and deadly destruction in the city” ; and also the Septuagint version (6:1) “An the Aron of Jehoah was in the field of the Philistines seven months, and their land swarmed with mice.” The Hebrew version says (5:9) Aapol-i or “tumors” caused a great “discomfiture” or Ma-Hum-ah,* that is, “fright from noise,” and says the Apocalypse (Rev. 9:9) that when Abad-on or Apoly-on led forth his locusts from the Abyss the noise of their wings was like that of war- chariots. The grass-hopper was sacred to Apollo, whose name is supposed to come from the Greek word Apollymi or “the destroyer”; and so the plague of the Areb-ah was tha.t of the Abad-ah or “destroyer” (Ex. 10:7), which was followed by the plague of darkness Apel-ah (10:22). The afflicted Philistines restored the Aron, sending with it an A-Shem (comp. “destroyed,” 1 Sam. 5:6), consisting of gold Aapol-i and gold “mice” or Aa-Chaber-i, from which it must seem the Aapol-i were not mice unless the writer did not understand the legend, but were probably images of the grasshopper, the most destructive of all insects, to whom the ravages of Sena c hereb may have been compared. But the purpose in sending these symbols with the Aron of the God of Israel is not clear unless Jehoah and c Heru- Apollo are considered the same.

*Bes or c Hi, from the Egyptian Inscription. Identified in this book with Melak-Aoreth of Tyre, with Je-Bus or Ja-Bez of Jernshalem, with Shimeshon of the west coast of Israel, with isav, with c Hi-El of Jeri c ho, with the Greek Hercules, &c.

* Field of Sena c hem-u is in the northern part of the future world of the Egyptians. For Ereb see Ex. 10:12, etc. The grass-hopper was sacred to Apollo.

*The mouse was connected with c Heru or “Horus,”” who as victor over Seth was also the Greek war-god Ar-es, but usually their Apollo. There are bronze figures of the mouse yet found in Egypt, all inscribed with the words
” c Heru dwelling in k Hem” or “darkness,” perhaps k Hemi “destroyer” is referred to; and with this let us compare
“Apel-ah darkness” (Ex. 10:22) though Apel-ah is also ren-
dered “darkness.”

* Whence Me-Hum-an the first of the seven spirits or genii (Esth. 1:10), called also Haman the A-Gag-i. In 1 Sam. 5:9 is added, as if by a later redactor, “And I-Sather she to them Aapoli-im,” but I-Sather is never rendered “break- forth,” though once Sather is “destroyed” (Ezra 5:12), for the reference is to Esther, who says “me Abed-ath” or “destroyer” (Esth. 4:16).

18. Howbeit, it must appear from these miraculous stories that, if so much priestly device is applied to as late a time as that of c Hezet-Jahu, little or nothing beyond his period is entitled to consideration as history. The main purpose of the narrative is to assert the good that rewarded one monarch who did right in the eyes of Jehoah and to set forth what ill befel the ruler who did evil in the sight of Jehoah. The Chronicler will not even allow to the older narrative the long and peaceful reign of Manashah, because, finding him described as heretical, he is consigned to captivity at Babylon (2 Chron.3:11, &c), with subsequent repentance and restoration.

19. The fact seems to be that the Jehud-im or “Jews” were not at first a political body, but a religious sect. The doctrine of Bed or Badel, “to separate” (Ezra 9:1; 10:8, 11, 16; Nehe. 9:2; 10:28) from the people of the land, indicates that these were Bed-ou-ins, which word Bedaa in Arabic means one who lives in the desert; hence the word Bed or Badel in Hebrew means “separate,” “alone”; and so
Abad or Abad-on, as personifying these “destroyers” or “perishing,” became King of the Areb-ah or “locust” (Rev. 9:11); wherefore, “when they had heard the law” (of the ^Ezeraa-ites) “they ia-Bedil from Israel all the Aereb” (Nehe. 13:3); and this separation included the new-made law of the Decalogue, Lo te-Neap, “not adulterate,” which is later than ./EeRa or Ne c hemiah or they would have cited it, as also Ne c hemiah would have cited the Chaldean custom of the seventh day, that day of Sulem or “rest,” but it is apparent that the story of the law-giving had either not been written or was not known to him ; and that Lo te-Neap is that they should not adulterate their race by “nup-tials,” the Latin Nuptialis, heathen marriage, is to me quite clear (Ezra 9:2, 12, &c). It is this policy of separation, instituted after the Makkabean war perhaps, yet maybe earlier by the priesthood, though not as early as the time of iEzerae, that gave the Jews to secular and religious history as a peculiar people. And so, as Christianity went back from an empty sepulchre to make a Christ, Judaism went back from a haughty precept to form a religion and a history.


i. The great obligation claimed of the Jews by Jehoah was that he brought them out of “Egypt” or Mi-Zera-im. This name means “from enemies,” among other things; “Tyre” being Zor. The Egyptians called their country c Hem or k Hem. The hot and dry month of Summer, June- July, was in Egypt called Mesore, while in Hebrew and Syrian it was called Taru-Uz, but the Arabs call it Shaurval, which is probably both the Hebrew King Sha-Aul and the place Sheol; but as the Assyrian and Babylonian month Duz we find it the name of the husband of Ishtar for whom she made her descent into Hades. Zer or Azer or Mi-Zer is also “affliction,” “shut-up”; hence the word applies to any evil condition. The 4600 people carried off by the Chaldeans ( Jere. 52 : 28-30), in B. C. 600-586, and who constituted the exploited “Captivity,” might as well be re-ferred to as in Mi-Zera-im or “afflictions” as those who fled to Egypt.

2. The most certain denial of an enslavement in and subsequent escape from Egypt is found in the failure of “prophets” to refer to such an event when they sum up the iniquities of that land (Jere. 46:14-28; Isaiah 19:1-25; Joel:19; Nahum:8-10; Ezek.0: ^2 : ) ; the three chapters of the Ezekiel being wholly devoted to its sins ; hence it seems to me certain that these writings are older than the story of the Exodus, yet are all subsequent to the Chaldean conquest. Surely the fierce Je-Rem-Jah would have done so in his wrath over the migration to Egypt, but he is silent as to any such events. The name of Msheh himself is not mentioned in any of their diatribes, nor are Jeho-Shuaa or Aharon or other heroes of the occasion. The Decalogue and the awful Sinai were unknown to these writers. Indeed, no animosity is shown toward Egypt, but on the contrary that people are placed in their law on the most favorable footing (Deut. 23:3-4, 7-8).

3. The story of the Exodus was probably written in part during the Babylonian Captivity, and by the partisans of Je-Rem-Jah while in Egypt. These are the ostensibly historic portions, and based on the familiar story of a descent into and a return of the solar hero from Sheol, for of this Egyptian liturgies were full. Ae-Zer-aa or “Ezra” returned in B. C. 456, or an hundred and thirty years after Jerushalem was destroyed by the Chaldeans, and Ne c hem-Jah some years later; and they or the hierarchy which succeeded must have incorporated into the secular narrative most of the Thor-ah, which it is said that Ae-Zer-aa brought with him. The body of Jews which went with Jo- c hanan into Egypt, taking with them Je-Rem-Jah, probably remained there, withstanding even the allurements of the pictured land of milk and honey-wine. But, whether from one place or another, sufficient people of the sect of Jehoahs or “Jews” returned to Je-Bus or Kir-David-ah* to establish a shrine under that name of Deity, and to call the town Jerush-Alom or “possession forever.”

4. Abundant materials had been supplied by the “prophets” to make a systematic story of the past. The Isaiah (19:20) had even given name to those who were to deliver from Egypt the oppressed Bene Isera-El. At the cry of their oppression Jehoah would “send a Moshi-Aa and a Rab and the Zilam.” The Aa-Rab Rab or “mixed multitude” (Ex. 12:
38), literally “much darkness” or shadow, is the same as Zilam or “shadow/’ and the writer of the Exodus merely uses his own idiom for that of the poet, whose Oriental fancy doubtless meant some good geni, as will be explained herein. From the poet’s Moshi-Aa the Exodus could have derived the name Msheh and that of Je-Hoshu-Aa, both of them possibly forms of the name Jesh-Aa-Jahu or “Isaiah/’ as the latter certainly is. This Moshi-Aa or Hoshi-Aa is again mentioned in the later Isaiah (63: 8, 9), where (v. 9) “in all their Zer-ath not a Zer” is spoken of, and he is there called “the angel before him”; and if the reference to Msheh (v. 11 &c.) which follows be a part of the original prayer, continued into the next chapter, it must seem that some story of bringing up Msh-eh his Aam “from the sea” (63: 11) must have been known before the Jehoah temple was built in B. C. 516 (64:11) ; and the “in all their Zer-ath not a Zer” (63:9) may have assisted to expand and locate the legend of the Exodus. The words “from the sea,” with no reference to Mi-Zera-im, supply support to my opinion. All students are familiar with the Chaldean myth of Ea or Hoa, another aspect of whom was Nebo, who came from the sea, and was the author of letters and the founder of intellectual pursuits ; more familiar is the Greek aspect Kadem-os, who was said to have come from Phoenicia, and in Hebrew his name means both “eastern” and “old” or “ancient”; while fully as clear is the story of Ta c hut or “Thoth” in Egypt, the wise god or angel, who also came from the sea, and who was at the Judgment “lord of the Ma k ha” or “balance,” and which word Ma k ha is almost precisely in Egyptian the Msh-eh of the Hebrew, for k H and S h are interchangeable in the Egyptian. This is the only mention of Msheh in the Isaiah, and is probably the earliest notice of him in Hebrew literature, for the mention of him in the Jeremiah (15:1) may be from the Isaiah passage, though both the alleged authors were in Egypt (Isaiah 20:3); yet the Isaiah is usually led by the Jeremiah.

And so the sojourn in Egypt described in the Jeremiah is all that the Isaiah refers to unless we allow the text of 63 : 1 1 . The King of Assyria of 20:4 is not the Sargon of v. 1, but the Nebuchad-nezzar of the Jeremiah (43:10- 11, &c.) who had mastered Assyria (r) since there is no other apparent explanation of it.

5. In the Hosea (11 :i) we have notable and contemporaneous expressions, it seems, as the Jeremiah and the Isaiah, and v. 5 certainly appears to refer to the land of Mi-Zera-im. Verse 1 says “for Isra-El a child, his beloved, and from Egypt we called to my son”; but verse 5 says he would not return to Egypt, and Asshur would be his King; which condition is precisely what the prophet Je-Rem-Jah had urged. Yet v. 7 says “though he calls them up no one will Je-Rom them/’ which seems a witticism at the expense of the fierce Je-Rem-Jah, probably then in Egypt. From the Jeremiah one may see how detestable Je-Rem-Jah had made himself to those who migrated. His vengeance came when he and his sect or faction prepared the story of the Exodus, in which he as Aa-Me-Ram or “Most- High” became the father of Msh-eh.

6. The Isaiah is a book evidently by several authors, and as late in parts as Ba-Aal Piphi-oth or “teeth” (Isaiah 41:15), that is, Antiochus Epiphanes, the “threshing instrument” in the days of the Makkabees, B. C. 165. In parts the Isaiah seems to follow the lead of the Jeremiah in its dissent from the Jewish migration to Egypt. The famous passage (19:20) I have noted above. In this the word Rab or “great,” “many,” finds its reflection, as we have seen, in the Aa-Rab Rab that went up with the fugitives (Ex. 12:38). The Zil-am or “deliver-them” is the “shadow-them” which is equivalent to Aa-Rab or “evening,” the “mixed” of the Exodus; but it perhaps refers to the k Haibit or “shadow” of the Egyptian anthropology, and which was a variety of the soul; which perhaps as Io-Chebed was mother of Msheh. In Egyptian story the Sun embraces his k Haibit to beget “light” or the god Shu, possibly M-Sheh; with which must be compared the Rua c h of Elohim which Ma-Ra c he Peth or “rubbed an opening” upon the front of the waters (Gen. 1:2), for Rua c h and k Haibit seem the same. The word Rab or “great-one” can be connected with the father of Mosheh, Aa-Meram or “great-High,” if we use Aa or Ai as it means in Chaldaic and Egyptian and Hebrew. We would thus have Mosheh and his divine parents suggested. The Luke (1:35) seizes these points, and gives to Jesus the same parents as are given to Mosheh.

7. But it is notable that Je-Rem-Jah is also named “highest,” as the word Ram or Rem means “high”; and he was known to Jehoah before being A-Zer or “shut-up” in the belly, and before “coming forth” or te-Zea from the Re c hem or “womb” he was Kadeshith or ”sanctified,” and given as a Nebie to the Goi-im or “Gentiles” ; to which the “highest of Jah” replied that he was a child and knew not to speak; so Nebie Msheh was Chabed of speech (Jere. 1:5-9). Extensive authority was then given to Jerem-Jah, and among others “to the Abid and to Haros,” rendered “to destroy and to overthrow,” &c. (v. 10). such are the testimonies concerning him which his grand-nephew and his scribes must have borne, since the historic parts at least of the Jeremiah seem to have been written after the Gal-ah or “captivity” (Jere. 25:11; 29:10, &c).

8. ^zerae, as a native of Chaldea, and perhaps author of the main portions of the Hebrew Bible, makes of Jerem-Jah a partisan of the Chaldeans as against the Egyptians, which was the unfortunate course of “Josiah” or Joshi-Jahu, and of a minority of the people. It was perhaps this preference for Chaldea that rendered the work of TEzerae so abortive in secular results. It seems that most of the Judeans had fled from the rule of the Chaldeans into Egypt, as we are told in the Jeremiah (also, 2 K. 25:23-26), and the authors of the
Jeremiah show, in chapters 41-46, the earnest yet futile efforts of the high prophet to prevent this movement; but in these arguments against it he says no word whatever of any former sojourn in Egypt, nor any word of a migration thence; infallible evidence as this silence is of the fact that these chapters are older than the story of the Exodus, and that that narrative was invented to prevent the departure or to accelerate the return of the fugitives, for no argument he could have made to the Judeans would have been half so potent in the mouth of Je-Remjah to restrain their flight under Io- c Hanan and others as the reminder of former slavery there, had this ever occurred. The Isaiah, a later book, often as it mentions Egypt, and also hostile to that country, speaks no reproach for any former sojourn there. The very few sentences as to the bringing up out of Egypt contained in the Jeremiah are referable to later hands.

9. It seems incredible that Jerem-Jah, declared to be a cotemporary and perhaps witness of the destruction of Jerushalem by the Chaldeans, should be their active and zealous partisan, and the Ezra-ites must have exaggerated his words and conduct; but religious frenzy operating on his ferocious passions (Jere. 18:20-23) may have been the cause. The Egyptian religion had perhaps largely prevailed over any other at Jerushalem ; a fact that seems denied when in the Ezra (5 : 12) it is said “a house this of Sathar-ah,”* which words are referred in our version to the temple at Jerushalem; but the reference is to “Babylon of Chaldea,” described as “a house this of Sethar-ah” or I-Shetar, and which is the Hebrew name E-Sethar or “Esther/’ called also Hadas-ah; for Nebuchadnezzer in an inscription declares he has “made the way of Nana,” which was her usual name at Babylon.

10. The reform of Josiah was directed against the Egyptian cultus, it must appear, when we find that he alters the religious ideals of his father Amon, that his mother was daughter of c Har-Uz or “Hor-us,”t while a particular aversion is shown for Tophet, which in Egyptian was the secret place of Osiris, and for Beth-El where Ierebo-Aam had long before established the Apis bull as the symbol of Deity. It was even claimed that Josiah was the subject of prophecy some centuries before (1 K. 13:2), and that he would abolish the Egyptian rites and symbols, for the feast of Iereba- Hamon-im or “multitudes” are to be judged, doubtless the Haman of the Pur-ius ; and c Har-uz is here seen to be (v. 12) a translation of Jeho-Sephat or “Jehovah the Judge.”

Aam was in the eighth month, which was the month k Hoak in Egypt, which was replete with the solemnities of Osiris. The attack of Josiah on Pharaoh Necho at Megiddo was more probably instigated by religious fanaticism than by political policy; and this view is supported as well by his previous intolerance as by his subsquent canonization by the Jahvists. This sect probably now took its rise, led, it must seem, by Jerem-Jah, whose daughter Josiah married. Howbeit, the death as well as the defeat of Josiah made of him a saint when they were connected with his persecution of other sects, and he was apotheosized (2 K. 23:25;
2 Chron.5:24-25).

His words when wounded fatally are told by the later Chronicler (35:23), “Ha-Aabira-uni, for me wounded sorely,” literally “the Pass-over of me,” or “mine the Pass-over,” are curiously connected with the Pa-sa c h observance (2 K. 23 :2i-23), which probably originated as a national ceremony from the occasion of his death, for it is also to be noted that Pharaoh, who is probably Ne k het or “strong” in Egyptian is called the “lame” in the Syriac and Arabic versions, which may be explained by the words Nechah and Pa-Sa c h (2 Sam. 4:4), both rendered “lame,” applied to Mephi-Besh-eth, or “Memphis-shame:” while the father of Josi-ah’ s mother Ie-Did-ah or David-ah was Aad-Iah, and Aad also means “to pass-over,” so that it is easy to see how Ie-Petha c h was son of Gile-Aad, for Peta c h was the lame Vulcan of Memphis; and, in any case, “Josiah” or I-oshu-Jahu seems to mark a departure or separation from an old cultus to a new one, which latter finally won. “The mourning of Ha-Dad Rimm-on in the valley of Megiddon” (Zech. 12:11) refers to the defeat and death of Josiah, but it seems less probable that Ha-Dad Rim-on is Josiah than that it is a name of Je-Rem-Jah (2 Chron. 35:25), since the double m in Rimmon is only the usual duplicate in Hebrew words, and Je-Did-ah the daughter of Je-Rem-Jah is a form of ha-Dad; nor is it necessary to say that Raman-u in Euphratic religion was an aspect of Merodach and mate of Ishetar. The origin of Pass-over is accredited to the flight from Egypt, which was conducted by Mosh-eh, and Mosh means “withdraw,” “draw-out,” and so I-Oshi-Jahu may be the same name, as any Hebraist would readily admit The 12th Exodus implies that the observance bore a martial hue, though based on the popular conceit of a descent of a soul or a hero into Hades and a successful resurrection or return.

ii. The Egyptian party proved stronger than Jerem-Jah. They protested that when they served Malech-eth Shema-im, rendered “Queen of Heaven,” they had abundance, and suffered no evil, for that they did as their ancestors had done (Jere. 44:18); though they recognized Jehoah the god of Jerem-Jah (42: 2-3) as worthy of deference. The prophet tells them that Jehoah repents of the evil he has done them (v. 10), and orders their return, and that if they disobey the command to go back to Judea none of them shall go back save those who have escaped (44:14), and so none save Je-Hoshu-Aa did return, and Chaleb the Kain-i (Num. 14:30). The fugitives are said to have mainly gone to a place which receives from the writer the name Ta c hepa-Ne c hes, reverse of Sa- c Hen-Pa c hat or “Sister-of-the-Lion-Queen,” evidently “Bu-Bastes” or “house of Bas-t,” as she was called Pe c hat by the Egyptians, and yet Ta- c Hapi-Ne c has is “Dark-Land-of-the-Nile.”

12. The Isaiah devotes its chapters0 and 31 to more elegant remonstrances against the migration, calling Egypt itself Ra c hab, metathetic of Bera c h or “fugitive,” and explaining perhaps the Hebrew name for it as “land of Zar-ah” (30:6), and assuring the fugitives that Jehoah will Pa-Sea c h Jerushalem and its escaped ones (31:5; compare ia-Aabor in v. 9) ; Pa-Sa c h never being used in this ordinary verbal sense; and so in3:23 Pa-Sa c h-im is rendered “the lame,” preceded (v. 21) by the statement that Jerushalem shall be “a place of Jeor-im (Jeor or “Nile”) Ra c hab-i, which no ship shall ia-Aaber-ani,” and this seems a reference in derision of the purchase of her peace by Egypt from the Scythians or Sak-ae (Herod. 1:104-106), the “goat-like” people* in v. 19, who destroyed Assyria in the reign of Josiah, but who “passed-over” Jerushalem; a fact sufficient to have originated the Passover (comp. 2 K. 23:21-23), or to have lent historic interest to the old Spring festival; but “Pa-Sa c h-in they Bazez Baz” (Isaiah3:23), rendered “the lame took the prey,” probably refers to the Aabera-im or “Hebrews” as plundering the Bez-like Sak-ae, making Pa-Sa c h-im the name by which the Egyptians knew the Aabera-im, or perhaps their secret name; and in any case, the Exodus (12: 36) follows by having as part of the history of Pa-Sa c h that the Aabera-im spoiled Mi-Zera-im.

* No-Aaz evidently should be Cho-Aaz or “goat-like,” or hairy, bearded.

13. Allegorizing the supposed sojourn of these fugitives in Egypt, it is alleged that Ia-Aakob and his family went thither; Iakeb in Egyptian meaning “weeper,” and this fits in with the weeping of Ra c hel at Ram-ah, of which the Jeremiah (31:15) had spoken, for in Egyptian the word Remi also means “weeping,” and it is therefore represented that it is her sons that are first taken to Mi-Zera-im; described (30:7) as “the time of the Zar-ah of Ia-Aakob,” who is also made to lament the fate of these sons as thus foretold (Gen.7: 35; 43:14). Each was an old divine concept of Chanaan; Ra c hel in Arabic meaning to “stray” like a sheep, and the tribal father I-Sera-El probably altered to suit the Egyptian word. Even the mighty David of the later- written history is promised or predicted for the fugitives (Jere.0:9) when Jehoah shall save them out of Mi-Zera-im. There is a promise (44:28) that a remnant shall escape c Horeb, and return, which does not accord with the prosperous glimpse of them we have in perhaps an interpolation of the Isaiah (19: 17-18), but the cry La- c Haz or “oppression” (v. 20; Ex.:9) is to come by reason of their “task-masters” or Ne-Gesh-i, which Ne-Gesh by metathesis becomes Gosh-en, but seems the Negas or “King” of the Ethiopic, and perhaps Goshen means land of the King. Egypt is to be frightfully punished, says, not only the Jeremiah and the Isaiah, but the Ezekiel, yet not for aught done against the Israelites, and perhaps for sheltering those who fled from the Chaldeans, as Nebu-Chadnezzar is to depopulate it for forty years (Ezek. 29:11), and the plagues invoked by Mosheh doubtless represent these prophecies.

14. The 600,000 men, besides women and children and many cattle, escaped by night, at the prayer of the inhabitants. The picture of their oppression was thus far too feeble for the fierce followers of Jerem-Jah and ^Ezerae. The punishment of the deserters was insufficient. They must go into the Ma-Debar for that forty years the Ezekiel had said Egypt should be depopulated, for this Ma-Debar or “from-Speaking” was a process of purgation or atonement, which the forty days of Jesus in the Ma-Debar and the two years of Paul in Arabia represent, and is a species of living-death upon which religious mysteries are yet built.

15. The Aareb Rab or “mixed multitude”* that went-up with Bene-Israel (Ex. 12:28) is the Rab of the Isaiah (19:20), rendered “great-one,” also the Aareb of the Jere-miah (25:20-24) and the Ezekiel (30:5); but Aareb Rab can mean “desert chief,” “dark chief,” the Greek word Ereb-os, as in Hebrew Aareb means “evening,” in Ethiopic the Sunset ; hence we may be certain the words do not mean “mingled multitude,” but some protecting power. The town the fugitives first left was Ra-Meses, which in Egyptian means the ” Sun-of -Evening” ; and they first reached Such-oth, which means in Hebrew a “thicket,” a “covering,” and in Greek Sek-ot means “dark,” though the Mystic-os Sek-os or “mystic cell” in the Eleusinian Mysteries of De-Meter will here be remembered; while in Hebrew the word Sebach is the “thicket” that caught A-Besh-alom, and caught the ram that was substituted for I-Za c hak, and the Shebaz that seized Sha-Aul (2 Sam. 1:9), for in Egypt Sebek is the crocodile-god, son of Nit or Neith, particular aspect of Deity at Nubti or Ombos, and at Shed-at or Ar-Sin-oe; and Shed-at means “concealed” in Egyptian, as does the hieroglyph crocodile, also “to spy,” “destruction” ; and the crocodile was called Em Sa c h^ the Souch-os of Strabo (17:1:38); the terror-goddess Ta-Ur or Shep-ut often wearing the figure of a crocodile. Sebek was also solar, and Sebek-Ra seems the Sun of the abyss or Under-world. The connection of Such-oth with the hidden realm is also demonstrated by the feast of “tabernacles” in autumn when the Sun is departing, and thus connects with the Sek-et barge wherein the “Sun-of-Evening,” Ra-Meses, entered the invisible land; and this boat is also called Sekar and c Hen-nu; so that in assimilating Jerem-Jah to Osir-is (Jere.7:15) it is said the princes smote him and “gave him his Aoth a house of the Asur of house of Jonathan, for they made it a house to Chel-a”; Aoth meaning “sign,” and (v. 16) “for he came to the house of the Bor and to the c Hannu-ioth” or “cabins”; all which clearly refers to the funeral Bar-is and c Hennu barge. After this Jeremiah was taken to the c Hezer of the Ma-Tar-ah, rendered “house of the guard,” and subsequently sent in cords to the Bor of Malach-Jahu, where was no water, only Tit or “mire,” &c. ; but this is here probably a contemptuous use of the word.

16. Now, at Such-oth, the consecration of the first-born was declared to be an Aoth or “sign” on the hand and a Tot-Poth or “frontlet,” Greek “phylaktery” (Ex. 13:16), which latter is said to be the band wound above the eyes upon which was written sentences from the Tor-ah, and worn at prayers ; but in Egyptian Tut or Dut was a “handmaid” in the sacred rites, and one of these with a band about her head stood at the front of the “cabin” on the barge of the dead, and a similarly attired one at the other end, called the great Ter-et and the little Ter-et (comp. “house of the Ma-Ter-ah” or “guard” of Jeremiah), while Tat-et or Tad-et was a conspicuous name of the goddess at “Busiris” or the “house of Asar-is” of Tatu or Daddu, and closely connected with functions for the dead; besides which the Tat or Dad or symbol of Asar-is, and the Ta (a knot or tie of some sort) or amulet of Isis were placed in doubles alternately on the Bar-is; hence this Tut-u or Tot-Peth or Tit or Ter-et or Ma-Tar-ab may all be considered in the Greek word Phylak-Ter or “guard,” “watcher,” which seems to connect with the famous Palakid-es of Amen-Ra at Thebes, the Egyptian Kerem-et-u, whence perhaps the Hebrew word c Herem or “devoted,” the English “harem,” “hermit,” for in there were holy women shut-up to the god, and who watched or were watched; hence Zachar or “memorial” was a “male” sign and the Tot-Peth or “frontlet” was a female sign (Ex. 13:9,16), like the Dat and the Ta (comp. Peth-ah, Isaiah:17), as on the Egyptian “boat” or Baris of the dead; so that this account of Jerem-Jah implies that he went into and returned from the Bor or “pit” (Baris) of the dead, or the c Hennu barge of the Sun, and the former bore phallic emblems, doubtless respected by Hebrews as well as by Egyptians and Greeks.

17. It was after they left Such-oth that the Bene-Israel “encamped” or ia- c Han in Ae-Tham, and Tern in Egyptian is the sunset god. It is now that the two Aam-Ud-i or “pillars” appear, and Jehoah in them to Ne c h-oth or “lead” them the way, usually “comfort,” “rest,” “repent,” but the Egyptian of Ne c h is “to entreat.” Then the fugitives encamped before Pi ha- c Hir-oth or “Mouth of the Caves,” between Mi-Gedol or “great-water” and the sea; before Ba-Aal Zephon, &c. ; Zephon or the “North,” with which the Jeremiah (6:22; 10:22, &c. ; Isaiah 41:25) so often threatens the Egyptian faction; and so the child Mosheh was Zephan (Ex. 2:2) ; and Ba-Aal Zephon is here an apparent protector or avenger as in the Jeremiah, which plainly refers to Chaldea (3:18, &c.) in these threats; while scholars agree that Zephon is the Greek Typhon, a name by which they refer to the evil Deity, the foe Set of the Egyptians. Pharaoh, however, is made to say of Bene Israel, “they are weepers in the land, Sagar upon them the Made-Bar” (Ex. 14:3), as if they were lost souls who could not pass over, while Sager and the Sekar or “shut-up” barge of the Egyptians are the same. To save from the Ma-Zera-im the guide angel and the front Aam-Ud got in the rear, but the sea had to be cloven before the passage could be effected, and this was done “in the wind of Kadin Aaz- ah,” which as “east strong wind” recalls the Seair-ah or “whirlwind” of the vanishing Eli-Jahu, Jonah’s Seair or “tempest,” especially as Kadim Aaz-ah means “ancient she-goat”; so that we have here the oryx-barge which symbolised Seair or “tempest” ; while the pursuing horses and chariots are the same as at the ascension of Eli-Jahu, who had also to pass-over in c Horeb-ah, rendered “dry land,” while “in c Horeb-ah” and “in Ia-Bash-ah” (Ex. 14:21, 22) are both used at the Red Sea. So, when David fled it was first to Ba- c Hur-im or “in the Caves,” the same as Pi the c Hir-oth, but was advised to lodge that night in the Aaber-oth of the Madebar, and also Aabor “te-Aabor” (2 Sam. 16:5; 17:16), which probably means that he should pass-over in the “barges” of the Madebar, and also had permission to passover ; hence he went to Ma- c Hena-im-ah, which is a feminine form of c Hennu or Ma- c Hen-nu* the divine barge of the Sun, the “cabins” of Jeremiah; and David came back in the Aaber-ah (19:18), which seems the same. And so Ja-Aakob arose from c Haur-an or “caves,” and, pursued by Laban, reached Ma- c Hena-im in safety, for Gale-Aad, where he left his pursuer, also means in Hebrew the “great-passover”; yet a further account says that in Ma-c Han-eh (Gen.2:22) and during the night he Aaber all his family and goods, and when alone on the Ia-Bok he Ie-Bek or “wrestled” with a man, which is nearly the same word as the I-Bek-aa or “cloven” waters of the sea (Ex. 14:21); but when Ja-Aakob arrives at Such-oth it is ^Es-Av who has gone “to his way of Seair-ah,” while in the cases of Eli-Jahu and Jonah it is the Seair-ah, rendered “wirlwind” and “tempest,” which causes them to disappear, the one into Heaven, the other into the recesses of the Seph-in-ah, and then into horn or “sea” ; and if Seph-in-ah is “Spain” or Aaber-ia (“Iberia”), as the “hidden” or Saph-un (Deut.3:19; not “preserved,” v. 21), we may have the “Red Sea” or lorn Suph and the Aaber or “pass-over” of it as the figurative passage to Amenti or the “West,” the “hidden” world; for Such-oth and Zaphon and Saph or Saph-in,* &c, evidence the hidden and mysterious.

18. The c Hom-ah or “wall” of the water on each hand when the passage was made is the Egyptian for “wife” or “woman,” and seems to serve in place of Aamm-Ud or “pillar,” and respond to the Aamm-od or “stood” at the Aaber of Jordan (Josh.:16) and to the “ceased” or Aamm-od when Jonah (1:5) was cast into the sea; though c Hom-ah also means “shut-up” in Egyptian ; and so Ja-Aakob had two wives at his famous Aaber (Gen.2: 23), for Isis and Nepthys, or some aspect of them like the Ter-et women or the Kerem-et of Amen-Raa, always guarded the bier; and so this c Hom-ah on each side at the lorn Suph may be referred even in Hebrew to c Ham or “father-in-law” and c Ham-oth or “mother-in- law,” as Judah to Tamar and Naa-Am-i to Ruth.

*The Egyptian name Zaphen-ath Pa-Anea c h, perhaps
“bread of life,” given Jo-Seph, probably refers to the Zef or Zeph, “divine food,” of the Egyptians.

* Ma c hen was an Egyptian word for a large serpent, and,
as David and Ja-Aakob and the house of Sha-Aul all fled to
Ma c hena-im, it may seem that this word corresponds with
Pa-Ran or “the Ran-u” serpent-angel of the Egyptians, and refuge of David and Ha-Dad and I-Shem-aa-El.

19. They were now in the Ma-Debar or “from-speech” ; perhaps the Egyptian Mede-Bar or “new-speech.” The Hebrew meaning seems better, as “silence” was not observed, and the persistent “murmuring” or Lun seems to have been the cause of their curse. Lun, however, is often rendered “to tarry,” “to lodge,” “to abide”; hence Elon is rendered “tree” as a shade. But in Chaldaic Ilan-i is the plural “gods,” and it is possible that the transition had rendered these people “divine” in their own conceit, or rather it was necessary to the allegory, since they received celestial food and miraculous waters, and could quarrel with Jehoah. The Egyptian idea was that the unforgiven in the Shades ate dust, thus creating thirst, but the blessed hoped for and perhaps received cakes and ale, and the gods ate Zepha-u. The Hosea (13:5) calls the Madebar “the land of Tal-Aub-eth,” perhaps “roving-demon,” but the spirits who refreshed David at Ma- c Hana-im-ah said (2 Sam. 17:29) “the people are hungry and weary and thirsty in the Madebar,” for there Shobi seems the U-Sheb-ti or servant of the deceased as the Egyptians called the figure they placed in the grave with the dead; Machir is of Lo Debar or “no speech,” Bar-Zill-ai means “prison-of-the-departed,” while Chimeham or the “pallid” seems a word for Egypt supplied by the Jeremiah (41:17), perhaps its plural or Chem-ah-im.*

20. Bene-Israel met no friends in the Ma-Debar save Ie-Thero the “law,” who was of Midi-an, which may mean that he was Med-ah or “tall,” a giant. The first fight was at Reph-Id-im with Aamal-Ek, and Reph-Id-im means “giant-hands,” and Aamal is “sorrowful-toiler,” hence the same as Ia-Bez or Zeb-ai ( 1 Chron. 4:9-10) or Bes, and of course of the family of yEsav as the word Ek or Eko is Arabic for “goat,” which implies the Satyr aspect of the super-human,t and with ^Esav and Aamal-Ek and A-Gag and Haman the Agag-i we have the more usual names of the supplanted Deity of the land. Another explanation of the name Aamelek is herein given, as Aam is “people” and Aalek is rendered “horse-leech ;” hence “blood-sucker people.” war with Jehoah “from generation to generation” (Ex. 17:16); yet this concept was always a giant in size or strength as his bed as Aogat Rab-ah, or his high gallows as Haman, or his skull as Gol-Iath or Gol-Gotha, &c, seem to testify, while as Shimesh-on, Sha-Aul, Bo-Aaz, and perhaps Je-Petha c h, and others, he was the militant aspect of good. The Egyptian Dua-t or nightworld of the Sun and of the soul was frequented by forms of Aa-Pep or “giant,” who had many shapes and more numerous names, and he was the foe of Ra; while as Set or Sute k h (Zadok), Ba-Aal or “Baal,” &c, he was the foe of the man-god Asar or “Osiris” and the Osiri-ised or “blessed” ; and the word Set in Egyptian means “mountain,” “desert,” and the jackal-looking beast Sha which symbolised Set or violence also was the demonstrative of the name “Baal” in Egypt, for this Canaanite god had at least one temple in the Delta, and was considered by the Egyptians as a war-god.

* Ma-Afek may have given name to Aphek near Sidon, where stood a famous shrine of Aphrodite, that is, Hathor, and the Aphek where the Philistines encamped before they took the Aron from the sons of ^El-i, and before they killed Sha-Aul, for Hathor was the sunset goddess.

* The story of David’s “pass-over” or Aaber into and return from the Ma-Debar or Hades, in fact the entire story of the revolt of A-Besh-Alom or the “shameful youth,” is shrewdly left out by the later Chronicler.

21. This victory over Aamal-Ek was near Sin-Ai. Maafek* was the name of the peninsular we call Sin-Ai, and in the quarries there the Egyptians made their criminals and captives toil. The great mother was the feminine of Deity there under the famous name “Hathor” or c Het- c Hor; and Ta-Sen or “the sister,” a name of the great mother, may give us Sin-Ai or “great sister,” as the word means in Egyptian. Ta-Ur-et or “the mighty” was that fierce phase of Isis-Hathor which is presented with a sow or hippopotamus or crocodile head, and I think she was the goddess Thuro or Tha-Ur-o of the Phoenicians, rendered “law” ; hence Ie-Thero came with Zippor-ah the wife of Mosheh to the c Han-ah or “camp” at the mountain of the Elohim (Ex. 18:5), called c Horeb-ah (3:1), which c Horeb means in Hebrew a “knife” or “sword” as well as “dry-ground,” and Ta-Ur-et is often pictured with a “knife” or “sword;” in the Egyptian tongue Dema (or Tema) and Mades; and Sin-Ai and c Horeb-ah are considered identical. So, after the visit of Ie-Thero, there began the delivery of the Thor-ah or “law,” “written in the Ae-Ziba-Aa of Elohim” (31 :i8; comp.4: 27-28). This delivery was attended with scenic terrors, unlike those intimated by Apuleius when initiated into the Mysteries of Isis, yet alike a theophany, but scarcely equal to the parallel experience of EH-Jahu at “the mountain of the Elohim of c Horeb” ( 1 K. 19 :8, &c.) ; and this other fugitive murderer was also fed with angel food which strengthened him the usual forty days. It seems consistent that c Horeb should mean “dry,” and still more “sword,” when associated with the bloody antecedent in both the cases of Mosheh and Eli-Jahu, but when it is remembered as the place where these fugitives and the fugitive Bene Israel took sanctuary we may reverse the letters of the word and read c Horeb as Bero c h or “fugitive,” as Jonah a “Beroa c h for Tarsh-ish” (1:3). And so c Hes-ah and Aoz or Ma-c Hes-ah and Ma- Aoz (Joel 4:16), “refuge” and “stronghold,” both “fugitive” or “to flee,” seem names of c Hes or As, “Isis,” for “decision” or c Haruz, that is “Horus,” is just spoken of (v. 14), and Egypt just after (v. 19) ; and the protecting mother is to be supplanted by Jehoah, which tends to show that c Horeb-ah, as Bero c h is a name that also refers to the “great sister” or Sin-Ai of Osiris.

22. At the supposed time of this flight the Egyptians were certainly occupying the Sinai peninsular, they have many inscriptions there, and of course had temples ; nor is it un- reasonable to suppose the criminals who worked there in the quarries had a right of sanctuary in these temples, or in some one dedicated to the goddess in her aspect of Ta-Ur or Sheput, as compare Shepot or “judge” (Joel 4:12),* and as at Kadesh or Ain Mi-Shepat. The Egyptians seem to recognize Bes and Set as the mate of Ta-Ur-t, and in them we surely have Malech Aar-eth or the “skin king,” perhaps here represented by Ie-Thero, called also Reau-El, and son of the hairy yEsav. Howbeit, at Sin-ai or c Horeb-ah, “Mosheh went up to the God, and called to him” (Ex. 19:3), which indicates that this mountain was noted for its particular Deity, and that its rocky grandeur typified him, as it did Set or “mountain.”

23. This Deity was adopted by Bene Israel; and Mosheh built an altar below the mountain, and sent youths and offered them up for Aol-oth,t and oxen for a peace offering; and he sprinkled half the blood on the altar, and half on the people from the basins, as pleasing to the war God they were making a contract with; and that the Na-Aare-i or
“young-men” were Aol-oth or sacred sacrifices (Ex. 24:5), and not officiating priests, is clear. Such bloody rite was appeasing to Jehoah, as when Noa c h offered the like (Gen. 8:20-21), so he showed himself to the chiefs and seventy elders, probably the supposed seventy of the Septuagint, and they saw Jehoah eat and drink (Ex. 24:11). He had under his feet “like a work of the tile of the Sephir”
or “book,” that is, the Sepher of Covenant (v. 7), written on a Leban-ath or “white tile,” and like the Aezem or “body” of the Heaven for clearness (v. 10) ; and he then told Mosheh to come up and he would give him the Lu c h- oth of the stone and the Tor-ah and the commandment, “which me written to those of the Hor-oth” or “the mountaineers” (v. 12) or Hor-ites ; and this Lu c h-oth, rendered “tablets” from their La c h or “shining” surface, are the Leban-ath or “whitish-tile” of the book or scribe. That he had written these for the Hor-oth (usually feminine plural) may connect with A-Har-on and his death at “Mount” c Hor ; but the Syrians did speak of the god of Iserael as god of the Har-im (i K. 20:23). At the first meeting of Mosheh with Deity at c Horeb-ah he had called himself Ehieh, sounding as the Egyptian Au-a or “I am,” and the words are demonstrated by the human figure in Egyptian; but the name he usually gives himself is Iehoah, probably in Egyptian Iu-Uaa or the “Coming-One.” It can not well be gainsaid, however, that the name and locality c Horeb, whether as “sword” or “drouth,” or as reverse of Bero c h or “fugitive,” bore some significance in this story of these fugitives.

*The Arabs call Sin-ai Mountain of the Tur or “law.”
Is it a mere imitation that in his He-Gir-a or “the flight” from Mekka to Medina Mo c hammed hides himself for three days in a cave of Mount Thur? In Hebrew Ha -Gar is rather “the immigrant” than “fugitive,” “flight;” comp. “in the Ger-uth” of Chimee-v-Ham (Jere. 41:17). In Ba- c Hur-im or “in Caves” David was stoned by Shem-Aei ben-Gera, the same as I-Shem-Ae-El son of Ha-Gar who mocked at I- Za c hak. Pa-Sa k h in Egyptian means “the flight,” “the runner.”

fAol means a suckling child, but I-Petha c h’s Aol-oth
(Judges 11:31) was not.


i. From the standpoint of religious mysticism, then common in Egypt and Greece, the Aabera-im were now initiates; the thunder, the lightning, the smoke, the Chebed or “glory,” the blare of the trumpet, the voice out of the thick cloud, the earthquake, and Iehoah descending on the mountain in fire, being followed by the lectures or statutes to be observed. The subsequent trials of forty years, attended still by thirst, by famine, and by strife with ogres and giants, are used to Nes or “prove,” “tempt,” the novitiate, whose constant I-Lun-i or “murmurings” suggest local “deities,” or the Ilan-i, as the Chaldeans called the “gods.” A “shrine” or Mish-Chan and a “coffin” or Aron were made after the scene at Sin-ai, and borne with them as the cell of the Deity whom they wished to keep among them. This statement may explain the meaning of the word c Hor-eb, as the c Her- c Heb of the Egyptians was the “face-festival,” when the image was brought out of the shrine and borne in procession; hence a sort of theo-phany for the people, as was the case at c Hor-eb, as thus told, and with Eli-Jahu at the same place.* This view seems confirmed by the arrival of Bene Israel at Kadesh B-Aren-Aa or the “holy in-the-great-Aron” or “ark,” also called (Num. 13:26) Pa-Ran Kadesh or “the vessel sacred” if we allow the Egyptian word Aaren, the Latin Urna or “urn,” which Apuleius (11) says was carried in the procession of Isis, overlain by an “asp” or Aaraa; but this “ineffable symbol” was preceded by a chest containing the sacred utensils, he says, which probably represented the Mish-Chan, which in the temple became the Kadesh Kadesh-ah or “holy of holies,” the classic Adytos or Adytum, which sounds like the Aron of the Aad-uth (Ex. 25:22).

2. This Kadesh is also called Ain Mi-Shep-at (Gen. 14:7), which in Hebrew is “Eye of the Judge”; but Shepu-t is a name of the goddess Ta-Ur, with whom we may identify Miriam, as she died there, and who is probably the same as Naa-Am-i or Mara of Beth Le c h-em, but who must reasonably be identified with the Moon-goddess Kadesh of the Egyptian inscriptions, to them a foreigner, and also called Ken-at, perhaps from the Hebrew word Chun, as she holds in one hand the perforated “cake” or Chun (Jere. 44:19), a generative symbol, whence the Latin word Cunn-us or “secret,” and so the votaries of Iehoah changed Kadesh from “holy” to Kadesh and Kadesh-ah, rendered “sodomite” and “harlot;”* but she was the great Nature-Mother, known to the Israelites as Ta-Mar the Kadesh-ah or “harlot” who seduced Jehudah, the Aash-Tor-eth whom
Shelomeh “went after,” the De-Lil-ah and Ruth who ensnared Shimesh-on and Bo-Aaz, the Ma-She c hith of the Mount Olives, and the Epherath-ah or Aphrodite of the Judean hills and Greece, &c. ; in fact Ta-Mar. or Miri-am means “beloved” in Egyptian, and was a name especially applied to Sekhet of Memphis, whose name means the “powerful.”

*Un c Her c Heb or “show face festival” seems the same as the Aaber or “procession” of Merodach of the Babylonian records. The Aabera-im or “Hebrews” were perhaps those who on such occasions bore the sacred “boat” or Aaber-ah, which seems the shrine of the Sun-god. (See Apuleius. Isaiah 46: 7).

3. Thus the arrival at Kadesh or Mi-Shep-hat seems in the allegoric Exodus a place of protection and judgment, and responds to the Ta c hap-One c h-Es of the Jeremiah (43:7 &c), by reverse Se- c Hena-Pa k hat or “Daughter-of-the-Cat-queen” ; c Hen-at meaning “queen” ; and this connection is shown (1 K. 11: 17-20) when a solar fugitive goes to Pa-Ran and to Ta c hap-Enes the Geber-ah, that is, Sene-Pa k hat or “Sister of the Cat”-goddess or lion-goddess ;* and so A-Besh-alom’s corpse “was cast in the forest to the great Pe c hath,” for a den of lions perhaps is figurative of the “Pit” ; often She c h-ath and Sheoland and Bor; but She k h-ath is the lion-goddess wife of Ptah of Memphis, and the Ta c hash skins, rendered “seal” skins, over the Aron and Misha-Chan seem a mere reverse of this name of the lion-goddess, who was, like Ta-Ur or Shepu-t, a destructive aspect of Hathor. The two seem to meet in the case put by the Jeremiah (43:10) who says Nebu-Chadnezzer will extend over the stones at Ta c hap-Ane c h-Es his Shepe-Rir, for Rer or Rer-et is a frequent name of Shepu-t or Ta- Ur-t. The word Sheol, often rendered “pit,” may be reverse of Laish or “lion” and so the King Shaaul. In Egyptian myth the lion was solar; under the name Akel the lion guarded each opening of the tunnel which at night the Sun passed through; and the c Henek or “funeral-couch” has the head and feet and tail of the “lion” ; its name Man, feminine Man-t, thus perhaps connecting with the word Mit or “dead,” the Hebrew Muth;* but a “cat” is also
Man and Man-t.

4. Now, when the Bene-Israel had finished the Mish-Chan and put the Aron in it, they set out, “and i-Shechan the cloud in the Madebar of Pa-Aren” (Num. 10:12), but in v.3 it is the Aron that goes before them to Thur or “seek-out” to them Ma-Nu c h-ah. And when the Aron set forward Mosheh would say “rise-up Iehoah,” and in the Nu c h-ah he said “Shub-ah Iehoah,” &c. The real nature of the Aron seems here revealed, however, when (11 :i) it is said “the people were like Mith-Aonan-im, Ra in the ears of Iehoah,” for which he Ba-Aer-ah them in fire, for Aon is the Sun (Gen. 41:45), and Mith-Aon would be the “dead-Sun,” as the Annu or “Heliopolis” of Egypt attests, though Aon-an may here imply a “mourner” for it; and when we turn to the historic prelude of the Jeremiah (43:13) we readily find that Beth Shemesh in Egypt, that is, Aon, is to be Sarap in fire while the fugitive Judeans are there, just as they were burnt as Mith-Aonan-im if Ba-Aer-ah and the Sir-ap mean “burn,” for they seem Egyptian words. Now we have the story of Aon-an (Gen.8:9), who “Shi c h-eth the earth not to give seed to his brother,” whose name was Aer, and whose wife Ta-Mar bears a name of Egypt as “land of the Inundation,” and which as “the beloved” was a name of Sekhet the lion-goddess; and this story seems a solar myth applied to the ideas of the Isaiah (19: 20:), for it is Jehudah that gives twins or prosperity to Ta-Mar though thereby put to Buz or “shame” ; and these twins perhaps originate in the Isaiah (20:5) as “Cush their Ma-Bet and Ma-Zera-im their Pa-Areth,” since Ma-Bet is “corpse” in Ethiopic and Pa-Areth is “the man” in Egyptian ; the twin Zera c h, indeed, being king of Ethiopia (2 Chron. 14:18). When he comes in to Ta-Mar, the “Sun” or Aon-an “destroys” or She c hith the ground not to give seed; and that this is the meaning will be seen in the different version of this same story, called Ruth ( I : I ) , when there was a Ra-Aab or “famine” in the days of Shepat of the Shephat-im; Ra-ab being reverse of Ba-Aar or “burnt” (Num. 11 :i) when the people were as Mith-Aon-im; for both Ta-Mar and Ruth are Chel-eth, rendered “daughter-in-law,” and Naa-Ami is Mar or “bitter,” the Buz or “shamed” Je-Hud-ah is Bo-Aaz, Chili-On the husband of Ruth is Aon-an the husband of Ta-Mar, hence Mith-Aon or “mourner” for the “dead-Sun” who invoked the Ba-Aar or Ra-ab which A-Chel or “devoured.”

Thus the word Chel in some of its forms is the key of these three stories; Naa-Ami telling Ruth not to make herself known to Bo-Aaz till he Chel-eth to A-Chel or “endeth to eat,” and after he had lain down in the extremity of the “cave,”* and she had Gal-eth (Gal-ah means “captivity”) his feet, &c, she is told he would not rest till he had Chel-ah the Debar (3:3, 18). That Jehudah, and Bo-Aaz in less degree as derived from the former, represent the stupid Israelites seduced by the attractions of Egypt, as also Ia-Aakob, seems to me clear from certain texts of the Jeremiah (30:10-11; 46:14-17, 27-28, &c), which opened the door to the story-teller, who applied the old local and popular mythology in the Jahvist days after the migration to Egypt for fear of the Chaldeans. “They cried there ‘Pharaoh king of Egypt is Aon; the Aabur of the refuge/ ‘ or “refuge of the Hebrew/’ as well as Aon, and with perhaps the Greek meaning of ^Eon or “eternal” ; and this replies to an appeal (46:16) that they return to their Aam-an, and to the land of their birth from before the c Horeb or “sword” of the Jon-ah or “dove,” emblem of Assyria; whereupon Iehoah utters threats for their obduracy, against Egypt, No-Ph, or “city of Phata c h,” Amon Me-No or “Thebes,” &c. Nebu-Chadnezzar is to come, and the c Horeb will A-Chel-ah or “devour” (v. 14), but Israel will be by Iehoah “saved” or Mosh-aa from afar, and his seed from the land of Shib-Iam or “old-day” or ancient time, thus suggesting as also in v. 26 a former occupancy. “And Ia-Aakob return and rest and be Anan;” nor shall he fear, though Iehoah will Chel-ah all the nations to which he has driven him; but not make a Chel-ah of Israel, yet I-Ser-eth or “binding” him to Ma-Shepat, &c.

*The earlier Egyptian drawings of her, says Budge, present Kadesh nude, but the later ones with “tights,” with the head-dress of Hathor, and standing on a lion between the Egyptian god Min or k Hem and the Arab god Reshepu of the gazelle frontlet of Set, thus demonstrating that she was both Egyptian and foreign.

* Pe k h-et was the Speos Artemidos of the Greeks, and in upper-Egypt. The goddess was called for the town or the town for her. She was called “Neb-t of Sep-id” or “lady of the star Sirius,” thus an aspect of Isis, and of the fecund inundation.

* A c hitho-phel is said (2 Sam. 17:23) to have “ia- c Hanak and ia Math,” or, as we say, took to his bed or death-bed, and died; not Tal-eh or “hanged.” The name of c Henoch, who “walked the god” (Gen. 5: 22-24), and his son Methu-Shela c h or “death sent-away” seem to connect with the c Henek.

* “Heap-of-corn” is rendered from Aarem-ah, but this usually means “naked,” and the correct word is evidently Me-Aar-ah or “cave,” which accords with Jehudah’s friend c Hir-ah or “the cave” the Aadullam-i, and with Noa c h “naked” or Aereveth and the same as the drunken Lot in his Me-Aer-ah or “cave.”

5. Another writer (44-: 27) declares that all the Judeans in Egypt shall be consumed by c Horeb and Ra-ab till Chil-oth them, and this seems to apply to the time of c Hophe-Ra or the “serpent-Sun,” while the other applies to the time of his predecessor (by twenty years) Necho or the “strong” (44:30; 46:2). It is difficult to translate the word Chel under these different uses, but in the sense of “closed-up” as in widowhood we may understand that “daughter-in-law” is not correct, while it would answer to “ended,” “finished” ; and so, Ta-Mar and Ruth being aspects of the great Mother, their Aonan or Chil-Ion evidently connect with Shimesh-On as these women with his wife Th-Oan-ah or “occasion” (Judges 14:4) whom he sought from the Philistines at Timen-ath-ah, the Egyptian Ta-Man-u or “Sun-set,” called also De-Lil-ah. So, with these indices we may understand the Mith-Aon-im (Num. 11 :i) who appear as soon as the Ar-On or Aren. But that these “mourners” should cause “burning” or “famine” when the Aron had been given by Jehoah might create surprise if it were not that this symbol of the presence of Jehoah in their midst should have had an opposite effect.

6. The incident that follows is that of their Te-Avv Ta-Av-ah, or “fell a-lusting” as it is rendered. In Egyptian the word Af means “flesh,” and Tae had the meaning “room” or “house” in both tongues; hence “house of Flesh.” But Af has in Egyptian the religious meaning of the corpse of the Sun ; the Sun after passing into the Un-seen World. The Af there travels in the Seket-et boat of the afternoon, and we have him as Af-Raa, Af-Tem, Af-Asar, and Asar is called Sem-Af or “form-of-Af.” 7Es-Av or “Esau” is perhaps Aash-Af or “much-flesh” in Egyptian, and so was a giant as well as the sunset god. Le-vi the priest tribe may be “no-flesh,” as priests were often prohibited from eating flesh.

7. The legend of the Man or “manna” as found in the Exodus (16:13 &c.) was probably suggested by the Jeremiah (46:16) ; comp. 48:28). Sword of the Jon-ah shows that “oppressor” and “dove” are the same word. In Egyptian the “ring-dove” is called Man, the common “dove” is called Sulu-t and the “raven” is Sul-u, while in Hebrew “raven” is Aarab and so is “evening.” We read that “in the Aarab went up the Sel-Av. and covered the camp”; Sal-Av, rendered “quails,” being in the singular. The later book Numbers, which elaborates this story, also speaks of Sal-Av-im, and has it that they were the flesh that was promised; but that “quail” is the correct rendering has been much disputed. A variant version, that of Eli-Jahu in his hiding, has it that he was fed by Aarab-im or “ravens,” and this account may have confused the writer of the Exodus. The use of Sal-Av, and the substance Man as the result of the presence of the Sel-Av, points to “dove” as the correct rendering as tested by the Egyptian. But there was (Jere. 48:28) a kind of Jon-ah that nestled in the holes of the Selaa or “rock,” and I suggest, in dissent from all interpreters, that a starving people might eat these c Hir-i Jon-im or “cave doves” (2 K. 6:25). The Greek word for it is Cheiro-ptera or “hand-wing” ; it is Dak-ai in Egyptian ; the Aatal-Aph, perhaps “night-flyer,” of the Hebrew (Lev. 11:19), again mentioned (Isaiah 2:20) as living in holes of the Selaa or “rock.” So, after the Sel-Av had covered the camp, the next morning “went up the Hatal,” and on the ground was “a Dak, a Mi- c Hus-Pas, a Dak like Chephor” or “pitch.” Mi- c Hus-Pas is rendered “round-thing” without the slightest authority, whereas Ma- c Hus or c Hes is “to flee,” a “refuge,” implying a covering, and Pas is an “end” or “extremity,” hence a “hand,” and so the Chetoneth Pass-im of Joseph was a long cloak that covered his feet and hands, as the wings connect with the feet of the bat. Dak or “small” being “bat” in Egyptian supports this opinion. Chephor, however, rendered “frost,” is also a “covering,” but as “atonement,” “expiation,” is the word used for the “lid” of the famous “mercy-seat” or ark, which may have been black like “pitch.” This food was not the promised rain of bread (v. 4) save in a satirical sense; but if we take it as the excretions of bats, so frequent in caves, we are to bear in mind ( 1 ) that it was a penalty or expiation, like the dust the wicked in Hades were supposed to eat (comp. Gen.:14; Isaiah 65:25); (2) that the book of Numbers (14:26:35) puts the penalty of death on the whole adult body of these millions for murmuring, and (11:31-34) even sends a very great plague on them for eating the Sel-Av-im; (3) that the allegory of the Exodus is based on that of a descent into Hell, (4) adapted by the prophet Je-Rem-Jah and others to the migration of the Jews of their time to Egypt. In the Babylonian epic of the Descent of Ishtar she found Hell a place of darkness, the inhabitants clothed like Nebuchadnezzar in feathers, and with mud and dust as diet. The Egyptian prayers beg that in the Duat they shall eat no filth. The Jeremiah (42:13-22; 44:12-14, &c.) had told the fugitives they would all be consumed in Egypt, and should not return; hence the Man was necessarily a distasteful food. The deposit of a fragment of it in the Aaduth or “testimony,” that is, probably, the “ark,” though that vessel had not yet been made, might seem evidence that it was to be taken as the reminder of punishment, and at least it was not the food of a living or natural person. Indeed the word Man might connect with Ha-Man, the archenemy, the Agag-i, for the Aug-ath or “cake” of Eli-Jahu (1 K. 19:6) is of the Aog or Gog series of words.

8. Whether or not the Man or “manna” can be connected with the “body” or “flesh,” the Af of the Egyptian, confused in the Exodus with the Sal-Av, eaten as a memorial of the dead Christ, remains to be suggested. Paul (1 Cor. 11 :26) explains the Eucharist as “proclaiming the Lord’s death till he comes.” The Egyptian writings speak of the bread of eternity, and they placed viands within the shrines or “arks” of their deities, as the Man was placed by the Hebrews in their “ark”; which facts tend to show that Bene-Isra-El in the Ma-Debar and subsisting on such food was conceived of as in a super-natural condition.

The Aron or “ark” was clearly symbolic of the dwelling of Deity; his coffin or boat; and the food placed in it attested that he was yet alive or would return to life. To eat it as his Af or “body,” as Paul understood Jesus to teach, was to declare faith in the immortality of the man-god; that he was dead or absent, but would return. The Roman Church goes so far as to say that the blessed food is actually the body and blood of Jesus; but the Man or Sal-Av of Bene-Israel, originally perhaps two words for the same thing, was sent down from Heaven “to tempt them walking in my law”
(Ex. 16:4) ; that is, to ascertain if they could subsist on such loathsome food and be steadfast till they came to their earthly Paradise. It is possible that the word A-Man or “faithful,” “true,” is alluded to by the word Man, and it might seem that the Latin word Salv-us, “to Save,” and so “Saviour,” connects with the Salav that went up. Apart from this, it would seem from the more elaborate and hence later account of the Numbers, where the Salav is separately eaten, that when Mosheh asked for food Jehoah tells him to fetch seventy old men and officers over them before him, as if these were to be Sal-Av-im or the flesh to be eaten, for it is easily urged from the story of the famished JEs-Av that the “red” or Adam he ate was an Adam or “man” ; but, in any case, the seventy or seventy-two old men are the same in number as the seventy-two conspirators who put Osiris in his chest.

9. Another concept may be advanced on this subject. Bene-Israel left Egypt in that Aezem day of the Mez-oth (Ex. 12:17), and the Aezem-oth of Io-Seph (13:19) were carried-off with them. Dying in Mi-Zera-im, they I-c Hen-et him, and put him in the Aron, and his burial at Shechem indicates that he was Ba-Aal Berith (Judges 9:4, 46). The c Hen-et is evidently the c Hennu barge, and the Aron also indicates his solar divinity. Sep or Seph means to “take-away,” “carry-off,” and the feast of A-Seph was that of Such-oth (Ex. 13:21), when the Sun is going to his tabernacle after fructifying Earth, and doubtless in a Sephin-ah or “ship” of the sleeping Jonah on his way to Hi-Sepan-ia. In Egyptian the Sun as Sept or Sepd was the “provision” of Deity, while Zefa was the food of the gods. The story says Io-Seph was in Egypt called Zephan-ath Panea c h, hence after Such-oth the Bene-Israel go to E-Thom or the “end” in Egyptian, but then to Ba-Aal Zephon, that is, the “hid” or “North” Ba-Aal. Aezem is plainly not “bone” but rather “body” of Io-Seph, embalmed or in the c Hennu barge ; hence corresponds with Av and Af-Berith or “covenant” is supposed to be derived from the eating or cutting of bread together ; Bar meaning “grain,” &c, Bera meaning to “cut,” “shape.” When Bene Isera-El makes the Berith with the Elohim (Ex. 24:) we have the precedent for the Last Supper; for the elders or nobles are present and they see God eat and drink (v. 11); as the disciples were present when the body and blood of the divine one was eaten as a new Berith; and the God had something under his feet like the Aezem of Heaven, &c, rendered “body”; but it seems, from his not laying his hands on the nobles, and from the statements otherwise, that the children (v. 5) and their blood were the diet that sanctified the Berith. The Aaber or “pass-over” to Molech was perhaps a “Hebrew” he was supposed to eat, and Molech was Bosheth or Ba-Aal (Jere.:24; 19:5, &c).

10. It is likely that the Aezem of Io-Seph, that is, his body in his aspect Sept, the victualler or harvest-god, was symbolically eaten, his blood was likewise drank, for Sept or Sepd is the star Sirius which brought the fertilizing “inundation,” the Hebrew Sephia c h (Job. 14: 19), which made food, and in which star dwelt Isis, who was called both Sept-et and Zefa. It will be noted that the Man was given in the month Ziv (Ex. 16:1), April-May, which means “brightness,” as the Zefa food (Budge says) seems some celestial food made of “light,” from Zef-zef “to shed light,” while Zef was the eye of Ra and of Horus. The A-Seph Suph (Num. 11 14), perhaps suggested by the Jeremiah (8:13) and Zephaniah (1:2), as “I will consume,” is evidently not “mixed multitude,” but the thing wanted for Te-Av by the Mith-On-im or “murmurers,” that is, mourners for the “dead-Sun” (v. 1) ; and the Aerab Rab that went up (Ex. 12:38) seems also from the Jeremiah (25:20, 24) and the Isaiah (19:20), but the connection is not clear; yet A-Seph Suph and the Aezem of Jo-Seph are to be noted. When his brothers saw Jo- Seph approaching they called him Ba-Aal c Helom-oth or the “god of dreams,” and conspired to kill him and cast his body into one of the Bor-oth, which, as near Shechem (Gen. 37:12), perhaps refers to the name Ba-Aal Ber-ith; and they agreed further to say that he had been eaten by an evil beast; and so all that he does in Egypt, from his succeeding the baker and the butler, his prediction of famine and fertility, his accumulation of grain, to his fetching his family to nourish them (Gen. 46:
11, 18, 20), all tends to show that he must be identified with the divine concepts just mentioned, as also that the feast of Aseph (Ex. 23 :i6) or Such-oth, the Greek O-Socha-phoria, was part of his cultus; while the ark of the Berith (Josh.:3, &c.) was probably the ark or barge which contained his Aezem-oth as it contained the Manna, for this latter was given in answer to the Te-Av or “lusting” of the
Asaiph-Seph, we are told in the later book (Num. 11:4); nor is it improbable that the miraculous food was considered the flesh or “body,” the Aezem, of the god who gave the produce of Earth.

11. But “in the Aareb, in the Aareb-oth of Jeri c ho, they ate from the Aabur of the land, after the Pass-over, unleavened-bread and Kelu-i, in the Aezem of that day, and the Manna ceased after they had eaten of the Aabur of the land” (Josh. 5:10-12). This is Taur-t or Shepn-t or Iyel-et of the Egyptian Inscriptions; perhaps De-L/il-ah, or Iyil-ith, or Besh-eth, or Aash-Tor-eth. the single instance where Aabur is rendered “corn/’ though the word is among the most usual in these books, for the difference of the latter vowel amounts to nothing. Probably, as in 2 Sam. 15:28, it should be Aareb, since this would continue the play of words, and also account for the Aereb Rab that went up with them (Ex. 12:38), and who in turn was now eaten; corresponding with the A-Seph-Suph (Num. 11:4), the Sal-Av that in the Aereb went up (Ex. 16:13), the Aezem-oth or “body” of Jo-Seph that was taken up, &c. Aereb as Ereb-us to the classics, means “west” in Hebrew, and Arab-ia was “west” to Babylonians, as Europe was doubtless to Phoenicians a word for the “west”; hence as the sunset or “evening” the Sun-god had Aabur or “passed-over,” and so we have Iber-ia or ha-Span-ia; but in all this we have a juncture of the words Aereb and Aeber. For this “west” and “evening” the Egyptians said A-Men-ti and Man-u, and probably Man or “manna” is from one of these words, so that it suggests the supper hour, besides appearing in the night; hence as a meal at fixed festivals, in Autumn especially, such as Such-oth or A-Seph, we might look for the divine food to be eaten. But the Exodus, while begun in the Spring, seems certainly an allegory of a descent into Sheol, doubtless understood by all who were familiar with the Osirian mysteries, and by the early Christian writers who tell us of the Last Supper of Jesus, and celebrates rather the resurrection of dead Nature than the departure of the Sun which animates it; yet it must be borne in memory that in Egypt the Spring is the season of harvest, as the Baa c h or “inundation” occurs in early Autumn.

12. Incidents are added to the narrative in order to illustrate features of the laws of ^EzeRa and the Jahvist hierarchy. The intermarriage with Mo-Ab and consequent worship of the Ba-Aal of Pe-Aor was a particular perversion of the separation from other peoples which ^EzeRa sought to establish, as seen in the book which bears his name; so the story of Bile-Aam the son of Be-Aor is to serve the purpose of consecrating Bene-Israel at the hands of the “god of the Aam” or native “peoples” as Bile-Aam thus means in Chaldaic, or “worthless-people” in Hebrew. But the “burn- ing” or Serap serpents, the mountain c Hor or “cave,” the place c Horem-ah or “secluded” (to Deity), and Aob-oth or “enemies” (Ezek. 39:27), Aren-On or “ork-of-On,” the Amor-i or “talkers,” Ma-Tan-ah or the “giver” (fern.), Na c hali-El or the “brooks” or “possessions-God,” Bam-oth or “high-places,” &c, end the suggestive list by the arrival at the top of Pi-Seq-ah (Num. 21:); which accords with the outline of the Isaiah (43:19, &c), and terminates the silent-phase of the soul by the Egyptian word Pi-Sagi or “the tongue,” though continued by an account of Si c h-On and the Amor-i or “talkers” of Moab, readily suggested by the 48th of the Jeremiah, which the Numbers (21 ‘.28, &c.) freely quotes, but makes the town Si c h-On a person.

13. The book Deuteronomy (32:49;4:1) has it that, not Bene-Israel, but Mosheh went to the top of Pi-Seg-ah, and speaks of Aai-i Aabar-im (Num. 21:11) or “heaps of the He- brews” as a mountain, calling it Neb-o as suggested by the Jeremiah (48 :i ), as Nebie means “prophet” in Hebrew and “lord” in Egyptian, while Nub-ti was a well-known name of Set; but the Ezekiel (39:11) perhaps originated the
Gei or “valley” of the Aabera-im or “Hebrews,” and has it that Gog and all his Hamon shall be buried there, which burial of giants would of course make a “heap” or a mountain, for Ha-Mon of Egypt (30:10;1:2;2:16, 18, 20, 26,1,2) seems Gog and his Meshech and Tubal (32:26) ; and hence in the Exodus story we come next (Num. 21:31-35) to Aog the giant whose bedstead was at Rab-ah because Rab-ah and Ezekiel’s Hamon-ah mean the same (Deut.:11-17; as also compare Ezek.9:18). The Exodus follows further the Ezekiel in its later chapters, for the Ezekiel divides the land for the twelve tribes, as in the Joshua, thus showing that the account of the deportation of the ten tribes more than a century before was unknown to Ezekiel or had not occurred, and so impeaching the historic narrative. The Ezekiel (45:21-25) orders only two of the great religious observances, that of Pa-Sa c h and that of A-Seph or Such- oth, both alike, giving no motive for these Spring and Autumn customs, which in the subsequent Pentateuch are claimed for Iehoah, and wearily elaborated.

14. Thus it is my contention that the prophetic books are the main source and inspiration of the figurative Exodus ; and that the motive was to restrain the fugitives or to fetch them back from the land of Zar-ah (Isaiah 30:6) when the Chaldeans destroyed the Egyptian supremacy and Jerushalem; when it was said (Sam. 1:3) of Judah “she dwelleth among the nations; she finds no rest; all her persecutors overtook her within the Mi-Zera-im.” The very miracles of the story attest its utterly unhistoric standing, while the protests of the Jeremiah and the Isaiah against the migration thither will be seen to have laid the foundation for a narrative beside which the human fancy supplies no parallel.


i. The name which in English is spelled “Moses/’ the Greek form, has in Hebrew the three letters M-S h -H. The vowel point between the second and third letters gives us Msheh. The statement that Bath-Pharaoh named him Msheh for that she Mesh-ithih him, rendered “drew-out,” from the water or Ma-im, is refused by Josephus. He refers the name to the Koptic words Mo and Ushe, “water” and “saved.” This is more probable both from the forms of the words, from the Boch-eh or “wept” of the child, as well as that the princess must be supposed to have spoken her own language rather than that of the despised Hebrews. Mush in Hebrew means to “withdraw,” and is the word relied on for “draw-out.” The play on words, frequent in these Bible narratives, possibly explains his name, for it is said she called his Shem Msh-eh, the reverse being he-Shem or “the Name” (Lev. 24 : 1 1 ) , in which case the correct name is concealed. Cicero (“Nat. of Gods,” 22) says one of the several Mercury or Hermes was son of the Nile, and that the Egyptians deemed it criminal to pronounce his name, and by Mercury the scribe-angel Ta c hut or “Thoth” is meant.

2. “Thoth” seems the general model for the story of Mosheh. In the judgment scenes the ape or A-Aan, as a type of “Thoth,” sits on the “balance” or Ma k ha or Masha; hence we have perhaps Pa-Aan or “the Ape” as the classic Pan ; and it is “Thoth” who records the guilt or absolution of the soul whose heart is weighed; but A-Nup or “A-Nub-is,” whose name suggests Nebo and Nebie or “prophet,” usually bears the title Utzaa or Uthaa or “weigher,” though the functions of the two angels are somewhat intermingled. Shekel is the usual Hebrew word for “weigh,” and probably enters into the name of Ae-Sekul-Api-os or ^Esculapius, father of Macha-on, and son of Koron-is or the “crowned,” perhaps the “horned” Moon; and Mo c hu in Egyptian is rendered “crowned.” iEsculapius had temples at Gaza and Carthage, the town “Ascalon” or A-Shekel-on was doubtless connected with his cult, and probably also the vale of Asheck-ol where the A-Nub-im or “grapes” were grown.

The Greeks recognized the divine scribe Taut of the Phoenicians as ^Esculapius; and the Memphian son of Ptah, Ie-em- c Hetep, was also so identified, and called by them I-Mouthis, but his name means “Coming-in-Peace,” and he was perhaps worshipped at Jeru-Shalem as Shelom-eh, called “Ie-Did-Jah in the Aabur of Jehoah” (2 Sam. 12:25), “beloved of Iehoah in the divine-boat” or Aaber-ah, in which case Dad or “David” would be a phase of Ptah, that is, Bes or Ie-Bus, as said already; Shelom meaning “peace” and “to finish”; while the Psalms entitled Ma-Sachil to David and to Kora c h are in the sense of “wise” advice, perhaps, but may connect with ^E-Sakel-Apios. Nebo, the angel of wisdom in Chaldea, is called “son of the house of Saggil” or Sakkal, which house of Saggil was the great pyramidal temple of Bel-Marduk at Babylon ; and from Nebo we may have Nebie or “prophet,” and Nob or Nob-ah the “city of priests” (1 Sam. 22:19), while Nebo is a supposed mountain not found by searchers, which is so named doubtless for Msheh; but, as this mountain is also called Pi-Sag-ah, one may see the effort to connect him with both the Chaldean Nebo and the Egyptian “Thoth,” who was Pi-Sag-ai or “the Scribe” of the Gods, in their tongue. “Thoth” or Ta c hut restored to life young Hor-us when he was Pesa c h or “stung” to death, and this perhaps means he restored “light” when Zar or “scorpion” quenched it, “possessing command great of Maa- k Her-u” or “true-Words,” whence he was the Roman Mer-Cur-y, from whose name we have America; but he was in Egypt most usually called Pa-Hab or “the Messenger,” and the Hab or “Ibis,” which came with the Baa c h or “inundation,” was his most usual symbol; wherefore perhaps the Greek Phoebus or Ph-Oeb, applied to Apollo. But it was Joseph, saluted as Ab-Rech (Gen. 41:43) or “wise” (Re k h) “judge” (Ap) who may be meant for Thoth, who was called Ap-Re c h-u or “judge of the combatants,” Horus and Set. Thoth is also called Te k h, perhaps the original form of Ta c h, and Te k h means “weight,” like the Hebrew Shekel.

3. The Egyptian word Mo c hu or “crowned” is more probably the Hebrew word Mesia c h or “anointed.” And it may be that Msheh is from the Hebrew word Iesh or Jesh, implying “existence,” and usually rendered “is,” “there was,” and much the same as Haiah or “to be,” whence is supposed the name Je-hoah; and so (Num. 9:20, 21) Iesh Asher Iheih or “there was that it was” the cloud a few days over the Mish-Chan, meaning “it was so that it was,” but reminding us of the Ehieh Asher Ehieh or “I am that I am” ; the Egyptian A-Au or “me am.” The two substantive verbs are probably from the Shemite and Egyptian languages respectively, and Iesh passed into the Latin as Esse, while it is probable that the Hebrew word for “man,” Aish, means “being,” and that the Akkadian Ushu-Gallu means “great-being” in place of its perversion to “ogre.” Howbeit, it must seem that, if Iehoah is from Haiah, and Msheh is from Iesh, they mean the same in the original signification of the two words. The name of Jesus or Ies-us, we have pointed out herein, is the Greek form of the name Ish-ai or “Jesse,” and Ish-ai is evidently from this Hebrew word Iesh or the Akkadian Ushu. M-Isheh or “Moses” is a change from Iesh that is familiar to Hebraists, as the first syllable M- often has no significance to us ; so Mo-Shel or “ruler” is the Shal-it or “ruler” (Daniel 5:29), Mo-c Hamed and c Hamed, Me-Human and Haman, Me-Ram and Ram, and frequently ; so that M-Ish-eh the law-giver and Ish-ai or Jesus have the same name; meaning the still “existing” or “immortal,” like the Omesha Spentas or “immortal saints” of the Persians, from whom indeed it is possible that TEztra, may have derived Mosheh’s name.

4. The names of the parents of Jesus are made the same as those of Mosheh. The names of the parents of Mosheh are not at first given, for it seems there was a desire to identify him with the royal house. Aa-Meram, however, means the “great” or “Most-High,” as Aa in Egyptian and Chaldean as well as Hebrew (Isaiah 11 115) means “great”; and in Hebrew the word Ram or Me-Ram means “high.” It was probably designed only in these stories of giants and genii to allude to the huge size of Aa-Meram. In Egyptian the name Aam-Ram would mean a Rom or “man” of the Aam-u, as Aam-u were the nomads of the desert ; the Hebrew Aam or “people,” which term they applied almost exclusively to those of Israel. The mother, Chebed or Io-Chebed, is rendered “hardened” his heart, “slow” of speech, “honor” thy father, &c, and it is the “glory” of Jehoah. These expressions show to me that Chebad is the Egyptian word k Haibit, which was the shadow or ghost, which, besides his soul and double and spirit, each of the dead possessed, and this shade of ghost could go about. It is depicted as black; hence Ai-Chebod was the son of Phi-Ne c has or in Egyptian “the black,” and of Lal-ath or “night” (rendered “near-to-be-deliv-ered”) who died in child-birth when the Aron or “ark” was captured, and after 2El-i had fallen dead, old and Chebod or “ghostly.” The god Tern in Egypt begot the twins Shu and Tefnut, or “light” an “moisture,” by union with his k Haibit. The Luke (1:32-35), more fully than the Matthew, seizes the meaning of Aa-Meram and Io-Chebed when Gabri-El or “mighty-god” tells Mary “the holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the Most-High shall over-shadow thee.” This was also the story in Egypt of Isis, who conceived c Har-pa- c Harad or “Harpocrates” after the death of Osiris by a ghostly cohabitation with his. That this shadow or daemon should have “hardened” Pharaoh, cause to be “slow” the tongue of
Mosheh, and was the “honor” of the ancestors, accords with the Chebad or “glory” of Jehoah which Aaber or “passed-by” Mosheh, who had been promised that all the Tub or “beauty” should Aaber before him, but was not permitted to see the Chebad; so that this Chebad seems to have gone before Jehoah, as his back was seen, and not to have been a part of his “beauty” (Ex.3:18-23); Mosheh himself being a Tob or “goodly child.” So, a cloud Chebed (19:16), and locusts, flies, hail, murrain, &c. (8:20; 9:3, 18, 24; 10:14) ; showing that Chebad was something aggrieving or afflicting, though in some of these passages the word “many” or “much” (Num. 20:20; Gen. 50:9, 10; Ex. 12:38) shows quite curiously that Chebad has the same meaning as Amon, Haman, Ma-Mon, that is, “Legion,” or the Hamon of Gog or Agag the geni-giant.

5. The floating island in Egypt, mentioned by Herodotus, was called k Hebt, but the Greeks called it Chem-is, which, as k Hem was the native name of Egypt, proves that this island of k Hebt, the birth-place of Horus, gave us the name E-Gypt; and so the ancient town Kopt-os, a form of the word Egypt, is yet called Khemim. This island was in the Papyrus-Swamps, and near the famous town and shrine Per-Uath, which Greeks called Buto; and it was to it that Isis passed over to escape Set, and to nurse and conceal Horus, or to have him nursed by Latona, who seems to be Lel-at or Ta-Ur, the Hebrew Lil-ah or De-Lil-ah; while Per Uath probably gave name to the Python as Uath or Uatz-t was eminently the asp-goddess, otherwise Ran-nu, whence the Aron or “ark” or cradle. But the isle k Heb-et, though it seems to have given name to Egypt, the Arab Kib-ti, and was close by the great oracle of Buto (Herod. 2:155), and was the birth-place of the divine son Horus, usually identified with Apollo, born at Del-os (Te-Lil-os?), yet there is naught to show from Egyptian sources that it connects with the word k Haib-it or “shadow/’ “ghost,” but it gave name to Isis as Neb-t k Hebet or “lady of k Hebet,” which might give us Io-Chebed, and thus refer to Mosheh as Horus. This, too, might accord with the Zar or “scorpion” which Pese c h or “stung” Horus, and with the word Mi-Zera-im or “Egypt” as a Zar or “enemy.” To identify with Horus or Apollo might imply that Mosheh meant the “archer,” which in Egyptian is Masha.

6. Besides “Horus” or c Heru, however, we have the babe Sargon in his boat of reeds and bitumen on the Euphrates, Romulus as an infant adrift on the Tiber, Bacchus and his mother Semele shut up in the Bar-is or “chest” on the sea, &c. ; Bacchus being suggested by the infant Mosheh who Boch-ah or “wept” in his Teb-ah or boat; while Dion-Usi-os may seem Adon-Iesh, or words from the Hebrew that connect with M-Ush-eh and Ies-us. The story of Semele and Dionysus (Pausanias, 3:24), shut up by Kadmus in the Baris, gave name to Bras-ise, a town on the south coast of Greece, convenient to Egyptian and Phoenician trade, and is important because this Bar-is is the Aa-Ber or “pass-over” boat of the Sun and of the blessed dead from which the Aabera-im or “Hebrews,” as well as Iber-ia
and the mythical Hyper-ion or sunset god, derive their names; so, Ber-oe was nurse of Semele, since a cradle or womb and a nurse are figuratively the same. The Teb-ah of Mosheh and the Teb-eth of Noa c h mean in Egyptian a “chest,” “boat,” or “coffin,” and the Aron or “ark” is also rendered “coffin” because perhaps the serpent as the symbol of the goddess Ran-nu was depicted on the lid. The allegoric Exodus of the Aabera-im in the Made-Bar may mean, not “wilderness,” but “great-boat,” from the words Med-oth, as in Ha-Medatha the “giant” father of Haman, and Aa-ber or “ferry-boat” (Num. 13:32; 2 Sam. 19:18), though more probably Made-Bor or “great-pit.”

7. Preparatory to the narrative of the birth of Mosheh, we have some account of the rapid birth-rate of the Aabera-im. “And the Bene-Israel they Par” (Ex. 1:7), &c. ; hence the word Pur-im, which in Egyptian means to “come-forth.” The Egyptians afflicted them by putting over them chiefs of Mes-im, that is superintendents of “births” if we take the word as Egyptian; so the Israel-i built cities Mis-Chen-oth to Pharaoh; probably not “store,” but cities for “child-birth” ; similar to the Mish-Chan or “tabernacle” of the Israeli, where the Deity renewed himself. “Afflicted in their Sabel-oth” can be rendered in their “child-bearing.” The Mis-Chen-oth cities were Pithom and Ra-Meses; and, while we may understand Per-Thom or “house-of-Tem” the Sun-set god, and Ra-Meses or “Sun-of-Evening” or of “Production,” these selected names of the Sun that has passed over may be sug-gestive of Mosheh as the morning phase of it, usually considered as Horus or k Hepera, which latter probably appears as Cheppor or the slain young Sun mourned for in Autumn at “Yom Chippur,” and whose symbol of the k Hepher or sacred beetle seems to typify re-birth or a new life.

8. The 15th verse begins to speak of the Aibera-im as if written by a different person, but perhaps Aiber was the sunset god. Their two mid-wives have appropriate names, Shiper-ah or “dawn” and Puaa-ah or “brightness”; but in Egyptian the S h and k H are so frequently interchanged that the former may be k Hepher-ah; while P-Uaa-ah may in Egyptian mean “the Uaa” or “the One,” like Je-Hoah or I-Uaa the “coming One,” but the God made to them Batt-im or “daughters,” perhaps Tab-im or “arks” or “sarcophagi,” not Beith-im or “houses.” That the two “mid- wives” or Me-Illad-oth were the famous angels of the birth-chamber and judgment scene, Mes-k Hen-t and Renen-t, seems clear, though called Hebrew mid-wives, for in the judgment scene, which to the good was a birth into immortality, the cradle or “ark” or “tabernacle,” called the Mes- k Hen, is depicted above the head of Mes-k Hen-t and Renen-t who stand behind the deceased while his heart is being weighed and his hand is held by Horus. However, in the birth-room scene of famous Queen c Hat-Shepes-t, Mes- k Hen-t presides while both Bes and Ta-Ur are present, as they are at other birth scenes, and a frequent name of Ta-Ur is
Shepu-t, which recalls the statement that Miriam died at Ain Mi-Shep-at, and that it was she who guarded the infant Mosheh; for Mi-Shep-at was also called Kadesh-ah or “holy,” otherwise Pa-Ran Kadesh-ah (Num. 13:26), and Me-Rib-ah; also Mas-ah (Ex. 17:7) as the Egyptian word for the “birth” angel; but in the Numbers (20:1-13) the death of Miriam and the curse upon Mosheh immediately precede the reason for changing the name to Merib-ah, while another account says the whole generation were cursed and made Roaa-im (v.3) or ” wicked” or “herdsmen” for forty years because at the report of their spies they wished to return to Egypt .*

It thus seems probable that Pa-Ran Kadesh- ah refers to the nurse-angel Renen-t or the Ran-nu angel who guarded infants, either of whom may well have given name to the A-Ron or “ark” or “cradle,” which first attested its power when it departed not from the camp with the penitents at Pa-Ran Kadesh-ah, whereupon they were slain “till the c Hor-Em-ah” (Num. 14:40-45) was probably appeased. And the mountain to which these victims went up was evidently c Hor, the Egyptian name of “Horus,” to which mountain Bene-Israel went from Pa-Ran Kadesh-ah. At Har or “Mount” c Hor died A-Har-on, whose name like the Egyptian god Set must mean “mountain,” implying giant size. There the Iseral-i i- c Har-em the Canaanites and their cities, and called the place of this slaughter c Hor-Em-ah (21 13). The name Me-Rib-ah, applied to Kadesh-ah, is rendered “strife,” from Rib, but in Je-Rub-Baal it is rendered “plead,” and so the lustful David says ( 1 Sam. 25 139) “Blessing of Jehoah which Rab the Rib of my c Here-Path* from the hand of Nabol,” then sent for Abigail ; as saying which blessing multiplied the plea of his lions. But the text is (Num. 20:12:13) “These the water of Me-Rib-ah which it Rab or “multiplies” Je-hoah the Bene-Israel, and Kadesh them” ; hence Mas-ah or “birth”-goddess is an Egyptian equivalent for Me-Rab-ah, and shows that the water was fecundating, and the shrine of the

* c Here-Path is sometimes a substantive (Isaiah 47:), not “shame” or “reproach.” So, when Joshua (5: 9) cut-off the foreskins, Jehoah said “Show me the c Here-Path of the Egyptians from over them ;” that is, the shown or uncovered (Galli-oth) part would be equal to that of the Egyptians who doubtless forbade circumcision to slaves. Also, Ra c hel, who wept for children, says (Gen.0: 24) “Aseph God my c Here-Path, and * * J-Oseph to me God one son;” that is, so great her pangs, she asks God to take away her c Here-Path so that she may be taken away (or restricted) to one son; and so the name of Joseph was her protest; hence she dies at her next travail, naming the child Ben-Aon-i, evidently Ain-i, as crying “No sons !” so they called him Ben-Iajnin or “son of a nurse” or Aman. “child”-giver or “multiplier”; comp. Ha-Reb- ah A-Reb-ah (Gen.:16); so Jehoah named the shrine as an assurance of the increase of Bene-Israel, to console Mosheh and his brother whom he had condemned to death in the previous verse. Indeed the name Kadesh B-Arenna should probably be Kadesh in Aran-Aa or the “Holy in the great Aron; so, Pa-Aran; which would indicate that this was a shrine of some phase of the Sun-god, such as c Hor or k Hepera; perhaps by the wild tribes called I-Shem-Aa- El, over whom as an infant the wandering ha-Gar or ” the stranger” * watched at the well of the “Shining- Visions” or La c h-ai-Ro-i, near by.

* They were even smitten and killed “till the c Horem-ah”
(v. 45). This word is usually rendered “utterly-destroyed,” “devoted,” “shut-up,” hence “harem;” but while the text implies a locality formerly called Zep-ath (Judges 1: 17), and so Mi-zep-ah the daughter of Je-Petha c h in Gile-Aad, it is probable that c Hor-Em-ah means the name of the divinity of the place, as “Cave-Mother” or “White-Mother,” or the “Shut-Up” and invisible to whom human sacrifices were made. “Hathor” or c Het- c Hor was goddess especially of the land of Sin or Sin^ai, and it was she who as Sekhet destroyed the foes of Ra or the Sun-god. Miriam was “shut-up” orSager at c Hazer-oth or the “enclosures” before Pa-Ran was reached (Num. 12: 15). c Her-Rem-i in Egyptian means one “weeping.”

10. Ha-Gar and miriam would thus seem to connect with Renen-et or Mes- k Hen-et ; more probably however with the more celebrated and pronounced phase of “Hathor” or c Het-c Hor (“sanctuary-of-Horus”) called Bas-t, the cat-face aspect of divinity, regarded as exercising unusual influence on pregnant women, and frequently depicted in the Mes- k Hen or “birth-room” (Budge). Kot-Esh-ah would even now be Arabic for “cat-woman.” The Egyptians depict Qadesh as a goddess standing on the back of a Ma-u or “lion,” and with them Man was also “cat” ; and they regarded her as foreign; calling her also Ken-t, possibly Ca-naan-ah, as Chaldeans said Chena as the name of that land. The name of the lion-goddess Sekhet of Memphis was only another name of Bas-t; hence the Ta- c Hash or “seal” -skins over the Mesh-Chan and Aron when reversed is She c h-at or “lion”-skins.

* Ha-Gar also means “fugitive,” as Shem in Egyptian
means “goer,” “wanderer.”

ii. The Mish-Chan is ordered by Jehoah (Ex. 25:8-9), “Let them make to me a Mi-Kadesh and will Shachan-eth me in their midst, like all I show thee, the building of the Mish-Chan,” &c, and it will thus be seen that Sha-Chan or “dwelling” became a Hebrew word of general import, though the Shechin-ah of the later Jews meant the sensible presence or Chebed of Jehoah, while the original use of the word was in a sacred sense (Ex. 24:16; Num. 5:3; Ezra 7:15, &c.) as in Egypt, it must seem. The Mish-Chan was divided into the Kadesh place and the Kadesh Kadesh-im or “most holy,” separated by a linen veil, and in this latter was the Aron, and the chief priest entered it only at the lorn Cheppur, so that it was also called house of the Cheppor-eth, rendered “mercy-seat,” because perhaps of the k Hepher or “scarab,” placed on the dead body of all Egyptians as an emblem of resurrection or new-birth, for at lorn Chippur the Sun is passing south of the equator, and into a tomb that will be watched till it becomes the cradle of the re-birth.

12. If the Exodus was historic it is curious that we find no account of the people or the religion of Paran Kadesh-ah, whence the Israel-i are said to have been accursed, and whence they turned back into a long wandering; and it is probable there was some such shrine at one time ; but, as I consider the story mainly allegoric, it seems that Pa-Ran Kadesh-ah or Kadesh in Aren-Aa (B-Aren-Aa) is only the entrance of I-Sera-El into his “sacred coffin” ; his Aa-Ber-ah or “pass-over” boat of the Aa-Bera-im or “Hebrews”; whom Jehoah found in a land of Ma-Debar and as an eagle bore them on his Ae-Ber-ath (Deut.2 no-il ; “feathers,” Job9:13; “wings,” Ps. 557).

13. Mosheh was Zephin-ah for three months. This is the Zaphen-ath in the name Pharoah gave Joseph, and Ba-Aal Zephon or Tsephon. The Greeks made the word Typhon out of it, as they made Tyre out of Zur (Tsur) .It is probably the Egyptian word Tchetfi or “serpent,” which as Zeph-aa and Zeph-aa-ni the Isaiah (11:8; 14:29; Jere. 8:17) is made to read “basil-isks,” but evidently the Aaraa, the Asep-is or “asp” of the Greeks, emblem of royalty and protector (Sa-f, “he protects”) of lower Egypt; and from the Egyptian Sa-f we seem to have the Greek A-Sep and the Hebrew Io-Seph, with the Tchetfi or Zeph-aa as this Asp-Protector; so that the name Jo-Seph or Sep is probably Egyptian, and his name Zephen-ath Pa-Anea c h is probably the Serpent ( Protector) of the “living” or Aana k h.* Mosheh was therefore Zephin-ah or serpent-guarded; hence the shrines Mi-Zep-ah in Gile-Aad and near Jerushalem are supposed to derive name from Zephah or “watcher,” but that the daughters of Israel went year after year “to Tan-oth, to the daughter of Ie-Petha c h,” &c. (Judges 11 140), shows “serpent” or Tannin (Ex. 7:9) worship; the Pe-Then (Isaiah 11:8; Deut.2:33, &c.) or Greek Py-Thon; the Mi-Pethen in the house of Dagon and in the temple of Jehoah ( 1 Sam. 5 ‘.4 ; Ezek. 9:3,” &c), where the monster gave name to the “threshold” or “door” it guarded, or took name therefrom, since in Hebrew the word Pith-ah means a “hole.” The connection of Zephin-ah and Ba-Aal Zephon (Ex. 14:2, 9) is important, for, if Zephon be the Greek Typhon, as Lenormant says, then the Zephin-ah or watch of the infant Mosheh is the feminine of Zaphon or Set, whose wife was “Nepthys’ 5 as the Greeks called Neb-t- c Het, the “lady of the house” of the sky, and twin sister of Isis, of whom she was a negative, as Set was of Osiris, though Set finally became an evil force. Set was represented in a stellar way with the constellation Ursa Major or Mes k het, as Osiris with Orion or Sa c h, and this home in the “North,” which in Hebrew is Zephon, seems to confirm the opinion that Ba-Aal Zephon was Typhon or Set. The connection with a serpent or “basil-isk,” Isaiah’s Zeph-aa, arises from the Egyptian myths which represent Set usually as a serpent in his combats with Horus, and the Egyptians made and stamped under their feet the form of a serpent at their festival of the winter solstice. It is certain that the Egyptians identified the Syrian deity Ba-Aal with Set, or Sute k h, the Hebrew Zadok, the Greek Styx or Satyx, for the inscriptions demonstrate the name Ba-Aal with the symbol Sha. But Nepthys was not an evil concept, and seems the assistant of Isis; and yet appears to personify decay and its sequence re-birth. The name of Deity at Jerushalem was, till the time of Ezra, Ba-Aal (Jere. 11:13), that is. Set or El-Shad-ai, but Besh-eth or “shameful thing,” that is, Ja-Besh-ah, was not necessarily Nephthys, though as “dry” and “drouth” Ja-Besh may accord with the sterile Egyptian. The name of Joseph as Zepham ath Pa-Anea c h certainly seems to identify him with Set or Ba-Aal Zephon, and his burial at Shechem accords with c Het Se k hem or “house of the Sistrum” which was a centre of the worship of Nepthys in Egypt, and her alleged birth-place; and so Jerebo-Aam was son of Neb-at, and was over all the laborers of the house of Jo-Seph or Zaphen-ath Pa-Anea c h. It is possible, of course, to say that Mosheh himself was this concept Joseph or Set since it was to his serpent in the temple to which incense was burned in the days of c Hezek-Jah, and which must have typefied him, but at least his Zephin-ah or “hidden” must be deemed a watchful serpent.

* Pa-Aanea c h may be “house-of-Life” as Per is often
abbreviated to Pa.

14. With all the advantages of his alleged royal adoption, Mosheh was obscure till about forty years old. He sprung into notoriety by the murder of an Egyptian for beating a Hebrew. He escaped to Midi-an, that is, the “tall of stature” or giant, like Hainan’s father Ha- Medatha. Here he became a shepherd for Reaau-El or “friend-of-his-God,” called also Ie-Thero or “law.” Back of the Madebar, at the mountain of the God, c Horeb-ah, appeared to him Maleach Jehoah in a flaming fire from the midst of the Sen-ah, that is, in Egyptian, the “acacia.” In that tongue the c Har- c Heb was the “face-festival” when the figures of their deities were shown to the people amidst great processions; but in Hebrew the word means “drouth,” “dry,” like Ja-Besh; and
c Hareb also means “sword,” “knife.” Sen-ah is feminine of Sen or “brother,” and perhaps the acacia received name in Egypt from its bi-penate leaf and dual penules, typefying brotherhood; Ta-Sen or Sen-at being a name of Isis as “the sister” of Osiris, and A-Sen-ath was wife of Jo-Seph. “Pleasure of the dwellings of Sen-eh” (Deut.3:16) may allude to Isis. The flaming Sen-ah is of course feminine of Sin-Ai or “great-brother.” It is not difficult to understand that c Horeb-ah was a shrine of that form of Hathor or Isis called Ta-Ur or “the Mighty,” usually depicted with a knife or sword, and also called Shepu-t, and Rer-t or Lel-et, for I-Thero is itself a Hebrew word that connects with the Phoenician goddess Thor-ah, whose name probably comes from Ta-Ur.

15. The Elohim said “For Ehe-Jeh with thee,” and a sign that Mosheh had been sent was that in the bringing out of the people from Mi-Zera-im he should serve “the Elohim” upon that mountain, which might mean the God that dwelt upon it or was then upon it. Mosheh seems to have had no religion up to that time, or at least did not know the name of the God of his father, the God of Abraham, &c. (Ex.:6); and his wife, as daughter of Reau-El, and evidently grand-daughter of ^-Sav by a daughter of I-Shemaa-El (Gen. 36:2-4), doubtless was meant as a Heathen; hence he asked the name of this God of Abra-ham, and was told that it was E-Heieh and Ie-Hoah (vs. 14, 15); subsequently (6:2-3) identifying Elohim and Jehoah and El Shad-dai as the same; but Jehoah tells here that by this name Jehoah he was not known to Abra-ham and Ize c hak and Jakob ; a statement which is found difficult to explain in view of altars built to Jehoah and conversations with him in which he is addressed by that name by these patriarchs (Gen. 12:8; 13:18; 15:2; 22:14; 26:25; 28:21, &c); but thus suggesting, by being first made known to Mosheh, that the word Jehoah is Egyptian, though Pharaoh did not know Jehoah as a name of Deity (Ex. 5: 2) ; yet, as appearing to Mosheh in a flame of fire, and Heh being Egyptian for “Flame,” or Heh-v (Heh-f) “his Flame,” it might seem that E-Heieh or Ie-Hoah would be understood by Pharaoh, especially as Bes-dwelling-in-Heh-f or “Fire-in-his-Flame,” probably the Jewish Je-Bus, is named in the 17th chapter of the Book of the Dead as one of the seven spirits appointed by A-Nup or “A-Nub-is” to protect the corpse of Osir-is ; and the syllable Je or Ie in Je-Hoah is of no more moment than it is in names like Hoshua for Je-Hoshua (Num. 13: 8, 16), though probably it is the Egyptian word Aa or “great,” as in Ia-Bez and Aa-Zab or “sorrow” (1 Chr. 4:9) which are reverse words. The text at Ex. 6:2-3 evidently intends in this composite document to assert that with this mission of Mosheh the name Je-Hoah first became known, but it seems from 4 : 1 that the Aaber-im did know who Je-Hoah was, and that he had sent Mosheh was to be attested by certain miracles he should perform. Chapter 6, however, as well as 4:19, seems to begin other account of the commission to Mosheh, as is must have been a favorite theme of the priests.

1 6. The wonders wrought by Mosheh on his return to Egypt begin with his changing the waters of the Nile and all its canals into blood, so that the fish died, and this was done by him in the sight of Pharaoh, who merely went into his house without protest, and without punishing the two men who wrought this calamity though he knew they were of an enslaved people; but the object of these priest-craft stories appears when it is said (7:22; 8:18) the magicians attempted to bring about the same calamities and could not, since they thus seem written to attest the superiority of Mosheh and of Jehoah, and to be taught to children in the after times (10:1-2; 12:26-27) of Ezra and the hierarchy when these writings appeared.

17. Mosheh, like all the Egyptians, carried a rod or “staff,” called Mattah in Hebrew, but which, with that of Aharon, must represent the Ur c Heka or “mighty Enchantment” of the Egyptians; a serpent-head rod whereby the lips of the dead were touched in the other world to enable them to speak, and was not the common rod; and so the wand of Mercury was adorned with two serpents. The “asp” or AaRa in Egypt was an ornament worn in shape on the head-dress of the monarchs as an emblem of sovereignty, or perhaps originally to indicate their descent from or as representatives of the Sun, for it was also a solar type, frequently depicted on the heads of deities, and especially deified as goddess Rannu who guarded orchards and infant royalty, as seen in Hebrew story when Pa-Ran or “the Ran” is the refuge of young I-Shemae-El, young David, and young Hadad; and it is very probable that the A-Ron or sacred “Ark” of the Jews received name from some carving of Rannu on its surface as was often done on tables in Egypt ; while Aharon the first priest is a peculiar name. iEian says the kind of serpent dedicated to the Egyptian iEekulapius was called parai-as, which is clearly Pa-AaRa or “the Asp,” and he was the Memphian third person, son of Ptah, called I-em- c Hetep, whom the Greeks called I-Mouth-is. The first battle in the Ma-Debar was at Reph-Id-im, where the rod and Iad-im or “hands” of Mosheh were held steady, hence Raph-Iad-im or “healer-hands,” as also the healing of the Seraph bites by the “brasen” or Ne c hash Ser-aph tends further to identify Mosheh with the serpent-cult, for it seems that a serpent was the worshipped symbol of him in the temple at Jerushalem (2 K. 18:4), and called Na c hash-Tan ; and that this symbol of Deity was potent in Israel may account for the curse put upon the Na c hash for teaching Adam and c Hav-ah how to procreate. The word Seraph seems to mean “burning,” though also rendered “serpent,” and in the later theology of Egypt and the West the serpent was the symbol of the divine concept Serap-is, identified by some with ^Eskul-Apius, by Emperor Hadrian with Christ.

18. It is asserted by most students that Serap-is is the Greek form of the Egyptian word Osar- c Hapi, which means the “hidden” Osiris, but the bull-head Osar- c Hapi was most certainly an Egyptian concept anterior to and distinct from the Greek concept which as a statue was brought by Pkolemy Soter about B. C.00 from Sinope on the Euxine, and which the Egyptian priests refused to allow to be adored within their cities ; nor does it appear to me improbable that this Greek Serap-is was other than the Sarap-Adon or Sarpedon of the Iliad, whose death was bewept by his father Zeus, and whose name in Phoenician and Hebrew as the “Burning-Lord” establishes his identity with the solar myths, such as Adonis, Shim-esh-on, Hercules, &c, as with the murdered Osiris, which concept becomes after sunset the judge of the Under-World, as also in Winter ; for, as son of the bull Zeus, by the Tyrian Europa, that is, Aareb-ah or the “West” in Hebrew, as Zesa* means “fire” in Egyptian, we have the Cretan-Carian Sarpedon or Serap-Adon as the Greek and Latin Serap-is or Seraph-is; and this Serap-is is represented enfolded by a great serpent, as his statues show. The Pentateuch was probably written during the time of the first Ptolemies in Egypt, when the cult of the classic Serap-is was gaining in strength, and it seems easy to suspect that the incident recited (Num. 21:4- 9), when Mosheh reared the Seraph symbol as Saviour, alludes to this worship; and this accords with the Heh or Je-Heh and with Bes or Je-Bus and their Egyptian meaning as “Flame” or “Fire.” The Seraphs of the Isaiah (6:2) have no similitude in Egyptian art or myth, but have in the Assyrian; while the Saraph-ah or “burning” made or not made for their monarchs, as told in the late books (2 Chr. 16:14; 21:19), may have been rites of
Serap-is such as his “nocturnal orgies” mentioned by Apuleius. The Ne c hash-Tan image, destroyed by c Hezekiah, was evidently not the end of the serpent worship, since the wife of the reformer Josiah’s son was Ne c hush-ta (2 K. 24:8), and the “creeping-things” of the Ezekiel (8:10) seem to have been still later. The rod of Aharon became a Thanin in his contest with the magicians, and this word may-connect with the Greek Py-Thon of Delphi, which Pi-Thon would mean “serpent-mouth” in Hebrew, though Pithen is rendered “asp”; but the rod of Mosheh when changed into a “serpent” at c Horeb-ah is called Na c hash, as was the serpent of Eden, thus showing they were not the same reptile as the Thanin or “sea-monster” (Gen. 1:21), which has been supposed a crocodile.

19. The Hebrews seemed to be like the Egyptians, who regarded the asp as an emblem of sovereignty, and yet held the great imaginary serpent Aapep as a foe and a fear. The huge serpent coiled about the figures of Serap-is is apparently an emblem of evil and of darkness, and so with the serpent which Hor-us is depicted as spearing; but, besides the goddess Ran-nu, who perhaps gave name to the
A-Ron or “ark” and to the region Pa-Ran, the great city and shrine Per-Uath or Pe-Uath in lower Egypt, which the Greeks called B-Uto, was the “house of Uath,” who was nurse of Hor-us, and hence an asp-goddess like Ran-nu, and from whose name as P-Uath it may be we have the Hebrew and Greek word Pith-en and the Greek Pythia at Delphi, for, as Delphi was the most famous oracle in Greece, so Herodotus says Buto was the most popular oracle in Egypt; hence the mysterious word Ath, which appears without translation in almost numberless phrases of Hebrew scripture, may refer to these phrases as oracular or divine from the word Uath, while Ath-ama was in Egyptian a book or roll of papyrus, as the papyrus plant is the hieroglyph Uath of her name ; and so “virgin” or Par-Then-os may be Per-Uath, as also the Greek Ath-ena, and the Hebrew seer Nathan who had power over life and death; hence the proximity of a shrine so famous may have given the Jews their Na-C hash-Tan or -Than or serpent-Uath-an, destroyed by c Hezekiah, supposed to be connected with Mosheh and the saviour-image he is said to have made some seven centuries before.

20. The serpent was not so general or prominent a symbol on the Euphrates, but it was that of the deity Ea or Hoa, father of Merodach, and perhaps the same as Nebo and the Assyrian Nin. Ea is much the same as the Egyptian “Thoth” or Te c h; coming from the sea and teaching mankind; and so Mosheh came from the sea (Isaiah 63:11). The Phoenician Taut was recognized as ^Eskulapius by the Greeks, and the Phoenicians received their religion from the Babylonians, so that these deities doubtless represented Hoa or Nebo, as the house of Saggil, the great temple at Babylon, attests its relation to “Askelon” or A-Shekel-on, and perhaps to the valley of E-Shechol; the Chaldean Ishtar being the Aash-tharth of Tyre, and the Greek sea-god PosEidon being probably the Chaldean Apisi or “Ocean” and the Phoenician Adon or “Lord.” The town Nob-ah, “the city of priests,” was near Jerushalem, and perhaps was feminine of Nebo, though the Egyptian god Num was also called Noub or k Hnoub, and there was also A-Nub-is, yet the priests at Nob-ah are called priests of Jehoah when slain by Sha-Aul. Under his name Ea or Hoa this Nebo was the especial deity of the city Is or Hit on the Euphrates about one hundred miles above Babylon, but as Ea or Hoa he was considered first and very anciently as the Earth-god, then as lord of learning in later times. It is quite possible that the Hebrew deity Jehoah bears his name, and the Arabic word Haie means both “life” and “serpent,” as in Hebrew and Chaldaic c Hai means “life” and “beast,”* while one of the names of “Thoth” was A, and it was his word that created Earth. Hoa or Ea seems in places to have been deemed father of Mero-dach or Amar-Atuki, Accadiam for “Sun-brilliance,” Lenormant says, and Merod-ach and Mosheh are connected in a queer genealogic fragment (1 Chron. 8:17-18) where Je-Thero and Miriam are brother and sister of Mered who married a daughter of Pha-Raoh, a title apparently from the Egyptian Pha-Ra or “the Sun,” or from Pha-Aaraa, “the asp,” worn on royal heads; for which latter reasons the name Na c hash or “serpent” is perhaps given to the Kings of Moab; but there is no evidence in what little is known of Meredach to connect him with the serpent symbol, though his great temple Saggil or Sakkul at Babylon by name suggests Ae-Sekul-apios whose symbol the serpent was.

21. The serpent became perhaps a symbol of secular knowledge among the later Jews, and this is opposed to dogma; but the alleged reform of c Hezek-Jah, strange to say, is not mentioned in the Isaiah (36:9:), which devotes four chapters to that reformer, nor does the later Chronicles speak of any destruction by him of the serpent that Mosheh had made; while the professed contemporaries of c Hezek-
Jah, Hosea and Micah, say naught of this iconoclasm. It is likely that the “healer”-god (Ex. 15:16) had this symbol till the Macca-bean rebellion caused the Jews to detest Greek symbols of Deity.

* “And the Na c hash was more crafty than any c Hai-ath of the field which Iehoah Elohim had made.” But Aarum means “higher” as well as “crafty.”

22. In Phoenician theogony two brothers appear as sons of Amyntos and Magos, Greek forms perhaps of c Hamen or “heat” and El or “great.” These sons were Mi-Shor and Suduk. The account says Mi-Shor means the “free” or “active,” but it seems the “upright” or “equitable,” being the same as the name Ja-Sher (Josh. 10:13; 2 Sam. 1 :i8). It is further stated that this Mi-Shor was father of the famous scribe Taut, whom the Egyptians call “Thoth” (Ta c hut) and the Greeks Hermes, who originated letters. The brother Suduk is clearly the name Zadok or Zedek, since the author says it means the “just”; and it is further said he was the father of the Kabir-i or Korybantes, whereas classic story makes Vulcan or Hephaestos, the Memphian Ptah, father of the Kabir-i. Sute k h in Egyptian was a name of Set, brother and foe of Osiris in later times, and it is probable the Greeks contracted Sute k h into Styx; hence Aharon, as another name of Sute k h or Zadok, would be A c heron, as may well be suspected. * This conclusion as to Aharon or Sute k h would make Mosheh or Mi-Shor a phase of Osiris, or perhaps of c Heru-Ur or Horus the elder, whom perhaps the shrines Aar-Aar or “Aroer” represent, and c Heru-Ur was considered by the Greeks as Apollo, for it seems that in
Egypt he was deemed a personation of Day or Light, with Set or Sute k h as his adversary. In his “Isis and Osiris” Plutarch, howbeit, says it was told that, after his battle with Horus, Typho fled on an ass for seven days, and when he arrived at a place of safety he begat Hierosolymus and Judaeus, but that this story was told to give an air of fable to the flight of Moses out of Egypt, and of the settlement by Jews of Hierusalem and Judea ; which curious statement seems to show that Mosheh was Set or Sute k h rather than Osiris; but the real use of the story is the identification of Typho with Set, and Set or Sutu k h with the chief name of Deity at Jerushalem, which made sacred the line of Zadok, and originated the story of Malachi-Zedek, King of Shalem, priest of El Aelion. Mi-Shor, as father of Thoth of Hermes seems a reference to Mi-Zer, as “Egypt” was called by the Israelites, and that people or country was thus perhaps personified, as perhaps in the person of Mosheh and his learning.

* This mention of the mysterious Kabir-i and Korybantes as sons of Zadok or Aharon connects them with the Hebrew words Kaber or “pit,” “sepulchre,” and Koreban or “vow-of-offering.”

23. It is clear to me, however, that the alleged sojourn and enslavement of the He- brews in Mi-Zera-im was a story written to deter them from migrating thither, and that the alleged journey into the “Wilderness” is another of the several stories of a descent into Hades, the Made-Bar or “great-pit”; in which case Mosheh is not more real than other heroes of the religious or poetic fancy. Indeed, the Isaiah (19:20), which, as in case of most all the several books other than the Hexateuch, speaks once only of the Egyptian episode, may have suggested the story, and even the name of the hero, saying of those who fled to Egypt from the Chaldeans that at the cry of their oppression (comp. Ex.:8-9) shall be sent to them a Moshi-Aa and a Rab and the Zil of them; that is, probably, “a Mosheh and a chief and the deliverer of them”; yet “the Zil” in both texts cannot well mean “to deliver/’ and usually Zil means “shade,” “shadow,” “shelter.” This chapter of the Isaiah, as in all other portions of the Hebrew writings apart from the book Exodus, is not acrid toward the Egyptians; and the very claim that is made for that country as the birth-land of Mosheh is evidently a source of pride to the Israelites.
And it must seem that if Josephus is correct in saying that the name M-Sheh is from the Coptic words Mo or “water” and Ushe or “saved,” the Isaiah word Moshi-Aa, rendered “saviour,” would point to the Isaiah as the origin of the Exodus allegory. This meaning of his name would connect him with the Egyptian words Mo c hu-Aa or “great anointed,” as perhaps with the Chaldaic word Usho-Gal or “exceeding great,” and the Phoenician Usho, identified with Bes, as I identify him with ysav the grandfather of Mosheh’s first wife.*

* David the son of Ishai was also an Ishaa or Ioshaa
(2 Sam. 8: 6, 14), though “And Ishaa Iehoah David in all that walked” is not very clear.


i. The identity of Araun-ah the Je-Bus-i with Bes would imply that he was also a hairy-god or beast-form. The Ar in his name may be for Arieh or “lion.” But his name is subjected to suspicious variations, and a motive may exist for this. There really is no such name as either Araunah or Oman as the English versions have it. In the Samuel the first “Araun-ah” is “the Avaren-ah”; the second is Arane-Jah ; the last seven times we have it as Araven-ah; while the Chronicler has it Arenan. There is possibly an allusion to the Aiver-im or “blind” (2 Sam. 5:6) and Pasa c h from whom David took the town in the other account, hence the first “the Avar-en-ah”; but there is no allusion to the Pasa c h-im or “lame” unless in 24:20 where Araun-ah sees the King and his servants Aober-im upon him, as Aober and Pasa c h both mean “pass-over,” and Aabera-im is also our “Hebrews.” Now, if we say these two words are respectively Egyptian and Chaldaic, as appears when “old corn” or Aabur and Pasa c h appear together in Josh. 5:11, it must seem that these words imply some brotherhood of pilgrims, as “the Sa c h” or Pa- Sa c h means “the traverser” in Egyptian; and we may also see that Aiver-im and Aaber-im are the same; so that the Je-Bus-i, “inhabitants of the land” (2 Sam. 5:6), told David unless he got rid of these, this band, he could not enter, &c., as they did enter upon Araun-ah, for the Aabera-im were distinct from the Israel-ites (1 Sam. 14:21); but their ready admission by Avaren-ah, after the angel of Jerushalem protected it from the angel of the Ma-She c h-ith, which latter had reached the Garon, probably identifies Avaren-ah with the angel of Jerushalem who had stretched out his hand to She c h-ith or “destroyer”; for this was a pass-over or escape of the town similar to that of the Exodus (12 ‘.23) in some respects, as also to the story of Abram and Malechi-Zadek who met in the vale of Shav-ah, and to that slaughter of 75,000 of their Aob-i (Esth. 9:16) or “familiar-spirits” when Haman was suspended at the order of A c ha-Shave-Rosh.

2. If, however, we take “Araunah” as the more frequent Araven-ah, we may suspect an idiom of A-Repha, as Rav-ah is rendered “drunk,” “satiated” (Isa.4:5, 7; 43:24), and tending to show the Egyptian A-Rep or “wine” was connected with Repha or “giant” ; and it would be in the nature of these ancient stories to find that Jebus was taken from giants.

3. All the several forms of Bus or Bez imply brutality, violence, as Gibor-im Bus-im or “treading-down” (Zech. 10:5); nor does A-Bus or “fattened” (1 K. 4:23) and “crib” (Isa. 1:3) alter this assertion; but it is notable that Arev-ah and Avri-oth are “manger” and “stalls,” hence “the Avaren-ah of the Jebus-i” first spoken of does not seem a person at all (v. 16), and later writers may have added from v. 18 to the close. A probable supposition, however, is that his name connects with Aron, “ark,”‘ “coffin,” “chest,” a word which may connect with the serpent-angel Ran-nu of the Egyptians, whose figure was inscribed on the lids of boxes, on tables of viands, &c, and who was guardian of gardens and infant princes, as we see the figure of him especially on the head-dress of queens; and so in their faith we find Ishmae-El and David and Hadad of Edom fleeing to Pa-Ran or “the Ran,” while Auzz-ah I suppose was bitten when he put his hand on the Aron, and it was to be supposed that a serpent was in Gan-Eden. So, Joseph tells his brothers when his cup was found in the sack, “Know ye not that a Na-c hash detects a man?” from which we infer a “serpent” was depicted on the cup. Ma c hen was the name applied in Egypt to a long serpent, and Ma c han-ah was the place to which Sha-Aul’s descendants and David fled, and where Ja-Akob remained while fearing ^Esav. The form Aren-Jah given “Araun-ah” may have been suggested by this guardian of sacred persons and things; and at least the Debar or “plague”-angel was stayed when the Garon or “inn” was reached, for this “manger” or Avir-oth was to be no longer the home of beasts and giants, but the Jerush-Aolem or “possession-eternal” of Aabera-im or Pa-sa c h-im. And yet I scarcely doubt, in reality, that David was other than a phase of Bes; indeed, “Jesse” or Ishai may be Esh-i or “Fires,” but more clearly the Phoenician Usho, the Akkad and Chaldean Usho-Gal or “exceeding-great,” same as Sha-Aul the King.

4. That David was a youthful phase of Bes or Je-Bus may appear from the legend of his feminine counterpart Did-o of Carthage, widow of Achar-Bas or Sichar-Bas, said to have been a priest of Malack-Aareth at Tyre. Her name El-Isa seems to identify her with Is-is, while the name Sichar is probably that of Sekar or “shut-up” Osiris. The story of the foundation of Carthage by Did-o or David-ah is of course unhistorical, and she was merely the local deity, it must seem. The Romans called the town Car-tago, the Greek name was Kar-Chedon, but the people there called it Kar-Thad-a or “Fortress of Thad-ah.” Thad-a is perhaps the correct form of the name which the Latins called Did-o; but, as one form of the Egyptian T or Th was much the same as D, it might seem that Dad or David is the same as the Egyptian Thatt-u or Dadd-u, the name of Ba-en-Dadd-u or -Thatt-u, which city the Greeks called “Mendes,” and with which accords the name of Osiris as Osar-Dad or Osar-That. The Ba or “ram” of Dadd-u would accord more certainly with theAa-Tud-i, “he-goats,” “chief-ones” (Gen.
31:10; Isa. 14:9), which may be another form of Thad or Dad. Osar-Dad is represented often in female apparel, and most sensuous expression of face, while the symbol Dad or That has been suspected as phallic; points of accord with the amorous character of David. But at Rome there were cults of Tat-ia and of Ma-Tuta which could not well be the same as Did-o, and they may connect with Nefer Tut-u or “good hand-maid” which was the title of the chief priestess at Memphis, while Neter Tut-u or “divine hand-maids” were an order of priestesses in Egypt. The earlier name of Car-Thada was evidently Bozra, which the Latins called Byrsa, which word in Hebrew or Phoenician would mean “strong,” “high,” “inaccessible,” “cut-off,” if the word is the Bozrah of Edom, and is also rendered “vintage,” “vintagers,” and Bozer-ah may be the same word as Busir-is, as the Greeks called the town and shrine Per-Ausar or “House of Osiris” in Egypt; but in either case its meaning approaches the usual ones of Bes, Bez, and forms of these. The statue of ^Esculapius at the summit of the citadel Bozra probably assists in explaining these suggestions, and yet the Phoenician Eshamun and the Egyptian I-em- c Hetep, both identified by the Greeks with ^Esculapius, were connected with Ptah, the former as one of the Kabir-i, classically sons of Vulcan, the other as that form of Thoth at Memphis who was son of Ptah, though Za-dek is the name the Phoenicians called the father of Eshamun, and Sute c h was an Egyption name of Set, hence perhaps the classic river Styx, as also Melechi-Zadek. David, like
Eshamun, was the eighth son, and Ishai, who as Usho was perhaps also called Boaaz at Beth-Le c hem, would thus be Zadek; hence David’s sons were priests (2 Sam. 8:18) though not of the line of Levi as required.

5. The magnitude of David was almost that of classic Hercules. “These words of Da-vid the A c heron-im, the Geber, the risen above, Meshia c h of God” (2 Sam. 23:1). Giants fight under him; though later thought (2 Sam. 21 : 19) makes him above the petty feat of killing Goljath; and the later Chronicles omit wholly the flight from Abesh-alom. The A-Bish-ai or Ab-Ishai of these confused accounts (2 Sam. 21:17; 23:18) seems the I-Shab or Ish- Ab of another place (23:8) if we reverse the letters, and probably refers to Bes. Another Gibor is Sham-ah, son of Ag-e the Reri or “the cursed,” perhaps Haman the “cursed” Agag-i, which Sham-ah or “the famous” slew the Philistines when they were gathered to c Hai-Jah or the “beast- Jah,” not “a troop,” though it may be “beast-ess,” c Haii-ah, for this was in a field of lentiles, and the Philistines adored Aash-Tor-eth or Ta-Ur (1 Sam.1 :io), while c Haii-ah is the “beast” that Jakob supposed had devoured Joseph. Another Gibor was grandson of a man c Hai (2 Sam. 23 :2o) from Kabeze-El or the “herd-god,” and this Bena-Jahu slew the double “lion-god” of Moab, &c, but as “son-of-Jahu” the father seems Jeho-Iadaa or the “wise-Jehoah,” hence was set over David’s Shemaa-et or court of “hearing.”

6. The Hebrew stories transfer us into a Wonderland. An ass is made to speak, trees hold converse, giants slay a thousand men with an ox-goad or a jaw-bone, and silver was as stones in the streets of Jerushalem. Chaleb or “dog” is the companion of Mosheh, but as son of Ie-Pun-ah, reverse for “the Anup” or “Anub-is,” and also as son of Kenaz, the Greek Kynos and Latin Canis, one readily sees that this local deity of c Heber-on was the Egyptian Anubis ; c Heber meaning an “ally” or “joined-together” ; as, indeed, its former name Arabaa or “four” implies cohabitation of women with beasts (Lev. 18:23, “lie-down” or Rabaa) ; but this may have been a reproach because of the cult of Anup or Chaleb, for the reverse of Arabaa is Aabera or “Hebrew,” and Kiri-oth Aabera would be walls of “Hebrew” if we use our form of the word, which Aabera or “Hebrew” was the great man among the Aanak-im, and was father of the Aanak (Josh. 14:15; I5:i3)-

7. c Hebron, which also means “charmer/’ “enchanter,” is set down as the home in life and death of Aberaham and Sar-ah, some centuries before Chaleb is supposed to have driven out the Aanak, and some centuries later it is said it became the capital of the “Hebrews,” and it would be a singular conclusion if it could be made to appear that Aabera and not Arebaa was the correct name of their supposed giant ancestor, and that he was the same as Abera-Haman or the “strong-man” (-much), or Ab-Ram or “lofty- father,” for that Abraham was gigantic appears not only from the Ham or Haman of his name but from the cave Ma-Chepel-ah or “double” cave where he was buried, and which was at c Hebron then owned by the children of c Heth or “terror”; but it is curious that at Purim when the Aa-bera-im curse Haman they forget that Abera-Ham is connected with Ezekiel’s Haman-Gog and with Haman the A-Gag-i, as Elo-Him may be also, at least by name. The son of c Heth or “terror,” perhaps c Hai-eth or “beast-like,” that is c Hi or Bes, was Aepher-on, who as a “roe-buck” may represent Set, of whom the gazelle was a symbol, or it may be the “dust” in the sense of “many,” “much”; but these c Het-i or ” c Hit-ites” called Abera-Haman (Gen. 23:6) a Nesie Elohim or “prince-of-God,” yet he prostrated himself twice before them. The cave was before Ma-Mere, which is another name of c Heber-on (23:19;5:27), but is elsewhere (14:13) with his brothers called Ba-Aal-i Ber-ith of Abera-Ham, and fights in alliance with him when the Arabaa or “four” kings c Heber themselves (14:3) against the western tribes, smiting the Repha-im, the Aamalek-i, the Amor-i, &c. ; and without Abera-Ham the account may be read (v. 13) “Ma-Mere the A-Mor-i, brothers A-Shechol, and brothers Oaner and Ham, Ba-Aal-i Berith,” &c. ; this Ham being rendered “these,” but it is Ham again in v. 24, and compare v. 5; so that “four” or Arebaa applies to this story of Kiri-oth Arebaa or “Fortress of the Four,” otherwise c Hebron or the “allies,” otherwise Ma-Mere or “fearful.” But as Kir or “wall” implies “resistance” (Lev. 26:21, 28, “contrary”) or hostile “meeting,” the words Kiri-oth Arebaa may mean the “Four Resisters” as against the four resisted who had beaten the five kings as well as the giants ; so that the story is set forth to explain the name of c Heber-on or the “alliance” where Abera-Ham had settled in the Elon-i or “inns” of Ma-Mere (13:18), just after the promise (v. 16) that his seed should be as the Aepher of the Earth, which refers to Aepher-on from whom the double cave was bought. Ma-Mere was an Amor-i, and it seems the cave was bought of a son of c Heth, but we find allusion to them in the promise to Noa c h (9:2), “and your Morae and your c Hith shall be over all the c Hai-ith” or “beast-kind,” &c; and the Ezekiel (16:3, 45) says to Jerushalem “the A-Mor-i were thy father, and thy mother a c Hith-ith ,? ; all which tends to show that these people were super-human or un-human. Ma-Mere or the “terror” was perhaps a woman, somewhat like Ia-Ael the wife of c Heber, and murderess of Sisera; and at the near-by Beth Le c hem was the shrine of Mara or Naa-Ami the widow of Eli-Melech or Molech; who may well be suspected as Mer-t or the “beloved” of Ptah, that is, Sekhet the lion-goddess of Memphis; while Debor-ah or the “fever-plague” fury who dwelt under the Ta-Mar tree and praised the ferocity of Ia-Ael, and Ta-Mar who made of the lion Jehud-ah a Buz, seem this concept of the avenging heat of the Sun; hence Ma-Mere or Am-Mere, “mother-fearful,” perhaps, who may have given name as their deity to the A-Mor-i.

8. These A-Mor-i dwelt in c Hazazon Ta-Mar and in the Mount of c Her-es (Gen. 14:7; Judges 1:35); c Hazaz meaning to “cut,” to “hew,” and c Heres is rendered the “Sun” in places, and evidently “Horus,”* the frequent emblem of whom is a lion. Whether, however, c Hebron suffered from the ill-repute of its people or not, it may be seen that it was the earliest seat of the Aabera-im, and it was first there that Abera-Ham was called “the Aaber-i” (Gen. 14:11), while it seems they were a distinct tribe from the Israel-i (1 Sam. 14:21), and the c Heber or “alliance” with the Amor-i and Pelisheth-im was “as beforetime”; David himself with his Aabera-im marching against Sha-Aul with these latter. It would not be far afield, perhaps, to say that Arebaa the father of the Aa-Nak was a form of the name Abera-Ham as well as of Aabera, and that his was an early name of the giant deity of c Hebron appropriated by later legend as ancestor of the Aabera-im. That Chaleb or “Anub-is” gave his daughter Aa-Ches-ah to Aa-Theni-El or “lion-god,” whose son was c Hath-ath or “terrible,” that is, “beastly,” indicates the same cult, and that there the sons of c Heth still adored beasts as types of God.

9. The Phoenician brothers Shame-Merum and Usho are said in their legend to have been born of the giants. The first, whose name seems to mean “heaven-high,” learned how to build huts, as Jakob built Such-oth or “booths,” and dwelt at Tyre where c Hiram the architect was perhaps the same. Usho built the first ship, and learned how to make garments of skins, hence was evidently Melek-Areth the “skin-king,” or ysav or Shimesh-on or Eli-Jahu or Bes, or other “hairy” hero like Her-Akles, whose name seems the c Heru-Akel or “Horus the Lion” of the Egyptians. And yet Usho seems the same as the Phoenician c Hushor-Ptah, whom the Greeks identified with Hephsestos and Zeus Meilich; and c Hushor seems c Hez-Ir or “swine,” connected with the rites of Osir-is (Isaiah 66:17), and perhaps alluded to in the Job (38:31) as Mo-Shech-oth Chesil ta-Ptah, rendered “bands of Orion loosen,” as Osiris was identified with that constellation, which the Egyptians called Sa c h or “traverser,” that is, Pa-Sa c h, and the Arabs call Orion “giant” or Nephele, while Moshech-oth means “drawn,” “distended,” “tall,” as if by “fetters,” “cords,” and so Pa-Sa c h or “lame.” Gesenius here catches the reversing process of the Hebrew, which I herein establish, when he points out that Ches-il and Sach-el, both rendered “fool,” “folly,” are the same word; in which case there must have existed some prudential motive; but the reverse goes further, and we find that Ches a “cover” and Such a “cover” are the same; hence Such-oth or “booths” was a “tents”-festival of grapes and fruits, evidently sacred to Ches-ah or the “throne”-goddess Is-is, when Ches-El or “Orion,” that is, “Osir-is,” flames in the autumn sky; wherefore, it must seem, the month Chisel-en, parts of November and December, called by modern Arabs Rab-y or “great,” and curiously by the Persians of the old time Adar. In this connection it may be noted that the reverse of Si c h-or, a name in Hebrew for the Nile, is Ro- c Hes, which in Chaldaic means “inundation,” and in Hebrew to “bathe” the body, and Ro- c Hes may easily be Ari- c Hes the liongod of Debet or “Aphrodite-polis” in upper Egypt, who was son of the lioness Bas-t, but doubtless a phase of Osiris, perhaps of David.

10. The Phoenician Usho, however, seems clearly the Akkadian and Chaldean Ushu-Gal or “excelling-great” or “ogre,”* the Assyrian Basham or “excellent,” or Chaldean Bosh or “bad”; whence the hero King “Saul” or Sha-Aul, perhaps She-Gal or “ravish” (Isa. 13:16; Zech. 14:2), though translators make She-Gal “queen”* (Nehe. y.2\ Dan. 5:2), while King Ashur-Nezir-Pal calls himself a powerful
Ushu-Gal; and Sha-Aul “was Geb from his shoulders and upward than all the people.” Yet in the Job we have the word Aash or Aish understood as the constellation Great-Bear, which may connect with Usho, and possibly the Latin word Ursus, as it will be seen herein that Aash is in the name of Aash-Tor-eth ; Aash in Egyptian meaning “many,” “much.” It is more clear to me, however, that King Sha- Aul and the Arab month Shawwal, the hot month August, so connect that the king is a solar type, as I take Usho or Malach-Aareth and c Heru-Akel and Hercules ; but so the giant Orion appears conspicuous in August, and may among many have been held as the giant whom the hot Sun has summoned to help as his Sa c h or “messenger,” “runner,” as Egyptians called this constellation, or which holds the Sun in the captivity of night, or is held. It seems to me that this Egyptian word Aash or “much” enters into the name Aes-Av or Aeshav, as Af is the “flesh” or “body” of the dead or night Sun. Aes-Av is clearly the Phoenician Usho, probably the Arab Aash or “bear,” also “burden-carrier,” hence Aa-Zeb or Ia-Bez the “toiler”; but as Aes-Av his name suggests Shave, rendered “idol,” “false,” “evil,” “vain”; hence “Not shall you utter the name of Jehoah your God to Shave” (Ex. 20:7) ; “to Shave do you make yourselves fair” (Jere. 40:30) ; and in other texts (Ps.1:6; Mai.:14) there seems a personage; this of the Malachi reading, “Saying, Shave a servant of God, and what Bez-Aa-like our Shemar-en and our Shemar-et,” Acha-Shave-Rosh, to whom Eseter or Hadas-ah went, is the “Evil-Brother-Possessed” or “Head-of-Evil-Brothers,” but assimilated to the Persian word Kh-Shai-athia or “King,” while Vash-tiis a reverse of Shav-et; and so Jehudah married the daughter of Shavva, not Shua, whose surviving son was Shel-ah or ha-Lesh “the lion.”

*The correct reading of the cited text of Judges (1 :5) is “and Jo-El the Amori dwelt in Mount c Heres,” etc. ; and now why should Jo-El be omitted?

11. The most signal exploits of Usho were done under the name Hoshe-Aa (Num. 13:8, 16; Nehe. 8:17), who performed the most prodigious of all miracles by stopping the Sun a whole day, and one account claims that he exterminated the C h anaan-i; and the shrine of this monster at Timen-ath c Heres or (reverse) Sera c h shows the solar character of Usho or Jehoshu-Aa, for c Heres is “Horus” or Sunlight, and Timen is evidently Turn-On or Atum the Egyptian god of Sun-set, special deity of On or Annu, which the Greeks called Helio-polis, and which name Atum perhaps is Edom or yEsav who was “red” or Edemoa-i; yet the connection of Hoshe-Aa with the lion-god Shu or Shua seems probable, and in Egyptian his name means “light,” “heat,” “dry”; but it would be difficult to connect the meanings of the Chaldean Ushu-Gal and the Egyptian Shu as here given. Ie-Petha c h or “Jepthah,” the asserted son of Gile-Aad and of a Zan-ah, seems the same as c Hushor-Ptah or Usho, the Hebrew Hoshe-Aa or “Joshua,” but this phase of the demi-urge was east of Jordan, and his name derived directly from the Memphian name for Deity, Ptah.

12. Egyptians depict Bes or c Hi as an exaggerated Ptah; having a hideous head and brutal face, covered largely with hair, and a club-like tail and robust yet bowed legs. He was an ogre, but is often represented with a musical instrument and singing. The Greek Pan and Priapus and Hercules and Hephaestos are phases of Bes, who was often a protector of the innocent, and was merry-hearted till aroused. The goddess Ta-Ur or “the Mighty” is somewhat a feminine counterpart of Bes, and she is also called Shep-ut and Rel-et or Lel-et, and the Hebrew Aash-Tor-eth, who is often associated with Ba-Aal, is probably Ta-Ur, and so Lil-ith and De-Lil-ah; and so the Hebrew word Tire or Tare, “fearful/’ “terrible,” “awful,” may be derived from the name Ta-Ur; as the Tare-Dam-ah or “deep-sleep” that fell on Adam and Abraham and Sha-Aul (Gen. 2:21 ; 15 :i2; 1 Sam. 26:12) all seem at least a play on her name as the “red-terror” or “bloody-terror” ; while the Sha-Baz who caught hold of Sha-Aul (2 Sam. 1 :g) was not “anguish” but more probably Usho-Bez; and so Shobach or “thick-boughs” who caught A-Besh-Alom is evidently Usho-Bach or Usho the “entangler,” perhaps the “Ne-Buch-im they in the land” (Ex. 14:3) being his followers, and connecting with c Ha-Besch the Arab word for “confused,” “mixed,” applied to and from which we get the name Abyssinia, where c Ha-Bes was the lion-god. I-Shemaa-El and Shel-omeh each had a daughter named Bas-Am-eth or “beast-maid,”‘ unless it be the Assyrian Basham of “excelling”; and one married ^Esav and the other was wife of A c hi-Maaz or “angry-brother,” if not angry c Hai or “beast.” The Ia-Bish-ah where Sha-Aul was buried under the Eshel was perhaps the shrine of some feminine counterpart of Bes or Besh, and Ja-Besh is rendered “dry,” “drouth/’ implying heat, yet it must be the Chaldean word Besh or “bad,” the Hebrew “shame,” while Sha-Aul himself evidently typefies the Sun of Summer. David’s A-Bish-Ag, sought to give him “heat” or c Ham, is a more certain form of the same, as Ag is perhaps an abreviation of Agag, which in Arabic means “flame,” “to burn,” but was perhaps a Chaldean Igag or Sky arch-angel. And she may connect with Meth-Eg the Anim-ah, not “bridle of the mother-city,” perhaps; but “Isha-a Jehoah David in all that walked” (2 Sam. 8:1, 6, 14), which suggests Usho instead of “gave-victory.”

13. Certain friends of David, in the revolt of A-Besh-alom, bore the similar names of A-Bish-ai or Ab-Ishai, c Hushai, Shobi the son of Na c hash or “serpent,” while among his foes were Sheb-aa, A- c Hi-tophel or “beast-fallen,” &c, and this Sheb-aa was of Har Ephera-im, that place of mystery which may be named for the Egyptian Heru em Per-t or “Coming-forth by Day” of the departed soul ; a phase of which survives perhaps in the feast of Pur-im when winter is ended and Per-i or “fruits” came forth with the Sun in Egypt in the season of Per-t or “growing.”

14. In the story of Ja-Bez or Aa-Zab, “sorrow,” rather the Aa-Zab or “laborer,” just as Adam was cursed with “labor” or Aa-Zab, we find sinister names; such as E-Shaton (Shat or Shad was in Egypt the god of slaughter), Shu c h-ah or “destroyer,” Te c hin-ah or “suppliant,” “Beth-Rapha or “house-giant,” Chaleb or “dog,” Kenaz or “hunter,” Pasea c h or the “lame,” &c, all men of Rech-ah or “length”
(Arcch). They are put down as descendants of Jehud-ah or the “splendid,” who as Had-ad was evidently the same as Dad or David, and a solar type; his wife seeming also to be E-Pherath-ah (1. Chr. 4:1, 4) as c Hur was son of both, but certainly was the same as Chaleb (2:19) the father of c Hur or “Horus,” for Epherath-ah was evidently a woman, the Greek Aphrodite, the Egyptian of which would be Pha-Raa-Da-t or “the Sun’s gift”; hence she was Le c h-Em or “Shining-Mother”; hence Beth-Le c hem of Je-Hud-ah, where Dad or David was son of Ishai or Usho, called Bo-Aaz there, and so Ushu-Aa or “Jes-us.” The Bechor or “first-born” of Epherath-ah was c Hur, which means a “cave,” but also “white,” and Buz or “white” gives the word Byss-us for white or white-linen, as in the Esther ( 1 :6) both words are used ; hence Bo-Aaz or Bes and c Hur seem the same ; and so Bozez and c Harar both mean “glowing,” “bright,” “shining,” as the Arab word Lu c h means, hence Lu c h-oth or “tablet”; and so the Le c h-i or “jaw-bones,” that is, “rays,” with which Shimesh-on wrought death, and which as Lux passed even into the Latin; and so c Hur’s first-born was Aur-i or “lights,” which was very natural if we read that he and not Epherath-ah was father of Beth Le c h-Em. The grandson of c Hur was the Maleach Be-Zal-El (Ex.1:1, &c), “a worker in-the-Abyss-of-God,” the same as the Maleach c Hur-am of Tyre, it must seem, which latter built the temple without noise of axe or hammer; and both A-Zel and c Heram are rendered “reserved,” “set-apart,” perhaps in a subservient or sinister sense, since both were laborers, and labor was deemed a curse. Indeed, the Egyptians, whose Sekhet or “Field” of Aal-u was a garden, not seeing how food would grow without labor, but also not understanding that the blessed could work the field, deposited with every corpse a clay figure of a man; a custom they continued till the Moslem conquest, and this substitute was called a Shabti, which as one who gives “rest” would serve well as Hebraic; and Maleach or “worker” is the Egyptian word Mena k h or “worker.”

15. At the famous meeting of Ia-Aakob and ysav, the former asks that he may go “to the foot of the Maleach-ah which before him,” and to the foot of the children, till he arrives “to my Adon of Seair-ah,” and this Maleach-ah (fern.), perhaps one of those that met him at Ma- c Hena-im, not the man that wrestled with him, could not well be “cattle,” but an angelic-worker, for they at once went to Such-oth, and built a house “to him,” and to his Ma-Kan-ah made Such-oth, that is, to the Egyptian Sekhet, who must have been a goddess of “fields” or agriculture, as Se k h also in Egyptian means “plough”; but this building to Ma-Kan-ah or “possessor-ess” (usually “of cattle” implied) suggests Kain (Gen. 4:1), a Kan-ith man of Jehoah, the first to build a city, but who lived a Naa or “wanderer” when driven from above the ground; wherefore Tubal-Kain or the “lustful” or “beast-like” (Lev. 18:23) Kain, was perhaps the same; and Tubal-Kain was a Lot-Esh, rendered “forger,” but “hidden-fire,” implying “magic,” hence was son of Zill-ah or “shade,” and so Be-Zale-El the Maleach and c Huram and Kain and Tubal-Kain seem of the Hadas-im in the Ma-Zull-ah (Zech. i :8), who walk the Earth (v. 10) as Kain wanders when on it.

1 6. Kain, evidently son of Na c hash, as the story of the eating of the fruit seems to imply, may possibly be El Aeli-on, rendered “God Most-High/’* called “Kon-eh of Heaven and Earth” (Gen. 14:19; 22), as in Assyrian Kai-van, easily contracted to Kain, means “most-high,” same as Sak-Ush in Akkadian; and as Suk-Ush is a name of Ishtar, Aish-Tor-eth, the horned As-Tar-te, &c, the Ma-Kan-ah or “cattle” at Such-oth may suggest that she was goddess there, as she was more than a thousand years after the supposed time of Ja-Akob (2 K. 17:30), and appears to have been a goddess of the ancient giants (Gen. 14:5 ; Deut. 1 ‘.4) ; wherefore c Hiram wrought near Such-oth (1 K. 7:45-46), to which the Maleach-ah came with Ja-Akob (Gen.3:14). Of the Kain-ites was Ja-Ael or the “lofty,” wife of c Heber, and assassin of Si-Se-Ra, evidently a giant-ess, for the Kain-i were a band of Midian or the “tall,” like the Med-atha the father of Haman the Agag-i; but Ja-Ael or “wild-goat” (1 Sam. 24:2; Job.9:1; Ps. 104:18) suggests a connection of the murderess with the Seair-ah or “she-goat” of iEsav, &c. In any case it would be expected that a Ma-Leach should come and build for Ja-Akob.

17. If Ma-Leach or “worker” is not the Egyptian Manea k h, “worker,” and we look to the Chaldaic, we find the man-god Merodach called Mulu-Khi or “man-god,” as Lenormant renders it; clearly the old Akkad third person Mul-ge, who was lord of the Un-Seen world, and became Bel the demi-urge of a later time, that is, “Merodach” or Marduk; but whether we get from this Malach or “King,” or Ma-leach or “worker” and “angel,” is not clear, perhaps both ; yet, like the Egyptian word, both imply an active agent, a Demi-Urg-os or “worker for the people,” the Greeks said. A personage of this sort must be Titanic ; and the Pele at the annunciation of Shimesh-on (Judges 13:18) seems a Ne-Phel-im or “giant,” hence “wonderful,” and connects this Maleach Je-hoah with his appearance Nore (v. 6) or “fiery” very, with his son the gigantic Shim-esh-on or Bes or Malach-Aareth, the Sun of Summer. It is curious, however, that Maleach, or the Egyptian word Manea k h as “worker,” has the same meaning as Amon, rendered “Master-Workman” (Prov. 8:30); “to form,” “to shape”; hence Haman the Agag-i; Te-Mun-ah or “shape” (Job 4:16; Ex. 20:4) ; the Ma-Mon of the days of Jesus (Mat. 6:24).

* El Ael-ion rather means the “God Above,” as in Ba-
Aal or “in the Above;” so Ja-Ael who murdered Sisera.

18. It does not appear that Ia-Aakob complied with his promise to go to his Lord of Seair-ah, and the reason may be that Ja-Aakob typefies the Sun-rise. In Egyptian the mountain of Baa k h-a, the reverse of which is A k haab, meant the Sun-rise, and Man-u was the mountain of Sun-set, while “mountain” was their word Set, the Har and Gib-aa of the Hebrew. The night “wrestle” was Abek, which initiation was at the Aaber of Ia-Bok, both of which seem forms of his name ; but the place was the same Ma- c Hena-im which he named for the Maleach-im, and Ma- c Hen or “camp” also means “grace” or “favor,” that is, of the Adon of Seair-ah or Edom, who was born Edemoni,
“red,” which sounds like Ta-Man-u or (in Egyptian) “land of Sun-set”; but Ma- c Hen-a may suggest the Egyptian boat of the Sun called c Hen-nu, in which the Sun “passed- over ” or Aaber* in Hebrew, and which boat was evidently the Seair-ah or oryx-barge “in the way of Seair-ah” (33:16).

Note that Aaber is used five times in Gen.2:21-23. The same profusion is notable in the “pass-over” or Aaber of the Israel-i under Jehoshuaa, and at the return of David over Jordan from Ma- c Hena-im in the Aaber-ah or “ferry- boat.”

19. The “messengers” sent to TEsav by Ia-Aakob were also Maleachs, and are fully as much entitled as the others to be translated “angels”; nor is it supposable that the same writer would use the same word in a different sense in a following verse (32:3-4); hence it must be that the Maleachs at Ma- c Hen-eh were used as envoys to 7Es-av, in the field of Edom, to find c Hen (v. 6) ; and that “servants” or Aebad-im (vs. 6, 16) could not perform such high function is notable; so that these “messengers” were evidently angel-workers like c Hur-am and Be-Zale-El. But certainly the story is somewhat the same as that of Israel fleeing before Pha-Reaoh (Ex. 14:19; comp. 13:20-21), and that of Jehoshuaa when he met the Sar Zebaa (Josh. 5 113-15), who here plays a vague part, similar to that of 7Es-av, or that of the Maleach-i; but in case of the Aaber or “pass-over” of David to and from Ma- c Hena-im-ah, Zibaa the outcast recalls the captain Ze-baa (Aa-Bez, if reversed), and the name Chi-Maham or “like Ma-Haman” suggests the giant Haman, while the only one called “a Maleach of the God” is David himself (2 Sam. 19:27), and this by the Pa-Sa c h or “lame” Mephi-Besh-eth, who as Memphis- or Moph- “Shame” must stand for Ptah or his Syrian type Bes or Bosh or Usho.

20. Egyptian tablatures depict Bes or c Hi with a tail, on which he is often seen to squat; but Assyrian ogres or monsters all have wings. Bo-Aaz had a Chanep or “wing” it must seem, for Ruth (3:9) asks him to expand his Chanep for that he is a Go-El. This word is rendered “near-kinsman,” “redeemer,” “avenger,” “polluted,” but Ge or Go means the “high” or “upraised,” “majestic” ; hence Go-El or the “lofty-God,” akin to the Akkad word Gal-u, perhaps, that is, “big,” “excelling.” Ba-Aal Chanep or “winged Ba-Aal” (Prov. 1:17; Eccle. 10:20) certainly seems some violent persons “greedy of gain” or Bez-aa Bez-aa. The Chanep of the Me- Ail which David cut from Sha-Aul (1. Sam. 24:4) does not disprove this view, since the giant was not naked, and the Me- Ail seems a “wild-goat” or Ael-skin, like the Seair or “hairy” ^Esav and Eli-Jahu.* Nebu-Chad-Negar’s Seaire became like an eagle’s, which probably means he became winged. It was on wings of “eagles” or Neshar-im that Jehoah says (Ex. 19:4) he bore Bene-Israel out of Egypt to Har Sinai; a statement, contrary as it is to the condemnation of the Chaldean monarch, tends to identify Jehoah with c Har or “Hor-us,” as he certainly seems so identified when called “Jehoah tne Haras” (1 K. 18:30), rendered “the Lord that was thrown down”; for the “hawk” or Bak is the hieroglyph of Horus (whence perhaps Bakch-as, as Neshar may give us Dio-Nysi-us) ; and in the cited text Ba-Aal or Set, the Egyptian mountain or desert god, was silent, while Jehoah’s altar was Ie-Repe by the hairy Bes or Eli-Jahu in the presence of A c heab (or Bea c ha) at Charam-El, where doubtless the “vineyard” or Charem god had a memorable shrine; for Ie-Repe or “healed” suggests the Egyptian “wine” or Pa-Arep, the good Priap-us of the Greeks ; but he was answered by fire (vs. 24,8) as well as rain ; a story which separates Ba-Aal from the Melach-Aareth, Molech, &c, it must seem, and hence not consistent; and it also connects Je-hoah with Horus and the wine god Osir-is or Noa c h or Bacchus. The words Harus and Bus are rendered with like meaning (Isa. 14:17, 19; Zech. 10:5; Ex. 15:7, &c), and in the Egyptian worship of the date of these Bible stories Bes had absorbed the attributes of A-Tum and Ra and c Heru-Ur (“Aroer-is”) as the old Sun, while c Har or “Horus” was the young Sun, the Sun of morning or of Spring; hence Je-Bus as a town and shrine of the old concept became the Hiero-Solyma or Horus-Solyma of the Greeks, it may seem; and this would explain, perhaps, the columns Bo-Aaz and la-Chin placed before the temple, as c Hun in Egyptian means “child” or “youth/’ and Horus is called c Hun in the “Sorrows of Isis,” while the Metternich Stele represents Bes and Horus apparently as father and son.

*The “robe” or Me-Ail (1 Sam. 2:19; 28:14) of Shemu-
El was a goat-skin or fleece of the wild-goat

21. The connection of Bez or Ie-Bus with TEsav appears when it is said that TEsav “despised” or Ji-Bez his birthright, and when we find his wife called Bas-Emath, whose father’s name, Ael-on, means “strong” and also a “ram,” while Math or E-Math suggests “death,” though Em-ath may be merely “mother,” or “Am-ath,” handmaid.” Sha-Aul, the second syllable of whose name may be for “strong” or “ram” was also “despised” or Ie-Bez-ah by the sons of Beli-Aal, who asked “What Ieshuaa this?” not “How shall this man Ieshuaa us.” (i Sam. 10:27), for the old word Usho-Gal or “ogre” meant to a feeble people a “saviour,” if even in a Ie-Bez or “despised” form, for Sha-Aul had been turned into an Aish A c har (10:6; 117), literally a “man behind” or “fierce man,” the Greek and Egyptian Acher-on or Charon, or perhaps c Har or “Horus.” It seems certain that Sha-Aul nor /Esav, any more than Bez or Malech-Areth or Pan or Hercules, is to be considered less than a demi-god; “saviours” when with us, c Her-ah or “fierce” when against us, hence Aish A- c Har may be a “fierce man,” though in Egypt every king called himself a c Har or “Horus.” I-Shemaa-El the Kash-eth or “archer”; Nabal the Kesh-ah or “churlish,” whom David calls c Hai or “beast” (rendered “him-that-liveth”) ; Sha-Aul and Mordech-ai as descendants of Kish, all were sylvan concepts, it must seem; that is, Kish-eth or “snarers”; and so, when El-Ishaa is conducting the hairy Eli-Jahu to the Seair-ah or “goat-barge,” and asks a gift, he calls El-Ishaa “Kesh-ith to Sheol” o r “snarer to Hades,” rendered “hard to grant”; hence we should take Kish and its derivatives in an evil sense.

22. Aaz-Azel, to whom the Seair-Aaz or “hairy-goat” was sent at the Atonement, evidently represents the rejected deity of the fields, or the Sun of winter, as the “goat” or “strong” when Azel or “departed.” At the other autumn festival (Such-oth), a portion was sent to Ain Nachon, rendered “nothing-is-prepared” (Nehe. 8:10), but which means the “not erect,” the “imperfect,” the “un-sincere.” The two evil personages are connected by the incident of Auzz-ah, whose name means “strength” or “goat,” and who was smitten by the God for touching the Aron at the inn of Nachon (2 Sam. 6:7); and this was notice to David to leave the Aron or chest at the house of Aobed Edom or “servant of Edom” or TEsav; thus opposing Na-Chon to Auz-ah or Aaz-Azel, the “erect” to the satyr concept or beast type of Deity; but David, offended by the death of Auz-ah, appeased the satyr by leaving the boat at the dwelling of his servant for three months, perhaps the winter season of Capri-Cornu. And at Such-oth feast the Nehemiah (8:10) proceeds to tell the people “the joy of Jehoah, he your Auz” ; a significant statement because it is probable, very probable, that iEzeRa and Ne c hem-Jah introduced the name Jehoah at this time as the correct name of Deity, which would imply that the word is rather from an Euphratic language. And this may further appear if we take the feast lorn Chipper, which happens at nearly the same time, as the same observance, but by the Canaanites; and that both are in token of grief at the departure of the Sun and warmth and vegetation is attested if we understand that Aaz-Azel of the one and Ain Na-Chon of the other are the same. The two pillars before the temple may find here an explanation of their names, for Bo-Aaz would represent the old or winter Sun, the “hairy” Seare or Capri-Corn-u, ^Es-Av, A-Tum as the Sun-set Deity in Egypt, the Greek Pan who was nurse of infant Bakch-os; while la-Chin or Na-Chon, which any Hebraist would understand as the same word, and meaning the “erect,” hence the risen, finds c Hun in Egyptian meaning “child,” “young,” with which may be compared the statues at Memphis before the temple of Ptah called Summer and Winter (Herod. 2:121).

23. The daily and yearly birth of the Sun was the source of numerous myths or ideals; the old or winter Sun being hoary or hairy, hence horny, the Kronos of the Greeks (the Karan or “horn” of Hebrew), and Satur-n-us of the Latins, called also Latius (from Lateo), as Lot and Seter in Hebrew both mean “concealed,” and so the Greek Satyr; the Saturnalia at Rome when the Sun is in Capri-Corn in the month Tybi or Tebet of Egyptians and Hebrews, which is the Teb-ah or “ark” of Noa c h and Mosheh, but particularly the Seair-ah which carried off /Esav and Eli-Jahu; but see the note at the end of this chapter.

24. But the Seair-ah out of which Jehoah addressed Job (38:1) comes nearer to my understanding as the “great Rua c h” and “great Seaare” which were sent by Jehoah to punish the fugitive Jonah (1:4), and whom they or it found asleep in the recesses of the Sepin-ah (v. 5), that is, Spain, or the “hidden,” or a “ship” of that far sunset land. Rua c h is also a Phoenician word, and figures in the mythology of that land as the wind-god ;* and in the Genesis (1:2) as Rua c h Elohim it rubbed an opening in the seas, while in the following Jahvist document Jehoah Elohim is said to be walking in the garden “to the Rua c h of the Sea,” as horn means both “sea” and “day,” and as the guilty pair heard his voice, as Job did, and as at Pentecost (The Acts, 2:2-4), we may conclude that “cool of the horn” should be altered into the sense of terror, as Seaire also implies, as appears from their hiding in the tree, “for I crafty,” said Adam, since Aeirom is the Aarum of verse 1, and he was not “naked” (v. 7) ; hence the Rua c h of the Sea and its voice connects with the Seair-ah or Jonah’s “tempest”; and Adam and Jon-ah became out-casts, as were Job and ^sav and El-Jahu. Shar-u in Chaldean is rendered “wind,” and Shar was doubtless the wind-god, for in their Deluge myth he and Nebo march in front of the thunderer Ramman or Rimmon, and overwhelm hill and plain ; and if personified there it is easily seen that it must have been likewise in Palestine, and also given an aspect of “terror” or Seaire, hence “hairy” and “goat” as well as “whirlwind.” The Greeks personified the North wind as Boreas, which was a terror, and at the same time may refer to the Bar-is or “barge,” the Egyptian Bari; and Boreas was certainly depicted with wings and white hair, and was worshipped. The Egyptians depicted the North wind as a goat or ram with four heads, and with two pair of outspread wings ; while the East wind was of like head, but with only one, and one pair of similar wings ; reminding us that “Jehoah caused to go the sea in the Rua c h Kad-im Aaz-ah all the night” (Ex. 14:21), and Kadim Aaz-ah is “ancient goat” (fern.) as well as “East strong,” which seems a remnant of the original myth of the pass-over of the Sun or his Af or “body” in the Seker or c Hennu barge of the oryx-prow; for Bene-Isera-El was then before Ba-Aal Zephon, which may be Ba-Aal of “the North,” and is identified by students with the Greek Typhon, that is, Set the brother-foe of Osiris, but also with the Arab word Tuphan or “whirl-wind,” and thus connecting with Seaar-ah and Kadim Aaz-ah. The word Zephan also means “hidden,” and so does Sepan, and Jonah took refuge in the recesses of the Sepin-ah or “ship.” The Red Sea was the sea of Sup, or Suph, and Sup-ah is also “tempest” (Job 27:20; Isaiah 17:13, &c), but perhaps in its usual sense “to sweep away,” “to carry-off.” The Such-oth observance in Autumn was also called A-Sep or A-Seph, for the Sun was then retreating to his Such-ah or “tabernacle” or “covert,” just as Bene Isera-El and Ja-Aakob were at Such-oth, and Seph or A-Seph means both to “take away,” or “withdraw” and the atrium of a sanctuary; so Jo-Seph or Jo-Sep was the “taken away,” and Zephan-ath or “hidden.” The A-Seph Suph (Num. 11:4), rendered “mixed multitude,” is perhaps taken from the Jeremiah (8:13; also Zeph. 1:2), and as “I will consume” implies a destroyer or eater; hence it Te-Av Te-Av-ah or “fell a-lusting” (compare the Ta-Av-ah or “delight” of Eve, Gen.:6), that is, “desire for flesh” or the Egyptian word Af ; which as a monster is thus identified with the Ae-Reb Rab or “mixed multitude” (Ex. 12:38) that went up with Bene Isera-El, and which as Ae-Reb seems also taken from the great personages to be cursed in the Jeremiah (25:20, 24), the Rab or “mighty-one” of the Isaiah (19:20), so that A-Seph Suph and Aereb Rab was some powerful creature, some “great Dark” one, which was of the geni or giant brood; perhaps connected with the body of Jo-Seph, and certainly with the Sel-Av or “quails” that went up (Ex. 16:13), which was clearly not “quails.”

* Vahu was the wind-god of the Persians ; whence probably Jahu or Jehoah.

25. Seair-ah, as feminine of Seaire, connects with “Esau” or Aes-Av, a name which in Egyptian as Aash-Af would mean “much-flesh,” implying both size and voracity. There is much in favor of the view that “the Adam, the Adam this,” which he asked Ja-Aakob to let him seize, was a “man,” perhaps a “red man,” whom Aes-Av would have eaten had not his brother given bread and lentils instead. The giantology of all nations is connected with flesh-eating, and even that of human captives; and, as an aspect of Melach-Areth or the “skin-king,” to whom as Molech the Hebrews offered their children.

“The God” even directed the patriarch Aberaham to thus sacrifice his son, but then spared the youth. So, at the famous Berith or “covenant” of Jehoah and Bene-Iserael (Ex. 24:11), where “the Elohim was seen to eat and to drink,” it seems to me indicated from, verses 5-6 what his meat and drink were, or at least that children were sacrificed to him on this important occasion; but the stronger similarity of Jehoah and Aes-Av is that the God of Isra-El also used the Seair-ah or Seaar-ah (Job8:1 ;Gen.3:16).*

* Whether the initial letter be a Sin or a Samech this word is usually rendered “storm,” “tempest,” “whirlwind,” but only “goat” when the Sin is used.


i. David, like Shimesh-on, was a lion-killer; as both were aspects of the “skin-king” or Melech-Aaor. A “skull” or Gol-shaped rock at Jerushalem, called Gol-Gatha, made David also a giant-killer, as David is said to have carried the giant’s head there before he dispossessed the Ie-Bus-i (i Sam. 17:54), and GolJath of Gath is the Gol-Gatha of the Son of David.

2. Ar-Aun-ah the Ie-Bus-i has the Ari-eh or “lion” name, and he may be meant for Bes or Ie-Bus. It was at his Garon that the Ma-leach of the Ma-She c h-ith stayed her “destructive” hand, and Sekhet was the lion-goddess, wife of Ptah at Memphis, who had a shrine in Josiah’s time at Jerushalem (2 K. 23:13), called Mount of the Ma-She c hith, but there identified with Aash-Tor-eth ; yet at Pa-Sa c h, if blood was on the door-post, “there shall be no plague to Ma-She c h-ith in my Hach-oth” (Ex. 12:13), which latter may refer to her name as Ur- c Hek, the Greek Hek-ate. In the curious and unintelligible chapter (2 Sam. 24:) of David’s census, the net result is that he occupies Ie-Bus, and sets up a Mi-Zeb-a c h or “altar” to Jehoah, a reverse of which word is c Ha-Bez, the lion-god of “Abyssinia,” which, as the Arab words c Ha-Besch, bears his name. Scholars have failed to note that the Hebrew (i Chron. 4:9-10) itself says that the name of the old deity Ja-Aa-Bez is a reverse of Aa-Zeb or “sorrow,” or “pain,” “toil” (Gen.:16, 17), and the Zeb-a c h or “altar” may have name from worship of c Ha-Bez; the “Chi-Bes (or “like” Bes) in the wine to his shame” (Gen. 49:11), as spoken of Je-Hud-ah the lion, of whom Tamar made “to Buz” (38:23); and Je-Hud-ah was no doubt Bez or Je-Bus. Ja- Aa-Bez seems in the Chronicle story the same as Shob-al or la-Bosh of the preceding verse 1, which is the la-Bush or “garments” (correctly “to shame”) of Gen.8:23, as well as the la-Buz or “to shame” of that text; but the Chronicler makes Shob-al a son instead of the same as Ie-Hud-ah. This Ia-Aabez was Ni- Chebad than his brothers, strictly “heavier,” usually “hardened” ; but Ai-Chabod the son of Phi-Ne c has, or in Egyptian “the black,” shows that Chebod is the k Haibit or “shadow” of a man, hence Ja-Aa-Bez was “darker,” “gloomier” ; confirmed by Ai-Chebod’s mother’s name, Bas-t or Sekhet of the Egyptian Inscriptions; regarded in this book as the She c hath or Ma-She c hath worshipped at Jerushalem, rendered the “Destroyer,” perhaps Aash-Toreth, perhaps feminine of Bes or Ja-Bez. Lal-ath, rendered “near-to-be-delivered” (!); and Phi-Ne c has must have priests’ food c Hi or “raw” (i Sam. 2:15, 22), and he violated the “serving women” or Zabba-oth in the temple of Jehoah Zabba-oth at Shiloh.

3. Saba in Arabic means “lion,” but “fox” in Egyptian, and “man” in Ethiopic, while Zeeb in Hebrew is “wolf,” Zebo is “hyena” ; and Bas or Ba c ha in Egyptian is “panther” or “leopard” ; hence Sab and its reverse Bes seem somewhat the same, and doubtless the Latin Bestia came from this source, while the Greek Bas-il or “king,” a “sheep-skin,” is probably Bes-El, a Syrian word; for the priest Vespasian consulted at Elijah’s shrine Tacities calls Basilides, which was perhaps a general title of them, for Eli-Jah and the Tyrian Me-lach-Areth or “skin-king” were in close proximity. Zabba-oth or “Hosts” is a title given Jehoah, but the title is not given him in the Hexateuch, Judges, Job, Ezekiel, or what are called Solomon’s writings; yet Zabba-oth is a feminine plural, and I suspect “signs,” “portents,” of the constellations, with their beast figures, gave name to the “serving women” of Zeb or Bez ; hence Aa-Zib-ea or “finger” wrote the ten commandments, as a Syb-il might have done. In Egyptian, however, the hieroglyph Seb is a “star,” symbol of worship, and the Jeremiah tells us (44:19) the Jeudean women made cakes to “the Aa-Zib-ah,” not “worship,” who seems to be called Malacheth of Heavens, though Malech-ah would be “queen.” Shabbe is the name Pausanias gives the Hebrew sybil, of whom we doubtless have a memory in the story of Ai-Zebel (not “Jezebel”), before whom even the puissant Eli-Jahu fled, to “return” (ti-Shibi), however, from Gile-Aad as Jehue the chariotier, and destroy the sorceress, for had not Eli-Jahu gone away in a chariot?

4. From Phrygia, where Sabazius was son of Kybele, to C h ush or Merve on the upper Nile, anciently called Saba, we have the footprints of the mighty Seb or Bez ; and the Boz-Ra (not “Byrsa”) of Carthage and of Edom, and perhaps Byzantium near the Euxine, as well as the titles Sebastos and Basilios of the Greeks, attest the expanse over which the beast-king ruled and the impress of the strength of this tilanic concept. In Abyssinia he was called c Hi-Bes; Egypt perhaps adopted him as Seb the father of Osiris, and he was also c Hi and Bes of their inscriptions. We find his name in the Sicher-Bas or Acher-Bas of Tyre and Carthage, and probably in the Zabba-oth of Jews and Phoenicians, as in the Je-Bus of Jerushalem and the Bu-Bastis of Egypt. In the classics he is divided into the hairy Heracles, Hephsestos or Vulcan, Pan, Neptune, the bearded Bacchus, Saturn or Kronos, Hades or Pluto, &c.

5. The swan-song of Jakob and the 8th of Genesis clearly indicate that Je-Hud-ah, not “Jtidah,” was this lion-type of demi-Deity. The syllable “ah” at the end of a masculine name in Hebrew suggests to me the definite article Ha, and that some concealment is designed. Thus the Greek word Had-es or Ha-Des may be the origin of Ha-Duh-ei, reverse of Je-Hud-ah, and Ho-Du or “India” is in point (Esth.
1:1). In the oracle of Ja-Aakob his son Je-Hud-ah is given all the lion names, and even Cha-Bes or “washed” suggests the lion-god c Ha-Bes of Abyssinia, though also meaning “like Bes” ; and from this lion “Not shall depart a staff and a Ma- c Hoekk (the “flail” or “flag-elum” or k Hekek of Osiris*), from between his loins till that cometh Shil-oh, and to him a tak-ing of the peoples” ; and this seems the words of a Hellenised Jew, for Shil-oh is reverse of ha-Lish or “the Lion”; Lis in Greek; hence also Hellas and E-Lish-ah (Gen. 10:4; Ezek. 27.7); and the reference is to A-Lesh-Ander or “the Lion-Man” of Macedon; also mentioned in the8th Genesis as Shel-ah or ha-Lesh the son of Jehudah; but there is possibly allusion to Mo-Shel or “ruler” (Micah. 5:2), that is, Shel-it or Sul-tan.

* Wilkinson says it was emblem of dominion, given sometimes by deities to the kings. It seems the “fan” of the Matthew (3:12). The “staff” or Sheb-At was evidently the crooked staff, emblem of majesty, often held in the same divine hand as the k Hekek.

f I-Ka c h-eth or Ma-Ka c h-oth is rendered “taking” (2
Chron. 19:7), “ware” (Nehe. 10:31).

6. It seems incredible that the Hebrews, an ignorant and imaginative people, should claim not to have had visible and beast symbols for their several concepts of Deity. The fierce and persistent attacks on “idols” show that they had. Besheth or “shameful-thing” had an altar in every street of Jerushalem five centuries after the supposed era of David (Jere. 11 113; comp.:24), and seems connected with that most popular Hebrew name of Deity, Ba-Aal, the “Over” or ” In-the- Above” ; just as the Egyptian c Her or “Hor-us” means the “Over” or “Above” ; and this connection would evidently identify Ba-Aal with Besh or Bes; but this is done when the hairy Elijah is called man Ba-Aal, and probably as to Abraham when Sar-ah is spoken of (Gen. 20:3) as ” in the Aul-ath (or consecration) of Ba-Aal”*; that is, as an Aul-ah or Beth-Ulah, “virgin,” of Ba-Aal; and this accords with the Nesie Elohim or “exalted of God” that Abram is elsewhere (Gen. 23:6) called, and with Sar-ah as “princess”; but in Chaldaic Nesh is “lion.” The Egyptians made Ba-Aal the same as Set or Nubti or Sute k h (Sadok), and a war-god, and not the same as Bes. The word I-Bush in Chaldaic is rendered “made,” “to form,” corresponding to the Hebrew and Egyptian word Ptah or Patha c h in some degree, and to the Hebrew words Aesah and Bera, and hence “Creator” would be the Ie-Bus of Jerushalem, at least in the sense of Maleach or “worker” ; but, if such was the origin of this name and concept, the original meaning must have fallen into the opposite one of “shame,” that is, the Chaldaic Bashu or the “bad” ; and there seems little doubt that the name Ie-Bus or Bez is from the Egyptian word Basu or Ba c ha, which means “panther” or “leopard,” as he is also called c Hi in Egyptian, which in Hebrew means “beast,” and hence the c Hi-El who is said to have built a “house of the Gods” (Beth-ha-El-i) of Jeri- c Ho-h, was probably the same as the Ie-Bus of Jerushalem, and he seems to have sacrificed his two sons, Abi-Ram and Segub, whose names both mean “exalted” ; and c Hi-El is probably the same as c He-Zer-on, the “shut-up beast,” father of Ram and Segub (1 Chr. 2:9, 21), as well as of the “dog” Chaleb, who took to him Epherath-ah, whose son was c Hur (4:4), the Egyptian word for “Hor-us.”

7. In the later Egyptian, Bes or c Hi becomes solar, or rather the old Sun, as he was in Phoenicia perhaps always identified with Ullam or “Time,” expressed also by the word c Haled, hence c Huled-ah who gave the Tor-ah (2 K. 22:14); and the hairy Shimesh-on, shorn by De-Lil-ah, attests this solar concept of the lion-god in Judea by the precise names of the Sun and of the night. In the “Sorrows of Isis” (Budge, v. 2, p. 232), when c Heru is “stung” or Pesa c h, he is said to have been “nursed by a lioness, in the house of Net” (Neith), and Lel-et the bear-angel, a name of Ta-Ur, and c Ha-t and Bes, are asked to protect the limbs of the child; c Ha-t having the feminine terminal and sign. In Egyptian, however, c Ha or c Hi means the “fallen,” as the Ain Nachon or “not erect” (“nothing is prepared!”) of the Jewish feast Such-oth (Nehe. 8:10) ; but it cannot be certain that the Bacchic shout Hollol-u-Xai* (Plutarch’s El-lel-u-Jou at the O-Sochaphoria) alludes to c Hai or Bes unless Hallel refers to Bacchus as the grape month Elul might indicate, in which case the Hebrew Hallel-u-Jah or “Hallel and Jah” must refer to the younger and to the older con-cepts of Deity, such as (Dan. 7:13) the Athik of Days and Che-Bar man, or father and son; but Ain Nachon or c Hi as the “fallen” express the Hebrew word Nephil-im (Gen. 6:4; Num. 13:33), sons of Aa-Nak, the Anunak-i or Earth genii of the Chaldeans ; but in an Egyptian hymn to the Sun it is said “O thou who art Ra when thou risest and Tern when thou settest * * who traveleth across the sky * * the serpent-fiend Nak hath fallen and his two arms are cut off,” &c. ; and so it may be that Aa-Nak and Ain Nachou are the same, and that Nak was the Egyptian proto-type of them ; nor is it amiss to say that the usual name for the great serpent foe of Ra is Aapep, meaning “giant,” and that Nephil-im is often rendered “giants.”

8. It would thus seem that the ogres of “darkness” or “night,” the respective Egyptian words for which are Ne c has and Kek or Kora c h, give us the Hebrew word Na c hash or “serpent,” “enchanter,” “bronze,” and the Greek word Gorg-on; as Kek may be Gog; and so Kora c h is the rebel against Mosheh, and son of I-Za c har or “white” (Ex. 6:21), while Eli-Shaa is called Kora c h by the wicked children as perhaps meaning “black” and not “bald-head.” The overthrow of the Titans as classic story seems a tradition common to other peoples, and it is probable that the Na c hash who was condemned to crawl on his belly for deceiving Adam and c Hav-ah was a great dark ogre, hence is said to be “most high” or Aa-Rum (“piled-up,” Ex. 15:8) “from all the c Hai-eth” or “beast-like” of the Sid-ah; for there were men of the Sid-ah like the red and hairy Ae-Sav, twin son of Rebek-ah, perhaps reverse of ha-Keber or “the tomb.” Aa-Rum is usually rendered “crafty” or “naked,” and so Adam and c Hav-ah, after eating of the tree to “make wise” or Sachil, found they were Aei-Rum or “crafty,” hence could make girdles; so that “crafty” or “wise” is a double yet correct rendering of Aa-Rom as applied to the Na c hash, and which would accord with his name as “the diviner” (Gen. 44:5, 15, &c), also “sorcerer,” “enchanter.” Na c hash is thus a Pe-Rom-Theos or “Prometheus,” which in Egyptian would be Pe-Rom-Ta or Pe-Rom-Da, “Heaven-man-giver,” as Ta or Da is “to give,” and hence the Greek The-os and the Latin De-us, and Pe-Rom is “Heaven-man” or “the man”; for Na c hash had also taught mankind and suffered for it. He was Arur or “cursed” from all the Beham-ah or “beast-kind” and from all the c Hai-eth or “beast-like” ; and this accords with the statement the priests of Ptah made to Herodotus (2:142-144) that no deity had assumed the form of man within 11,340 years, during which time there had been a Pi-Rom-is who was high-priest for each generation, and that Pi-Rom-is in Greek means ”a noble and good man.” So, Ram, Me-Rom, and their variations in Hebrew, mean “high,” “lofty,” “elevated”; hence Aa-Meram or “Most-High” was father of Mosheh and also of Jesus (Luke 1:32,5), as, indeed, Abram in Egyptian, if Aab-Ram, would mean “priest-high” or “priest-man.” Na c hash was thus an Aa-Rum, precisely the same as Aa-Me-Ram, as Hebrew forms are put, and the word at least seems to mean one elevated by occult wisdom; so, the Mattah or “staff” of Mosheh is changed into a Na c hash, while that of Aharon is changed into a Thanin (Ex. 4:3; 7:9), which latter is Greek Py-Thon, no doubt, while both seem connected with Ur- c Hek the serpent-symbol in Egypt, translated “mighty-enchanter”; which in their Hades was used to open the mouth of the dead.

9. The Sachil or “make-wise” probably connects with E-Sachil-Api-os or iEsculapios, who in Phoenicia was recognized as one of the Kaber-i, and whose resemblance to Mosheh has been often remarked. The fate of Na c hash is very like that assigned to Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 4:33), whom a decree of Ailla-Ie or “Most-flight/” perhaps Ilu-Ea or the god Ea, drove from among men to be as a beast of the field, &c. ; yet, like Ia-Bez, the Babel King was restored and “excellent grandeur added to him” (v.6) when he acknowledged the King of Heaven. The Na c hash, who long figured in Jewish as now in Christian theology, was not pardoned, but allowed still to Shuph or “bruise” the seed of the woman; Shuph or Shephiph-on “adder” (Gen. 49:17) being the “horned-viper” or c Hefi of Egypt,* and the woman was also allowed to Shuph ; that is, both became as the Kereastes, which is very venomous, and lies in the dust or sand of the desert, very covertly; hence the indignant Adam thereafter called the woman c Hav-ah, which is precisely consonant . with the Egyptian word c Hefi; nor is there any instance where the particular form of her name is used for c Hai or c Hieh, “life/’ “living/’ or their variants. The “snake-players” of Egypt are still called c Haiv-ee.

* This was the opinion of Jerome, Gesenius says. The word Shuph, however, is rather the Egyptian k Hef, “adversary.”

10. The opening verses of 6th Genesis seem to class the Nephilim with the sons of “the Elohim” and with the Gibbor-im or “mighty-men.” The Gibbor- c Hail or “mighty-man of valor,” such as Sha-Aul, Boaaz, Ie-Petha c h, Gide-Aon, &c, were doubtless the same as the Gibbors of the Genesis text, as c Hail probably means (Ex. 15:14) “frightful,” “suffering,” or some unusual or unsocial condition, perhaps connecting with the Egyptian word k Hel or k Her, “fallen,” “under” ; yet in the Copto-Greek this word appears as Achare or Chare, and so we must have Char-on and Acher-on, perhaps Chir-on the teacher of Achilles, in which case the Egyptian word may be the Hebrew word A c har or A c har-on, “behind,” “last,” and the Chaldaic “west” or Acharru, so that c Hail can only connect with the Egyptian word on the postulate of a difference of idiom of speech, made plausible by the letters L and R being the same in Egyptian.

11. The c Hail went with Sha-Aul ( 1 Sam. 10:26), as against the sons of Belia-Aal, and are described as “whom smote God in their heart,” as he “smote” (6:9) the Philistines with tumors. Joab, a violent man, was chief of the c Hail (2 Sam. 24:2). Rendered “host,” c Hail becomes the same as Zaba or “host,” “server,” a word probably from the Egyptian word Zebau or Sebau, by which name was called a class or order of fiends or evil ones, so that Jehoah Zaba-oth may mean that he was master of wicked spirits; yet Sebau was also in Egypt a name of the great serpent who personified the night, the same as Aa-Pep and Nak and Sata. In Egyptian, however, c Haut or c Haud meant a “general” or “leader,” and Gibbor c Hail in Hebrew may mean “mighty warrior” or “great leader.” But Aesh-eth c Hail, applied to Ruth (3:11), could not mean “woman warrior” if she was an ordinary mortal, though “bold woman” may answer.

12. The Chaldeans had two known bands of arch-angels or arch-demons, those of the sky, called Igig-i, and those of the earth, called Anunak-i. It is probable that these latter gave name to Aanak in the hills of Judea, and to the giant brood. From I-Gig we evidently have A-Gag the Aam-Alek who was cut-in-pieces before Jehoah by Shemu-El; Aam-Alek being Rosh-eth, “first,” “tallest,” of nations (Num. 24:20), grandson of Ae-Sav; and the stature of Agag was proverbial (Num. 24:7), while Aam-Alek is “people of Aaluk,” who ate human flesh, and so the daughters of the Aaluk-ah (Prov.0:15) were Ghouls. Aog of Bashan was one of these I-Gigg-i, as was probably Haig the national deity of the Armenians, probably alluded to as Gog in the8th and9th Ezekiel. Agee the Rar-i or “cursed” (2 Sam.
23:11) was father of one of David’s Gibbors who fought singly against Philistines when they assembled “to c Hai-Jah,” who seems the “beast-god” (Gen.7:20), not “into a troop,” since he was in a field of lentils, food of hairy Ae-Sav (Gen. 25 :34V But in the famous story of Eseter or Ishtar we find the arch-enemy of Mordech-ai or Marduk to be Haman the A-Gag-i, that is, an I-Gig-i or arch-angel or -demon, whose name means “many” or “multitude”; so the Mark (5:1-20) and Luke (8: 27-39) introduce Haman under the name Legion; but these gospels as well as the Esther get the name from the Ezekiel (39:11-16); the Ezekiel speaking of giving Gog or Hamon-Gog a tomb “in Israel, the valley of the Aabera-im,” or “Hebrews”; and so the gospel demon dwelt in the tombs; and Haman was son of the Med-atha or man of “stature” (Num. 13: 32), born at Gath to the Rapha (1 Chron. 20: 6; also 11:23), such as Gol-Iath, and Gol or Gal in Chaldaic means “great” ; while the contest between Mordech-ai and Haman the A-Gag-i seems the same as the Armenian tradition of the war between Bel Marduk and Haigh, and that of Horus and Set, as in Egyptian the word Set means also “mountain.” The I-Gig-i give name to the Greek Gig-ans or “giants,” it must seem, but it may also be a contracted form of Gilgal where A-Gag was hewn in pieces, for Gilgal was a resort of the giant Sha-Aul or Ushu-Gal, who was son of Kish, as Mordech-ai descended from Kish, and they are apparently the same; and Agag’s great heighth required his dismemberment just as the gallows of fifty cubits, “in the house of Haman,” was required to hang either Mor-dech-ai or Haman the Agagi.

13. The size of Aog of Bash-an is set forth ( Deut.:11), and we are told that he was the last of the Repha-im; but the letter Ain which begins his name is often sounded like our gh, and hence there is practically no difference of name between Aog and the Gog of the Ezekiel, who is here an expected invader, to be buried, and all the Hamon, in the valley of the Hebrews (Ezek.9:11), or “valley of the passers-through” ; but the short A in Ader-Ai, where Aog was defeated, scarcely allows us to identify it with the Gadar-enes* of Matthew’s (8:28) account, though the latter was the same country Bash-an or “shame,” the Chaldaic Besh or “bad,” equivalent to the Shave or “in-vain” to whom the name of Je-hoah was not to be uttered. A c ha-Shave-Rosh, to whom Eseter dared to go at the appeal of Marduk, reminds one of the title given Gog as Nesie Rosh or “lofty-head” of Meshech (“tall,” Isaiah 18:2, 11) and Tubal (“lustful,” Lev. 18:23), which latter word recalls the conduct of these giants, for Haman is said to Nephel on the couch of Eseter with apparent intent to Che-Bosh her (Esth. 7:8); while it must be noted that Hamun in Perisian means “expansive,” hence “large,” and his “fall” or Nephel recalls the Nephil-im of Gen. 6, when these demi-gods took wives of whom they chose. The word is written Nophel in this case of Haman, as if Noph-El or “Memphis-God” (Noph. Isaiah 19:13, &c), the grotesque Ptah or “Vulcan,” or his sons the Kabir-i (Herod.:37), which latter word may be Gib-bor-i, though in Hebrew Kabur-i would be “tombs.”

* The cure of Legion occurs in the country of the Geras-
enes or “cast-outs” according to the Mark and the Luke.

14. The Egyptian word Kera c h or “night,” whence the Greek Gorg-on, may connect with the Chaldean I-Gig, the Hebrew A-Gag and Gog, for, as Perseus or Pe-‘Orus (“the Horus” or “light”) overthrew the Gorg-on, so Mor-dech-ai, son of Ja-Air or “light,” overthrew the A-Gog Haman; and Jehoah will destroy Gog, and his Hamort, and “bury” or Keber them, while Jesus alone cures the demoniac Legion when he comes out of the Keber-i; a man so strong he could not be bound with chains; but Legion was only restored to his right mind after he had fallen down and worshipped Jesus; as, likewise, ebuchadnezzar’s nderstanding returned and excellent Rab was added to him ; and the limits of Ja- Abez were Reb-itha, as the bedstead of Aog was at Rabb-ah in Aa-Mon. Ja-Air, “light,” father of
Mordech-Ai, is also the name of the chief for whom Bashan or land of Repha-im (Deut.: 13-15) was later called, so that Ja-Air was evidently a giant as well as a ruler (Judges 10:3-5), buried in Kam-on; and it is barely a coincidence that the story of Ja-Air-us at once follows in the Mark and Luke the cure of Le-gion, and that “Maiden, Kumi,” is said to his dead daughter, while the old Ja-Air as a Gile-Aad-i, “great-multitude” or “assembly,” is as Aad-uth rendered “synagogue” in the Greek; but, if not a coincidence, the i-Keber or “burial” in Kam-on or “arise” of Ja-Aer the Gile-Aadi-i who as “light” succeeded to the land of the Repha-im, and had the thirty c Havv-oth or “habitations” (a Chaldaic word for “living” as against Repha-im or “dead,” must have suggested the name Jair-us, if not the story;* to which must be added that Talitha is “maiden” only in Syriac, that Tal-ah is “to suspend” in Hebrew, and Haman was Talah or “suspended” on the tree, also “crucified,” and neither was dead if Tal-itha comes from Tal-ah; nor was A-Besh-Alom when he was Tal-ah (2 Sam. 18:14), f r Haman as an I-Gig or arch-demon perhaps appears yearly in the month Adar or March to oppose the Pur or “coming-forth” of vegetation or the Sun, or the Pur-ath, as in Egyptian theology the Per-t or “coming-forth” by daylight is the hope of the deceased in Amen-ti, and they are beset by demons who oppose this. Pa-Sa c h commemorates the same, as it seems the “passage” of the Israeli through the Ma-Debar or “from-speech,” when they fight at Reph-Id-im or “giant-hands” with Midi-an or men of “stature,” with Aa-Nak with Aam-Alek, with Aog, &c, for it was the land of Tal-Aob-oth (Hosea. 13:4-5) or “tormenting-demons”* ; these Aob-oth seeming a refuge, however, from the Seraps or serpents of Serap-is (Num. 21 :6- 10), and perhaps a derisive epithet for the Aab-i, that class of the Egyptian priesthood who purified with water ; hence Aob is also Hebrew for “water-skin”; and so Ka-Sem or “witchcraft” may be the Sem or highest order of Egyptian priesthood as “bull-priest,” perhaps “ghost-prophet.”

* Ia-Aer had thirty sons who rode upon thirty Air-im and had thirty Air-im, which is evidently a play on his name, though the A is different (Judges 10:4). Compare, Aira the Jair-i, priest of David (2 Sam. 20:26).

15. The c Haron or “fierce” anger of Je-hoah was permanent against the giants. He rejected Sha-Aul for not destroying Aam-Alek or A-Gag and his cattle as well as the women and children. The very offspring, the sucklings, of this race of beings, were to be exterminated by the edge of the sword as well as at one time by a deluge of water. That they are alleged to be giants, in order to heighten the achievements of the fathers in the eyes of posterity, everywhere appears. The most common enemy, the Peli-heth-im or “Philistines,” perhaps are “wonderful-drinkers” or “wonderful clamorors,” and same as the Beni-Shath (Num. 24:17), which name might be so understood by Hebrews even if as I believe the word Pe-Le-Shet-au or “the Reshtau,” that is, “the mouth (Re) of Set” or the Desert (hence the Greek form Pe-Lu-Si-on as the name of the border city Sin*) was the origin of the name Pe-Le-Shet or Philistine ; and this though the Leshet-au or Resht-au was religiously the south door of Na-Rad-f (“nothing-groweth-it”)t wherein was the sanctuary of Osiris as typefied at Suten- c Henen, called by the Greeks city of Hercules ; which “wilderness” was also called Na-Rer-Rud-f or “wandering in the Na-Rud” or desert, for Osiris seems to have also fled to the Wilderness or solitude.

*Tele-Aah is “trouble” (Ex. 18:8; Num. 20:14); Aah being the cry of grief (Josh. 7 :7) ; and Aob-oth is the usual “familiar-spirits” or sorcerers, and in this case the word is plural feminine of Aob (I Sam. 28:7), though Ba-Aal-eth Aob of Ain-Dor was a woman.

f Ka is “bull ;” also in Egyptian Ka meant the “ghost” of a person, his “double,” which usually dwelt in his tomb if food was placed there; so Ka-Sem may refer to the spiritual power of the Sem or “prophet” who wore the panther skin.

* Sin is the Egyptian city of Aam or “eater,” and Pe- Lu-Si-um or “the door of passage” would perhaps justify the lassic name, as it was at the entrance to the Desert of Sin or Sin-ai. Since connecting the words Pelusium and Peleshet or “Philistine,” as above, I find that Plutarch says that the only son of Melkarth and Astarte, who came back with Isis from Byblos with the dead body of Osiris, bore the name Palaestin-us or Pelusius, and his death was much mourned, Isis building Pelusium to his memory. t Compare Aa-Rad (Numb. 21 :1) on the edge of the Wilderness, and Pa-Rad-ise.

16. Set or the “desert” was the foe as well as brother of Osiris, perhaps as sterility and productiveness are antithetic; Osiris in such case typefying Egypt, the granary of the known world, for his most usual name was Un- Nepher or “visible Good,” but possibly the Nepil or “fallen” or “giant,” as he was associated closely with the constellation Orion, or (as the Egyptians called it) Sa c h, the supposed Hebrew Chesil, which word means “giant” in Arabic. And Set or Sute k h, a rejected term for Deity in the later Egyptian theology, was the same as the Hebrew Ba-aal as understood in Egypt, at least in some of his phases, for the two have in the inscriptions the same sign of the Sha or fox-hybrid (Budge. “Gods of the Egyptians”); so, in Hebrew, the word Set in its several forms has a sinister meaning, such as “entice” (Deut. 13:7; 1 K. 21:25), as Je- hoah or Sat-an “moved” or Ie-Seth David (2 Sam. 24:1 ; 1 Chron. 21 :i) to what turned out to be a frightful crime; and in this strange story we find Jehoah and Set or Sat-an are the same, and foes of Isera-El; while Ai-Zebel “stirred-up” or the Sat-ah her husband, who worshipped Ba-Aal and went after Gilul-im, and the Sat-ah seems to indicate her as a female Set or Sat-an. The personality of Ba-Aal under that name is nowhere described in Hebrew writings, though the Jahvist account of the contest of Eli-Jahu with the priests of Ba-Aal indicates that he was “lame,” for his priests “limped” or Pa-Se c h about the altar; and that he was Set may appear when it is said Eli-Jahu “i-Rapha the altar of Jehoah the Harus” (i K. 18:30), for Horus is here identified with Jehoah, and Horus was in Egyptian myth the antagonist and destroyer of Set.

17. Set as Nubti was father of Jerebo-Aam, perhaps the Egyptian “Eater-of-Ur-Ab” or the “Still-Heart,” a name of Osiris, and this great foe of Jehoah was not only a Gibbor c Hail but an Aash-ah Maleach-ah, rendered “industrious,” as if Aasah or “maker,” yet Aashe-ah is probably the constellation Aash or Great-Bear (Job 9:9), the Arab Na-Aash, which word also means “to carry” or a “wagon” in that tongue; while as k Hep-Esh or “thigh,” symbol of power, this constellation in Egyptian was called the bull Me-Se k h-et of Set,* in one star of which he dwelt, as against the southern constellation Sa c h or “Orion” of Osiris ; which Sekhet or Me-Se k h-et is probably the “destroyer” or Ma-She c h-ith (Ex. 12:23, &c), whose altar gave name to the mountain at Jerushalem where she seems identified with Aashe-Tor-et, that is probably Ta-Ur, whose appearance as a sow or hippotamus or bear would seem to confirm this view, especially as she it was who fettered this evil constellation, and who is figured with a chain about its leg when it is depicted as a bear; yet in this case the name Ishtar of the Chaldeans, As-Tarte as the Greeks called the Tyrian goddess, and the Jewish Ase-Ter or “Esther,” would evidently connect with Ta-Ur of Egypt, and the watchful constellation that never sets; thus including Mi-Zeph-ah the daughter of “Jepthah” or Ie-Ptah in the sense of “watcher” ; hence the meaning of Sether as “hidden” would yield to that of Ta-Ur or “the Mighty,” and to the Arab word Aash-ah or “hairy,” “shaggy,” like Aes-av or “Esau” who went to Seair-ah or the “hairy”-goddess upon the advent of Isera-El at Pe-Nu-El; which word “Pe-Na” in Egyptian means perhaps “the not”-god, as Hebrew Pen or “lest,” “that not,” and is applied to iEsav as superceded; so that Aashe-Tor-et or As-Tar-te is properly wife of Melek-Areth or the “skin-king,” as perhaps of Aog (Deut. 1:4); while Jerebo-Aam built Pe-Nu-El as indicative of his relation to the no-god or beast-types of Deity; yet his Aa-Gela-i or “calves” also means “wains” or “wagons,” as the Arab word Na-Aash does, and they doubtless refer to the bull Mese k h-et of Set, as Meshech in Hebrew means “to-draw-along,” also “tall” as drawn-out. It was a new “cart” or Ae-Gal-ah in which the Peli-Shet-im sent back the Aron of Jehoah, drawn by two Par-oth or “cows,” and when this “cart” came into the field of Jehoshue-Aa of the house of the Shemesh (not “Shem-ite”) or the “Sun” both cart and cows were sacrificed to Jehoah; but when David brought the Aron from the Ba-Aal-i of Jehudah he only sacrificed a bull and a calf ; yet it must be noted that this movement of the shrine was after he had defeated the Peli-Shet-im.

1 8. The word Aam in Hebrew means “people,” while in Egyptian Aam is “eater,” and the Aa-Aam were the nomads of the Set or “desert,” so that if the name Jerebo-Aam is Egyptian the affinity with Set is apparent, and Aam or Pelu-Si-um and the Peli-Shet-im would also connect. The fact, too, that Jerebo-Aam founded Shechem, a word which in Hebrew means “shoulder,” and Sut is “shoulder” in Egyptian, seems to identify him with the god Set; a point strengthened by the fact that in Egyptian Se k hem means “power,” “force”*; but at Se k hem (Leto-polis) in Egypt was deposited the “shoulder” of Osiris, which was called Maa- k Hak (a word which sounds some-what as Ma-Gog). c Ham-Or, father of the Shecham who ravished Din-ah, bath-Jakob means “Ass” in Hebrew, a beast in Egypt associated in places with the cultus of Set, but in Egyptian the words c Ham-Ur mean the “great Egyptian.”

19. Gide-Aon, a Gibbor c Hail was son of Io-Esh or “fire,” Abi the Ae-Zera-i or “father of the defenders,” and dwelt in Aa-Per-ah, which means a “gazelle,” for in Egypt the oryx was sacred to Set, and is depicted on the brow of the foreign (Syrian) god Reshep, as its head also is the prow of the c Hennu or Seker boat which encloses and carries off Osiris, as the Seair-ah or “goat-barge” carries off Elijah, and in which dwelt Ae-Sav. Gide-Aon is found working with wheat “in Gath,” rendered “wine-press,” but his concubine was in Shech-em, where the name of Deity was Ba-Aal Ber-ith, who was perhaps the same as Ierub-Ba-Aal (if we reverse Ie-Rub to Bur-ei), and this may be the correct form of Jerebo-Aam who built Shechem; yet the camp where Jerub-Ba-Aal mustered to fight Mid-Ian and Aam-Alek was the fountain or eye of c Harod, and he pursued them to the ascent of the c Heres, capturing the two kings “and all the camp of the c Harid,” which seem certainly allusions to Horus and c Har-pa- c Herad or “Harpocrates” ; for Mid-Ian may be “giant-oppressor” or “wine-giant,” as if from the same word as ha-Med-atha the father of Haman, coupled with Iain or Jain “heat,” boiling,” hence “wine,” “rage,” “oppression.” In all mentions of the word Mid-Ian it is in the singular, and so mostly is Aam-Alek, as if they were individuals. “Wine” is A-Rep in Egyptian, and so we have the classic P-Riap-us or “the Wine”- god, and perhaps To-Rophon-ius, &c. ; but the Greeks derived their word Oin-os evidently from the Phoenicians. But the land of Midian was that to which Mosheh fled, not to meditate as in case of others who went into the “Wilderness,” but because he was a murderer who feared the penalty of his crime; and yet the name Midi-An or “no speech” is in Egyptian the equivalent of Ma-Debar or “from speech” in Hebrew, which is rendered “Wilderness” ; the Egyptian words Med-et or “word” and Na or An or “not” or “no” constituting the former name. And that Midian means a solitude finds support in the fact that the synoptic gospels all say Jesus went into the Wilderness; the original and simple form of this statement being that of the Mark (1:12-13) ; for the gospels seem resolved to rank Jesus with Mosheh. Still, the Hebrew word Med-ah or “tall” readily suggests a giant or “tempter” who was supposed to inhabit such localities ; while, on the other hand, during the oppression of Midi-Ian we find Gide-Aon in the Gath or “wine-press,” and he slew Aoreb or the “raven” on his rock and slew Zeeb or the “wolf” at the Jakeb or “wine-press,” &c. ; so that we may thus connect Midi-Ian with Repa-im. In this connection we may observe that Jether the eldest son of Gide-Aon refused to kill the two princes of Midian, and this story may have been known to the writer of the Exodus story since the name Jether-o is given to the priest of Midian.

*The word Shechem in Hebrew is often read “early,”
as “he arose Shechem,” but so frequent is the phrase that I suggest the Egyptian sense, and would read he arose “strengthened” or “refreshed.”

20. Rapa or Rapha (the Hebrew P and Ph are the same letter) is rendered “giant,” “healer,” “dead.” We should probably understand “genii,” “satyrs,” “goblins,” of great size, or even “ghosts” (Job 26:5; Ps. 88:10, &c. ) ; but the Latin word Rapere, whence “rape,” seems from the Egyptian A-Rep or “wine,” suggesting drunken violence, and the P-Riapus of Lampasakos seems from the same source. The Egyptian dead were to encounter in the Dua-t many evil beings; so, in She-Ol (Isaiah 14:9), the Egyptian She-Ur or “great lake” or “abyss,” when Nebuchadnezzar reaches there, the Repha-im and the Aa-Tud-i (comp. Isaiah 1 :n) awake to meet him, which “chief- ones” are the lustful “he-goats” of Jakob’s dream (Gen.1:10, 12), evidently deriving, like Dad or “David,” their name from the Osiris ram of Taddu or Daddu (“Mendes”) in Egypt, and worshipped under the name Seair-im by the Israelites (Lev. 17:7; 2 Chr. 11:15); and this “ram” or Ba must have given name to the old Bo-Aaz aspect of Deity at Beth Le c hem, for Aaz is “goat” in Hebrew, and hence Ruth tempted his lascivious disposition by getting under his Chanep or “wing” while he was drunk, for, like Sha-Aul, he was winged. The best known of these Seair-im or Satyrs was 7Es-Av (Gen.6:20, &c), but his grandson Aam-Alek was most hated (Ex. 17: 16), though “people who suck blood” (as Aam-Alek means) were properly identified with ^Es-Av’s desire to eat a “red man” or “blood of the man,” the Adam of the Adam (Gen. 25 :

21. If Rapha or Rapa is not from the Egyptian word Arep or “wine/’ as P-Riap-us evidently is, we might find the Egyptian words Ur-Af or “great-flesh” converted into Rapha, since zEs-Av or “Esau” seems “much-flesh” in Egyptian; and this Egyptian word Aes or Aash, “much,” “many,” means Haman or Anion in Hebrew, and he was an A-Gag-i or Aam-Alek-i; but Jesus calls him Ma-Amon, and he is “many” or Legion in the Mark and Luke. But Af or “flesh” seems the Ta-Av-ah or desire for flesh of the Hebrew (Num. 11 14, 34), “flesh” to the eyes (Gen.:6) ; but seems the same as their word Gav-ah or Gevi-ah, the “body” (1 Sam.1:10); and in Egyptian we have Af-Raa, Af-Tem, Af-Asar, for the Sun when it had passed into the Duat or Hades was called Af as being mere “body” or “flesh,” as if its light was its soul or life; and so Abera-ham and others Gav-aa or “gave-up-the-ghost” or body, while the Gevi-eth or “body” of Sha-Aul is also called (1 Chr. 10:12) Guph-ath. As we have Rapha-im as “dead,” “giants,” “healers,” we may reasonably infer that the word Comes from the Egyptian words Ur-Af or “mighty-body,” “great-flesh.” Bene Isera-El in the Ma-Debar necessarily met these giant spirits. Before reaching the sacred Sin-ai they battled with Aam-Alek at Reph-Id-im.

22. Reph-Id-im probably means “giant-hands” or “healing-hands” or “dead-hands,” as either would fit the events. Mosheh, seated, the sceptre of Jehoah in his hands, acted like an umpire. His hands were Chebed, perhaps shadowy or spectral, the Egyptian k Haibit ; and when his hands went up Isera-El Gebar or “mighty-man,” when his hands rested Aam-Alek was Gebar; but Aharon and c Hur they ta-Mech or “smote” the Iad-i of Mosheh, making them Anum-ah or “true” till the Sun went in or came in, though Amun is a suggestive word here. The demon and his Aam-i were “prostrated” or Ia- c Helesh by Jehoshuaa at the mouth of the c Horeb, which c Horeb may mean “sword” or “drouth” or the mountain of that name. The place is then by Mosheh called Jehoah Nis-i, at the same time warning “that a lad on the Ches of Jah; war to Jehoah by Aam-Alek from age to age”; a phrase some-what sybilic, and palpably misrendered in our usual versions. Nis is usually rendered “to tempt,” but is “throne” in Egyptian, as Nez in Arabic, and probably corresponds with Ches or “throne,” or may be the same, as the initial letters are very similar. There is little excuse for rendering Ches “hath sworn/’ the Septuagint having it “concealed,” while the Samaritan and Peshitto have it “throne.” The reading seems to imply that Jehoah was “tempted” to decide favorably to Aan-Alek, whose hand is constantly ready to avenge this adverse decision. But the perpetual hostility here declared between Jehoah and Aam-Alek is remarkable in view of the “Cursed be Haman” still uttered at the observance of Pur-im, for he was an Agag-i, and Agag and Aam-Alek seem much the same, being Repha-im or genii or hairy satyrs; Mide-an or Med-ath or “tall of stature.” In the Egyptian “Book of the Dead,” chapter 165, one in the Duat or Unseen World addresses the god Amen, “Hidden (Amen) is your name, El-Ta-Sashaka, and I have made for you a skin; your name is Ba-Ile-Kai, your name is Maalek-Atha” ; and, whether this indicates Aam-Alek or the “skin-king” Malach-Aareth, the difference is small, as Malach-Aareth is surely TEsav the grand-father of Aam-Alek ; yet it will be observed that the Egyptian god Amen, who we are told in their inscriptions was worshipped in Palestine, seems here to be assimilated with the hairy concepts of Deity there; so that it is possible that Amen is represented by Haman. “In the times approaching the Ptolemaic period,” says Budge, “the name Amen appears to have been connected with the root Men, to “abide,” to be “permanent”; and, as this was about the period when the historic portions of the Jewish Scriptures were written, we may see why Shemu-El was to be a Na-Amon priest and to have a Na-Amon house (i Sam. 2:35), and after death he rises from the ground, “he At-ah Me- Ail” or “embalm robe”; as David is also to have a house of Na-Amen (25 128), for David was A-Demon-i (16:12) as the “red” ^Esav was, probably a demon or geni; while No-Amon (Nahum:8) was Nu-Amen or “City of Amen,” Thebes in Egypt; but even one of David’s sons was Amen-on, and the sister he ravished was Ta-Mar, a name of

23. Aamal, however, means a “toiler” in a sorrowful sense, like the Aa-Zeb with which Adam was condemned, reversed to Ia-Bez (1 Chr. 4:9-10), in whom I recognize Je-Bus or Bes; and Ako is “goat” or “roe-buck” in Arabic ; so we may have Aamal-Ek as an aspect of the Satyr or Seair-Aaz, the Aa-Thud or “he-goat,” a phase of Osiris at Taddu or Daddu, which city the Greeks called Mendes. In any case, the last we hear of this demon is that Repha-Jah, Auzi-El, &c., in the days of King Hezekiah, went to Mount Seair “and smote the remnant of the escapsed to Aama- lek” (1 Chr. 4:42-43), and Rephi and Auz (“strong” or “goat”) are suggestive of the old legend.

24. This fight at Rep-Id-im is closely preceded by the sweetening of water at Mar-ah, where Jehoah Nis-ah the people, and said “I Jehoah Rophe thee” (Ex. 15 121-26) ; following which is the thirst at Repi-Id-im, when Mosh-eh smote the rock c Horeb, calling the place Mas-ah upon their Nas-eth or “tempting” Jehoah, saying “The being of Jehoah in our midst or not” (17:1-7); apparently two versions of the same incident, though the later book Numbers (20:7-13) locates the rock story at Kadesh. Between the two versions is found the account of the bread from Heaven, preceded by the Chebod of Jehoah ; this also being a gift in order that he might A-Nas the people
(Ex. 16:4). It was the repeated Lon or Lun, rendered “murmur,” of the people that invoked this Nis-i or Nas, and it might seem that in the Ma-Debar or “from Speech” they were required to be silent, and so the Egyptians in the After-World could only speak when the mouth was opened with the serpent wand, which was perhaps the Serap elevated by Mosheh on a Nas; Nas in Egyptian meaning “tongue” as well as “throne” ; so that the Lon or “murmur” seems reproved by Jehoah or Mosheh by showing that he alone had the power of Nas-ah or “tongue.” But this interpretation could not well apply to the prostration of Aam-Alek unless Jehoah Nis-i means that Jehoah “spoke” somewhat against him; in which case “an lad on the Nesh,” instead of Ches, may be “a hand on the man” of Jah, for A-Nesh or “man” and the Coptic word Nesh or “oath” (both from the Egyptian word Ane k h or “life,” “living/’ may have induced the curious substitution of “hath sworn” in the English versions, for in this oracular passage there were hands on the hands of Mosheh as the man of Jah, whose hands were Rape or “dead” or “healing” or “gigantic.” The Lon or “murmur,” however, seems to connect with the idea of “abiding” in some place or condition, as the Ma-Lon (Ex. 4:24), the A-Lon of Ma-Mere (Gen. 13:18), &c, which seems not “oaks,” but may be gateways, as the Greek Py-Le and Py-Lon seems the Egyptian Pe-Lu-t or “the gate,” and so Pe-Lu-sion, and Latin P-Luto, &c, and so Lan or “lodge,” “abide” (Gen. 19:2; 24:23, 25; ^2\22, &c), originally perhaps at the “entrance” of a place, the Greek Py-Le, perhaps the Egyptian word Le or Re, “mouth”; hence the word Lon or Lun is not “murmur,” it must seem, but the disposition to remain as they had been; and so, at the making of the Apis-calf, Aharon says “you know the people it for a Pheraa” (not B- Raa), “and Mosheh saw the people it for a Phareaa, for a Pheraaoh of Aharon *to whisper in their Kem-i” (Ex.2:22, 25), which may be that they whispered in “Egyptian” or Kem-i; Kem-ah or “granary” being here pertinent in Hebrew, and Kam is “garden” in Egyptian; and that they were disposed to return to Pharaoh for lack of a “prince” or some one to lead them (comp. Judges 5:2; Ex. 5:4) as the context in vs. 22,4, shows, and that the calf was the Elohim who with Aharon was to go before them to Pharaoh; hence the leadership of the calf made of them (Ex.2:17), not “people as they shouted,” but “people of Phe-reaoh.”

25. While the Greek word Phoe-Nek-as, our Phenicia, seems to me the Egyptian place Reseta-u or Pa-Leseta-u, “the Door of Passages” (to the tomb), and the same as the Greek name of the city Pe-Lousi-on, it is likely that the Egyptian words Pha-Nak or “the Nak,” a serpent form of Set, the same as the serpent “Giant” or Aa-Pep, gave the name; and so we have Pha-Ne k h-t or “the Strong” as a probability. The evil-being Set or Sute k h, the Hebrew Zadok, the Greek Styx, called in Egypt Aa-Ne k h or “mighty-strong two-fold” certainly seems the giant Aa-Nak of the Hebrews. The frontier fortress “Gaza,” properly Aaz-ah, in Phoenicia, means “strong” ; also “goat,” which as the gazelle was an emblem of Set. The facts that Melek-Aareth or the “skin-king” was a name of Deity at Tyre, that as Molech he was the concept of Deity at Jerushalem and beyond Jordan, that as Bez or Ie-Bus he gave name to Je-Bus or Jerushalem, that he was called Shimeshon and Eli-Jah-u on the coast, that his name was iEs-Av in Idamea, and Sha-Aul at Gibe-ah and Ja-Besh, &c, all tend to prove that Palestine was considered a country of giants, or one ruled by them. In fact the word Aa-Nak or Anak means in Arabic “long-neck.” The wealthy and luxurious Egyptians must have regarded the uncouth country people of Judea and Idumea as barbarians; indeed, called those Aa-Aam-u or “great-Eaters” who dwelt or rather roved in north Arabia; and this name tends to prove that the Aam or “people” of Israel were an Arab tribe, yet as Pelusium was Aam they might have dwelt there. There is for me little doubt, however, that the giants of the Hebrew writings took name from the I-Gig-i and Anunak-i of the Chaldeans, the former good and the latter bad “arch-angels,” as these names give us Aanak as well as Gog or A-Gog or Aog; and these were doubtless the “Geni-i” or Shed-im of Hebrew and Chaldaic (Deut. 32:17; Ps. 106:36-37).


i. Enclosed on all sides by more civilized and ardently religious peoples, save the nomads to the south-east, it is easy to understand that the Israelites or Hebrews shared the religious concepts of their neighbors. This was certainly true down to the time of ^Ezraa, and perhaps a century or two later. A thousand years after the supposed date of Mosheh we find Deity at Jerushalem called Ba-Aal, and
the goddess was Aash-Ter-eth or Bosh-eth (Jere. 9:14; 11:13, &c). This Ba-Aal or “In-the- Above” was not perhaps precisely the Chaldean Bel or Bel-Marduk, but their “the Tam-Uz” (Ezek. 8:14), the solar hero for whom in autumn women lamented, though Tam-Uz seems to mean “E n d-of-L i g h t.” Tam-Uz was the name of the month August-September in Hebrew and Chaldean, called
Shaw-al by the Arabs ; and so as Sha-Aul his great shrine was at Gibe-ah. Old folk-lore told of him as the first king and as Meshiu c h or “anointed”; hence masculine of Ma-She c h-ith or the “destroyer,” whose temple was on the Mount of Olives (2 K. 23:13), and who is identified with Aash-Tor-eth. Sha-Aul was the c Hamed or “desire” (1 Sam. 9:20) of women (Dan. 11:37), from which word Mo-
c Hamed the Arab derived name; hence as the Zeb-i or “glories” of Israel (2 Sam. 1:19) he and his son connect with the “gazelle” depicted as the frontlet of the god Reshep by Egyptians ; and the Zebi was an emblem of Set, and doubtless expresses the hairy ^Esav of Seair-ah. In the Koran we find Sha-Aul called Tal-ut, which corresponds with what Herodotus says of the Arabs, that their names for Deity and his mate were Horo-Tal and Alil-at, perhaps Horus-Tal; and a Tel or Gibe-ah is a “hill,” “tall,” “heap”; but Talul means in Hebrew “tormented,” and we have “great-drouth” or Tal-Aob-eth in the Hoshea (13:5), perhaps “tormenting-spirit,” as Aob means “familiar-spirit” ; while Alil-at is evidently the Moon-goddess or Night-goddess who appeared as Aa-Lat-ah to Abram when the Shemesh went down (Gen. 15:17).

2. Certainly Zeb-i may by reversal be I-Bez, but whether so or not the identity of Sha-Aul with Malach-Aareth and other fierce and hairy concepts, such as ^Es-av and Shimesh-on and EH-Jahu and Je-Bus or Bes, and these with Ba-Aal during the time of the ferocious Jeremiah, that is, during the Captivity, is apparent. They were the same concept of Deity or his representative in separate places or among different tribes and nations. None of these were so merciless as Jehoah, who destroyed all life by a Deluge on the Euphrates, or Ra, who attempted to destroy mankind on the Nile. The lion forms of Deity in Egypt were of this same system of the priests to influence men to their betterment by terror. A-Nep or “Anubis,” of the “jackal” or “fox” head, which is Shual in Hebrew, perhaps the same as Sheol or Hades and Sha-Aul the king, was lord of embalming and of the dead in Egypt, and by reversal of his name we have him as Ie-Pun-eh or “the Nup-ei” the father of Chaleb or the “dog”-saint of c Heberon, but it is almost as likely that he connects with Sheol.

3. Molech, the Akkdian Mulge, lord of the Underworld, who by a mis-placed letter is Lamech the father of Tubal-Kain or Noa c h, was, in the days of Jeremiah (7:31, &c), supposed to be that special concept of Deity to whom infants were sacrificed at Jerushalem; and that he was the warrior-god and the drouth-god, that is, the scorching Sun of Summer, is quite clear. At Jerushalem there were high-places of Tophet in the Gai of the son of Hinnom; Gai-Hinnom becoming Ge-Henna or Sheol in later times; but the Greeks evidently derived the garden-waterer or cupbearer Ga-Nym-ede from the mighty Num or Khnum of Egypt, originally a personification of the Nile, and Gai-ha-Nom is seemingly an awkward Hebraism of his name; perhaps an intentional one, for as “ha-Nom” or “the slumberer” this rain-god might cause “drouth” or Ja-Besh, and hence the play on his name. Mo-Lech thus connects as Ia-Besh or drouth-god with Sha-Aul who was buried at Ja-Besh-ah, and with Jeho-Shuaa if this solar concept was the Egyptian Shuu the twin of the lion-goddess Tefnut, “moisture,” perhaps Tophet; and the name Shuu means “dry,” “light,” &c. ; and she, it is urged, was the same as Daphne, the love of Apollo at Grecian Thebes, and his priestess or Sybil at Delphi, called also Manto, perhaps as the Egyptian queen of Amen-ti, and the Ti-Menath-ah wife of Shimesh-on and Jehud-ah, whence the Greek word Manteia or “divination.” Tefnut as lion-goddess would be much the same as Sekhet of Memphis, Bas-t, or others of that figure, for Bas-t seems fem- inine of Bes, and the lion-god c Ha-Bes of Abyssinia, as well as that Besh-eth or “shameful-thing” who seems the consort of Ba-Aal (Jere. n 113), but who is addressed (3:23-24) as “Truly to the liar from the hills, Hamon of the mountains,” &c, as if Besheth was masculine, and the same as Ham an the Agag-i. At least in this latter text (v. 24) we have it that Besheth had devoured flocks and herds, sons and daughters, which points to Molech as Besheth; and, as Ia-Besh is “drouth,” and la-Besh of Gile-Aad was in or near Aammon where the name of God was Molech (1 K. 11:7), tne connection seems assured, unless Milech-Am or Melech-mother (v. 5) be that Ia-Bish-ah whose devotees by night brought to her the body of the first Malach, and fasted seven days (1 Sam.1 ni-13).

4. The fierce Lamech or Malech, also connected with “sevens” (Gen. 4:24; 5:31), a number sacred to Apollo or the Sun, was father of Noa c h or Ma-Noa c h, who like c Han-och of the65 years, “walked a God,” not “with” God. Lech is to “walk,” to “go,” and Ma-Lech or “king” seems in Hebrew to connect with it. Strictly, however, Ma-Lech would mean in places “from going,” with the sense of the inanimate, the still, the dead. Ma-Leach, “angel,” “messenger,” “workman,” certainly seems connected with the word Lech. Ma-Lech was probably a title of the Sun which had “gone-over”; and in places (Deut. 1:19; 2:7) the word Lech-ath is rendered “went-through,” in much the sense of Aaber or “passed-through,” so that Ma-Lech may be used in the sense of the “departed” ; wherefore as the representative of the absent Deity the title was transferred to the ruler or “King.”

5. Molech was a name of Ba-Aal (Jere. 19:5;2:35), who was the Egyptian evil-god Set, called also Nub-ti and Sute k h, and perhaps El Shadd-ai or “God Almighty”; perhaps El Shed-im or “God of the Demons” (Ps. 106:37; Deut.2:17), the Chaldean “geni-i” or Shed-im, to whom the Hebrews sacrificed children; and Jehoah claims that he was El Shadd-ai (Ex. 6:3), or appeared as El Shadd-ai. That these names refer to a solar phase seems probable from the famous passage of the Amos (5:26) where it is said “Ye bore the shrines of your Ma-Lach, and like the Sun your images; a star your God”; Chi-Un* or “like-the-Sun” referring to the city “On,” the Egyptian An-nu, which was Grecised into Heliopolis ; Ma-Lach thus connecting with the Sunset God A-Tum or Tern, special deity at Annu, as also at Pi-Thom or Per-Atem the “house of Tern,” and perhaps at Ra-Meses or “Sun-of-Evening,” two towns built for the King by the Aibera-im as Mes- c Hen-oth or “lying-in” cities for women, or for the reposing Sun-god as his Mish-Chan or “tabernacle.” The old Sun was the father of the young, the Sun of morning or of Spring. And it was the old Sun, the Sun of evening, passing into the Dua-t of the Eyptians, the O-De-os of the Greeks, as O-Dyss-eos did, hence the god Ha-Des, who suffered, but was awful, fateful, eternal, and was lord of the re-born in the future life. Ra was the general name of the Sun in the skies, among the Egyptians, but the several positions the Sun occupies were the physical antecedents of other solar personifications. Sa-Ra or “Son of Ra,” a title adopted in the early dynastic times by the kings, may have given us I-Se-Ra-El as children of Ra-El or the “Sun-god” ; and with this must be noted the message of Jehoah to Pha-Reaoh (Ex. 4:22), “I-Sera-El is my son, my Bechor”; but it does not follow that Jehoah and Iza c hak are the same, or that Jakob and “Osiris” or A-Sar are one.

*Chi-Uun may be read Chivvan, and this is more probable as fitting the context; and Chivvan was the Assyrian name of the star Saturn, the Akkadian “high-prince” or Sak-Ush ; and this is explained elsewhere in this volume. Yet it seems impossible that the mass of people should worship any star, for even at this day they do not know one star from another.

6. The Phoenicians as well as the Egyptians made up triads. Daud, whom Greeks translate Eros or “love,” is made the son of Zadek, which seems the Egyptian Sute k h (Set), the Greek Styx, and Malechi-Zadek of Shalem is evidently the same. In another account, the Phoenician Zadek is father of eight sons, called Kabir-i, as “Jesse” or Ishai has eight sons; and Zadek’ s youngest is Esh-Mun or E-Shemun, but the Greeks identified him with iEskul-Api-os, who they said was son of Apollo ; and the story was that Esh-Mun was a handsome youth who mutilated himself to escape the love of Aash-Ter Nosema the mother of the gods, who with the help of Ruphe “healed” Esh-Mun with her “heat” or c Ham-un; whereas David got no c Ham from Abi-Shag or Hebe-Shag, as Hercules from Hebe, and perhaps Mosheh from Pi-Sag-ah. In the triad at Beth Le c hem, of Bo-Aaz and Ruth and Aobed, Naa-Omi is only “nurse” or Amon-eth.

7. A third Phoenician myth makes Dad or Ha-Dad the son of Aes-Thar Noa-Ema by her father El or II, whom the Greeks render Kronos ; but El is also called El Melach, whom the Hebrew story considers the dead husband of Naa-Omi. Aobed is thus a name of David, and both are phases of Osir-Dad or -Tad, whose great shrine at Abyd-os means (Budge says) Ab-Du or the “heart’s desire.” But
Zadek or Ishai (“Jesse”), as father of the Kabir-i, is thus identified with Hephaest-os or Vulcan, whom classic story makes father of the Kabir-i, perhaps Gibbor-im.

8. Another curious account is that David or Ha-Dad was king at Damascus, and was killed by c Haza-El or “sleep-god,” while Eli-Shaa stood by and wept, as did Jesus or Ishai the son of David when El-Azer-us slept. David’s girl, however, may be Abish-Ag, connecting with Sha-Aul’s Ia-Bish-ah; and it was A-Besh-Alom or “bad-youth,” not “Ab-salom,” who is caught up by the Sob-ach of the El-ah ; but Joab would not permit such a saviour, for another account (2 Sam. 10:16-18) says Shob-ach was chief of Zebe to Ha-Dad Aezur, and was killed by David at c Helem-ah or “dreamer” shortly before it caught A-Besh-Alom ; Sebek being the crocodile form of Deity in Egypt, and the “thicket” which caught the ram that saved Iza c hak as his fanatic father was at the point of sacrificing him ; both Iza c hak and A-Besh-Alom being perhaps phases of Horus, and the crocodile or Shed-et being the “concealed,” as the hieratic meaning of its figure; but the great El-ah in the case of A-Besh-Alom implies perhaps the “goddess” Ta-Ur or “the great” who is often depicted with the head of the crocodile.

9. If Aberaham and Iza c hak and Ja-Aakob were a triad they would seem like the saying of the Sun-god, “I am k Hephera at morning, Ra at noon, and Tern at evening.” Aber in the name Abera-Ham means “over,” the Greek Hyper, and much the same as Aaber, which is usually rendered “pass-over” ; and Aber is also rendered “wing,” “pinion,” “feather,” with which a fowl “soars” (Job9:26); so that Abera-Ham seems an eponym of the Aabera-im or “Hebrews,” as Isra-El or Ja-Aakob is of the Isera-El-i, or rather these people gave name to the two patriarchs. It can scarcely be doubted that the word Aaber refers to the boat of the Sun, and that Abera-Ham was conceived of as solar, as his passing westward might indicate in the story of him. Had there been such an ancestor the cave Ma-Chephel-ah where he and Sar-ah, Iza c hak and Jakob, were buried would have been the focus of a pilgrimage; but the place is never alluded to after the burial there of Jakob, though it was said to be at c Heberon; a fact tending to show that the story of these personages was written subsequent to much of the Scriptures. The word Ma-Chepel-ah possibly is feminine of k Hep-hera, a name of Deity as connected with the rising Sun and with re-birth and resurrection* ; typefied by the k Hephera, the Latin Sacer-Ab or “scarab/’ consonant with Egyptian Seker-Ab or the “shut-up fly,” which in Greek is Kophero-Phagos or “dung-eater,” and perhaps the Hebrew Cher-Areb or Cherub or “borer-fly” which stood over the Cheppor-eth or “lid” of the Aron, on which lid a Cheppor or k Hepher was evidently pictured. I-Za c hak or “laughter” is probably from Za c h-ah or “shining,” “bright,” and seems some aspect of the sky or Sun.

* Chapel for k Hepera would not necessarily conflict with
k Hepera as Cheppor or “atonement,” for in Egyptian the L
and R are the same.

10. Ia-Aa-Kob means “wine-vat” in Hebrew and “grief” in Egyptian, but it seems to me most probable that the name is a reverse of Bok-aa. This word means to “open,” to “cleave,” as Ptah does, and the two words are used when (Gen. 7:11) it is said the fountains of the great Tehom were Beke-Aa and the Areb-oth of the Heavens were Ptah. In
Egyptian the mountain of the Sun-rise was Baa- k ha, and the mountain of sunset was Man-u, or Ta-Man-u the “land-of-Sun-set” ; from which latter perhaps their Amen-ti or “west” and “hidden” place; and with the Hebrew Ti-Men-ath or Ti-Mun-ah where the solar ideals Shimesh-on and Je-Hud-ah got wives, and Je-Hoshu-Aa was buried, and connecting with the sunset god Tem-u as the “perfected,” “completed.” Beke-Aa in Hebrew also means the same as Bez-Aa, to “cleave,” to “rend,” and so Ja-Aakob connects with both Ptah and Bes, or Aa-Zeb the “sorrowful,” who was the A-Dam or A-Tem or E-Dom of the Hebrews, brother-twin of Ia-Aakob or Baa k ha. The classic name Bakchus comes perhaps from this word for the Sun-rise, or from Baa k h the “inundation” God. The initiation of Ia-Aakob at Ia-Bok by Ia-Abek or “wrestling” seems to point to his name as Bok-aa, the Egyptian Baa k ha or Sun-rise, for the Sun Zera c h upon him as he Aaber Penu-El; besides which his twelve sons are the twelve months. Laban or “white” was a name of the Moon, whose daughters Ia-Aakob married while he was in c Haur-an or the “cave.”

11. It may be that Abera-Ham and I-Za c hak and Ia-Aakob were aspects of the Sun, with a shrine at c Heberon, formerly called Kiri-ath Aaber-i, “city of Hebrews/’ but perhaps in derision of its religion called city of Arebaa or “bestiality” (Lev. 18:23; 20:16, “lie-down”) in later times. Aaber or “pass-over” can only allude to the people as children of the Sun, which was given a Bar-is or Aaber-ah, called by the Egyptians Maad-et or Aad-et in the morning; Maad-et meaning “becoming-strong” ; the Hebrew Moed or “exceedingly,” and the Ohel Mo-Aad or “tent of meeting” ;and so the Cherub-im Such-oth the Aron (1 K. 8:7), while he Israel-i bore the Sichuth or Seket-et of their Malach, the boat of decrease, and images like the Un or “Sun” when it became weaker as the Renpa (Egyptian for “year”) was closing (Amos 5:26; Acts 7:43). Indeed, Ja-Aakob was supplicated by the Ma-Leach-i at Ma-c Han-ah, or smitten by them, and c Hennu was the boat of the Sun which was also called Seker or “shut-up/’ and supposedly another name for the Seket-et or boat on which the Sun enters the Dua-t, and which I identify not only with Such-oth but with the Seair-ah or oryx-barge of iEsav and A c hud and Job and Eli-Jahu, with the difference between autumn and winter, as “Returned ^Esav to his way Seair-ah, and Ia-Aakob journeyed Such-oth-ah” (Gen. 33:16-17), as he went “to the feet of the Maleach-ah which before” him (v. 14), that is, the woman-angel, for he asked his Adon to Aaber before him.

*In at least one place (Ex. 16:34) the Aad-ith or “testimony,” rendered “tabernacle” by the Septuagint, is the Aron in which the manna and law were kept; and the fact that the divine barge in Egypt had an eye depicted on the prow agrees with the Hebrew word Aad or “witness.”

* and the boat of afternoon was called Seket-et or Semeket-et or “becoming weak” (Budge), which may explain the Such-oth of the allegoric Exodus (Ex. 12:37) and of the risen Ja-Aakob, as well as the autumn feast of Such-oth or “tabernacles” ;

12. The Theiash-im were “he-goats” sent by Ia-Aa-Kob to iEsav (Gen.2:14) ; but, as Aaz-im just before means “goats,” not “she-goats,” it may be inferred that Theiash means some other hairy beast or “being” as the word Iesh implies; and yet Plutarch (in “These-us”) places the establishment of the O-Socha-phoria or feast of boughs at the door of These-us the son of the “goat” ^Ege-us, and this in the month Pa-Nep-si-on, while the son of These-us was inop-is, clearly suggesting in both cases A-Nup or “Anub-is” the angel of the tomb, the son or variant of Set, the Greek Typh-on, the Arab Tawfan or “whirl-wind,” the Hebrew Seair-ah (Job 9:17;8:1; 2 K. 2:1,. 11) or
“goat-barge” of the winter Sun, worshipped by the Hebrews (Lev. 17:7; 2 Chr. 11:15) and Egyptians. And the Greek O-Socha-Phoria was in honor of Bakch-os and Ari-Adon-e, or in Hebrew the “lion-goddess,” who like Ra-c Hel had a nurse, and called Kora-Kyn-a; in Egyptian k Her-u meaning “voice,” Kara or “cry” in Hebrew, Keras in Greek; hence Kor-Kyon is probably “barking-dog,” and so Debor-ah the nurse of Ra c hel means “word” or “oracle.” Besides, both Ari-Adane and Ra c hel, as also wSemele, died in child-birth.

13. These-us is further identified with Hebrew and Egyptian story by his marriage with y-Gel-e, daughter of Pa-Nope-us or “the Anup” or Anubis, and Io-Gal-e seems the “heifer” Hathor, who as Ae-Gal-ah or “heifer” was wife of David (2 Sam.:5) ; yet in Hebrew the word is also “wagon,” “chariot,” thus connecting with the watchful constellation of the Wain or Ursa Major, which in Egypt was connected with Rer-et or Lel-et, that is, Ta-Ur ; and the son of David’s Ae-Gal-ah was I-There-Aam, as the mother of These-us was Ae-Thera, perhaps Ta-Ur, and the Phoenician goddess Thor-o or “law”; and yet Thera in Hebrew also means “excessive” or “over- much,” as in Egyptian Ta-Ur is “the mighty,”* and so Ie-Thero as priest of Midi-an or “giant”-land may only express a giant. The death of These-us at Sekyr-os must allude to the Sekar boat of the winter Sun in Egypt; also called c Hennu, which gives us the Ma : c Han-ah of David and Ja-Aakob (2 Sam. 17: 24; Gen.2:22), and of course Shimesh-on is in touch with it (Judges 13:25). Manes-Theos, who drove away These-us, is the “mane-god,” hence hairy, and the same as y^sav and A-Besh-alom, both hairy, who drove away Ja-Aakob and David. Some say These-us did not establish the Isthmian Games to honor Melech-Aareth, but to honor Sekyr-on, which only means that the two are the same, and that they are These-us as well as Seker-Osiris and the Segor or “shut-up” Noa c h (Gen. 7:16); all which enables us to connect the Tyrian Malech-Aareth with the sea-god

14. Curiously, the hair of Horus was called c Hen-Sek-et, and this might seem to connect with the c Hennu or Sek-et boat, and with the Hebrew Seair-ah, as both are the goat-barge of the autumn Sun; the Hebrew Such-oth being a name of this barge or portable “tent” of the departing Sun-god, over which was arrayed skins of beasts; and the feast and word were common to Persians (Strabo 11:8; 5-6), to Greeks, to Carthagenians (Diod. Sic. 20:25), as well as to Jews and Egyptians; giving name to the hairy Scythians or Sakyth-ians (Herod. 7:64) who destroyed Nineveh and the Assyrian monarchy, and invaded Egypt and Palestine about B. C. 622.

* Shimeshon deceives his wife by telling her that he is
“over-much shining” or Ie-Tar-im La c h-im, rendered “ropes new,” would be weakened, etc. He next tells her to bind him with Aab-oth not made by a workman, and Aab-oth means “thick clouds” as well as “cords.”

15. It must appear that Ia-Aakob erected Such-oth as a memorial of hairy ysav, the earlier name of the local Deity or Penu-El the “afore-God,” over- whom Ia-Aakob passed as the Shemesh arose; but Nu or the “sky” in Egyptian was also Nu or Pe-Nu, a species of “antelope” with horns like those of the Seker barge; and the Greek concept Pan was that aspect of Osar-is worshipped at Dad-u or “Mendes,” called Ba-en-Dad-u or “ram of David,” evidently the Bo-Aaz of Beth Le c hem, as Aaz means “goat,” and Bo-Aaz was clearly an aspect of ^Es-av, though Ra c hel or “ewe” is made wife of Ia-Aakob, while the wife in the triad of “Mendes” was an aspect of Hathor-Isis, whose name Me c het means the oryx-goat. Osir-Dad-u implies the generator. Such-oth, where I-Sera-El begun a pass-over of the Ma-
Debar, would serve to suggest embarkation in the Seker or Sek-et barge, as Such-oth was next to E-Tham or with the sunset god Tern or Atum, and so Such-oth was near by Ra-Meses or the “Sun of Evening” (Ex. 12:37; 13:20). It was his ship with black sails with which These-us destroyed ^Ege-us, the Egyptian c Heg or “goat,” probably connected with Agag and Aog of Bashan, who are Haman the Agag-i; and so the Egyptian Ab-u was the Chabesh of the Hebrews, and hence Io-Ab who killed A-Besh-Alom would connect with the “ewe-lamb” or Chabesh-ah which David “ravished” (comp. Esth. 7:8) or Chabesh-ah from Auri-Jah. Cha-Bes or Cha-Besh is by transposition Cha-Sheb-ah (Gen. 21:28;0: 39; 2 Sam. 12:1; Lev. 5:6), hence Bath-Sheb-aa was the ewe-lamb “ravished” or “forced”; but Cha-Besh or “trample,” “ravish,” “ewe-lamb,” same as Cha-Seb, is clearly the hairy Bes or Ia-Bez, and the text (Lev. 5 :6) says a “Chi-Seb-ah or Seair-eth Aaz-im for a sin-offering,” while the reverse of Cha-Bes is Seb-ach or “thick-boughs” which caught up A-Besh-alom and caught the ram substituted for I-Za c h-ak; and Suchoth is “thicket,” “boughs,” and as “tabernacles” was an autumn observance imitating the Sun going into his Mish-Chan or “tabernacle,” which latter is the Egyptian word, Hebraised into Shechan or “dwelling,” and the Shechin-ah of later Judaism which implies that Jehoah is present in his habitation.

1 6. k Hephesh in Egyptian was the “thigh” of Set, and the never-setting seven stars of the Great Bear, called also Mes k heti. This is the Aash of the Job (9:9;8:32), the Naash or Ghash of the Arabs, meaning both a “wagon” and “night-watcher.” Ur-t is “chariot” in Egyptian, and they depicted the Jewish goddess Aash-ta-Ur-t as a lion-head war-goddess driving a chariot. Their own terror-goddess Rer-t or Ta-Ur or Shepu-t was also connected with this constellation. She must also have been goddess of flocks and fecundity (Deut. 1:4; “young” in 7:13; 28:4,
18, but it should be “goddess”), and as their night-watcher. These “seven” or Sheb-aa stars were perhaps “sworn” by or Sheb-aa, and hence Bath-Shebaa was perhaps a name of her, as David first saw her at eventide from the Geg or “roof” (comp. Aog, &c, Deut. 1 : 4); and so Abraham (Gen. 21:30) gave “seven” Cha-Bes-eth “in the Aabur” that it be an Aad-ah or “perpetual-witness” that he dug the well of Shebaa as the south bounds of the Aabera-im; so Bath-Shebaa was a “ewe-lamb” or Chi-Bes-ah (2 Sam. 12:3), the k Hephesh or constellation sacred to the goddess. But as a “wagon” or Ae-Gal-ah, because it went Gal or “round,” she was the wife of David and of These-us. Ja-Aakob married the “ewe” Ra c hel.* The shrine Gile-Aad, the Ja-Bish-ah Gile-Aad of Sha-Aul, was called Mi-Zeph-ah (Gen.1 149) or “watcher/’ and was a shrine of Tan-oth the daughter of Ie-Petha c h. In Greece this constellation was called Kal-Ishto; also Helike, perhaps ha-Lech-ah or “the traveller” in Hebrew, or ha-Le c h-ah as “the shining” ; and her son by Zeus was Ark-as ; perhaps as an archer like I-Shemaa-El, for Laban’s Ie-Gar Sahad-uth suggests Hagar and the well La c ha-i Ro-i which refers to herself as the “bright watcher.”

17. Gula or “great” the wife of the Sun in Akkadia, and who was notable in Chaldean theology under that name and that of Ai, is distinguished on existing stelae by the “circle” after her name, Gol in Hebrew, and the towns Gile-Gal and Aai seem to bear her name. When “in Ja-Besh-ah Aaber Isera-El the Jordan” (Josh. 4:22), he first encamped at Gile-
Gal, and there celebrated the first Pa-Sa c h by eating the Aabur of the land (5:11); but in another version of his arrival the Gal or “heap” was east of the Joredan, though after he had passed the river (Gen.1:21), but both legends refer to a pile of stones (Gen.1 146; Josh. 4:20), and the one as a Gale-Aad, the other as a witness of the Aaber in Ja-Bash-ah ; whereas, when this hero is called David, he comes from Ma- c Hen-ah or “camp,” Aaber or “passes-over” in the Aaber-ah to Gile-Gal, and is met by Shime-Aai who had cast stones at him. The mighty Sha-Aul was crowned at Gile-Gal, slain at Gil-Boa, buried at Ja-Bish-ah of Gile-Aad, and I have pointed out that his name indicates him as the Akkadian Ushu-Gal, while the “Gol to me this day a great stone” (1 Sam. 14:33) when he built his first altar to Jehoah seems to connect him with this same abstruse story; nor must we omit that Eli-Jahu went from Gile-Gal (occasionally rendered “whirlwind”) to meet the Seair-ah or “whirlwind,” first Aaber the Joredan in c Harab-ah or “dry-ground” after striking the river with his ie-Gel mantle, but naught is said of stones. The association of stones and drouth with Gula or Gile-Gal, and other forms of this word, indicates that Gula was what she was on the lower Euphrates, the female power of the scorching Sun. Gal or “great” became in Hebrew Aul or Ail and El, that is, the “strong,” “mighty”; the Egyptian Ur or Ul; hence Sha-Aul or “Saul” ; but Gal and Gol and Gil-Gal, &c, was separately in Hebrew “round,” a “fountain,” a “skull,” a “captive,” to “reveal” or “uncover,” “naked”; and as “whirl-wind” or Seair-ah we may see that the connection is with solar concepts. Gula’s mate in Chaldea was San or Sansi, “the Sun,” hence Beth Shan was the proper place to hang the body of Sha-Aul, though Ja-Bish-ah of Gile-Aad later received it as “drouth”-goddess, also called c Horeb-ah. In the Egyptian “Praises of the Sun,” he is called c Her-Ba or
“Soul-Above,” and he is depicted with Ba or “ram” horns; which makes it curious that Msheh should first communicate with Jehoah at the Mountain of c Hor-Eb-ah, as Msheh is very like Seh or “lamb,” and when he descended the mountain with the law “like a karan or horn a rising of his face” (Ex.4: 29) ;* horn being metaphoric of strength,. power, as Amen-Ra and k Hnum are depictured.

* Correctly, one who “wanders” in search of sheep.

1 8. Connection of a flock with a night-watcher which wheeled or revolved above the Ma c het or “north” horizon is easy in religious ideas, but Ma c het was also the “oryx” in Egyptian, the head of which was the prow of the c Hen-nu boat. That the nurse angel Ta-Ur should also connect with this concept will appear from her name Lil-et (or Rer-et), which in Egyptian means “to go round,” in Hebrew “night”; hence “revolving” or “round,” “wheel,” “chariot,” render the Chaldean Gula, wife of the Sun, the same as the Aa-Gal-ah of David and These-us, the De-Lil-ah who shaved Shimesh-On, the Aash-ta-Urit or “many-chariot” woman in Egyptian, the goddess of the Seair-ah or Sekar or c Henn-u or Seket or Such-oth or Ia-Besh-ah or c Horeb-ah or Aaber-ah, the barge of the Sun, or its chariot. Some of these may refer to the Sun in his moribund condition, such as the Egyptian “vessel” or Aren, the “ark” of the Hebrews, and the Egyptian Teb which as “box” supplies us with the Teb-ah or “chest” of Noa c h and Mosheh, yet the conceit is that all “pass-over” or Aaber the sky or water, in boat or in chariot.

19. The concept of the Euphratic peoples was that the Sun went into a “cave,” and was there re-born; hence Ja-Aakob went from the well of Sheb-aa to c Har-an, whence came Aber-aham, as These-us went into and came out of the labyrinth of Min-os, &c. ; but These-us, who seems the same as the Thasian Malech-Aareth (Herod. 2:44), that is, perhaps, a combination of Hercules and Bakchos, specially worshipped in Thas-os or ^E-Thera, was a son or aspect of Poseidon also, for Thas-os was son of Agenor or “Ocean,” and sent from Phoenicia to find his sister Europa, which makes him an aspect of Kadmus of Thebes. The Thesmophoria festival was the counterpart of the O-Socha- phoria, and celebrated by women in honor of Keres or De-Meter five days later ; both in Pa-Nepsi-on; but lorn Chepher is observed five days after Such-oth, and thus responds to Thesmo-phoria, which was also celebrated in huts or booths. Thesmo is “law” in Greek, as Tor-ah is “law” in Hebrew, but that Thesmophoria was an observance to the “law”-giver seems in the face of the statement of Herodotus (2:171) that this observance was brought from Egypt, which should have placed scholars on search of an Egyptian meaning, and this I ascertain to be The-Shema (fern.) or “the traveller,” as Cer-es was in search of her stolen daughter.* Possibly the “fugitive” Hagar called her son I-Shem-aa-El, the divine nomad, for the Egyptian word Shema. Had-es, who stole the daughter of Cer-es, was evidently in his origin the burning Sun, who in turn disappears, getting name from “the Duat,” or Ho-Dua-es as Greeks would say, the Egyptian Underworld. Isera-El, fleeing from Egypt, took Chel-i of gold and Chel-i of silver and
Semel-oth (Gen. 12:35), and in places Chel-ah means “bride” (Isaiah 49:18; 61:10; Jere. 2: 32) and “daughter-in-law” (Gen.8:11; Ruth 1 :6), as Kala in Greek is “fair”; and Bakch-os brought his mother Sem-Ela out of Hades. These-us not only carries off Ari-Adane and Helen, but attempts the abduction of Kora or Persephone from her father Aidon or Hades. Ja-Aakob brings off two brides from c Hauran or the “cave,” daughters of Laban; but Nabal is a reverse of Laban, and it is his wife that David seduces from Charem-El or the “vineyard-god.” It is not only probable that the Semel-ah or over-cloth of the Hebrew connects as a travelling garment with the Egyptian word Sema or Shema as ‘ ‘traveller/’ but that the famous The-Sema-phoria of the Greeks was a carrying to “the wanderer” Ceres or De-Meter; the The or Te being the feminine definite article in Egyptian. And yet Sem was the “summer” or warm season in Egypt, and this might apply to the time of the celebration of Thesmo-phoria at Thebes, but at Athens and most places the festival took place the latter part of October.

* An argument may well be made, however, that These-us is named from the Greek word Thes-thai, “to put,” “to set,” a law or pledge, and hence the Teiash or “he-goat” sent by Ja-Aakob to his brother, though Budge tells us the Tesh-Tesh was the figure of Osiris over which the funeral ceremonies were performed at Mendes, Abydos, etc. And in Egyptian the word Samen means to “establish,” as Sum in Hebrew (Job 17:3, etc.) is to “set-up,” so Te-Samen and The-Semo-phoria might indicate a festival to the “founder” of the town or the one who established it, as These-us did.

20. There is no question that in Egyptian myth Asar or “Osiris” was that judge of the dead whom the Greeks called Hades, the Latin Pluto, the Cretan Min-os, the Akkadian Mulgi or Malach, &c. ; and from the fact that Christians, who inherit their creed largely from these peoples, hold their divine man Jesus as judge of the dead, it may be that Asar and the others were deified men. But as judge it must seem that he must have a severe if not an awful aspect as in case of Chebar Enosh or “glorious man” whose Shaletan (“Sultan”) should be everlasting (Dan. 7:13-14). It is curious that the “hair” of Asar should be called Rer-et or Lel-et, the name of the terror-aspect of Isis-Hathor; seeming to connect with both “night” and a “sow” or Rer-et, as with the Hebrew word Arur or “cursed” ; and the ideograph for “hair” signifies both “black” and “grief” in Egyptian, for in grief that people allowed their hair to grow ; which fact perhaps explains the contempt of the children who called Eli-Shaa “bald-head” or Kerea c h when he should as in grief have had hair;* but Kerea k h or Gera k h in Egyptian means “night,” yet is probably the same word as the Gela c h or “shaven” Shimeshon and Josephf by some mixture of ideas.

21. The centre of the great Mother cultus called c Het- c Her or “Hathor” was “Denderah” or “Tentyra,” from the Egyptian name Ta-en-ta-Rer-et or “land-of-the-Rer-et” or Te-Lel-et, t Joseph shaved and Ie- c Haleph his garments (Gen. 41: 14) ; Shimeshon had seven Ma- c Heleph-oth, which is another form of the same word; and the “changed” of Joseph must indicate that Shimeshon had seven “changes” or “kinds” of hair; but “wearing the seven with Ma-Sech-ith” seems to refer De-Lil-ah or Ta-Rer-et to the seven stars of her constellation, called by Hebrews Aash, and hence perhaps Aash-ta-Ur-eth. and it is probable that Rer-et was her older title, for Rer-et in some inscriptions of prehistoric time is called mother of the Sun. In Crete we have her as Helen-Denderibis, and Hel-en must be from Heli-os or the Sun, but her father’s name, Tyndar-us, connects her with “Tentyra” ; and These-us first carried off Helen. Rer as “going-round” might indicate the Bear constellation, and from “bear” or Deb in both Egyptian and Hebrew we might suspect the hairy Rer-et as feminine of the Rer or “hair” of Asar. Deb-Ur-t in Egyptian is both “great-bear” and “bear-chariot”; hence as Debor-ah the wife of “torches” she led Bene-Isera-El to battle against Sisera, “and Bene-Israel came up to her to Mi-Shephat.” Besides, Asar as “judge” or Ap of the dead might have first given her the name Ap-et which she is supposed to derive from the Ap-et or “hippopotamus,” but it is curious that her name Shepu-t is the same as Shephat or “judge” in Hebrew, and is related to her name Ta-Ur which may have given the Phoenicians their goddess Thor-o or “law,” and their Aash- Thar-eth, or “Astarte” as the Greeks called her. Aas-ah or “hairy” gives us the name Aes-av, it is averred, whose return “to his way of Seair-ah” (Gen.3:16), which word means “hair/’ “terror,” “whirlwind,” “goat,” “demon,” indicates that Seair-ah was Aash-Th-Ur-eth, who in her aspect as Ta-Ur-t or “the chariot” goddess carried off Eli-Jahu also ; but as wife of Aes-av we may connect her with Je-Hud-ith or “Jewess,” otherwise Bas-Ameth or “maid-of-Bes” or Je-Bus. The word Aas-ah, however, is very frequent in the Hebrew; not as “hairy,” but as “doer,” “to do,” “maker,” strictly synonymous with Ari in the name of As-Ar or “Osiris,” and the same as Malach or “worker”; but it need not be doubted that Aes-av is the “skin-king” or Malach-Aareth, though it is not clear that we have Asar as a hairy concept in Egypt. And yet in a hymn to Asar he is called Saa c h-u or “master,” the ideograph of which is a “goat” with the life sign about its neck,* singularly recalling the word Ba-Aal when rendered “master” or “lord,” for Ba is both “soul” and “ram” in Egyptian, as Aal-u is the celestial garden, thus perhaps explaining the oracular passage ( Gen. 27:40) where Aes-av is to ta-Rid (Egyptian “grow,” and so Pa-Rad and “Pa-Rad-ise” or “the garden”) and break the Aul; but the god Ba-Aal was usually identified by Egyptians with Set, though the consonance between the Egyptian word Saa c h-u and the Hebrew word Seair-ah is probable.

22. Egyptians, though shaven, depicted a tuft of hair on the chin of dead men, and on the chin of princes and captives ; often appending it to their figures while living. It may be that this represented the Rer of Asar or the c Hen-Sek of c Heru, each rendered “hair” or its “locks” ; but in shaving the heads of their boys they left a lock on the sides of the head, as appears in figures of c Har-pa- c Herad, and we may infer that this custom had some reference to virility or strength. The Hebrew word Aaz-ah means “strong” and “goat”; their word Seair means “hair” and “goat”; also “whirlwind,” “demon.” In Hebrew story Shimesh-on becomes weak and his Cho c h or “strength” departs when he is shorn; whereupon he is taken to Aaz-ath-ah, rendered “Gaza,” but it is feminine, and is the Seair-ah that Aes-av went to and that carried off Eli-Jahu ; that is, the c Hennu or Sekar barge personified as the strong and fierce Satyrs of classic story; the Kadin Aaz-ah or “east strong” (Ex. 14:21) spirit that parted the sea for I-Sera-El ; she who as Ma-She c h-ith or the female Me-Shia c h had her temple on Zion and was the “destroyer” (2 Sam. 24:16) ; and in the Egyptian story of the destruction of mankind is called both Hathor and Sekhet;* but it is doubtful if Deb-Ur as “great-bear” in Egyptian is the fierce Deb-or-ah, for Dibarra in Chaldean story is the angel of the plague, and yet as the watcher over shepherds this constellation seems the nurse of Reb-Ek-ah (Gen. 35:8) or “great wild-goat” (see Ako, Deut. 14:5), as Ta-Ur or Rer-et or Lel-et was a nurse in Egyptian myth, and Amal-Thea the nurse of Zeus. At Aazath-ah the hair or Seair of Shimeshon necessarily grew, enabling him as before (Judges 16:1-3) to do strong feats there; but it is curious that in Chaldaic the Zodiac sign Capri-Cornu is called Lal-u and in Assyrian it is Uz or E-Naz-u, thus giving us De-Lil-a and Aaz, and the Naz-ir that Shimeshon was, for Nazir means “Jiair” (Jere. 7:29) in Hebrew; and women in Syria cut off their hair in lament for Adon-is, as men in Egypt let it grow in their grief.

23. The goat was a symbol of Tan-ith in Syria, and in Chaldea the goat-skin, the Mg-is of Zeus, was a symbol of the “tempest,” the Seair-ah or “whirlwind” of Eli-Jahu, Jonah, &c. ; and in the triad of Carthage Tan-ith was wife of Ba-Aal c Hammon; evidently also the Thoan-ah or “occasion” (Judges 14:4) of the Philistines; also Tan-oth the daughter of Je-Petha c h (11 140), and Ia-Ael who assassinated Sisera, as her name means an ibex or wild-goat
(1 Sam. 24:2) ; hence as Aaz-ath-ah w r e must have her as Seair-ah, and as Reb-Ek-ah the mother of Aes-av and Aamal-Ek. The Zodiacal signs of the Chaldeans, adopted by the Greeks, are inscribed at Denderah, and Capri-Cornu is the goat fore-parts with the tail of a fish. A coast town like Aaz-ah must have had a marine aspect of God, and so as late as the fourth century A. D. they there worshipped
“Marn-as” as the Greeks wrote it, and which scholars interpret by the Aramaic as “Lord” ; but, while Mare is Chaldaic for “lord” (Dan. 2:47), tne words Mer-Ren in Egyptian mean “master-of-the-vessel,” the A-Ron or “ark” of the Hebrews, as in Hebrew-Chaldaic Mare-Ani would be “lord-of-fleets,” and so the Latin word Marin-us, the Marin and Marine of the French and English ; for ships passed-over the yEge-an or “goat”-sea, a name from c Hag or “goat” in Egyptian, but a sea of storms and dangers; yet the beloved Sun-god also passed over it, “shut-up” or Sekar in his Teb-eth or “ark,” and the month Teb-eth or December- January corresponds with the goat-sign of the Zodiac; and the Aazath-ah or Seair-ah was both a terror and the 7Eg-is of Zeus, but she was the hairy one.

*At Deb-ut in the name of Uaz-et and at Dep-A c ha-t in the name Maden (“sword”), both called Aphrodito-polis,
Hathor was special goddess.

24. Like Eli-Jahu, Ja-Aakob went up with a chariot and horses, and the Ma- c Han-ah was very Chebad (Gen. 50:9); but he was first c Han-et or “embalmed” by the Rephea-im or “giants,” and it may be that c Han-et gives the meaning of the c Hennu boat; but in Egyptian “embalm” is Ut, and this may explain why the remains were taken to the Garon of At-Ad “which in the Aaber of the Joredan”; Aat in Egyptian meaning “region” or “place.” The suburbs of Egyptian towns were thick with priests and artisans who prepared the dead for burial, and Greeks called these suburbs Mem-non-ia, probably from Men (also De k han) or “obelisk” ; and the obelisk became the emblem of Amen-Raa. The Greek word Obel-os, a “spit” or pointed implement, is not in my opinion the origin of Obeli-Sak-os ; Abel or “grief” and Sak or “sack-cloth” both being Hebrew words ; but from the Egyptian words Ben-ben or Bel-bel, “obelisk,” and Sekar or “shut-up/’ as Sakar-ah seems to mean a cemetery, while Bel-bel is a transition from Ben-ben not uncommon. And Ben-ben is closely connected with the Ben-u, the supposed Phoenix of the Greek writers, which as Pa-Nea c h or “the living” seems a name Pharaoh gave Joseph, and connected with the word
Phoenicia. But the Egyptians called the obelisk the “finger” of the Sun, and so from the Hebrew word A-Zebaa or “finger” the Hebrew word Ma-Zeb or “pillar,” and lad or “hand” erected by Sha-Aul and A-Besh-alom, which attest solar worship, perhaps that of Amen, as Shemu-El was an Amen priest (1Sam. 2:35), with whom we may probably connect Jehoah of Zaba-oth to whom the Ma-Zebs were set up.

25. The Sulem Ma-Zeb or “ladder” seen in his dream by Ia-Aakob when a fugitive from Aes-av must have been a pyramid, on the steps of which Male-ach-i were moving and at the top of which Jehoah stood ; and Sulem suggests the Greek word A-Sylon and the A-Sylum of the Latin. The “ladder” or Maket largely figures in Egyptian theology as the means of reaching the Heavens, and the word resembles the Hebrew cities of Makelet or “refuge” ; but the steps of pyramids also figure. Ia-Aakob set up a Me-Zeb at this house of El or Beth-El, but its name at the first was Aulem Luz or “forever departed/’ whereas Elohim was still there and it was the Sha-Aar of the Heavens; but there are two other accounts of the origin of this shrine (Gen.5:6-8; 9-15).

26. The Phoenician account calls the brother of Usho (or Aes-av) Shame-Merum or “heaven-high,” rendered Hypse-Uran-os by the Greeks, and he dwelt at Zor or “Tyre,” learning to build “huts” or Such-oth; and he quarreled with his brother Usho, who wore skins, worshipped fire and wind, and built the first boat; but to both were erected pillars at their death, which were worshipped. Thus connected with Ma-Zeb-im or “obelisks,” symbol of Amen-Ra or the “hidden-Sun,” the word Jakeb is reasonably found to mean in Egyptian “weeping,” though it is “wine-vat” in Hebrew, and so the oak of Bach-uth at Beth-El (35:8) also suggests him as an aspect of Bakch-os or Osiris.

27. The Sep-ed or “lamentation” at At-Ad over Ia-Aakob, corresponding with Abel or “mourning” and Jakeb or “weeping,” connects with the Egyptian concept Sep-ed, “lord of the East,” especially the war-Sun of the town Kesen, evidently Mount Kasi-on, perhaps “Gosh-en”; and Sep-ed is the name in Egyptian of the star Siri-us, the heliacal rising of which heralded the Baa c h or “inundation.” Kes-em or “Kasi-on” in the name Sep-ed, however, may supply us with the word Kesem in Hebrew, rendered “witch-craft,” “divination”; but the determinative of a “sack” or Kes (reverse in Hebrew is Sak, Gen. 42:27) perhaps indicates that Kes-em was a place of trade, and the place is still called El Kes. It was at the east door of Egypt, near Aam or Pelusium, and Strabo found there a temple of Zeus, evidently Amen or Sep-ed. The district Sep-ed, of which Kesem was capital, has as determinative of Sep-ed an acute cone or pillar, or sometimes a mummied “hawk” or Bak, a Sun-symbol, especially of Horus. Sep-ed is full-bearded and a foreign god in origin ; in one instance depicted as Bes, in others as “lifted-up” on a Thes, which suggests the Greek “to set” from which These-us is supposed. Ja-Aakob’s wife Ra c hel is cited as weeping for children at Ram-ah, and in Egyptian “weeping” is Remi as well as Jakeb, and at this day the site of Aamu or Pelusium is called Pha-Ram-eh. Howbeit, there need be little doubt that Ia-Aakob, carried off by a chariot and horses from Egypt, is to be identified with Egyptian and Phoenician theology.


i. One can only understand the religions of the ancients who knows that each town or tribe had its own divinity or patron saint. “According to the number of thy cities are thy gods, O Judah!” (Jere. 2:28; 11 113) was said at least thirteen centuries after the time of Abraham and nine centuries after Mosheh. The statement was true of Canaan; it was true of Egypt and Greece; it is true of every nation to-day. It suited the heirarchy at Jeru-salem to deride these local deities, most of whom differed only in name from Jehoah, and it was to their advantage to concentrate on their town as a place of worship. These neighboring shrines were never abandoned, and even thirty years after the Crucifixion the Emperor Vespasian consulted that of Elijah at Carmel, only a day’s ride from Jerusalem. Odious tales were told, however, of these rival places and deities.

2. An example of this is the story of the Virgin of Mi-Zep-ah, perhaps called Than-oth or “lament” (Judges 11:40), suggesting Athen-a of Attica, and the Phoenician Tan-ith, daughter of El. Though the story relates to Mi-Zep-ah in Gileaad we may well suspect that it equally applies to Mizepeh, an hour’s ride from Jerusalem, and the seat of government for a time (Jere. 40:41) after Jerusalem fell. This latter (1 Mac.:46) may be referred to by the story of Rizepah, and is probably the Gibeath of the Shaaul legend, I-Pheta c h was a Gibbor- c Hail, and son of Gileaad and Aishah Zonah or “woman harlot.” He suffered the usual indignities of young gods, and fled to the land of Tob or “beauty” with certain Rek fellows ; and Mosheh also was a Tob or “beautiful-child,” as was the “goodly” Sha-Aul, the month Teb-eth giving to or getting name from the “ark” of Noa c h and the “basket” of infant Mosheh; indicating their solar retreat in mid-winter, since, while the initial letter of the word is different in Hebrew, it is probable that the Egyptian Teba or “chest,” “mummy-case,” connects with their name Tebi for that of the same winter month when the Sun is in its ark or its cradle, as also the Nile.

3. In his absence, Aammon oppresses, and I-Pheta c h returns to rescue Gileaad. He swears that if successful he will sacrifice the first object he meets that comes out of his doors; so he passes over, conquers; then “came I-Pheta c h the Mi-Zep-ah to his house,” when his daughter, a virgin, comes forth, and becomes the “burnt-offering” or Aol-ah to Jehoah. Aol literally means “what-goes-up,” but so common was the burning of children as a sacrifice by the Hebrews that the word also means a “suckling” child, perhaps offered at the going-up of the Sun or the rise of the Nile ; but the peculiarity of this shrine was that perhaps virgins only were sacrificed. There was a connection of this Mi-Zep-ah with the virgin Mire-lam, perhaps, and certainly so if Ain Mi-Shep-at was of like kind, for that was a name of her shrine at Kadesh Baren-Ea (Gen. 14:7) or “in Aren-Ea,” which was in Pa- Aran; and the account in the Genesis indicates that there Aash-Tor-eth and Ta-Mar also had shrines ; Ta-Mar being both a Kadesh-ah and a Zan-ah in the account of her, but both words are rendered “harlot,” while Kadesh is usually “holy”; and Karana-im or “horns” as applied to Aash-Tor-eth indicates the Egyptian ‘Ha-t-
c Har or cow-goddess, or perhaps the new-Moon phase of the Greek Diana, and “new-Moon” was c Had-Esh in Hebrew, of which word Kad-Esh may be an idiom, as Kadem-Esh means “eastern-light,” while Kadad-Esh means “fire-worship/’ perhaps in the sense of vestal.

4. Mi-Shep-at, however, indicates the ferocious Shapu or Ta-Ur of the Egyptians, pictured usually with a “knife” (Demu or Mades in Egyptian), a Kadad or “cleave” in Hebrew, hence Tere-Dam-ah or “deep-sleep” who fell on Adam and Abram, and gave them posterity. There is a change of religion shown by the use of Kadesh as “sodomite” and Kadeshah as “harlot” from the usual rendition of these words as “holy” and “holy-woman,” and some distinction between Zan-ah and Kadesh-ah seems to have been preserved (Deut. 23 117, 18) as in case of Judah’s Tamar ; and it seems from the accounts of Lucian and others that the Syrian goddess had Kadesh-im of both sexes in her temples who prostituted themselves for her treasury; the men being eunuchs who became catamites and went about with her image in their hands; hence, in the cited passages from the Deuteronomy, Kadesh in one verse and Chaleb or “dog” in the other seem somewhat distinct; but Kadesh kept its meaning as “holy,” and Jerushalem is the Kudes or “holy” of the Arabs to this day. A similar case is that of C h al or “temple” and the Egyptian word U c hal or “dog” (compare the Hebrew word Achel or “eat”), on which Egyp- tian word there is a play in Genesis* (43:32) ; and so I-Pheta c h says “I have opened my mouth to Jehoah, and an Auchal to go-back,” that is, he would be a “dog” to swallow his own utterance.

5. If I-Pheta c h was a solar type, as was perhaps Ptah at Memphis, he was a creator like Vulcan, that is, a “worker” or Maleach, but mainly under-ground as the night-Sun, and, when he arose to pass over, the astral concept might be that the watching Morning-Star must pale in the glory of that victory over darkness ; and so Mi-Zep-ah is rendered “watch,” “watchtower”; but this might be the horned Moon of morning as well if it were not that the star continues for at least two months to fade away after reaching its aphelion, that is, “to go down on the mountains” and bewail her fate. The Than-oth or “celebrate,” “lament,” of four days for her probably indicates her name. In Phoenician story Tanith is the daughter of El. In Occidental myth A-Thena was the virgin daughter of Zeus or Jupiter. The Persian goddess was called Tanaita, and was symbolized by a star. The Greeks identified the Phoenician Tanith with Ar-Tem-is, usually typefied by the crescent Moon ; which Ar-Tem-is was a virgin, and twin of Apollo-Phoebus; and Ar-Tem was perhaps the Egyptian words c Har-t-Maa or “goddess of Truth/’ whence the c Har-Tum-im or “magicians” of Egypt and Babylon encountered by Joseph and Mosheh and Daniel; though c Har-Tem or -Atum was a favorite name of the night-Sun, and Ar-Tem-is was probably his feminine as he was specially lord of On or Helio-polis ; but it seems easily that Tanith and the Greek Athena were the Egyptian Nit or Ta-Nit, specially the name of the goddess at Ssa or “Sais,” at Esenah, Thebes, &c, whose symbol was a shuttle, but who wears the Tesher or “red” crown. Shimesh-On went down to Timen-ath-ah, “for
Th-Oan-ah he sought from the Philistines, ” and (v. 7) she was “Tishar in the Aen-i of Shimesh-On” follows; and so when Jehudah goes down to Timen-ath-ah he finds Tamar at the Phetha c h of Aena-im, and she makes a Buz or “shame” of him as Shimesh-On’s wife caused the like to him, for both seem the solar strength overcome by the night-queen at the horizon or sun-set; Ti-Men-ath perhaps being Amen-ti. Ta-Anath Shiloh was doubtless a shrine of this concept, while The-An-ah is “coitus” and “fig-leaf.”

* “For not an Iu-Chel-un of an Egyptian to Ackel with the Hebrews.”

6. In the time of Strabo (17:1:46), that is, of Augustus Caesar, a virgin was annually prostituted to the god Amen at great Thebes, and Herodotus (1 :i8i-i82) found a like sacrifice to Bel-Marduk at Babylon four centuries before; and, while both Amen-Ra and “Merodach” were Sun types, as was perhaps Molech on the Jordan, it is not necessary to assume that the solar concept was alone chargeable with this species of offering. The words Sep-ah, Zep-ah, and their derivatives, mean “inundation” (Job 14:19; Ezek.2:6),
“spreading-out,” “abundance,” “increase,” “covering”; and at Cairo the full Nile is still greeted with the cry “Wefa en Neel!” and about the 10th August all the functionaries and people assemble to witness, amid joyous shouts and the roar of artillery, the cutting of the dam for the inundation ; at which moment a mud figure standing before the dam, and called the “Bride of the Nile,” is swept away before this “opener” or “mouth,” which in both Egyptian and Hebrew is Pheta c h; hence I-Pheta c h says “I have gaped my mouth to Jehoah,” which is a play on his name; the “gaped” or Pez-ith being an idiom of the hairy Buz, Jabez, the “beast-like,” as Peta c h at Memphis was identified with the fire-god Hephsestos, and yet the reply of the maid, “Do to me whatever ia-Zea from thy Pi,” is a play on the word Pi-Zith-ah or “gaped” he has just used, or “going-from the mouth” of I-Pheta c h the Mi-Zep-ah or “inundation.” In any case the mean origin ascribed to I-Pheta c h, like the drunkenness of Boaaz and of Noa c h, seems meant to decry some shrine.

7. In the hills of Judea it seems probable that Deity at one time was called Dad or David, that is, “beloved.” This was evidently the Egyptian name Dat or Dad, but spelled Tatt because their letters T and D were the same; and under such name it seems that Osiris was represented in his phallic or amorous nature, like Eros or Priapus, or in his productive and earthly nature. The symbol called Dad or
Ded (Tat or Tet), usually construed as that of “stability,” or as the tree in which Asar’s body was enclosed, is more probably, what some consider it, a phallic emblem, and also of the resurrection of Asar; and it was set up with great reverence in Ba-en-Daddu or “Mendes” and perhaps other towns as such emblem of his resurrection, while it was one of the two figures placed in repeated order on the sarcophagi and the divine arks; the other figure being the Ta, of looped shape, evidently feminine. Besides Mendes or Baendes, the city Per-Asar (“place-of-Asar”) or Busiris, was also called Ba-en-Dad, and hence perhaps the Bendidean orgies at Athens and in Thrace. Moreover, in upper Egypt were the two cities called Tet or Det and Teb-t or Deb-t, both called Aprodite-polis by the Greeks, for the name of the love-goddess is not taken from Greek words, but is a Phe-Raa-Dite or “hand-maid-of-the-Sun,” and Neter-Dit in Egypt was a “divine-handmaid” in the temples; yet Da-t or “gift” of Pha-Ra may be the meaning of A-Pha-Raa-Dite. Did-o or El-Issa, patron-saint of Kir-Thada or “Car-Thage,” that is, “City of Did-o” or David-ah, was this goddess ; and her husband Sichar-Bas connects her with Isis as wife of Seker-Asar, and with David of Je-Bus as his feminine; and that she sacrificed herself in fear of Iar-Bes, perhaps Iehoah-Bes, makes toward further study, since Bes is “fire” in Egyptian, and was the hairy-god.

8. In Phoenicia Dud was son of II or Il-Melech, but the legends that tell of the sacrifice of his son call this son Shedid and Je-Did and Je-Hud; Je-Did- Jah being the name of Solomon “in the Aabur of Jehoah” (2 Sam. 12:25) ; Jehud or Jehud-ah being the word we read as “Judah,” but perhaps also the Je- c Hid or “only-one” offered by Abraham and by I Pheta c h, and the “darling” of the Psalm (22: 20) ; c Hat meaning “heart” in Egyptian, hence “darling” in Hebrew; so that Je- c Hid or Je-Hud-ah and Dad or David mean much the same; and so Abraham and his Ie- c Hid go to the sacrifice of the latter, “they two Ia- c Hed” (Gen. 22:6, 8), that is, “as one,” “in accord”; perhaps the Greek Agathe or “good” coming from c Hat-a or “my heart” of the Egyptian.

9. There was a phase of Osar called Meru or “beloved,” with a lion following this name, “lord of Philae,” who might be suggestive of David, for the old shrine Beth-Le c hem which laid claim to David is seen to have had Naa- Ami or Mara as its mother-saint, and she was nurse of Aobed, son of Bo-Aaz or Bes, and Aobed suggests the great shrine Abyd-os. Ha-Dad or “the Beloved” was a divine name from Damascus to Edom, preceding the advent of the Persian name Mithras or the “Fond” one ; both solar types, it seems ; appearing so in the Bible story of the death of Ben-Hadad when c Hazah-El or the “sleep-God” puts the wet Ma-Cheber or “from-glory” over the sick man. That David in youth was A-Demon-i or “ruddy” seems to connect him with TEsav, who “came forth A-Demon-i, like a mantle of Seair” ; but it seems that David is made to destroy Edom, though he begot Ha-Dad there, and he, like David, fled to Pa-Ran or the serpent-god Rannu for protection, and after became a Satan or “adversary,” as Suten means “royal” in Egypt.

10. Shaaul calls David Aalem or “strip-ling,” a rendering so rare that the meaning of Aolem or “immortal” may suggest itself; but his son A-Besh-Alom has a name which might mean “shameful-youth.” The Psalms are mostly “to David,” not “of David” in any case. His father was I-Shai, not “Jesse”; he seems to have had no mother; and he was youngest of eight sons, thereby reminding us that in Phoenician story Sadyk was father of the eight Kabir-i, youngest of whom was Esh-Amun, in whom the Greeks saw ^Esekiel-Api-os. The absence of much of the miraculous in the stories of David* might leave one to suspect he was a real personage, for, save the killing of Gol-Jath and one or two other incidents, there is little of the superhuman in his adventures; and the great rock called Gol-Gotha at Jerushalem, to which place in Jebus-i times David brought this Gol or “skull,” was sufficient to suggest the giant legend. But that David was a name of Deity at c Heberon and Beth-Le c hem and Jerushalem seems established by the infamous character given him by the hierarchy of Jehoah, as they make of him a bandit, a cruel murderer, a perjurer to Jonathan and to Shimei, the debaucher of Aor-Jah’s wife and his murderer, and they show him a traitor at Gilboa, there calling him Sa-tan, and he died cursing his friend Joab; but, far more, he was descended from a Moabite woman name Ruth and the old hairy-god Boaaz or Bes.

ii. There are two accounts of the first appearance of David ; in one of these the ferocious Shemu-El goes to Beth-Le c hem at the order of Jehoah, and Shemu-EFs monster appearance made the elders or wise-men c Hered or “tremble,” it would seem ; his present being a “heifer” or Ae-Gel-ath Beker, emblem of the fecund Hathor or Io, if “heifer” is correct ; and he there made David the Meshia c h, whereupon the Rua c h of Jehoah came upon him, so that within a few verses more he is commended to Shaaul as a Gibor c Hail, a man of war, &c, and was made armor-bearer to the king. From him by music David removed the evil spirit that Jehoah had put on Shaaul. The other story, omitted by the Septuagint, is that his father sent David with food for his brothers, and that he came to the Ma-Aegal-ah in the vale of the El-ah, which might be “heifer” again as it is feminine singular, but Shaaul lay in the Ma-Aegal (1 Sam. 26:5), hence it was probably a circle or enclosure sacred to the goddess ; but it was after he had slain the giant that he met Shaaul for the first time. The sword of Gol-Jath was left at Nob-ah, and afterwards taken to Gath; but the head was taken to Jerushalem, though that town was still possessed by the Je-Bus-i. In another place (2 Sam. 21:19; 1 Chr. 20:5) credit for this exploit is given to El- c Hanan, son of Jaare-i-Oreg-im of “Beth ha-Le c ham-i,” and the “beam of weavers” or Menor of Oreg-im identifies the case yet confuses the names ; but it seems probable that El- c Hanan or “God-of-Mercy” or “kindness-of-God” was a name of David.

* Yet the women sang that though Sha-Aul had slain his thousands, David had slain his ten thousands.

Aastharth-t of the Egyptian Inscriptions; the goddess Aash-
Tor-eth of the Israelites; perhaps the Ishetar or “Esther”
of the Babylonians and Jews.

12. David incurs the displeasure of Shaaul, and becomes a fugitive and a bandit. During this period he attempts to rob Nab-al, whose name means “wine-skin,” who dwells in Ma-Aon or “iniquity,” and whose possessions are in C h armel, that is, he is a Priapus or “vine-yard” (C h arem)-El; and he was a Kash-eh or “churlish,” and evil from Aalal-im or “drinking,” and “he his Chalib” or “he his dog,” but there is no word “house” in the sentence. David tells his messengers to “say thus to the c Hai,” which may be rendered “life” or it may be rendered “beast,” and is probably designed to identify Nabal with Bes, also in Egypt called c Hai; but as Chalib he may in some sort be identified with the old c Heberon saint Chaleb, who brought the E-Shechol A-Neb-im or “cluster grapes” to the camp, and whose father’s name by reverse was “the A-Nup” or the “Anubis,” though it may be hazardous to suggest that the shrine c Heber-on and the Greek word Kerber-os are from the same word, and yet the former name of the town was Kir Arabaa (Judges 1:10), and Arabaa means “all-fours” with a beast (Lev. 18:23).

13. The wife of Nabal is Abi-Gail, perhaps Hebe-Gail, who is beautiful and treacherous ; going secretly to the outlaw with food and two Nibel-i of wine, and saying of her husband “Nabal his name and Nebal-ah with him,” for Nabal is also rendered “fool.” She tells David that Jehoah will make him a house of Ne-Aman, calls herself his Amath, &c. ; whereupon he relented, blessed her, and lifted up her face, not “accepted thy person.” His purpose had been, because Nabal neither knew him nor would give him cattle, to leave naught that belonged to Nabal by the “morning light” or Ma-Shetin Bekir, usually read “in Kir” or “on a wall” as to the latter word, but Mashetin Bekir is changed to “man-child” in our Revised Version without apparent linguistic authority, as the correct rendering seems to me to be that of cutting off Nabal from “drink” (comp. Masheti of Dan. 1 15, 8), as his Ma-Shet-ah or “feast” (“banquet”) proves, and as Shet or “water-skin” in Egyptian sustains, for Nabal also means “wine-skin,” which died when the wine was out of it or him. David then sent for Abigail the C h armel-ah (not “to C h armel”) and she became one of his harem, together with A c hi-Noaam from (not “of”) I-Zerea-El. Another version of this story locates it at I-Zerea-El, with Nab-oth or “grapes” of the C h arem or “vineyard” as the victim, in which A c heab and his wife Ai-Zebel were the robbers and murderers, and the old C h armel deity Eli-Jahu was the judge; Bae c ha being reverse of A c heab, Zerea-El meaning the “seed-God” or “arm-of-God,” &c. ; and to A c heab or Bacche-us was said, as it was to Nabal, that “shall be cut-off to A c heab Ma-Shetin Be-Kir” (i K. 21 :i2i) ; nor can it be unreasonable to suspect that Ai-Zebel, before whom Eli-Jahu fled, was one from whom the Greeks and Latins derived their word Sibyl. The story perhaps has its foundation in the conflict with the sects which were arrayed for and against the wine-god, and of the orgies incident to his cult at C h armel and elsewhere, as we see the mother of Shimeshon required not to use wine; and where Orpheus in Greece is destroyed by the Bacchanals, &c.

14. The book 2 Samuel elaborates the career of David. In the Chronicles the story of Nabal or of Naboth, that of Aur-Jah ( 1 Chr. 20:1), as also that of Eli-Jah and A-Besh-Alom, are omitted, since their immoral ten- dency could not survive a period of extreme barbarism and credulity. The story of the revolt of A-Besh-Alom is important as a seeming attempt to show the descent of David into Hades and his return, which was a popular conceit among the ancients to attest the immortality and perhaps the solar nature of their heroes. A-Besh means “evil” in “Assyrian,” “fire” in Egyptian if Bes is the same, but is usually rendered “shame” in Hebrew, while Aalem is rendered “stripling” when Shaaul applies the word to David ; and the name connects Abeshalom with the Aish-Bosh-eth and Mephi- Besh-eth of Shaaul’s family. That Abeshalom was solar appears from the assertion that he cut his hair at the end of every year (2 Sam. 14 ‘.26) . David must then appear as the setting Sun, at this stage, and that is somewhat the relation between Horus and Osiris, between Apollo and Pluto, for in Egyptian ritual we find Tem- c Heru- k huti or Tern and Horus mentioned together. In this case the frequency of the use and play on the word Aaber or “pass-over/’ from his leaving and passing-over the Aaber-oth or “fords” till his return in the Aaber-ah or “ferry-boat,” was the first fact that aroused my suspicion that this story is adopted from the Egyptian conceit of the passage of the Sun (and of its votary when dead) through the Duat or Hades in the Bar-is or boat in which all bodies of the good were carried across the sacred lake, and the word Aabera-im, perverted by our translators into “Hebrews,” seems to me without doubt to have been derived from this conceit and its ritual of “passers-over” in the Aa-Bar-is or “great-boat”; the Exodus and its Pa-Sa c h or “pass-over” being only another story of the same religious concept, as I have averred.

15. David and the people first went and stood at the house of “the Mere c hak” or “the departed,” and “all his servants Aabera-im upon his hand,” and all the other bands Aabera- im before him; then the word Aaber or its forms occurs six times in three consecutive verses, 22-24, and he requests the Aron to be taken back to the city, saying he would “tarry in the Aaber-oth of the Ma-Debar till there come a Debar from your people to the Gid to me” ; and Gid is not “certify,” but is properly “sinew,” and when Jakob was initiated the Gid of his thigh became sacred, though there seems to be an esoteric meaning, as Jakob then saw the morning Sun, or God face to face, at the Aaber of the Jabbok, after he had Aaber his presents and his wives and children probably twice (Gen.2:21-23); he remaining in Ma-c Han-eh or “camp”; and when Jakob Aaber the stream and cried with iEsav, first “prostrating” or Sheta c h himself seven times, it is seen that David also wept as he went up the mountain where Elohim was Sheta c h-av-ah, though he received presents while Jakob gave them. David’s Ba- c Hur-im or “in Caves” is the Pi-ha- c Hir-oth or “mouth-of-the-Caves” of the Exodus, as its Suc h -oth is the Suc h -oth of Jakob when he came from c Har-an or “cave” ; and it is here that David is accused by Shimeai, for when a corpse reached the sacred lake of the nome in Egypt the accusers came forward, stated his crimes, and the judges who were there passed upon the case, refusing to allow the body to pass-over in the Baris if the charge was proven; and the name of the lake at Memphis was Acherusa, which perhaps gave name to the Greek river Acheron and to the boatman Charon, but whether the Hebrew word Sheta c h, “prostrate,” “worship,” gave name to the classic Setyx or Styx is not so clear, though the Greeks had no S h ; hence it was only when word came from the priests to David, “lodge not the night in Aaber-oth of the Ma-Debar, but Aabor ta-Aabor,” &c, the duplicate being emphasis. He tarries at Ma-c Hana-im-ah, Jakob’s “camp,” which suggests the Egyptian boat c Henn-u in which the Sun is Seker or “shut-up,” with its oryx-head for a prow, and which seems the Seair-ah to which ./Esav went and the “whirlwind” that carried off Elijah and out of which Jehoah spoke to Job* ; but, as the name is feminine here, we may suspect the Egyptian serpent-goddess Ma c hen, who seems to have guarded the tomb of Osiris or the Sun, as Rannu or Pa-Ran did young princes, and who seems also to have been called c He c h-t, the classic Hekate; so that David’s course recalls Chapter 131 of the Book of the Dead, “I am the Sun god who shineth at night; * * * let me embark, O Sun, and let me sail in peace in thy boat to beautiful Amen-tet ; let the god Tern speak to me; the lady, the goddess, Me c hen * * * dwelleth in Nif-Ur-t” (near Abydos), &c. And so David was met by Shob-i the son of Na c hash or “serpent” of Ma-Rab-oth of the sons of Aamon, by Machir the son of Aami-El or “with-god” of Lo-Debar or “no-speech,” and by Barzelai the Gileadi from Rogel-im or the “iron-footed” Gileadi, who as father of Je-Pheta c h was Pet-ha c h or Vulcan; this Shobi suggesting the Shebti images placed in the tombs of the Egyptians ; and these supplied David, “for the people are hungry and weary and thirsty in the Ma-Debar.”

* Seair is “whirlwind” whether the Sin or the Semach is the initial letter, and Gesenius says the later Hebrew uses these letters without discrimination, and they seem to have the same sound precisely.

16. But A-Besh-Alom rode a Pered or “pard” or “leo-pard” which took him to the Sobech of the great El-ah, as Sebak was the crocodile-head god in Egypt, and the bad youth was caught up by the head or hair in the El-ah, and the Pered under him Aaber. Slain there, his corpse cast they “in the forest, to the Pe c hath the great, and raised exceeding great round stones upon him,” which seems to mean he was cast into a lion’s den and a stone placed over it as in case of Daniel, for Pe k hat is “lioness” in Egyptian, and the lion figure was a symbol of the Sun, while the stones “raised” or Zeb over A-Besh-Alom imply that he was worshipped, as does his “pillar” or Ma-Zeb-eth, and there should be little doubt that he was a type of Adonis, the sylvan phase of the vernal Sun, whose cult is thus meant to be explained away. His body was not honored by his grieving father as was that of Shaaul, nor was his murderer punished for that crime though buried in the Madebar.

17. With all this David had to appeal to the priests and elders, “Why are ye A c heron-im to return the king to his house?” after which we read “And Aaber-ah the Aaber-ah to Aabir,” rendered “and went-over a ferry-boat to bring-over,” &c, and “Shemai fell before the king in his Aaber,” for Sem-u was the leader of the 72 conspirators against Osiris.

Finally “the king ia-Aabor the Gilgal-ah, and Chimeham Aabar with him, and all the people of Jehudah ie-Aabir the king”; the Gilgal-ah seeming a shrine of Gula the Chaldean wife of the Sun, but perhaps in this case meant for the “round” goddess herself, similar to Ia-Besh-ah who received the dead Shaaul in the mystic Gile-Aad; and this shrine was where the allegoric Exodus ended by passing-over Jordan and observing Pa-Sa c h or “pass-over” of the Sun ; and the Gile-Aad of the returning Jakob, and called father of I-Pheta c h ; and so Aa-Gal-ah and Abi-Gail of the wives of David. Mephi-Bosheth met David at his return, said he could not follow the flight because of Pa-Sa c h, and Mephi-Bosh-eth in Hebrew means “Memphis-shame” as a reference to the lame Ptah or “Vulcan.” The episode has its obscure points, but seems on the whole an adaptation of the familiar myth of a passage into the Shades and a return therefrom, and this over the abyss of waters in the divine barge or Baris, giving name probably to the Aabera-im or “Hebrews” as those who could do this.

1 8. The poetic repute of David arose perhaps like that of Apollo, since the Psalms are not “of” David but “to” David, and have no reference to the events told of him. Their titles are pure inventions so far as they seem to concern him unless his is a name of Jehoah, as “to the Beloved,” though Jehoah seems considered with little regard to terms of love and tenderness, and the Psalms address him as a saviour or helper or avenger, with the same glorifications of him as in the hymns to the Sun in Egyptian. The Greeks had conceits of the satyr-god Pan as a musician which connect directly with the Egyptian presentations of the hairy Bes with various instruments in his hand, for the poets gave a comic turn to the superstitious terrors of the vulgar; and yet these instances apply rather to the giant Shaaul than to David unless in that vicious maturity when he butchered the Ammonites, murdered Auri-Jah and the house of Shaaul, and died with ingratitude to Joab and perjury to Shimai, &c. ; but as the lascivious Asar-Dad of Egypt, David must also be suspected of music and song.

19. The time came, now, when David got no c Ham or “heat”; though in Egyptian the word means “Egypt” and “wife.” It was urged that a virgin be brought in order to Sechan-eth him, a word which has the double meaning “cherish” and “impoverish.” They searched the Ge-Bul of Israel; Bol in Coptic meaning “over-flow,” as Ma-Bol and A-Bel mean “flood” in Hebrew ; and found Abi-Shag, perhaps Hebe-Shag or c Hapi-Shag, as c Hapi or the “Nile” must be the classic Hebe; and to her at last went Heracles, and to Pi-Sag-ah at last went Mosheh. She was a Shun-Amith, ‘ year-maid” or “sleep-maid,”* and connects with the great woman Shun-Em whom Eli-Shaa paid with a child for her “care” or c Harad, that is, c Har-pa- c Herad or the “child-god,” who is ever pointing to his head (2 K. 4:19), and to whom the Pi-Shen or “lotus” was sacred. That this maid was quite sacred did not appear to a c Hittite like Bath-Shebaa, but a request from Adoni-Jah the rightful heir to the crown that Abi-Shag be given to him in marriage was punished with death by Shelo-meh.

20. David was buried in Air David or Kir-Dad. Years later, agreeable to our chronology, Did-o or David-ah was buried at Kar-Thad-a or “Car-Thage,” that is, Kir-Dad-a or Fortress of David-ah, and she was worshipped there; her name El-Issa and the Bursa citadel indicating that she was Isis and that the Busiris or Per-Asir (“house of Osiris”) was named for that city in Egypt which, as was Mendes also, called Daddu or Tattu. And this David or Dod had the Homeric Od-Isse-us as his contemporary; Dad-ben-Ishai or “son of Jesse” sounding quite like the name of the Greek ; and each seems to have descended into Hades, each fights giants where stones are flung, each destroys those who seek his wife, each feigns madness, &c. A royal line claimed their descent from David, a common resource of ancient dynasties, and perhaps all the Benai-Isera-El claimed descent from or affiliation with Osir-El, since at death every good Egyptian became an Osir-is.*

* Shin was a name much used in Chaldea for the Moon
21. Shelomeh, not “Solomon,” was also called Je-Dide-Jah, “in the Aa-Bur of Jehoah.” The word Shelom-eh is interpreted as “the peaceful” in the Chronicles, but it is probably a metathesis for ha-Moshel, “the ruler,” “the proverb”; and this seems explained in the famous phrase of the Micah (5 :2, 5) where the “Ruler” or Moshel shall (v. 5) be a Shelom or “peace,” and as “as of old”; for everything about this personage became a mystery, even his name, which is not explained as usual when given him by David.t But Jehoah “loved” or Ahab him and sent the prophet to christen him as Je-Dide-Jah or “Beloved-of-Jehoah,” and this name would seem to ally him with amorous Asar-Dad. But this name is only given him “in the Aabur of Jehoah,” which, as we have pointed out, gives him a solar phase. He came to his coronation riding a Pired-eth or leopard,” as Bered is “leopard” in Syriac, “and it went upon the Gi c hon” or “belly/’ not “to” Gi c hon, but Aal-Gi c hon, and it is Aal-Gi c hon when Na c hash was sentenced (Gen.:14); and thus Shelomeh connects with Bakchus. He had 40,000 stalls for his horses, 1,000 wives and concubines, 80,000 men to hew cedar in Lebanon, made silver as common as stones in the street and accounted as nothing, &c, &c. Even the demi-urge of Tyre, c Huram, the Greek Herm-es, was his c Her-esh or “carpenter/’ or “worker” in Na c hash-eth or “serpent-lore,” called (Num. 23:23) “enchantment”; but c Heresh is perhaps the “secret-craftsman,” for such was Herm-es, whose caduce-us (probably from Kadesh or “holy”) was twined with serpents; hence there was no sound heard in the temple while it was building; but Ne c has in Egyptian means “black,” while c Heresh in Chaldaic means “magician” ; c Har-Rom in Egyptian meaning “divine-man” or “man-god.” Shelomeh married Bath-Phar- aoh, which was the greatest alliance a Hebrew could imagine ; and he built towns called Beith-c Horon, Tamar, Baal-ath, which are Egyptian names ; but it seems quite probable that he was a type of Hor-us, who must have been worshipped at Jerushalem.

*The word User in Egyptian means “strong.” Compare Sar in Egyptian and Hebrew, “chief,” “prince.”

f From F. Lenormant we learn that Shaleman was a name of the Chaldean god Ea or Hoa, the intellectual concept of Deity.

22. The older account (1 K.), indeed, perhaps to destroy the worship of him, as well as to enforce Ezraic exclusiveness, says he worshipped A-Shetor-eth, and also Milach-Om Shik-Uz, and on Mount Olives he built temples to, Chemosh Shik-Uz and Molech Shik-Uz, and it would seem (1 K. 11 :, 8) that he built to the god of each of his seven hundred wives, for he had all these and three hundred concubines besides; but this evidence of his infidelity to Jehoah is omitted by the Chronicler ; where the dream of God’s gift of a wise and “understand” (Neb-On and Shem-ea, 1 K.: 9, 12) is changed into an actual visit of God to him ( Chr. 1:7), who gives him wisdom and knowledge. The later times accredited him with many wise sayings, some in the form of homilies, and because of his libidinous propensity he has credit for writing the charming and amorous Canticles ; while the 2 Chronicles (8:2,) makes him also a conqueror, and has it that the king of Tyre gives him cities, thus reversing the older narrative (1 K. 9:11-12), which also raises up enemies to him, and lays at his door the secession of the northern tribes. Wise and wealthy as he was, however, he left no inscriptions or other stone witnesses of his name, as did the neighboring monarchs of the Nile and the Euphrates. On the whole, perhaps, it would be safe to take him as the eponymous of Shalem or Jeru-Shalem, which was called Hiero-Solym-a by the Greeks at least as early as the time of Herodotus, say B. C.50.
22y 2 . Shimesh-on, not “Samson,” means a little Sun, or the “On” is a word of endearment; Shemesh being the almost invariable word for the Sun. He is clearly Melach-Aareth or “hairy-king” of Tyre, whom the Greeks adopted or appropriated as Hercules, perhaps the Egyptian c Her-Akel or “Lion-God,” usually called Shu or Shu-si-Raa, “Shu-son-of-the-Sun”; but in later or other Egyptian communities he was the hairy Bes or c Hai, apparently Hebrew names. In classic story Hercules weaves at the feet of Om-Phale the daughter of Jordan-us, both Syrian names. The putative father of Shimesh-on was Ma-Noa c h, the same as the name of the Flood-saint, and identified with Boaaz or Bes when Naa-Ami asks Ruth (3:1) if she shall not seek Ma-Noa c h for her. An angel of “the Elohim,” however, foretold Shimeshon to the mother when she was alone, thus implying a celestial origin. When asked his own name this angel said it was Peli-ei or “wondrous,” a play on Ie-Pel or “fell” in v. 20, as the “offering” or Mi-Ne c h-ah is a play on Ma-Noa c h; and Ne-Phil-im were the “giants” of Noa c h’s time (Gen. 6:4), or rather the “fallen,” perhaps the half-breed race or arch-angels; and so when Sarah laughs at the annunciation to her she is told “the I-Pele a ‘thing’ (Dabar, “word”) from Jehoah” (Gen. 18:14), rendered “hard.” His mother was forbidden to drink Jain and Shechar, just as John Baptist was to drink no wine or Sekira (Luke 1:15); and no Moreh or “razor” (also “rain,” “fear”) was to come on his head ; for he was to be a Nezir of Elohim, not “Nazirite unto Elohim”; Nezir meaning “consecrate,” “prince”; a religious sect (Num. 6:2, &c), with which an effort is made to identify Shimeshon because of his hair, for the sect itself seem desirous to appear like Bes or Melech-Aareth.

23. Shimeshon first went to Timen-ath-ah, for he sought The-En-ah from the Philistines, who “Ia-Sher-ah in my eyes,” and one may see that these terms play on the names of the goddess Te-Neha of Egypt and Asher-ah, both having reference to the fecund “tree” or symbol, as T-Amen-ath-ah was perhaps her shrine, for Amen-t or t-Amen was the female Amen, called Nei-th or th-Ne at Sais, which latter name is said to mean “weaver” ; and it was this wife that he calls his Aa-Gal-ath, or “heifer.” After some exploits he retired to the rock of ^Ei-Tam, that is, the Egyptian sunset god Turn or Atum; and thus perhaps closed the original story

* c Ham-Aor would literally mean “heat-light” or “Sunlight,” and Le c hi is “shinings.”

24. To the shrine at Le c hi, however, was attached a legend that Shimeshon there killed a thousand men with the Le c hi of a c Hamor or “ass”* ; that Elohim then opened a fountain for him, and he Meni or “drank,” and it was called Ain-Kore or “fountain-of-the-Quail.” Le c hi, used for “green” in the next chapter (16:7, 8), and Meni, not the usual word for “drank,” suggest Alk-Mena the mother of Hercules, also called Alkides, perhaps from El-Kadem-es or “god-of-the-East,” perhaps from Alk-os or “strength,” and to the Phoenician Hercules, that is, Kadami-on or Melach-Aareth, quails, were sacrificed. But La c h-ah is rendered “force” or “vigor” when applied to Mosheh
(Deut.4:7),* and Beer-La c hai-Roi was evi- dently a shrine of I-Shema-ea-El the Pe-Re or “wild-ass,” that is, in Egyptian “the Sun,” as La c h-ai Re-i would seem “my very bright Sun.” In Egyptian the word Le c h-u is applied to a couchant lion, hidden, with a serpent called “Eye of Ra” over him (Ritual 17:133), and Isis is said to shake hair over his brow. The ass, in parts of Egypt, was a symbol of the
Sun, perhaps of the evil or hidden Sun, as it is connected with Set the brother-foe of Osiris, called by the Greeks “Typhon,” the Zephon or “hidden,” or “North,” of Hebrew; but in Shimeshon’s song one may perhaps reverse c Hamor to Roma c h or “spear,” “dart,” instead of “heaps” or c Hamor.

25. The gates of Aaz-ah were carried off, then Shimeshon loves De-Lil-ah, or t-Lil-ah if we use the Egyptian feminine definite article; and her name means “night” in Hebrew, “fetterer” in Akkadian. She was induced to secure from him the secret in which his great c Hoch lay; a word represented in Egyptian by the phallus of a beast, and worn on the head of the god c Hek, who seems to be the Nile-god c Hapi or “Ap-is”; hence the Greek Hektor of Troy, and the Hades-queen Hek-ate, though the Egyptian word c Hek also means “enchantment,” and c Hek-t was a name of the lion-goddess Sekhet, also called Tefnut as Bas-t ur Men- c Hai, wife of Ptah or sister of Shu. Shimeshon had seven “locks” of hair or Ma- c Heleph-oth which he told her to Areg or “weave” with the Ma-Sech-ath, rendered “web,” but evidently some sort of “covering,” perhaps the “booth” or “tent”; yet she only enfeebled him by shearing his locks, or rays. He was then blinded, and placed in the house of the Asir-im or “bound.” When his hair grew again his strength returned; whereupon he pulled down the temple of Dagon upon himself and thousands of his foes. He was buried between Zare-Aa-ah and Aesheta-Aol, which latter word seems to mean the “mighty-woman”; but the locality of these events was that of Beith-Shemesh or “house of the Sun” (Josh. 15:10), a populous town (1 Sam. 6:19), whose phase of Deity was reduced to somewhat human limits by this story of him.

* “And not Nas La c h-ah,” rendered “his natural force not abated,” seems “And not abated brightness,” in reference to his eyes.

26. Jeho-Shu-Aa, whose shrine was Tim-en-ath- c Heres (reverse, -Sere c h), was son of Nun or “fish,” and Nin was a “fish”-god on the Euphrates ; but in Egyptian the word Nun means the “sea,” “waters.” He is first found fighting at Reph-Id-im or “healer-of-hands,” where the Iad-im of Mosheh were held “steady” or Amen-ah, rightly “true,” lest he should play false, it might seem. Jeho-Shu-Aa and Chaleb were the only two of 600,000 men who left Egypt that were good enough to pass-over, for the one seems c Heres or “Horus,” and the other was the “dog” and son of ie-Pun-ha, or “the Anup-is,” if we reverse it ; both being conductors of souls in the Ma-Debar or “Silent” land, which conflicts with Mosheh or Masheh as “weigher,” for Anupis as well as Ta c hut was thus called. The massacres committed by Jeho-Shu-Aa, at the order of Jehoah, (comp. Judges 2:1-5), were the pencraft of Ezraic exclusiveness only (Deut 20:16-18). This hero is accredited with the most remarkable of all miracles, the stoppage of the “Sun” or Shemesh and the Moon for a whole day, but this was at Beith- c Horon or “house of Hor-us” or c Haron, and in Egypt these objects were called the eyes of Horus; but at the same place Makkabeus defeated Saron and Nikanor without such help. It may be that Jeho-Shu-Aa was the Zer-Oa Natu-ah or “arm out-stretched,” or the Zere-Aa-ah or “hornet,” that was to go before the Israelites (Ex. 6:6; 23:28), or perhaps the Maleach or “angel” that was to do this. The god Shu or Shua in Egypt is said to mean “light” as distinct from the Sun, and some have assumed that he was the Hercules of whom Herodotus speaks there. His name Aa-Aor certainly is like the Hebrew word Aor or “light”; and he restrained the fury of the goddess Aor-t, a name of Sekhet. He was also c Har-Seket or “God in the divine-barge.” The inscriptions say of Shu that “his substance is the substance of the Sun”; his nutriment, first-born, selected before his birth, and without a mother; “divine substance, self- created.” Shua wears sometimes the c Hek or beast-phallus, emblem of valor, and is always Shu-sa-Ra or “Shu-son-of-the-Sun” ; this latter reminding us of Si-se-Ra whom Ia-Ael covered “in Semich-ah,” not elsewhere rendered “rug,” but “repose” or “rest,” as the Egyptian word Sem meant sunset and the West. It seems that Shua occupies to Ra or the “Sun” the relation that c Har or “Horus” occupies to “Osiris,” while Jeho-Shu-Aa with his shrine Timen-ath- c Heres has combined the two concepts, which would appear in Greek as Hercules and Apollo-Loxias, in Hebrew as Shimeshon and Jeho-Shu-Aa, the power and beauty of Light.

27. No individual crimes are attributed to Jeho-Shu-Aa, from which one may infer that his shrine at Timenath- c Heres had disappeared before Ezraic times, though the fate of Si-se-ra of ^ c Harosh-eth is suggestive ; but the Isaiah
(19:18) seems to allude favorably to Kir-c Heres or City of Horus” in Egypt, while it suggests perhaps the story of the Exodus in verse 20, where it is said that a Mo-Shi-Aa shall be sent, &c, thus coupling Mosheh and Jeho-Shu-Aa; and yet the wife of Shimeshon enabled his foes to explain his riddle on the seventh day at the coming in of the c Hares-ah, and the gate of the c Hares-ith was close to the dreadful valley of the son of Hinnom (Jere. 19:2), at the west of Jerushalem.

28. Eli-Jahu is quite the ideal of Jah or Jehoah, though he was a hairy saint like Bes and Shimeshon. Tacitus and Suetonius call him Carmel-us, for his shrine was an oracle on Mount C h armel many years after Christ, and when consulted by Vespasian there was there neither temple nor altar, and the priest was called Basil or “King,” suggesting Malach-Aareth or the “skin-king” of Tyre. C h arem-El, however, is “vineyard-god,” and it seems probable that from the Phoenician voyagers the Greeks built up their concept of the orchard Of saint Priapus on this model of the hairy Eli-Jahu, for Pa-Arep or “the Wine” is the Egyptian word which gives us the name Priap-us; and this seems supported by the fact that the chief shrine, of this concept was Lampsak-os on the Marmora, near Abydos, which was probably Elohim-Pasa c h or “God-of-the-Pass-over,” while Abyd-os is clearly called for the Egyptian city of that name, and most famous shrine of Osiris; hence Nab-al of C h armel, whose wife was Abi-Gail, was perhaps Neb-El or “grape-god” in Hebrew, and the story probably an attack on the cult of Eli-Jahu.

29. The main story suddenly announces that Eli-Jahu threatens a drouth; giving no ancestry or youth-history of him; calling him “the Ti-Sheb-i from T-Sheb-i of Gilead” ; but that one of these words is reversed may appear from the Septuagint which has “from Tisheb-eh of Gilead,” as “the Besh-eth” or Bes, the old Cancanite god, is thus indicated very plainly; but the preceding verse strengthens this opinion, for it is there stated that c Hi-El of “house of the gods” (Beith ha-Eli) built Jeri c hoh, and with bloody rites, and we learn from Egyptian inscriptions that c Hi and Bes are the same; hence it may be that the first words of Eli-Jahu to A c heab, ” c Hai-Jehoah, God of Israel, which we standeth before him, if there shall be dew,” &c., are an allusion to somewhat else than the “liveth” Jehoah. His further name of Aish Ba-Aal Seaar (2 K. 8), “man-god-hairy,” as well as his Addereth or “mantle,” identify him with Bes or c Hai, also called yEsav, who was like an Addereth Seaar when born, and disappears in Seair-ah, as Eli-Jahu vanishes in the Seaar-ah or goat-barge of the Sun; but to call him Ba-Aal would not necessarily identify him with that concept of divinity; while to identify him with ^-Sav or Edom we find the connection to be with the classic Pan, whose name apparently comes from the Egyptian Pa-Aan or “the dog-head Ape,” though when Jakob passed over Penu-El he met ^-Sav “whose Pani was as the Pani of an Elohim,” but whose legs were perhaps beast-like, and the name of the god Pan may be from a Hebrew-word. The name of King A c heab, and that of ia-Aakob, reversed, is respectively Bae c ha and Bokaa-ai, suggesting the vine-god; hence the story of Nab-oth or “grapes” and of the robbed Laban, whose reverse name is Nabal or “wine-skin” ; and both Nabal and Laban lost their women, for Iakob and David are perhaps varieties of the same concept, as Sha-Aul in Gibeah was of ^sav in Edom, Eli-Jahu at Carmel, &c.

30. At Athens we find that Theseus was son of ^Ega-os or the “goat,” who threw himself into the sea at the approach of his son from the East, as ^Esav retired to Seair-ah when his “perfect” or Tham brother arrives from c Haran or the “cave” of the East; and the Egyptian word c Hag or “goat” gives us ^ge-os and the Hebrew word c Hag for “festival,” “feast,” even to the solemn observances ; for the goat-fish was the Zodiac sign at Babylon and at Dendera for the tenth month, December, called Tybi on the Euphrates, on the Jordan, as on the Nile; wherefore the Teb-ah or “ark” of the solar Noa c h and of the newborn Mosheh. All these instances indicate the Sun in Capri-Cornu, as well as its rebirth as Theseus, Ja-Aakob, Mosheh, &c. Yet the Seair-im or “goats” were a symbol of some sort of Deity among the Israelites (Lev. 17:7; 2 Chron. 11:15), as m Egypt. Eli-Jahu must have been supposed to wear a goat skin, as his Addereth Seaire implies, and so doubt the priests at C h armel who kept his shrine.

31. Eli-Jahu could raise the dead to life. He could draw fire from the skies, as seen at his contest with the priests of Ba-Aal. These priests, to the number of 450 he murdered, for the Ten Commandments were written after his time. With all this power, however, he fled before the wrath of the puissant Ai-Zebel, whose name sounds like “Sibyl” as the Greeks and Romans had it. He went to the Ma-Debar, and there an angel ministered to him as the ravens had done before. Then at c Horeb, a “mountain of the Elohim,” earthquake and whirlwind precede the passing-by of Jehoah; and he then appears in a Kol Daman-ah Dak-ah or “voice still small,” though the words suggest the Kol Dama or “voice of blood” of Kain (Gen. 4:10) and the A-Kel Dama of Iskariot, in which case the voice may refer to the butchery of the Ba-Aal-im or to the further bloody orders as to Ben Hadad murder and that of Ai-Zebel, &c, that is, the vengeance to be inflicted on those who committed the crimes set out in v. 14; and so the A-Kel Dama of Kain and Iskariot were for their slaying the prophets. Eli-Jahu, however, is notified, as was Mosheh, that he was not himself to execute these sentences, and the name of his successor Eli-Shaa is that of Jeho-Shuaa the successor of Mosheh who finished his work; the c Horeb scene being a rival or duplication of that of the theophany at Sin-ai ; even Jehue the son of Ni-Meshi or Jeho-Sephat thus groups the names of Eli-Jahu and Mosheh and the father of Eli-Shaa; nor can we ignore the statement that Jehue also came from Gileaad and that he too slaughtered the Ba-Aal-im, for Eli-Jahu was the ti-Sheb-i or “returner,” and it seems possible that Jehue was a person deified as Eli-Jahu, or that the story illustrates the return of the saint in his chariot of fire and horses of fire, as Je-Hue is a play on the words Jahu and Hue or “he,” possibly identifying them with each other and with the Fire-God or the Sun; and it is notable that Je-Hue, .when he arrives at Ie-Zereae-El, first goes to the portion of Nab-oth or “grapes/’ whose C h arem had been taken from him, and he murdered.

32. The characteristics of Mosheh and Eli-Jahu, as of Jeho-Shuaa and Eli-Shuaa, are quite different, since Eli-Jahu was in no way a law-giver ; hence it must be that his priests at C h armel prepared the theophany at c Horeb and his ascension into Heaven as a counterpoise to the similar stories of Mosheh, though they may be the original story; and so in his return as Je-Hue the career of Jeho-Shuaa as a destroyer is imitated; while in its turn the writer of the Matthew seems to have availed himself of the phenomena at c Horeb to render more lively the events at the Crucifixion, for at that period the shrine at C h armel was the most famous in Palestine, John Baptist was an imitator, and the “return” of the Ti-Sheb-i was expected ; but both he and Mosheh appear as ministering to Jesus at what is called the Transfiguration, recorded in the three first gospels.

33. Eli-Jahu appears again as a foe of Ba-Aal Zebub, the name of Deity at /Ekeron, the Acheron of the Septuagint; and the hairy Ba-Aal calls down fire to destroy platoons of soldiers sent to arrest him; then sentences the king to death. “And it came to pass, in the going-up of Jehoah, Eli-Jahu in the Sa-aar-ah of the Heavens,” is the curious reading that follows, “and went Eli-Jahu and Eli-Shaa from the Gilgal” ; nor can “in the Aaloth Je-hoah” be stretched into “when Jehoah would take up by” ; for in v. 11 we have “and ia-Aal
El-Jahu in the Saar-ah”; so that I would understand the first verse to read that Eli-Jahu ascended as Jehoah ascends, since “the Gilgal” is also rendered “wheel,” “whirlwind,” and perhaps we are to understand a circular motion that keeps him in view. Of the Saar-ah or “goat”-barge of the Sun in Capri-Cornu I have spoken. Eli-Jahu and his successor “passed-over” (ia-Aaber) Jordan “in c Horeb- ah,” rendered “dry-ground,” and the equivalent of Ia-Bish-ah which received the body of Shaaul. A search of three days failed to find Eli-Jahu.

34. Eli-Shaa, on whom fell the Addereth or “mantle,” is allowed a father, name Shaphat or “judge.” Eli-Shaa means “Saviour-God.” He is probably a phase of the cultus of Jeho-Shuaa, or that of Shua or “light” in Egypt; hence is mild and beneficent, and the ante-type of Jesus as Eli-Jahu is of John Baptist. His first miracle was to heal the water at Jeri c ho, which caused the land to “miscarry” or Me-Shachal-eth, or rather “from bearing” (grapes), for Shachal or E-Shechol is “cluster,” and “grape” or “vine” in Ethiopic ; and so in the first miracle of Jesus at Cana the water is changed into wine, which was a reversal of Eli-Shaa’s miracle. The gift of a son to the great woman of Shun-Em or the “year-mother” seems an Egyptian story, as she is thus endowed as one who ” c Harad-at for us with all this c Harad-ah” or “careful for us with all this care”; thus indicating the child-god c Herad or c Har-pa- c Herad, known to the Greeks as Harpocrates, whose emblem the Shen or “lotus” was also that of Spring or the resurrection of nature; and c Harad is usually seated on a lotus or Shen, and with a hand pointing to his lips, or “head” (2 K. 4:19) as we have it; and at his death Eli-Shaa went in and shut the door on the two, then raised the child to life when he Je-Gehar or “stretched” upon it; and yet the author of the Mark has perhaps changed Jegehar into the Greek Jair-us and the dead child to a girl that Jesus says is asleep, for Shen is “sleep” as well as “year”; while “double-portion” or Pi-Shena-im, asked of Eli-jahu by Eli-Shaa is “the Lotus” in Egypttian, and the Bisheen of Arabs to this day. Eli-Shaa also anticipates Jesus by feeding many with scant fare (2 K. 4:42-44), but the John (5:3) is the only gospel which locates this miracle on a mountain, as if appreciating Eli-Shaa’s C h armel or “fresh-ears-of-corn.” He cured an army of blind men at one time. It does not appear that he could walk on water, but he parted the river with the mantle and made iron swim. Like his predecessor, he made oil for a widow, and he rendered wholesome poisoned pottage. He cured the leper Na-Aman by requiring him to bathe in the
Joredan, and transfer the leprosy to his own servant. He changed the dynasty at Shomeron by sending to Gileaad for Je-Hue, who destroyed the numerous brood of A c heab and Ai-Zebel, and all the priests of Ba-Aal; but, as stated, this illustrates a return of Ti-Sheb-i or the “returner,” upon whom Ie-Zerea-El or the seed-god was to be avenged (Hosea 1:4, 11;2:22).

35. A majority of the miracles of Jesus were adapted from those of Eli-Shaa, but no one has hitherto seen that the raising of Lazar-us is a paraphrase of the Ma-Sha c h-ete of c Haza-El at Damascus, which Eli-Jahu had been told to do (1 K. 19:15); and this word “anoint” also means “corrupt,” “destroy”; wherefore Eli-Shaa wept (2 K. 8:12) ; but in telling Eli-Jahu to “anoint” Jehue, v. 16 of the former text, the word is ti-Mesha c h or a reversal of the terminal, which is never rendered “corrupt,” “destruction,” for Eli-Jahu was the fugitive fore-runner of these Mesia c hs; but c Haza-El, meaning “to see God” or “fastened God,” is Grecized into L-Azar-us, which is not more violent than Jesus from Jeho-Shuaa or Eli-Shaa, or after we concede the reversal of the El;* and that Ben-Hadad or “son of David” in turn takes the Ma-Chebar or “cloth” off the face of c Haza-El or L-Azar-us, while the ” Saviour” weeps, accords in the two stories, as does the “corrupt” condition of the corpse, of Lazarus, and the prediction of Eli-Shaa and of the Jewish council (John n 148).

36. The only stain on Eli-Shaa is where forty-two children are cursed by him and eaten by Dub-im or “bears” for calling him Kerea c h or “bald-head,” probably “mourner” as grieving persons shaved the head; and yet the number of children is the same as that of the forty-two judges of the dead in Egypt who heard the accusations against him before the corpse was permitted to pass-over in the sacred
Bari, and this incident may connect with the previous verse 17 where it seems Eli-Shaa was suspected of violence to Eli-Jahu and was Bosh or “ashamed” ; and so Jehue slew the forty-two brothers of A c haz-Jahu at the Bor of the house of the “bound” or Aekad. No claim is advanced that Eli-Shaa arose from the dead, but his bones gave life to a man who had died. It is notable that it is not said where he was buried. It is barely possible, while he may be easily a phase of Jeho-Shuaa, or rather Jeho-Shuaa of him, that the sublime poems entitled “Isaiah,” correctly le-Shaae-Jehu, are to be associated with this concept, as all three names are the same if we make Jahu and El the same ; the meaning in Hebrew being “divine-deliverer” or saviour; and the exploit ascribed to Ie-Shaae-Jahu, that of turning back the “dial” or Ma-Aal-oth of A c haz, seems of a kind with the thaumaturgy of the other two of the name ; and that they are introduced on the stage as living in times apart is only evidence that the cultus lasted for some centuries.

*Compare EHam or Amiel; Jeho-A c haz and A c haz-Iah; this latter being also names separately of the sons of A c heab and Jehue.

3J. The Chronicles were perhaps written a century before the Christian era,, and there is in them no mention of Eli-Shaa and only once do we hear of Eli-Jahu. The omission of the rebellion of A-Besh-Alom may be due to reverence for David or to the allegoric nature of it herein pointed out ; but that the accounts of the two saints should be omitted must be due to the continued worship of them, as we know was the case of Eli-Jahu long after the time of Jesus. The old hairy god is noticed in two or three of the prophetic books, and appears in the gospels ; John Baptist being an imitator, as doubtless there were others; nor is it improb- able that the Sun-god at Emesa on the Orontes, Elija-Ga-Baal, who gave name to Emperor Elagabalus, was a Greek corruption of the name Eli-Jah-Ba-Aal,* two centuries after Jesus. But of Eli-Shaa, save Jonathan the most perfect figure drawn in Hebrew literature, we have no recognition by such name apart from the single original narrative except once (Luke 4:27), though the miracles of Jesus are plainly imitative of the c Hor-Esh (rendered “who – was – plowing – with” !) or “workman,” that is, “carpenter.” The fierce Eli-Jahu, archetype of zeal and intolerance, is better adapted to the concepts of a narrow and barbarous ecclesiasticism. It may be that in this duality we have the personification of the Sun and the Moon, but more probably Fire and Light.

* Guizot, in annotation of Gibbon, endorses Gibel as
Hebrew for “mountain”

38. Shemu-El, rendered “Samuel,” may have been a real person since only one or two miracles are assigned to him; and he occupies much the same territory as Eli-Jahu, but was perhaps the local phase of the divine at Ramathah. The word Shem means “name” or “famous” ; Shema-im is the “Heavens,” always plural; Shem-Aa is “hear,” but I-Shem-Aa-El the son of Hagar was perhaps Egyptian for Shem, “to go,” and Aa, “great,” “great nomad” god. Shemu-El is said to have been named because his mother She-El-et or “asked” for him, and (i Sam. i ‘.27-2S) she says Jehoah had given her her She-El-eth which she Sha-Al-et with him, “and also i-She-Eil-et him to Jehoah; all the years which he may live he is Sha-Aul to Jehoah”; the last “granted” being the precise name we have as “Saul” the king; so that it must seem that the effort of the writer is to identify Shemu-El with King Sha-Aul, and hence with She-Eol or the under- world, of which Sem was a name in Egypt, as Sem was there the high-priest of the leopard-skin, and also a name of the hot season of the year, such as the Arab month Shawwal or August; and yet the Sha or figure of evil was in Egypt the ass-jackal, used to indicate Set-Nebat of the long ears, with whom we may connect I-Sheme-Ae-El the “wild-ass” if not Shemu-El, as Semu was chief of the seventy- two conspirators of Set when he “shut-up” or Seker Osar.

*The Syrian word Gabol or “to form;” but Gibel is not “mountain” in Hebrew, only in Arabic, which latter could hardly have prevailed at that time. The contemporary Herodian gives the name as Elaja-Ga-Bal-os if we allow J for I, and this would be in Hebrew “Eli-Jah the exalted Ba-Aal,” and the conic symbol on his coin would perhaps indicate the meridian Sun.

39. Howbeit, the putative father of Shemu-El was El-Kan-ah, and he dwelt in Har Ephe-Ra-im or “hill of mad-visions.” One of his wives, c Hann-ah, whose name means “favor” in Hebrew and “prophetess” in Egyptian, had no child, as she was Sagar or “shut-up” by Jehoah, doubtless as a vestal ; and only the priests perhaps could give her “seed of man.” The priest at Shiloh was the aged Aeli, whose sons debauched the Zabeoth in the temple, and the father told his sons it was no good reports he heard “from the Aaber-im (or Hebrew) people of Jehoah,” or “pass-over” people, but Aabera-im is not “ye make to transgress” (i Sam. 2:24). This scandal does not deter c Hannah, and thus Shemu-El has a priestly origin. Jehoah sent word to Aeli that his house should be cut off, and that a Ne-Amen or “faithful” priest should be raised up who should walk before Jehoah’s Meshia c h for years, while the survivors of Aeli’s house should beg bread of Shemu-El, and say “Add me, now, to the sisters, the priestesses,” or Cohen-oth, not “priests’ offices.”

40. While the youth slept in the temple Jehoah “came and stood” there, talking of Aeli’s rejection.

41. Shemu-El persuaded his people to put aside the Ba-Aal-im and the Aash-Ter-oth, and to serve Jehoah only ; wherefore, when the Philistines attacked the Israeli the offering by Shemu-El of a lamb caused Jehoah to thunder upon and discomfit the foe. He judged Israel at Beth-El and the Gilgal and the Mi-Zep-ah, as well as at the Ramath-ah where he dwelt; which is perhaps to say that his shrines were at these places. The original account of him seems to end with Chapter 7. The story of Sha-Aul follows, and hence Shemu-El does not seem to have judged Israel all his life. His sons, made judges by him, followed the Bez-Aa, &c, by which I understand Bes or the old Cananite god; whereon Sha-Aul is made Malach and Me-Shia c h. The Ezraite hierarchy, averse to secular government, continue Shemu-El as the priestly foe of the king, his censor and superior; and he is deposed because he officiated at a sacrifice to Jehoah which the priest thought he alone should offer. Then comes the horrible order of Shemu-El against Aam-Aleq, followed by the hewing in pieces of their king by Shemu-El; but, as Agag or Igig means an arch-angel or arch-daemon in the religious system of Chaldea, and the
Gigans or “giants” of the Greeks, it is perhaps safe to remand Agag and Gog and Og to the nursery stories. Shemu-El at last anoints David as Malach and Meshia c h, for the papacy was then at Ramath-ah. It is there the old hierophant was said to have been buried ; but, fifteen hundred years after his supposed era, in the reign of Emperor Arcadius, his bones, no doubt having resisted decay, were borne in pompous procession to Constantinople, amid the devout rejoicings of the Christians of that day, and doubtless the silent derision of all sensible men. After death, however, when Sha-Aul inquired his own fate of a Ba-Aal-ath Aob or “familiar spirit,” rather “divine purifier,”* who dwelt at the Fountain of Dor, Shemu-El, at the bidding of the Sibyl, arose a God from the Earth ; and he tells the king that tomorrow he and his sons “will be with me.” When the Sibyl saw it was Shemu-El who appeared, she at once recognized Sha-Aul, saying “Why exalteth me, and thou Sha-Aul?” which might refer to the conceit expressed when Jehoah said to Aeli that he would raise up a priest of Ne-Amen who should go before his Me-Shia c h all the days, as Eli-Jahu in later times was to precede Me-Shia c h; hence Shemu-El seems the double of Sha-Aul, like the Chaldean Sukal and the Egyptian U-Shab-ti or “workman” of Hades, like the C h oresh or “toiler” of Jehoah (Isaiah 44:28), but refined into the soul or conscience of a man, or the Daemon of Socrates; perhaps expressed by the Eli-Aezer Dam-Ma-Sek of Abram, which may be read “my divine-helper and familiar,” as Mesek means a “runner” or “messenger,” and so the Kol Dam-ah of Eli-Jahu and Kain and Iscariot may be read “still voice” as well as “voice familiar” or “voice of blood.”

* Ab was the priest in Egypt who poured water in the religious ceremonies. For this purpose he carried a “bottle,” Aob in Hebrew, called c Hes, which is Greek for “Isis ;” hence Shemu-El as c Hoz-ah or “seer,” unless he was the Egyptian c Hesi or “bard,” the Greek Hesi-od, which is more probable. From Pa-Ab or “the purifier” comes the Greek word Bap-tae, applied to the priests of the goddess Kot-is. Ba-Aal-ath is rendered “mistress” when applied to the great woman of Shun-Em, but God-like or divine is the proper rendering there as here.

42. Coming from somewhat the same field as Eli-Jahu, though in a different time and by a different author, it may be that Shemu-El and Eli-Jahu are variants of the old Deity of lower Syria, and the shrines of “the Ramath-ah,” “the Gilgal,” “the Mi-Zep-ath-ah,” Beth-El or Laz, all indicate by name the worship of a feminine concept of Deity, as Laz was wife of Nergal the Assyrian lord of war and death. Gilgal-ah is perhaps Gula the wife of Shemash or the Sun, Ramath-ath seems a form of the inundator-god Ramman, Mi-Zep-ah is apparently the feminine of the rain-god; hence we find Shemu-El and Eli-Jahu calling down rain and fire and thunder, ordering drouth, deposing or anointing kings, rising up from death, vanishing in a Seair-ah, &c, while Beth-El, Gilgal-ah, and Mizep-ah became distinctive for sinful worship (Amos 5:5; Hosea 4:15; 5:1), and Ramith is rendered “deceive.”

42 y 2 . Shemu-El is little noticed in the Scriptures, old or new; once in the Jeremiah, once in the Psalms, completing the list in the Old Testament, both times in connection with Mosheh, the reverse of whose name, ha-Shem or “the Name,” may have occurred to the Psalmist (99:6). One cannot fail to note that the shrine Ram-ath-ah or Ram-ah is Hebrew feminine for the Egyptian word Rom or “man,” and possibly for Ran or “name,” for when Shemu-El dies David goes to Pa-Ran, which is Egyptian for “the Name,” as well as for the serpent goddess Ran-nu; and Pa-Ran or rather Pa- Aran was where I-Shema-Aa-El dwelt, of whom the correct reading says ( Gen. 21 :2o) “and a God was the youth,” for the word “with” is not there.

43. Scholars tell us of the Phoenician and Syrian deity Samma-El, god of war and death, who thus approaches Nerugal, and who was also called Shomeron, which is the correct word for “Samar-ia”; and they also tell of Shamela who was an Assyrian deity; indeed, seven centuries after Christ the people of c Hauran on the upper Euphrates considered Shemal, chief of the Genii, at the head of their pantheon, as El-Shadai or “God of Genii” was at one period worshipped by the patriarchs who are said to have come from the Euphrates. That Shemu-El was reduced by the Jewish author from a high place to become a judge and a seer in the district north of Jerushalem seems probable, and it is possible that he is the A-Shim-e made a god by the colonists from c Hamath (2 K. 17:30). His sons, vicious as were the idolatrous descendants of Mosheh, by becoming judges in Beer-Sheb-aa, where Hagar wandered with I-Shema-Ae-El, supply further support to the supposition that the seer and the archer were local variants of the same concept ; but it may be strongly suspected that the “wild-ass” of Pa-Aran was the Egyptian evil-being Set or Nub-ti of the long ears, and who seems that Neb-at who was father of the bad Jeroboaam.

44. Sha-Aul, rendered “Saul,” seems the name of the tutelary deity of Gibe-Ath, some four miles north of Jerushalem; Gib-aa and Gib-ah meaning “height,” “elevation”; Sha-Aul being Gib-ah than his fellows from his shoulders upward; and this Gibe-Ath of Sha-Aul seems called Gibe-Ath of the God ( 1 Sam. 10:5) ; but bad stories were told of the place (Judges 19: 20:) since its sanctity made it a rival of Jerushalem, and we are even told that the town was taken and destroyed, together with all the Binjamin-i, not long before the time of Sha-Aul; nevertheless he was of that destroyed tribe. His name probably means “Fire-God” or Esh-El, as is explained by his burial beneath the Esh-El in Ja-Bish-ah or “drouth”; and yet the title Ushi-Gal or “ogre” assumed by an Assyrian monarch, which Lenormant says is Accadian for “exceptionally great,” equivalent to the Assyrian word Basham or “excellent,” is possibly the correct origin of the name, especially as She-Gal in Hebrew is rendered “ravish” as well as “queen,” and G in Hebrew softens at times into Aa; and the like origins suggest themselves for She-Ol or “Hades” ; the Ur or Ul of Egyptian also meaning “mighty”; but both the words Sha-Aul and She-Ol appear in Hebrew as “ask,” “petition,” “grant,” as (i Sam. 8:10) “the people the Sho-Al-im from him a Malech.”

45. Sha-Aul was son of Kish, but descended from Aphia c h or “breath.”* as Kish is “bow”; but as Shual means “fox,” emblem in Egypt of Anup and of the “grave” or Sheol, connecting thus with the Accadian Ne-Urugal or “lord of the Abode of the Dead,” we are led to see why the hottest month of summer is yet called Shawal by the Arabs, as it was “the Tamuz” of the Jews and other Shemites, and the Mezore of the Egyptians, which led the Jews to call that country Mizera-im in place of its name c Hem or “heat,” just as they used the Egyptian word Ra or the Sun-god as their word “evil,” though as sometime Sun-worshippers they also called a “friend” Ra-ah (fern.). In the Koran we find Sha-Aul called Tal-ut, which is evidently the Horo-Tal (King Thai or Horus-Thal) that Herodotus says the Arabs worshipped ; and in later Arab story he appears as Thai- Abba the destroyer, who appears in the Hosea (13:5) as Thal-Aob-ah or “great-drouth,” and Thai or Thaul is a mere Chaldaic form of the Hebrew word Sha-Aul. Indeed, in this Chaldaic form we may have the Greek Tel-Amon of Salam-is, father of Ajax and of that Teuker of Cyprus to whom a man was yearly sacrificed at least up to the 2d century after Christ, which name Teuk-er reminds us of the body of Sha-Aul “fastened” or Takea to the walls of Beth-Shan. At Rome the usual name of the Sun was Sol, which is Sha-Aul perhaps, through Phoenician traffic, just as they got their word De-us from the Egyptian word Dau, “to give/’ so that Deus means the “Giver.”

46. Howbeit, Sha-Aul was the first Meshia c h and Malach, as c Har or “Horus” was in Egypt after the rule of the Gods. Je-hoah told Shemu-El (1 Sam. 9:16) a man is sent to him whom he shall anoint Negid over Israel, that “he may Ho-Shiaa my people, whose cry has come” to Jehoah, just as he told Mosheh (Ex.:9) ; but Jehoah utterly contradicts himself in this, for he also told Shemu-El (8:7) that in their request for a Malech they were rejecting him, Jehoah ; and yet this whole account of the choice of Sha-Aul is duplicate and contradictory, attesting the protest of the priests against royalty in the later time. Negid or “captain” is clearly the Egyptian word Ne k het or “strong,” a title of Horus, and appearing as Necho and as the Greek word Nike or “victor”; but Mesha c h-et or “anoint” means also “destroy,” so that Jehoah talks oracularly, and the Roah or “seer” does both by and by. Sha-Aul was a Tob or “goodly,” like Mosheh, and he was also a Gibbor c Hail or “mighty-man of valor,” besides which he was the c Hemed-ath or “desired” of all Israel, which word as Ma c hemad or “pleasant” ( 1 K. 20:6) seems to sustain the argument that Mo-c Hamed was an assumed name of the founder of Islam, and that this remark as to Sha-Aul the Meshia c h was the cause of it, though the word is not infrequent in both Hebrew and Arabic, and is probably from the Egyptian c Hem-at or “wife,” “woman.” One account says Shemu-El anointed him, then sent him on a curious course of initiation or transfiguration, for at the tomb of Ra c hel he found two men in Zele Za c h, that is, “in the shadow, dazzling-white” (Luke 24:4; Mat 17:2-3), and these told him the Athon-im or “asses” he sought were found, while his father had left the things of the asses and fear for them, saying, “What Aesah my son?” a word meaning to “do,” “make,” and the Gospel recognition probably refers also to Shemu-El, who kissed him, and said “this not because thou the anointed of Jehoah to oversee his possession,” but because of the attractions of the youth. He then went to Tabor, a mountain, where he met three men, which was the number Jesus had with him (Mat. 17:1), “and they ask of thee peace,” and give him bread; after which he came to Gibe-Aath of the God, met prophets coming down from the high-place with music, who prophesied, whereupon Rua c h Jehoah overshadowed him, he also prophesied, and was turned into another man, that is, was transfigured, “for the God with thee.” But Sha-Aul did not tell his uncle what Shemu-El said of the kingdom, and Jesus required silence as to his vision (17:9). Whether the devil cast out by Jesus on this occasion (17:18) is the Athon or “ass” of the Sha-Aul initiation must depend on the folk-lore of the poor Galileans of that time, and it was an emblem of Set or Nub-ti in Egypt. The word Za c h or “dazzling-white” is a word for the Sun in Arabic, as the Matthew seems to know, but the “glory” attaches also to the two men in the Luke (9:31). Burial-place of Ra c hel was near Beth Le c h-em, far south of Tabor, and, as Ra c hel means a “sheep” or “estray” it is not certain that this allusion is to the ancestry of the Beni-Amin-i or “Sons-of-Amen,” of whom Sha-Aul was one, and Amen was the ram-head concept of Deity. Howbeit, this initiation of the first Meshia c h seems an outline of the sacred mysteries. But the sons of Beli-Jael mocked when Sha-Aul had been chosen, and they Ji-Bez-uh him, but he “was like a Ma- c Herish” or “worker,” “carpenter,” “smith.”

47. His first exploit was to relieve Ja-Besh Gile-Aad by defeating Na c hash or “serpent” of Aammon-i, which he did by assembling30,000 men in Bez-ek, which means “rays-of-light” (Ezek. 1:14), but “sun-rise” in Arabic, while Na c has in Egyptian means “dark”; and he told the messengers of Jabesh they should be saved “tomorrow in the heat of the Sun,” and hence the fight began at the morning watch and ended at the heat of the day; then all Israel went to the Gilgal, which was probably a name of the Sun-disk, which at Sippara on the Euphrates was the special symbol of God and called Malek, as Sha-Aul was the first Malech ; but, in any case, we have here a solar victory by the visible disk or firegod, though it is curious that Molech should be the especial name of God in Aammon. Horus and Apollo, Perseus and Heracles, also triumph over the dragon or serpent. The two chapters (12 and 13) which follow is the protest of the priests again, but the opening verses of 13 maintain the original story, beginning with “and Sha-Aul was the son of a year in his Malach,” that is, was a year old when he became king; a sentence which tends to show he was the Sun of Summer; sustained as this is by his reign of two years, and by the use of Mi-Chemash as his place of retreat, for this place perhaps received its name Chemosh from Sha-Aul, as it is probably a term for Shem-Esh or the Sun; perhaps the winter Sun as the rare word Chem or “longeth” (Ps. 63:1) or “pale” would indicate, and as Chim-ham is David’s friend in his obscuration, so that Mi-Chem-Ash is used to describe Sha-Aul’s condition. The30,000 warriors with whom he overcame Na c h-Ash at Ia-Besh or “drouth” have disappeared, there are not even any weapons, Israel was in caves and thickets, “and the Ai-Ber-im they Aa-Ber the Joredan” (13: 7),* a fact that seems to have been fatal.

48. But, when the Philistines occupied Mi-Chem-ash, Jonathan said to his armor-bearer “Go and na-Ae-Ber-ah to the garrison of the Philistines which from Ae-Ber yonder.” “Between the Ma-Ae-Ber-oth which sought Jonathan to Ae-Bor” to the garrison “a Shen of the rock from the Ae-Ber on this and a Shen of the rock from the Ae-Ber from that,” which may be as simple a statement as rendered, but the words c Harad Elohim or “very-great trembling” ; and other “trembling” or c Harad after Jonathan gets into the “garrison,” suggests that he is the Egyptian c Har-pa- c Herad or “child-god,” and I understand the Shen to be his symbol the “lotus/’ since Sheen is the Egyptian name of it, and this is sustained by their names Bo-Zez or “in flower” and Seneh or “bush”; in which case the incident seems that of a resurrection or re-birth; hence this “garrison” or Ma-Zab, also “memorial-pillar” (Gen. 28:18, 22), said that the Ai-Ber-im came forth from the c Hor-im which had hidden them there, and c Hor is “cave” or “white-linen,” in Egyptian it is “God.”

* “Some” of them is a patent mis-rendering, perhaps caused by (14:21) those “round-about.” This sanctified sect seem to have obtained dominance in course of time and were perhaps those who had “passed-through” the Mysteries.

49. Then Sha-Aul resumed his sway, and is given somewhat of a human history. He is placed in antagonism to young David, a more southerly type. Sha-Aul fell in the Mount Gil-Boaa, and the Philistines put his armor in Beth Aash-Tor-eth, his body they fastened to the walls of Beth-Shan, which word “body” or Gevi-oth sounds like Jove, whereupon the parallel passage in Chronicles (10:12) is Gupath which resembles Jupiter. His burial at Ia-Besh-ah, under the Esh-El, identifies him with the “fire-god” Besh or Bes ; but David buried him at Zel-Aa, meaning “halting,” “lame,” so that Ptah or Vulcan is suggested, and so his lame son Mephi-Besheth seems “Memphis shame”; nor must one overlook his last words, “for Sha-Bez has seized me/’ perhaps Esh-Bez, as in case of Hercules whose funeral pyre is the sun-set, and yet the Sha is the beast type of Nubati or Set in Egypt, and the first syllable in the word Sha-Aul, seems to identify him with that concept, as is assured by the word Shu-Aal or “jackal,” “fox,” as also by the word She-ol or Hades, and that the sacred isle Shayle at the first cataract was also called Set. And so it is that the Sha-Bez who seized Sha-Aul (2 Sam. 1 19) seems certainly a monster, and the word is not used elsewhere save in the 28th of the Exodus,* as if figured on the priests’ robes, perhaps the “ensnarer,” and something like the Se-Aar-ah or “whirlwind” of Eli-Jahu and /E-Sav, though less benignant.

50. At times an evil Rua c h troubled Sha-Aul, and latterly he is found sleeping, and in caves, and in the Ma-Ae-Gal-ah or “place-of- wagons” (!), suggesting ‘Ha-t- c Har or the “heifer-goddess.” His wife A c hi-Noa-Am, like Ae-Gal-ah, was also wife of David, and perhaps the same as Naa-Ami or Mara of Beth-Le c hem, widow of Eli-Melech, and Naa- Am means “wandering-mother,” and A c h expresses the wail of grief; and in Phoenician the wife of El-Melech was called Ashetharthe-Noema, the Greek Astarte, the Hebrew Eseter or “Esther/’ the Babylonian Ishetar, phases of the great-Mother. In the song of Kash-ath or “archer,” Sha-Aul and Jonathan are called “the Zeb-i of Israel,” possibly “the glory,” but Zeb means several things besides the stem of the word Zaba-oth or “hosts,” and it is possibly a reverse of Bez-i or Ja-Bus. That he was the /-Sav or I-Sham-Ae-El of north Arabia, and the Je-Petha c h of the trans-Jordan, and Melech-Aareth or “skin-king” of Tyre, seems to me probable; all of whom were apparently phases of the fierce Sun of summer, for he is the most majestic save y-Sav of all these ideals; “clothing the daughters of Israel with scarlet sumptuously,” “nor could he live after that he was fallen.” His supplanter was David, who seems to express much the same as Ja-Aakob, as Eli-Shaa, as I-Za c hak, as “Horus.” Unless as She-Aol, naught is said of Sha-Aul in the later records, nor in the prophets, but in an account of the kings of Edom (Gen.6:35-39) the names Ha-Dad and Samel-ah and Sha-Aul appear as successors, and even a second Ha-Dad or Je-Did, and a Baal- c Hanan who suggests the El- c Hanan that killed Goliath (2 Sam. 21 no,), so that coincidence is out of the question. It seems probable that “the Tammuz” for whom women wept in the time of Ezekiel (8:14) was Sha-Aul, a phase of whom was perhaps A-Besh-Alom, and as c Hemed-ath of women (Dan. 11:37) ne n t only appears later, but gave name to one of the great founders of religions.*

51. Gide-Aon or Jeru-Ba-Aal, a phase of this warrior saviour, seems his name at Shech-em, and was perhaps the same as Jere-Boaam who built Shechem. Se k hem or Lato-polis in Egypt was a famous shrine where the shoulder of Osiris was buried, and in Hebrew “shoulder” is Shechem, while Jere-Boaam was from Egypt, and his father Nebat was evidently the evil deity Nubti or Set; and the Aon in Gide-Aon means “evil” or “iniquity”; but the long ears of Nub-ti or Nebat probably suggested the name c Hamor or “ass” when the Jehovists told of Jakob’s purchase there from his children. A more favorable story was that the bones of Joseph had been brought out of Egypt and buried there, and the inhabitants claimed descent from him, so that he was probably El-Ber-ith or Ba-Aal-Berith who was worshipped there; but as Pere is rendered “wild-ass” it may be that (E prosthetic) Phera-im is a term for the Bene- c Hamor, though Par or Phar is “bullock,” and the bull Apis seems to have been worshipped by the Ephera-im. Gide-Aon, however, means “bad-goat,” his place Ae-Pher-ah means “roe” or “fawn,” and he may connect with ^E-Sav of Seair and the goat symbol at Mendes. At the time the angel told him he was a Gibbor c Hail, and commissioned him, the people were, as in time of Sha-Aul, hiding in caves, and the land was ravaged, but each was told “the God” or Jehoah was with him. His defeat and pursuit of the oppressor is the defeat and pursuit that Jeho-Shuaa and Je-Pheta c h and Sha-Aul achieve; the victory of the Sun over cold and darkness ; and this is shown when he assembles his forces at c Harod, “discomfits” or c Harid the foe, and pauses at the ascent of c Heres; thus leaving us to learn that he is k Herad or Horus, the divine son; for Zeeb or “wolf,” Aoreb or “evening,” Zeba c h* or “sacrifice,” Zal-Mum-aa or “shadow-held-back,” all support this view; besides which we have Penu-El or the “afore-god” and Such-oth suggesting the hidden, and the sex of the two is suggested when he slew the men of the one and “knew” the other with briers; but so the Sun arose as Jakob Aaber Penu-El, supplanted ^E-Sav, and built Such-oth; and “arose” is Zera c h, reverse of c Harez (“Horus”) ; and in case of Sha-Aul when the people were in caves and holes they followed him c Hared, though it was Jonathan and his armor-bearer who attacked the enemy as Gide-Aon and his servant Pur-ah (“bough,” “heifer,” indicating the Spring, as Per is Egyptian for “coming-forth”), and Jonathan was c Herad of Elohim. This word c Herad or “tremble” may be the Chaldaic Kurad, a term applied to the govern- ing-god Bel in their account of the Deluge, and rendered “warrior,” and so this Bel-Merodach, a personification of the rising Sun, is also called Abkal or “herald,” and as father of Esther he is called Abi- c Hail, hence we may see that the C H of Hebrew and the Chaldaic K are only variants; and the k Herad of the Egyptians is called c Har-pa-kerad or “Harpo-krates” by the Geeks ; so that the child k Herad becomes in time the warrior c Har or “Horus,” just as Gide-Aon and Sha-Aul begin with c Harod or “trembling,” and the former ends his combat at the rising of c Heres, as Jonathan’s c Hared ends when he is made Ie-Shua-ah or “salvation,” which Shua seems the Egyptian god of “light.” So, Sha-Aul, after his victory over Na c hash or the “serpent” ( i Sam. ii 113), and the account of the child given the Shun-Em woman for her c Harad by Eli-Shaa and whom he made c Ham or “warm” after death (and c Ham-ah is rendered the “Sun” in several places) ; for c Har or “Horus” and Shu in Egyptian religion seem mere variants caused by time or locality, and, as one was son of Ar- c Hes or “Osiris” and the other was son of Ra or the Sun, the word k Herad seems originally to have referred to the childhood of this third person of the triads, and who in process of time developed a personality of his own, retaining the appearance and beauty of youth.

* c Hamel-an, the same as Mo- c Hemed, appears (Gen.
36:26) as a descendant of ^E-Sav; but the later scribe (1
Chron. 1:41) has it c Hamer-an or “ass,” which must be a recent alteration.

* Zebak was the crocodile-god, emblem of darkness, in

52. That Gide-Aon destroyed Penu-El, which Jere-Boaam built and Jakob passed over, seems to show a connection of them, and his connection with Shechem is made to appear opposed to that of Jakob, though this priestly device is contrary to the statement that Joseph’s bones were buried there; but at all events the Aa-Pher-ah of Gide-Aon accords with the Ae-Gel-i of Jereboaam, since both mean the “calf” worship of Apis or of ‘Ha-t^Har the “cow-goddess/’ the Ma-Aa-Gal or “place-of-wagons ( !)” of Sha-Aul, the Ae-Gal-ah who was wife of David, with the Ae-Gal or “disk,” “wheel,” between the horns, known perhaps by her shrine of “the Gil-Gal-ah”; and, as one of these Ae-Gal was placed at Beth-El by Jere-Boaam, and that was the place consecrated by Jakob, it may be seen that Jereboaam and
Jakob were phases of the same concept. The night wrestle of Jakob or Isera-El, who was from c Haur-an or “caves,” and with Peni-El or the “afore-God,” is merely the battle of Gide-Aon, Sha-Aul, Jonathan, coming out of the cave of the Sun to Aaber or “pass-over” the sky; told also when Abram the son of Tera c h (reverse of c Herat) comes out of c Har-an to Shechem and Beth-El, and afterwards wins a victory at Dan. The Egyptian conceit was that the Sun was “shut-up” or Seker in a boat, and the Teb-ah or Teb-eth (“ark,” “basket”) of Noa c h and Mosheh, refer to the month Tebeth, the Egyptian Tib-i, in which the winter solstice occurs, and the words Teb-aa and Tabal in Hebrew are rendered “immerse,” “sink”; the Accadian symbol of the month being a goat, hence Capri-Cornu, and perhaps Gide or “goat” in the name Gide-Aon. The classic Pan is apparently the same general concept, expressing the Sun in covert, and this Chaldaic and Hebrew word is that also of the Phoenicians who lent it to the Greeks; but with this we seem obliged to couple Pa-Aan or “the Ape” in Egyptian, symbol of the wise Ta c hut or “Thoth.” Seair-im or “he-goats/’ as well as calves, were sacred emblems at Shechem (2 Chr. 11:15), and of course elsewhere among the Israelites (Lev. 17:7), as among the more intelligent Egyptians, and his name indicates that Gide-Aon was a personification of this cult, as ^E-Sav was, while its hold on the people, after the rise of Jahvism, seems manifest in the gift of one of the goats of the Chepher or “atonement” to Aaz-Azel or the “goat-departed.”

53. The shrine at Beth Le c hem must have been ancient. It was so situated as to be subject to both Arabic and Egyptian influences. One name for the place was E-Pherath-ah. While no clear mention of it as a shrine is to be found, the statement that the divine hero David was born there, that the divine heroine Ra c hel was buried there, it seems to have had a sacred well (2 Sam. 23:14-17), it was the point of assembly for the migration to Egypt (Jere. 41 :i7), and that it was a holy place is attested by the fact that David’s birthplace was probably so assigned because of a popular legend that a ruler was to come from the town (Micah. 5:2), for I take it that the prophetic books antedate the history.

54. But to bring forth a divine one a mother must be supposed for him, and so Beth Le c h-Em or E-Pherath-ah must have been the shrine of a goddess. The nearness of Egypt of course made known the wanderings and sorrows of Isis, her search for Osiris and her hiding in the marshes with her child Horus; hence we have this wandering and sorrowing other as Ha-Gar “the Stranger,” as Ra c hel “the Estray,” Naa-Am-i “the Wandering- Mothers,” as her plural form of name includes Ruth. Naa means “wanderer” both in Egyptian and Hebrew, and Ruu in Egyptian has the same meaning; Naa- Ami being also called Mara, which in Egyptian means “beloved.” This view of the “Wandering Mother” would make of Ja-Aakob, whose name in Egyptian means “weeper,” and Aberaham and Eli-Mel-ech the same personage, and the same with Bo-Aaz. The divine son was therefore called Bine-Iamin and I-Shem-aa-El and Aobed. Shem in Egyptian means “to go,” and Aa means “great,” so that I-Shem-Aa in that tongue means the “great nomad” ; and we are distinctly told (Gen. 21:20) “and a God was the lad,” for the word “with” is not there. I-Shemaa-El was not born at Beth Le c hem, but not far away, and the trend of religious sentiment in that region is shown in his case, as more in that of his wandering mother. Of Bine-Iamin, perhaps “Son-of-my-Nurse,” and Aobed or “servant” little is to be said save that their names recall that of the god Amen and that of the shrine Abyd-os of Osiris, and the latter is said by Budge to be Ab-Du or “Heart’s Desire,” but it seems that this Aobed must be the same as David, a name of Osiris. Naa-Ami was also said to be daughter of “Lamech,” which I take to be Malech by the transposition of a letter ; and she was sister of Noa c h, who was probably the same as Bo-Aaz, for when Naa-Ami sends Ruth to Bo-Aaz the words are “Shall I not seek Ma-Noa c h for thee?” (Ruth:1) ; and then the drunkenness of the two; but Bo-Aaz had C b anep or “wing,” not “skirt,” yet Noa c h “walked a God,” not “with” God (Gen. 6:9), and as the vine-planter has been identified with Osiris and Bacchus. Besides, the Aa-Morrha or “sheaf” (Ruth 2:15) that Bo-Aaz was harvesting, is the Aa-Morrha, not “Go-Morrha,” where the drunken Lot dwelt, and he was evidently the same as Bo-Aaz, that is, Melach-Aareth or El- Malech. As for Ra c hel, she seems to have had a sepulchre at Zele-Za c h or “bright-shade,” where two men delivered her oracles (1 Sam. 10:2), but this must have been Beth-Le c hem or near it (Gen.5:19).

55. The words Beth Le c h-Em seem to me to mean “House of the Shining-Mother/’ as from the Arab word Lua c h or “shining,” and so Lu c h-oth the “bright tablets” on which the Commandments are said to have been written ; also the La c hai Roi or “Shining Vision” of Hagar and the Le c h-i or “rays” (not “jaw- bone”) of Shimeshon. E-Phe-Ra-th-ah seems to me Aphrodite as the Egyptian form Phe-Raa-Tat or “Gift-of-the-Sun” is apparent, and we must not consider Aphrodite in the light and wanton way that is often done by the classic writers, but as the Great Mother, whose cultus under that name was brought from Ask-elon to Greece, Herodotus (1 1105) says. There are similar stories of Ceres, Alek-Mena, La-tona, Isis, Ino, Niobe, &c, and the object of the book Ruth is that of a Jahvist writer to show that the shrine at Beth-Le c hem was only that of one or two ordinary women, not goddesses, though he could not free himself from the main features of the general legend. He even accepts the Egyptian concept of Latona as nurse instead of mother of Apollo or Horus that Herodotus points out when writing of the famous oracle at “Buto” or Pe’-Uat, where the nurse is “Lady of Bes” according to the Ritual, and also appears as a serpent guarding the lion Le c hu or Re c hu, doubltess Horus.

56. The several aspects of the Great Mother were such that they not only grieved for husband or children they had lost but because they were sterile. Ruth and Tamar and Ra c hel, who are practically the same (Ruth 4:11-12), employed artifice that they might bear, and so the daughters of Lot. And Ruth bearing Joseph, said “God increase my c Herep- eth” that she might have another son, but her next son was not by Reuben, for Ja-Aakob calls him Bi-Nei-Amin or “in faithfulness” ;* yet the Isaiah (47:3) says this c Herep could be uncovered so as to be seen; Geliath says “I c Herep-ath-ah the array of Israel (1 Sam. 17: 10), which seems to be a lewd allusion; and, at the circumcizing performance of Jeho-Shuaa (Josh. 5:9), Jehoah says he this day rolled-away the c Herep of Egypt from upon them, for the writer thinks circumcision would distinguish Israelites from Egyptians, among whom the rite was perhaps confined to the priesthood at that time. Another name of this barren mother was c Han-ah of the Ramath-ah, wife of El-Kan-ah, but she went to the temple, told that she wanted the seed of men, and soon after bore Shemu-El (1 Sam. 2:22), for she was in Mar-ath or “bitterness” of soul, as Naa-Ami was Mara, while El-Kan-ah is the “purchase-god,” as Bo-Aaz Kan-ah Ruth (4: 10) ; but c Han-ah is the “mercy,” appearing in the name c Hanibal of Carthage, while in Egyptian it means “princess,” “prophetess.” It is interesting to know that there was a Chal or “temple” at Shiloh to Jehoah (1 Sam. 1 :io) something like a century before there was one at Jerushalem to him, but these buildings were usually called Beith or “house,” the Egyptian word Bet and Chaldean word Bit.

57. The demi-god repute left to Sha-Aul must call attention to the name of his wife, A c hi-Noaam,* and she or some other of the same name is a wife of David, but the former is daughter of A c hima-Aaz and the latter was from Je-Zere-El; but it is not easy to say that either connects with Naa-Ami or her shrine; whereas Naa-Am-ah the mother of Re c ho-boaam was an Aamon-ite, next to Moab, and Shelomeh could scarcely be supposed to have less than a divine nymph for wife. And the several recurrences of the name seem to indicate the Phoenicia goddess Noema or Astro-Noema or Aashtar-Noema, said by Proclus to have been deemed “Mother of the Gods” in Phoenicia. And a point of contact may be found when Sha-Aul speaks of A c hi-Noaam (i Sam. 20:30) as Na-Aveth the Mared-uth, rendered “perverse-rebellious/”‘ but Naa-Aveth may be “wandering-desirer” or “for lust,” equivalent to street-walker, and Marud-uth is likewise “wanderer” (Isaiah 58:7), thus assimilating her to Naa-Ami and the lascivious Ruth, Tamar, &c.

* A c hi is usually “brother,” but is also expressive of wailing, as “Ah!” “Alas!” (Ezek. 6:11, etc.), A c hi-Noaam, wife of Sha-Aul, lost all her sons in battle, and David’s Achi-Noaam was mother of Amenon who was murdered by Abe-alom.

58. The famous passage in Micah (5:2) indicates that Epherath-ah or Beth-Le c hem had become famous in past time for supplying a Moshel or “ruler,” perhaps David, and another might be expected from it, “whose goings-forth Ma-Kedem, from days forever”; (Ma-Kedem meaning usually “from the east-ward”) ; that is, like the goings-forth of the former one, and continue always; “and this shall be Shelom” (v. 5), which “peace” or completion may refer to Shelom-eh; hence I-Selam and Mo-Selem (“Islam,” “Moslem”) of Mo- c Hamed seem taken from this obscure prophecy; and the Matthew and Luke location of the birth of Jesus at this shrine of Mara or Naa-Ami, when his mother traveled thither, must be wholly ascribed to it, though the Greek name Jesus is that of Jishai the father of David, unless from Jeze or “come-forth,” or from a form of Shuaa or “savior.” Emperor Hadian caused a grove to be planted at Beth-lehem for Adonis a century after the Crucifixion, and a statue of Aphrodite at the hill Golgotha.

59. Jona-Than was son of A c hi-Noa-Am, with whom David intrigued (1 Sam. 20:30). He is attached to the concept of the majestic Sha-Aul as a subordinate of more human and mediatorial function; not as the Euphratic peoples depicted a Shak-Ul or Sha-Gil at the side of their deities, of smaller figure, and suggesting the Egyptian Saa c h or spiritual body, but rather as the third person of a triad, like c Har-pa- c Herad or the “child-god” of Egypt, also called A c hi, k Hons, &c, though his name suggests a cup-bearer like Ganymede. Jonathan is the most perfect of all the Hebrew characters. He figures as affectionate to both his father and David. In the 14th of 2 Samuel we have a chapter on which the New Testament writers seem to have drawn for an account of the Resurrection and even of the Epiphany. In the preceding account I have given of Sha-Aul this remarkable theophany or Aa-Ber is mentioned, for the frequem use of Aaber indicates a “procession” or “going-forth” of somewhat divine, such as the Aaber of Merodach when at Babylon the statue of that deity was borne in “procession,” and so the Un c Her Heb or “show face festival” in Egypt on like occasions, as the reverse word Abe-Rech ( c Her-Eba) or “a face feast” was cried before Joseph in the Ma-Shen-ah chariot, and so Mount c Hor-eb where Mosheh and Eli-Jahu saw Jehoah Aa-Ber or “pass-by.” The Shen or Ma-Shen-ah, “rocky-crag” and “second” chariot, seems the lotus,” or Shen as called in Egypt, symbol of re-birth and of c Har-pa- k Herad or “Horus the Child,” hence from k Herad possibly the word Christ,* as from “Hor-us” we have the avenging Ores-tes, the war-god Ares, &c. The word c Her-ad or “trembling,” and even to c Hered-ath Elohim,” not “very-great trembling,” indicate the identity of Jonathan with c Har-pa- k Herad. The Aiber-im or “Hebrews” had come out of their c Hor-im, “holes,” or “white-linen,” had Gal-ah or “discovered” themselves, the Aeber or “pass-over” was effected, the “garrison” or “memorial-pillar” was entered, the guards “did tremble and became as dead men” (Mat. 28: 4), there was an earth-“quake,”* and then the watchmen saw the multitude melt-away and scatter. But the Hamon or “multitude” is usually “faithful,” perhaps the risen “saints” of the Matthews, but also “pillar”; Na-Mug or “melt-away” might suggest Magi to a Greek writer, as ha-Lom or “silence” seems like c Helom or “dream” (Mat. 2:12), while c Herad or “tremble” is doutbless the word Herod, and Gal or “discover” also means “roll”-away. If we take Ion-Athan, in this original story, as the Egyptian Aoun-Aten or “visible-disk” of the Sun, “who saileth over the celestial regions,” “who though an old man shineth in the form of one that is young. “t We might understand it better, and still better when Plutarch (“Isis and Osiris,” n) testifies, “They do indeed characterise the rising Sun as if it sprang every day out of the Lotus”; since the Shen or “rocky-crag” is the Egyptian word for the Lotus, Ba-Zez is “in-flower,” Sen-ah is the “bush” in which at c Horeb-ah the angel appeared in fire to Mosheh; Aa-Ber seems the Egyptian Bar-is or “boat,” and the Sun was always supposed to voyage over in a boat, and the Aiber-im or “Hebrews” were thus Sun-worshippers. Ma-Zab or “garrison” probably is the “host” or Zaba-oth of stars as Zeb is “star” in Egyptian; while Na-Mug is possibly the Egyptian word Num-An k h or “sun-set,” as they often elided the “n,” though Num-An k h means “second-life,” hence Hebrew “slumber” or Num; and the reference to Hamon as departing seems to be the Egyptian Amen-t or “west,” or Amen-ti the abode of the dead.


Biblical Archaeology: Evidence of the Exodus from Egypt Merneptah Stele Merneptah pylon Merneptah pylon at University of Penn Museum One of the most important discoveries that relate to the time of the Exodus is the Merneptah stele which dates to about 1210 BC Merneptah, the king of Egypt, boasts that he has destroyed his enemies in Canaan He states: Plundered is the Canaan with every evil; Carried off is Ashkelon; seized upon is Gezer; Yanoam is made as that which does not exist; Israel is laid waste, his seed is not; (ANET 1969,78) The word “Israel” here is written in Egyptian with the determinative for people rather than land (ANET 1969,78 note 18) This implies that Israel did not have a king or kingdom at this time This would be the time of the judges The text also implies that Israel was as strong as the other cities mentioned, and not just a small tribe The south to north order of the three city-states may provide a general location for Israel There is an interesting place named in Joshua 15:9 and 18:15, “well of waters of Nephtoah,” that may be the Hebrew name of Merneptah The well which is probably anachronistically named after Merneptah would be near Jerusalem The Egyptian Papyrus Anastasi III contains “The Journal of a Frontier Official” which mentions this well It says:Year, 1st Month of therd Season, Day 17 The Chief of Bowmen of the Wells of Mer-ne-Ptah Hotep-hir-Maat–life, prosperity, health!–which is (on) the mountain range, arrived for a (judicial) investigation in the fortress which is in Sile (ANET 1969, 258) Yurco has recently re-analyzed the Karnak battle reliefs, and has concluded that they should be ascribed to Merneptah and not Ramses II (1990, 21-38) There are four scenes which Yurco correlates with the Merneptah stele One scene is the battle against the city of Ashkelon which is specifically named Yurco argues that the other two city scenes are Gezer and Yanoam He concludes that the open country scene must be Israel Rainey rejects this view because it shows them with chariots and infantry (1990, 56-60) Lawrence Stager suggests that the small horses pulling the chariot belong to pharaoh’s army as in the Ashkelon scene (1985, 58) Rainey thinks the Shasu are Israelites, but others identify the Shasu as Edomites (Stager 1985, 60) Both scholars Yurco and Rainey agree that these battle scenes are from Merneptah’s reign (Yurco 1991, 61; Rainey 1992, 73-4; Hess 1993, 134) Before the discovery of the Merneptah stele scholars placed the date of the exodus and entry into Canaan much later They are now forced to admit that Israel was already in Canaan at the time of Merneptah Israel was big and strong enough to challenge Egypt in battle This stele puts a terminus ante quem date of 1210 BC for the exodus (McCarter 1992, 132) Bowl Ancient bowl with curses against their enemies Metro Museum of Art Execration Texts There are two types of execration texts from the 12th Dynasty of Egypt The oldest type are inscribed red clay bowls that date to the reign of Sesostris III (1878-1842 BC) The second type, dating a generation or two later (Middle Bronze II, 1800-1630 BC) are clay figurines which list cities along major routes of travel (McCarter 1996, 43) The Egyptians practiced the magical cursing of their enemies by inscribing pottery bowls and figurines with the names of their enemies, and then smashing them to break the power of their enemies “Iy-‘anaq” is named which may be related to the Anaqim or giants who dwelt in Canaan before the conquest (ANET 1969,28) There is the ruler of “Shutu” named Job Shutu is probably Moab the sons of Sheth (Numbers 24:17; Ahituv 1984, 184) There are the rulers of Shechem, Hazor, Ashkelon, Laish, Tyre, and Pella (‘Apiru-Anu) The ruler of Shamkhuna is Abu-reheni (Abraham) The tribes of ‘Arqata and Byblos are mentioned (ANET 1969,29) Jerusalem is named, but there is no mention of Israel There is the interesting mention of the personal name “Zabulanu” which is similar to the cuneiform for “Zebulon” (ANET 1969,29 note 6) This was probably not the son of Jacob, but just a popular name In Ugaritic zbl is a place name (Gordon 1965, Text 1084:13; Glossary #815) Rohl finds the name Jacob and Joseph (Iysipi, E31), but this is highly questionable (1995,52; ANET 1969,29) The Execration texts seems to parallel the time of the patriarchs Inscription of Khu-Sebek, Called Djaa A stele found at Abydos tells about an Asiatic campaign by Sen-Usert III (1880-1840 BC) which says: His majesty proceeded northward to overthrow the Asiatics His majesty reached a foreign country of which the name was Sekmem His majesty took the right direction in proceeding to the Residence of life, prosperity, and health Then Sekmem fell, together with the wretched Retenu (ANET 1969, 230b) Some scholars think “Sekmem” is probably Shechem which is located in a pass between Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim Shechem controlled an important trade route and the fertile valley to the East It seems that Shechem was a very powerful and important city at the time of the patriarchs The city was surrounded by massive embankments of earth with mudbrick walls on top During the 17th century BC a rectangular fortress Temple was built with walls 17 feet thick (Toombs 1985, 936; Wright 1962; See Judges 9:46) In the Amarna Letters the king at Shechem was Lab’ayu who was the most important ruler in central Palestine (Na’aman and Aviv 1992, 288) Lab’ayu is accused of going over to the side of the Hapiru The Hapiru are probably the Hebrews during the time of the Judges Joshua renews the covenant with Israel’s leaders at Mount Ebal (Joshua 8) and again at Shechem (Joshua 24) Joshua never took Shechem so some scholars think that the Gibeonite deception included the city of Shechem (NIV, Joshua 9) Joseph’s bones which were brought out of Egypt were buried at Shechem There is no mention of Israel in this text The Story of Sinuhe The story of Sinuhe also gives us a background picture about Syria-Palestine life in the Middle Bronze Age which is most likely the patriarchal period Sinuhe flees Egypt on hearing of the death of King Amenemhet I (1960 BC) and becomes an exile like Moses His path of flight may have been similar to the Exodus, but his destination was Byblos He says, “I came up to the Wall-of-the-ruler, made to oppose the Asiatic and to crush the Sand-Crossers I halted at the Island of Kem-wer An attack of thirst overtook me” (ANET 1969, 19; Lichtheim 1975, vol 1, 224; Gardiner 1916; Anati 1963,86; Rainey 1972) This “Wall” is the fortresses on the eastern frontier near the present day Suez Canal Kem-wer is the area of the Bitter Lakes The ruler of the Upper Retenu (northern Palestine and southern Syria) then befriended him, and Sinuhe marries his eldest daughter It is a tribal society which fights over pasture land and wells One battle is similar to the story of David and Goiath In his old age Sinuhe is allowed to return to Egypt He leaves his eldest son in charge of his tribe and all his possessions of serfs, herds, fruit, and trees Finally, Sinuhe receives a proper burial in a pyramid tomb This story gives helpful background information, but there is no mention of Israel There is a Movie called The Egyptian (1954) that tells the story of Sinuhe The Hyksos Hyksos princess crown Tell el-Yahudiyeh Ware Hyksos princess crown Tell el-Yahudiyeh ware It seems most likely that Joseph rose to power during the time of the Hyksos, or just before in the 12th Dynasty when many Asiatics came into Egypt It also seems most likely that the Exodus from Egypt should be equated with the expulsion of the Hyksos Not all the Hyksos were Israelites It says in Exodus that a great mixed multitude came out of Egypt with Moses (Exodus 12:38) The Greek name “Hyksos” was coined by Manetho to identify his fifteenth Dynasty of Asiatic rulers of northern Egypt The word comes from the Egyptian Hk3(w) h3swt, which means “ruler(s) of foreign countries” (Meyers 1997,:133) which Manetho mistranslated as “Shepherd Kings” The Hyksos were of West Semitic background probably from southern Palestine who migrated down into northern Egypt during the 12th and 13th dynasties At first they lived peacefully with the Egyptians until the deterioration of Egypt’s power when in 1648 BC they captured the Egyptian capital at Memphis The Hyksos made Avaris their capital which is modern Tell ed-Dab’a, which was later known as Piramesse (Exodus 1:11) “Avaris” is the Greek term for the Egyptian Hwt-w’rt meaning “mansion of the desert plateau” (Meyers 1997:134) Other important Hyksos cities were Tell el-Yahudiyeh (meaning “mound of the Jews”) known for its distinctive black and white ware, and Tell el-Maskhuta (probably Succoth in Exodus 12:37 NIV note, 13:20) Store Cities of Pithom and Rameses Exodus 1:11 states, “So they put slave masters over them to oppress them with forced labor, and they built Pithom and Rameses as store cities for Pharaoh” (NIV) Professor Hans Goedicke believes that the Biblical city of Ra’amezez is incorrectly equated with Pi-Ramesses Hershel Shanks writing about Goedicke’s view states, “But the fact is that the store city of Ra’amezez cannot be identified with Pi-Ramesses, the Residence of the Ramessides This identification is impossible phonetically, as has been demonstrated conclusively more than 15 years ago (D B Redford, “Exodus I, II”, Vetus Testamentum, Vol 13, pp 408-413, 1963) Moreover, the Residence of the Ramessides is never denoted in Egyptian sources by the use of the royal name Ramesses alone When the Residence of the Ramessides is referred to, the royal name is always connected with the Egyptian word pr, meaning house or residence: the reference is always in the form “Per Ramesses” (BAR, SepTumber/October 1981, p 44) Long before Per Ramesses, in the same area was Avaris the capital of the Hyksos kings and a border town when written in hieroglyphic transliteration is R3-mtny (Khatana) which is today called Tell ed-Dab’a and is being excavated by Manfred Bietak, Director of the Austrian Archaeological Institute in Cairo The hieroglyphic R3-mtny can be projected back into Semitic transcription as Ramesen Therefore Shanks concludes, “Biblical Ra’amezez can therefore almost certainly be identified with Tell el-Daba (Ibid ) Pithom is most likely to be identified with Tell el-Rataba according to Goedicke (Ibid ) Jacob-El Yakobher seal Yakobher seal from Metro Museum of Art According to the Turin king list there were six Hyksos kings who ruled for 108 years One important ruler was named “Y’qbhr” or “Jacob-hr” (Albright 1934, 11) There have been several different translations of this name Early scholars purposed the meaning of “Jacob-El” as “Jacob is my god”, but Albright observed that the name is a name-pattern verb plus theophorous element (1935, 191, n 59; Ward 1976,58) In Phoenician and Akkadian hr means “mountain” Ward states:Here hr, ‘mountain,’ appears as a synonym for ‘ilu, ‘god, much as Hebrew sur, ‘rock,’ and similar words were used, e g , Suri-‘el, ‘El is my rock ‘ I would thus render Y’qb-hr as ‘(My) mountain (i e god) protects,’ which would be identical in meaning to Yahqub-‘il (1976,59) Hr meaning “mountain” or “rock” is identical to the word El or “god” In the Old Testament Zobel proposes:The name (Jacob) is a hyocoristic form of what was originally a theophorous name belonging to the class of staTument-names made up of a divine name and the imperfect of a verb Its full form, not found in the OT, was ‘Jacob-El'(1990, 188-9; Shanks 1988, 24-25) Therefore the name “Jacob” found in the Bible would be the same as the name “Jacob-El” which is found on a number of Hyksos Scarabs Although this name was common among the Arameans, but uncommon among the Canaanites and Phoenicians (Zobel 1990, 189), R Weil was the first to connect the Hyksos princes with the Biblical story of Jacob (Kempinski 1985, 134) In 1969 a scarab of Jacob-El was found in the Middle Bronze II tomb at Shiqmona, a suburb of Haifa, that was from a mid-18th century deposit 100-80 years before the Hyksos (Kempinski 1985, 132-3) The Jacob-El of Shiqmona must have been a local Palestinian ruler, possibly the same Jacob of the Bible According to Genesis2:23-33 Jacob’s name was changed to Israel Steuernagel was the first to propose the idea of the “Jacob tribe” or “proto-Israelite Jacob group” (Zobel 1990, 194) It may be that the name “Israel” was not officially used until after the conquest of Canaan when a league of 12 tribes was formed This would help explain the absence of the name “Israel” from early sources Joseph Austrian Manfred Beitak excavating Tell ed Dab’a, the ancient capital of the Hyksos, between 1984 to 1987 discovered a palace and garden dating back to the 12th Dynasty with a tomb containing a statue of an Asiatic with a mushroom hairstyle that some scholars think might be Joseph (Aling 1995,3; 1981; Rohl 1995,27-367) Much more evidence is needed to claim for certain that this is Joseph’s tomb (Redford 1970) There is an interesting study done by Barbara Bell on the records of the Nile’s water levels She concluded that in the middle of the 12th Dynasty there were erratic Nile water levels that caused crop failure (Bell 1975, 223-269) Could this be Joseph’s famine There is “The Tradition of Seven Lean Years in Egypt” written during the Ptolemaic period about the reign of Djoser that states: To let thee know I was in distress on the Great Throne, and those who are in the palace were in heart’s affliction from a very great evil, since the Nile had not come in my time for a space of seven years Grain was scant, fruits were dried up, and everything which they eat was short Every man robbed his companion (ANET 1969,1) The Story of Two Brothers is an Egyptian text that dates to about 1225 BC that is very similar to the story of Joseph This tale tells how a young man was falsely accused of a proposal of adultery by the wife of his older brother after he had rejected her advances (ANET 1969, 23-25; Lichtheim 1976, 2:203-211) In the 12th Dynasty Egyptian tomb of Khunum-hotep (1890 BC) at Beni Hasan is pictured a caravan of7 Asiatics arriving in Egypt trading black eye paint (stibium) from the land of Shutu (ANEP 1969, fig) The leader is named Ibsha and bears the title “ruler of foreign lands” from which the name “Hyksos” is derived (ANET 1969, 229) The land of Shutu is probably an ancient term for Gilead (Aharoni 1979, 146) The Ishmaelites who took Joseph down to Egypt came from Gilead through Dothan (Genesis7:25) In the 13th Dynasty there were a number of Asiatics serving in Egyptian households One text lists 95 servants from one Theban household with7 of the names being Asiatics, and at least 28 females (ANET 1969, 553-4; Albright 1955, 222-233) There is a Asiatic women named Sekratu (line 13) which is related to “Issachar ” In line 23 an Asiatic woman is called “Asher,” and in line7 another woman is called Aqaba which is related to “Jacob ” This may indicate that some of the tribes of Israel were in Egypt at this time In the Book of Sothis which Syncellus believed was the genuine Manetho it gives the specific time when Joseph rose to power under Hyksos king, Aphophis who ruled 61 years It says: Some say that this king (Aphophis) was at first called Pharaoh, and that in the 4th year of his kingship Joseph came as a slave into Egypt He appointed Joseph lord of Egypt and all his kingdom in the 17th year of his rule, having learned from him the interpretation of the dreams and having thus proved his divine wisdom (Manetho 1940, 239) Halpern has concluded, “Overall, the Joseph story is a reinterpretation of the Hyksos period from an Israelite perspective” (1992, 98) Coffin of Ahmos Coffin of Ahmos at Metro Museum of Art Expulsion of the Hyksos The earliest document that describes the time of the Hyksos is from the Temple of Hat-shepsut (1486-1469 BC) At Speos ArTumidos which says: Hear ye, all people and the folk as many as they may be, I have done these things through the counsel of my heart I have not slept forgetfully, (but) I have restored that which had been ruined I have raised up that which had gone to pieces formerly, since the Asiatics were in the midst of Avaris of the Northland, and vagabonds were in the midst of them, overthrowing that which had been made They ruled without Re, and he did not act by divide command down to (the reign of) my majesty (ANET 1969, 231; Breasted 1988, 122-26; Shanks 1981, 49) The Hyksos worshipped Baal which was associated with the Egyptian god Seth This led to the neglect of other gods and Temples which upset the Egyptians There is debate over the exact period of time that The Admonitions of Ipuwer describes The text itself is from the 19th-20th Dynasty John Van Seters strongly argues for the time of the Hyksos (1966, 103-120) It states: Foreigners have become people everywhere the Nile is in flood poor men have become the possessors of treasures many dead are buried in the river let us banish many from us the River is blood (ANET 1969, 441; Lichtheim 1975, 1:151) This sounds similar to the event of the first plague against Egypt (Exodus 7:14-24) The river is not actually blood, but looks blood red because the Nile is flooding Some speculate that the rest of the plagues are a result of the Nile flooding The expulsion of the Hyksos was a series of campaigns which started with Kamose who was king in Thebes, and rebelled against the Hyksos His son Ahmose was finally successful in pushing the Hyksos out A commander named Ah-mose records in his tomb the victory over the Hyksos He says: When the town of Avaris was besieged, then I showed valor on foot in the presence of his majesty Thereupon I was appointed to the ship, ‘Appearing in Memphis ‘ Then there was fighting on the water in the canal Pa-Djedku of Avaris Thereupon I made a capture, and I carried away a hand It was reported to the king’s herald Then the Gold of Valor was given to me Thereupon there was fighting again in this place Then Avaris was despoiled Then I carried off spoil from there: one man, three woman, a total of four persons Then his majesty gave them to me to be slaves Then Sharuhen was besieged for three years Then his majesty despoiled it (ANET 1969, 233) Note that Avaris was besieged, there is no mention of how Avaris was taken, and there is no burning of Avaris stated which still fits Josephus’ account Bietak who has been excavating ancient Avaris says that there is no evidence for a violent destruction of Avaris He states: The archaeological material stops abruptly with the early 18th Dynasty There are no scarabs of the 18th Dynasty type in Stratum D/2 The most likely interpretation is that Avaris was abandoned No conflagration layer or corpses of slain soldiers have been found so far in the large and widely separated excavation areas A/II and A/V (Bietak 1988) The end of Avaris may have involved a surrender, or as Josephus has stated, an arranged retreat to Palestine (Against Apion 1 14 88, Bietak 1991, 47) This exit from Egypt by the Hyksos probably included the Israelites as well The story of the Exodus is most likely bases on the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt, for there is no other record of any mass exit from Egypt (Robertson 1990,6; Halpern 1994, 89-96; Redford 1897, 150) The evidence seems to fit well with Josephus’ account Although the Egyptians saw the expulsion of the Hyksos as a great military victory, the Israelites viewed this as a great salvation victory for them This seems similar to other events recorded in ancient history where both sides claim a great victory Ramses II battled with the Hittites and almost lost his life, yet he calls this a great victory, but so do the Hittites In reality it was a stalemate, so they both signed a treaty (ANET 1969, 201; Soggin 1993, 213) Ahab is seen as a powerful king (ANET 1969, 279) Sennacherib claims a great victory over the Jews by taking 46 cities and surrounding Jerusalem Hezekiah is said to be “like a bird in a cage” (ANET 1969, 288), yet he claims a great victory because Jerusalem is not captured In the Mesha or Moabite stone (ANET 1969,20) the king of Moab, Mesha claims a great victory over Israel, yet Israel claims a great victory over Moab (II kings:4-27) So it seems that what the Egyptians saw as a great victory over the expulsion of the Hyksos, the Israelites saw as a great exodus victory of salvation The Sinai Archaeological surveys and excavations show that there was very little occupation during the Late Bronze Age (Anati 1986) This seems most likely due to Ahmose’s campaign against the Hyksos, and to the Israelites migration to Canaan The Israelites could not have come out of Egypt in the 14th century because of the lack of archaeological evidence in the Sinai Two of the most influential German scholars von Rad and Noth argued, “The Exodus and Sinai traditions and the events behind them were originally unrelated to one another” (Nicholson 1973, 1) Von Rad saw the Sitz im Leben of the Sinai covenant in the feast of Tabernacles celebrated at Shechem while the settlement tradition was celebrated at Gilgal with the feast of Weeks Von Rad also saw Heilsgeschichte (salvation history) strikingly silent about Sinai events (Deut 26:5b-9) Noth put forth the idea that “early Israel took the form of a tribal league on the analogy of the city-state confederations later attested in Greece and Italy and known to the Greeks as “amphictyonies” (Nicholson 1973, 12-13) On the other hand Weiser vigorously debated the view that the Sinai and Exodus traditions were independent of one another (Nicholson 1973,3) In 1954 Mendenhall put forth the idea that the Sinai covenant is similar to the Hittite suzerainty treaties (1954, 50-76) Nicholson concludes that one is at an “impasse” since none of these views are convincing (1973, 53) There does seem to be clear parallels between the Sinai covenant and ancient suzerainty treaties, and ancient tribal leagues did exist (Chambers 1983,9-59) There are various suggestions as to were Mt Sinai is De Vaux believes that the theophany of Sinai was a description of a volcanic eruption in northern Arabia (1978, 432-8) Exodus 19:18 describes the mountain like a furnace of smoke From a distance it would look like a pillar of cloud in the day, and a pillar of fire at night Following this cloud of smoke would lead them right to the volcano There are no volcanoes in Sinai, but there are several in northern Arabia (Lee 1996, 20) The only known large eruption around this time is Santorini on the Greek island of Thera (Simkin et al 1981, 111) Professor Goedicke thinks a giant tidal-like wave called a tsunami caused by the eruption of Santorini, destroyed the Egyptian army, and the eruption formed the pillar of cloud and fire in Exodus (Shanks 1981, 42-50; Oren 1981, 46-53) Note that at the time of Ogyges there occurred the first great deluge in Greece Ogyges “lived at the same time of the Exodus from Egypt” (Eusebius 1981, 524) Maybe a tsunami caused this deluge in Greece Jewish tradition seems to place Mt Sinai in Arabia Demetrius stated that Dedan was Jethro’s ancestor which is identified with the oasis of el-‘Ela, and when Moses went to Midian he stayed in Arabia (De Vaux 1978, 435) In Josephus’ book Antiquities of the Jews he placed Sinai where the city of Madiane was (Antiquities, II 264; III 76) In the Babylonian Talmud (Sotah 5a) R Huna and R Hisda say, “the Holy One, blessed be He, ignored all the mountains and heights and caused His Shechinah to abide upon Mount Sinai” (Freedman and Simon 1935, 18-19) According to Old Testament passages Mt Sinai is identified with Seir and Mt Paran Deuteronomy3:2 says, “The Lord came from Sinai, and rose up from Seir unto them; he shined forth from mount Paran” (KJV, see also Judges 5:4-5, Hab:3,7; Axelsson, 1987; Simons 1959) It seems that the itinerary that was followed in Numbers3:18-36 locates Sinai in northern Arabia Midian was also located here (I Kings 11:18) where Moses lived with Jethro, priest of Midian, for forty years (Exodus 2:15,:1)

Archaeological Finds in Sinai Period & Date Kadesh Barnea Central Negev South Negev Northeast Sinai Southern Sinai Early Bronze200-2200 Dense Dense High Density Dense Egyptian mines Middle Bronze 2200-1550 Dense Sporadic High Density Dense Egyptian mines Late Bronze 1550-1200 Sparse Sparse Copper mines Sparse Egyptian mines Iron I 1200-1000 Sparse Israelite forts & colonies Copper mines Sparse Mining is sparse Based on Emmanuel Anati’s book Har Karkom: The Mountain of God in 1986 According to the New Testament, Paul in Galatians 4:25 states, “For this (H)Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia” (KJV) Paul is probably following Jewish tradition that placed mount Sinai in northern Arabia From Egyptian topographical lists one area the Shasu lived in was Seir One place is called “land of the Shasu Yhw” (Axelsson 1987, 60) Yhw is used as a toponym, a place-name, which is most likely named after a deity Yhw corresponds to the Old Testament YHWH, which would make this the earliest known reference Axelsson concludes, “Thus it is conceivable that the full name of the area in question was Yhw’s land, Yhw’s city, Yhw’s mountain, or the like” (Axelsson 1987, 60) After further study Astour places this city north of Israel in Lebanon (1979, 17-34; for more on the origins of YHWH see, De Moor, 1990, Huffmon, 1971, Murtonen, 1951) Middle Bronze Age Destruction The Late Bronze Age begins with the wide spread destruction of the Middle Bronze Age This may be the result of Ahmose, the Hyksos, or even Israel There is some question as to how far Ahmose went into Canaan He did get as far as Sharuhen which a number of scholars think is Tell el-‘Ajjul (Rainey 178-85; Shea 1979,-5) He besieged it for three years before he took it (ANET 1969, 233) This may be as far as Ahmose got (Hoffmeier 1989) This may also be as far as Israel got Two years after the Exodus (Numbers 10:11) Israel tried to take Canaan from the South, but failed (Numbers 14:45) This would be at the same time Ahmose was still besieging Sharuhen Moses may have thought while the Egyptians were keeping the Hyksos of Canaan contained at Sharuhen, that they could conquer the land, but since the Hyksos were strong enough to hold off the Egyptians for three years, they could easily beat Israel With the defeat of the Hyksos by Ahmose 40 years later Joshua would be able to conquer Canaan, but only a small part of the central highlands was settled by Israel In the past scholars concluded that Ahmose must have caused the destruction of the Middle Bronze Age, but Reford has shown that Ahmoses’ campaign was restricted to Sharuhen and its neighborhood to punish the Hyksos (Redford 1979, 274; Bietak 1991, 58; Weinstein 1981, 1-28) The first substantial campaign against inland Palestine was by Thutmose III (Bietak 1991, 59) From a survey of the central hill country Finkelstein does not connect the Egyptian conquest with the end of the Middle Bronze Age He states: There is no solid archaeological evidence that many sites across the country were destroyed simultaneously, and such campaigns would fail to explain the wholesale abandonment of hundreds of small rural settlements in the remote parts of the land (Hoffmeier 1990, 87) There are several key cities that will be considered, Jericho, Ai, and Hazor First of all, is the city of Jericho which is highly controversial about when it was destroyed Jericho
Jericho an oasis near the Dead Sea Destruction layer at Jericho The ancient city of Jericho is identified with Tell es-Sultan The first large scale excavation was by Sellin and Watzinger from 1907 to 1909 The next major excavation was directed by Garstang from 1930 to 1936 Garstang believed that the fourth city was destroyed by Joshua just after 1400 BC A third major excavation was done by Kenyon between 1952 to 1958 She challenged Garstang’s date by insisting that the fourth city double walls were from the Early Bronze Age Jericho was mainly abandoned during the Late Bronze Age, but the Middle Bronze Age was violently destroyed by fire Kenyon states: The date of the burned buildings would seem to be the very end of the Middle Bronze Age, and the destruction may be ascribable to the disturbances that followed the expansion (expulsion) of the Hyksos from Egypt in about 1560 BCE (Stern 1993, Vol 2, 680) Could these disturbances be the Israelite conquest Both Kenyon and Garstang agree that the Middle Bronze Age city of Jericho was destroyed as a result of the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt There have been many proposals to solve the time of Joshua’s conquest Courville cuts out over 600+ years by equating the end of the Early Bronze Age with Joshua’s conquest around 1400 BC (1971, 151; Bimson 1981, 119) On the other hand Aardsma adds 1,000 years between the book of Judges and I Samuel (1993; Wood 1993, 97) Rohl has subtracted00+ years from Egyptian history, and James also lowers Egyptian chronology by 250+ years (Rohl 1996; James 1991) One that has been influential in the public is Velikovsky’s radical views that deletes 800+ years from history (1950; 1952; Newman 1973, 146-151; Yamauchi 1973, 134-39) Bimson (1981) only lowers the chronology by 100 year, but there is no need to be adding or subtracting years Equating the Exodus with the Expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt solves this problem All the archaeological data seems to fit Biblical chronology when this is done, except AI which is highly controversial

AI has been located at Et-Tell by Albright A brief excavation was conducted here by Garstang in 1928 A second excavation was done from 1933 to 1935 by Marquet-Krause A third excavation was conducted by Calloway sponsored by the American Schools of Oriental Research from 1964 to 1970 The major problem here is that AI was destroyed at the end of the Early Bronze Age, and was abandoned until the beginning of the Iron Age, yet Joshua is said to have destroyed it (Stern 1993; Zevit 1985, 58) There are several explanations for this Livingston locates AI at Khirbet Nisya, yet there is no clear evidence for this (Bimson and Livingston) Yadin interprets the Bible etiologically here (Shanks 1988, 64) It explains how the ruins of AI got this way according to the writer Millard believes that the villagers would only use Et-Tell as a stronghold when under attack (1985, 99) The name “AI” means “ruin,” so AI was destroyed earlier, but reused only as a fort This seems to be the best explanation

Modern Views of OT Chronology
Cities Destroyed by Joshua Compared to the Archaeological Data Cities Middle Bronze Age Destruction Late Bronze Age Destruction Jericho yes no AI no no Hazor yes yes Bethel yes no Hebron yes no Dan yes no Lachish yes yes Mostly based on Bimson’s Redating the Exodus and Conquest (1981, 216), and Rohl’s Pharaohs and Kings (1995,06) Hazor Hazor was a major commercial center It is mentioned in the Mari documents, and in the Egyptian Execration Texts (Stern 1993, 594) The first major excavation here was by Yadin from 1955 to 1958 Excavations were resumed in 1968 and in 1990 There is speculation that an archive is located in the royal palace (Rabinovich 1996, 8) This would be a major find, and shed much light on the Late Bronze Age in Israel The Canaanite city of Hazor has been destroyed several times The final destruction was at the end of the 13th century which Yadin believes was done by Joshua (Stern 1993) Judges chapter 4 tells about the battle of Deborah and Barak with Jabin the king of Hazor, and his commander Sisera How could this happen if Hazor was destroyed by Joshua Bimson thinks that the 13th century destruction of Hazor should be equated with Judges 4 (1981, 181-7) It is wrong to assume that Jabin, king of Hazor is the same person in Joshua 11 and Judges 4 Jabin is probably a dynastic name like Abimelech (Kitchen 1966, 68) A clay tablet with the name Jabin (Ibni) has been found at Hazor (Horowitz 1992, 166) Joshua’s conquest of Hazor should be connected with the end of the Middle Bronze Age destruction Dever places the destruction of Middle Bronze sites from 1550 to 1450 BC (Hoffmeier 1990, 87; Dever 1990, 75-81) This would be at the same time period that Joshua is conquering Canaan Recent scientific radiocarbon dating of cereal grains from Tell Es-Sultan (Jericho) place the end of the Middle Bronze Age (MB-IIC) around 1540 BC (Bruins and Plicht 1996, 213-14) This would rule out the 1406 BC (Late Bronze Age) date by conservative scholars Bimson states, “The admittedly poor ‘fit’ between Biblical tradition and Late Bronze Age archaeological evidence is universally conceded by scholars” (Bimson and Livingston 1987, 41; see Table 11) The problem with Bimson’s view is that he eliminates one hundred years from history when there is no need to do this according to radio-carbon dating New advances in tree ring dating correlated to Carbon 14 will be able to achieve more accurate dates (Bower 1996, 405-6; Renfrew 1996, 733-34; Kuniholm 1996, 780-83) Egyptian Topographical Lists Thutmose III Thutmose and Dr Meyers Thutmose and Dr Meyers at Metro Museum of Art, NYC The topographical lists of Thutmose III (ca 1481 BC) can be divided into two parts; the “Megiddo-list” or “Palestine-list, and the “Naharina-list, or “Northern-list” (Simons 1937, 28) The “Megiddo-list” names towns and places whose chiefs took refuge within the walls of Megiddo, and were taken captive by Thutmose III to Thebes There are only three copies of this list that contain 119 topographical names (Rainey 1982,45-359) The “Naharina-list” is just the extension of the “Megiddo-list” containing over00 place-names These lists are found in the Temple of Amon at Karnak The lists are probably grouped geographically by regions according to three administrative districts (Aharoni 1979, 158) There were three headquarters during the El Amarna letter which seems to divide this list nicely; Gaza, Sumur, and Kumidi The first four regions belong to the district of Kumidi; southern Beqa'(#3-11, 55-56), Damascus vicinity (#12-20), Bashan (#21-30), and the northern Jordan valley (#31-4) There are four regions of the Gaza district; the plains of Jezreel (#35-54), the coastal plain and the Sharon (#57-71), Judean hills (#103-6), and the Ephraimite hills (#107-17) The next two regions belong to the district of Sumur; the northern Beqa’ (#72-9) and Upper Galilee (#80-102), (Aharoni 1979, 158) North sees the list reflecting the march of Thutmose’s army first with numbers 53-119 in the right column, then with numbers 1-52 in the left column (Aharoni 1979, 157) Aharoni sees only a South to North geographic arrangement of place-names along the coastal plain of Sharon (#57-71), (1979, 157) Redford argues for a typical Bronze Age itinerary in numbers 89-101 of the list (1982, 55-74) Hoffmeier does an excellent job of comparing the Annal of Thutmose III with Joshua 1-11 (1994, 165-179; cf Hess 1996, 160-170; 1994, 191-205; Younger 1990) There are many Old Testament names that are recognized in these lists, but there are two important place-names that effect this study The first is number 78, Joseph-El, which indicates the tribe of Joseph was already in Canaan before 1481 BC (Redford 1979, 277) which is the 23rd year of Thutmose’s coregency (ANET 1969, 235) The second is number 102, Jacob-El, which also indicates the tribes of Israel were already in Canaan at this time A date earlier than 1481 BC is needed for the Exodus It may be argued that the name Israel was not yet used at this time until a league of 12 tribes was formed Others have studied these toponym lists in detail (Giveon 1979, 135-141; Ahituv 1984) Several different locations have been proposed for these palce-names There are three other interesting name correlations given by Yeivin who states: There is a group of three such names, all connected with the same geographical unit, in which appears also the place-name Jacobel The first is No 100, i-i-rw-tw, which could be transcribed ‘Ard, and identified in all probability with the Benjamine clan The second is No 106 M-(M)-Q-R-W-T, which is transcribed Miqlot (Mikloth), and identified with another Benjaminite clan, descended from the ‘Father of Gibeon’ The third place name is No 108 S3-RW-TY-Y, which is to betranscribed Shelat, and most plausibly identified with Shela, the third and surviving son of Judah by his Canaanite concubine,Bat-shua(1971, 22) There is an interesting story about how Joppa was captured by soldiers who hid in 200 baskets that were brought into the city on a ruse (ANET 1969, 22) This probably happened on Thutmose III’s first campaign Amenhotep II Amenhotep II was the son of Thutmose III who ruled Egypt from 1453-19 BC There are three known military campaigns into the land of Canaan (Aharoni 1979, 166) The lists of prisoners gives a cross-section of the population at that time Aharoni states: The first group included 550 maryannu (noble chariot warriors), 240 of their wives, 640 Canaanites, 232 royal sons,23 royal daughters and 270 concubines A final summary lists: 127 rulers of Retenu, 179 brothers of the rulers,600 ‘apiru, 15,200 living Shasu,6,300 Huru, 15,070 living Neges, and0,652 families thereof Among the residents of Palestine the Horites account for 66 per cent, the Shasu 27 5 per cent and the ‘apiru 6 5 per cent (1979, 168-9; Lemche 1991, 43-46) The Israelites have been associated with both the ‘apiru and the Shasu (Akkadian Shutu) Some scholars think the name “Hebrew” came from “‘apiru ” This does seem to give clear evidence for the Hebrews being settled in Canaan at this time Amenhotep III In the Temple of Amon in Soleb (Nubia) there is a topographical list from the time of Amenhotep III (1408-1372 BC) In column IV A2 is written t3 ssw yhw3 which means “Yahweh of the land of the Shasu” (Giveon 1964, 244; Redford 1992, 272; Astour 1979, 17-34) In the ancient Near East a divine name was also was given to a geographical place where the god was worshipped (Axelsson 1987, 60) This is the first clear extra-biblical evidence of the name “Yahweh ” The land of the Shasu may be the same area as the Midianites in the Bible where Moses stayed for 40 years (Axelsson 1987, 61; Giveon 1964a, 415-16) De Vaux says, “Geographers place Midian in Arabia, to the south-east of the Gulf of ‘Aqabah” (1978,32) This also is where Mount Sinai may be located Astour locates the land in Lebanon (1979, 17) The Shasu were Bedouins who led a nomadic existence “Shasu” was a general term the Egyptians used to describe any Bedouins East of the Delta The Egyptians would define certain Shasu according to their location For example there are the Shasu of Edom (ANET 1969, 259) The word “Shasu” became in Coptic shos meaning “shepherd” (ANET 1969, 259 note 2) It may be that the Israelites when they were wandering in the desert were probably grouped with the Shasu by the Egyptians Giveon points out marked similarities between the Shasu and the Hebrews (1967, 193-196; Bietak 1987, 169) When they came out of the desert and into the hill country of Palestine, they were probably called Hapiru as in the El Amarna letters instead of Shasu There is another very interesting name in the Temple of Amon in Soleb on Column XA 2 it says, iswr or “Asher” (Giveon 1964, 250) From the position of iswr which is right after qrqms (Carchemish) in the list and before ipttn (column XA4) which may refer to Abez of Issachar (Joshua 19:20), the location of this place would be in northern Palestine Giveon prefers the translation of “Asher” which may refer to the tribe of Israel Giveon says, “Les autres toponymes de cette colonne indiquent une region a l’Ouest d’Assur, il est donc preferable d’opter pour Asher” (Translation: The other names in this column indicate a region to the West of Assur, it is therefore preferable to opt for Asher 1964, 251) On a statue-base of Amenhotep III at Kom el Hetan which is the funerary Temple of Amenhotep III there is a topographical list with the place-name Yspir (Series a:1; Kitchen 1965, 2) This is the same name translated “Joseph-El” in Thutmose III’s Topographical list (ANET 1969, 242) After Yspir in both lists the place-name Rkd appears (Series a:2 in Amenhotep III’s list, and #79 in Thutmose III’s list; Simons 1937, 112) Rkd is the same place-name as Ruhizzi in the El Amarna letters (EA 53:36, 56; EA 5426; EA 56:26; EA 191:2; Rainey 1982,54) The ruler of Ruhizzi is Arsawuya who seems to be located in northern Palestine or southern Syria (EA 53:36, 56; Moran, 125) Seti I Seti I is the founder of the 19th Dynasty whose goal was to revive the Egyptian empire The kings of the 19th Dynasty identified themselves with the Hyksos religious tradition of worshipping the god Seth (Baal) whom Seti (Seth’s Man) was named after In 1320 BC Seti celebrated the 400th year of the reign of Seth, and the beginning of the Hyksos rule (1720 BC) Ramese II (1279 BC) set up a 7 2 foot high granite monument called “Stele of the Year 400” at Avaris which he renamed Pi-Ramese, “House of Ramese” (ANET 1969, 252-3; Breasted 1988,:238-42; McCarter 1996, 46-7) This founding of the Hyksos rule is most likely alluded to in Numbers 13:22 which says, “Now Hebron was built seven years before Zoan (Avaris) in Egypt” (KJV; Mazar 1986, 21; Albright 1957, 242) In Seti’s first campaign there is a battle with the Shasu which is pictured on the Karnak reliefs (ANEP 1969, fig23-9) The tribal chiefs of the Shasu are gathered on the mountains of kharu (upper Galilee) to fight the Egyptians It says: The foe belonging to the Shasu are plotting (5) rebellion Their tribal chiefs are gathered in one place, waiting on the mountain ranges of Kharu They have taken to clamoring and quarreling, one of them killing his fellow They have no regard for the laws of the palace (ANET 1969, 254; Breasted 1988,:52) Seti claims victory against “the Shasu from the fortress of Sile to the Canaan” which includes the “Upper Retenu” (ANET 1969, 254; Aharoni 1979, 177; Lemche 1991, 46-48; Giveon 1971) It seems that this general term “Shasu” is referring to the Hebrews who lived in the mountain ranges of upper Galilee “They have no regard for the laws of the palace” may be because they are following the laws of Moses “They have taken to clamoring and quarreling” seems to describe the period of the Judges Note that they have “tribal chiefs” and no king at this time There is one important name on the topographical list from Karnak, i-s-r (Simons 1937, 147) Aharoni believes that this name is “the earliest reference to the Israelite tribe of Asher I-s-r (#265) also occurs in Ancient Egyptian Onomastica by Gardiner (1947, 192-3; Paton 1913,9) A stele of Seti I discovered at Beth-Shean states that the Hapiru from Mount Yarumta with the Tayaru attacked the Asiatics of Rehem (ANET 1969, 255; Rowe 1929, 88-93) Mount Yarumta is probably Jarmuth of the tribe Issachar (Joshua 21:29) It seems that the tribe of Issachar is already in Canaan by this time (1303 BC; Aharoni 1982, 124) Breasted concluded that these Shasu (Bedwin) are the same as the Hapiru of the El Amarna letters He says, “The attempt of the Hebrews to gain a footing in Palestine is undoubtedly involved in the larger movement of the Bedwin, which Seti here records” (1988, 50) On the next page is a summary of the keys names found in ancient Egyptian topographical lists (Table 12) Ramses II Rameses II at U of Penn Museum Ramses II came to power in about 1279 BC And reigned for 67 years A stele from his 9th year was discovered at Beth-shean that mentions the Shasu and the city of Per-Ra-messu which is the same name in Exodus 1:11 (Rowe 1929, 94-98) In the Nubian city of Amara-West the remains of a Temple of Ramses was uncovered A list of 104 Asiatic names were discovered which names places in the Negeb, Edom, the city of Dor, and some think Jericho (Horn 1953, 201-3) One interesting name that was found is yhw which is “Yahweh” in Hebrew (Horn 1953, 201; Giveon 1964, 244) The line reads t3 s3sw yhw which I translate as “Yahweh of the land of the Shasu” (Horn 1953, 201; Giveon 1964, 244; Astour 1979, 17) In reliefs from Luxor the land of Moab (m-w-i-b) and Dibon (t-b-n-i) are first mentioned in Egyptian (Aharoni 1979, 182) In Ramses II’s topographical list the place-name “Jacob-El” (#9) appears again (ANET 1969, 242; Simons 1937) The first appearance was in Thutmose III’s list This means that this city of Jacob has been around for two hundred years ConTemporary with Ramses II is “A Satirical Letter” that describes the geography of Canaan In this letter it mentions “Qazardi, the Chief of Aser” (i-s-r, Asher; ANET 1969, 477)

Egyptian Topographical Lists
Names Tuthmosis III (1481 BC) Amenhotep II (1440) Amenhotep III (1386) Seti I (1291) Ramses II (1275) Jacob-El yes yes Joseph-El yes yes Asher yes yes yes Yahweh yes yes Shasu yes yes yes yes Hapiru yes yes See ANET, 242-3 Aharoni states, “The use of this name to define a tribal group in Canaan at that time proves that it must be equated with the Israelite tribe of Asher” (1979, 183; Mazar 1986,7) This description of Canaan seems to match the description of the border land of Canaan in Numbers4 This brings us up to the time of Merneptah where Israel is specifically mentioned One important group of letters that must be considered in depth is the El Amarna letters Shasu The Amarna Letters Akhenaton Akhenaton’s cartouch Akhenaton Akhenaton’s Cartuoch at U of Penn Museum In 1887 an Egyptian peasant woman discovered a collection of cuneiform tablets at the site of Akh-en-Aton’s capital from the 14th century BC, now called Tell El-Amarna There were a total of77 tablets found Later some more tablets were found About half of them were written in Akkadian by Canaanite scribes in Palestine describing the conditions there One major problem was the “Hapiru” who were taking over the land They wanted the king of Egypt to send reinforcements “Hapiru” is probably related to the word “Hebrew” (Greenberg 1955, 91-2) Hapiru (Akkadian) is sometimes spelled “Habiru” or “‘apiru” (Egyptian) The Egyptian word is ‘pr In these letters “Hapiru” is spelled with the Sumerian logogram SA GAZ Hapiru was a general term for “robber” or “migrant” (Astour 1962,82) Na’aman states, “Common to all the people designated as ‘Habiru’ is the fact that they were uprooted from their original political and social framework and forced to adapt to a new environment” (1986, 272; Buccellati 1977, 145-7) He believes the best meaning of Habiru is migrant, but in the Amarna letters it went beyond this to “a derogatory appellation for rebels against Egyptian authority” (Na’aman 1986, 275) Rowton says: The term ‘apiru is of West Semitic origin, and it first appears in Mesopotamian urban society at a time when that society was being penetrated by Amorites This suggests that it was brought in by the Amorites and that it originally denotes some aspect of tribal society the economically and socially uprooted” (1976, 17) The use of the term “Hebrew” in the Old Testament is found primarily in the pre-monarchical period, and used in unfavorable contexts by foreigners like the Egyptians (Gen9:14,17, 41:12; Ex 1:16, 2:6) and the Philistines (ISam 4:6,9; 13:3,19; 14:11; 29:3) The bands of David and JePtah give some of the clearest pictures of what the Habiru were like (Mazar 1963,10-20) It seems that later in history the social meaning of Hapiru was changed to an ethnic term for Israel The social term Hapiru disappeared in ancient texts (12th century BC) mainly due to the rise of national states, but was kept in Israel and developed into an ethnic term (Na’aman 1986, 286) The El Amarna letter 288 from Jerusalem says: The strong arm of the king seizes the land of Nahrima and the land of Cush; but now the Hapiru are seizing the cities of the King! There is not a single governor (left) to the king; all are lost Behold, Turbasu was slain at the gate of Zilu (but) the king kept silent Behold Zimredda, the (sons of) Lachish smote him, slaves who have become Hapiru (Na’aman 1979, 678; Moran 1992,30-32; ANET 1969, 488-89; Na’aman and Aviv 1992; Pfeiffer 1963, 50) The El Amarna (EA) 299 from Gezer says, “Now the Hapiru are prevailing over us So may the King, my Lord, take me away from the land of the Hapiru, so that the Hapiru will not destroy us” (Na’aman 1979, 679; Moran 1992,40) EA 273 says, “May the king, my lord, be informed that war is waged in the land and that the land of the king, my lord, is being ruined by going over to the Hapiru” (Na`aman 1979, 680; Moran 1992,18) In EA 256 (line 18) the name “Yashuya” appears which some have tried to connect to the name “Joshua” (Weippert 1962, 128; ANET 1969, 486; Moran 1992,09) Rohl equates this name with “Jesse” father of David (1995, 228) Albright does not think “Yashuya” is Joshua because Joshua would probably be written as Ya-hu-su-uh (1943, 12 note 27) This letter is from Mut-Ba’lu, prince of Pella, to the Canaanite Yanhamu who was the Egyptian commissioner for Palestine and Syria Mut-Ba’lu denies he has hid Ayyab (Job), the prince of Ashtaroth (in Bashan) who was wanted by Yanhamu for robbing a Babylonian caravan (Albright 1943, 9-10; Na’aman and Aviv 1988, 181) “Yanhamu” may be of Hebrew origins (ANET 1969, 486 note 11) In lines 22-24 it says, “all the towns of the land of Garu (Golan) were hostile–Udumu” (Albright 1943, 14) Albright says, “The name (Udumu) is clearly identical with that of Edom (‘Udumu) and the legendary land of ‘Udm (‘Udumu ) in the Keret Epic of the fifteenth century BC” (1943, 14 note6) Pfeiffer says, “Although the place names of the Amarna texts are parallel to those of the Old Testament, the personal names are totally different” (1963, 53; Ahituv 1984) In the Amarna letters Abdi-Khepa is king of Jerusalem where as in Joshua Adoni-zedek is king (Joshua 10:3) Meredith Kline has therefore concluded that the Conquest by Joshua of Canaan precedes the Amarna Age He sees the Hapiru as the oppresses in the book of Judges (1957; Pfeiffer 1963, 53) Cities that are not mentioned in the El Amarna letters are also important to note Bimson says: The fact that various Canaanite cities important in other periods do not feature in the Amarna correspondence is adequately accounted for by the fact that the incoming Israelites had destroyed them just a few decades before Cities which do not feature include Gibeon, Jericho, Hebron ( ), and Bethel (1981, 227) The important cities of the El Amarna letters are the cites which weres not taken by the Hebrews These are Jerusalem (Judges 1:21), Megiddo (Judges 1:27), and Gezer (Judges 1:29) The cities of Hazor and Lachish revived quickly from destruction while Shechem probably went over to the Hebrews with the Gibeonites, and was never destroyed In Joshua 11:10 Hazor is called “the head of all those Kingdoms” which are mentioned in the first three verses of Joshua 11 This description of Hazor as “the head of all those Kingdoms” does not fit well with the El Amarna letters (Late Bronze Age), but is an excellent description of the Middle Bronze Age (Bimson 1981, 228) The king of Hazor in EA 148 is charged with aiding the Hapiru which is just the opposite of what happens in the book of Joshua EA 148 says, “The King of Hasura (Hazor) has abandoned his house and has aligned himself with the ‘Apiru” (Moran 1992, 235) Ahlstrom states, “several letters seems to indicate that most of Palestine is ‘apiru territory” (1993, 245) The Hapiru of these Amarna letters seem to clearly be identified with the Hebrews of the Old Testament during the time of the judges before the monarchy The Hapiru are not just mentioned in the Amarna letters In Ugaritic a tablet (2062:A:7; Gordon 1965, Glossary #1899) found in the oven when Ugarit was abandon shows that the Hapiru were active here around 1200 BC Not all Hapiru were Hebrews Greenberg states, “Since the time of Bohl it has become commonplace that ‘all Israelites were Hebrews (Hapiru), but not all Hebrews (Hapiru) were Israelites'” (1955, 92) In a letter found at Taanach the personal name Ahiyami, or Ahiyawi was found which suggests this name is compounded with Yahweh Paton says, “This favors the theory that the Habiru in Canaan were Israelites” (1913,8) Albright claims that in EA 252 there is an archaic Hebrew proverb About 40% of EA 252 is written in pure Canaanite (or Hebrew) In lines 15-18 there is a proverb which Albright compares with Proverbs 6:6 and0:25 about the ant which says, “If the ants are smitten, they do not accept (the smitting) quietly, but they bite the hand of the man who smites them” (1943, 29) This is more evidence that the Hapiru in Canaan were Hebrews There is a newly discovered prism of a new king named Tunip-Tessup of the kingdom of Tikunani that names a number of Hapiru (438) who were soldiers or servants (Shanks 1996, 22; Salvini 1996) When this is translated this may give us some more clues to who are the Hapiru Ugaritic Texts In the spring of 1928 a Syrian farmer was plowing his field when he uncovered a stone over a grave Archaeologists were called in which led to the discovery of the near by ancient city of Ugarit, modern day Ras Shamra (Curtis 1985, 18; Craigie 1983, 7) Many clay tablets were uncovered which were written in cuneiform in a language now called “Ugaritic ” See also Ugarit and the Bible Since Ugaritic is very similar to Hebrew it can help illuminate Hebrew words One of the most interesting personal names is ysril which equals “Israel” in Hebrew (Gordon 1965, Text 2069:3; Glossary #1164) It is the name of a charioteer (mrynm; Zobel 1990, Vol 6,99) While this is not referring to Israel as a nation, it does show the use of this personal name in the Late Bronze Age The name “Israel” may have originally meant “El rules” in Ugaritic (Zobel 1990, 401) Another interesting name is yw (CTA 1 IV:14; Herdner 1963, 4) which may be identified with “Yahweh” in Hebrew according to Dussaud (Cooper 1981,67) Herdner states that the reading yw is certain (1963, 4 note) Murtonen also argues for this reading (1951, 6-8) Gordon says, “Yahwe with -h- corresponds to Yw exactly like yhlm to Ug ylm” (1965, Glossary #1084) The name yw appears in the Baal and Yam text which is part of the cycle of Baal myths The supreme god El instructs Kothar-and-Khasis (the craftsman god) to build a palace for Yam (Sea) who is also called judge Nahar (river) As El sits in his banqueting hall he declares to the other deities that Yam’s personal name was yw, but his new name is to be “darling of El” (Deut3:12) In order to secure his power Yam must drive his rival Baal from his throne El then holds a feast to celebrate this naming ceremony (Gibson 1977,-4) The actual text in line 14 (CTA 1 iv:14; Herdner 1963, 4; Gibson 1977,9) says, sm bny yw which I translate as “the name of my son is Yahweh ” This would make Yahweh a rival of Baal which is reminiscent of the conflict of Elijah with the prophets of Baal on Mount Carmel (I Kings 18) Could Yahweh have originally been associated with the sea god Yam of the Canaanites Murtonen sees Yw as a variant or epithet of Yam (Cooper 1981,67) MacLaurin sees ‘elohim as a composite of ‘eloh + Yam meaning “the god Yam” (Cooper 1981,68) This is probably very unlikely Pope states, “Morphologically it (‘elohim) is the plural of ‘eloah” (1955, 9; Dijkstra, 1995, 53; Cross, 1973, 65) Pettinato suggested that Ya appears in Eblaite at the end of names like Baal does in Ugaritic One example is dmrb’l meaning “Baal is my sentinel” compared to dmry meaning “Ya is my sentinel” (Pettinato 1981, 277; Compare this with Exodus 15:2) Pettinato later states that Ya does not refer to an individual god, “but rather an absolute or divine god” (1991, 180) The Ugaritic personal name abmlk corresponds to the Hebrew name “Abimelech” (Gordon 1965,48) The ab means “father”, and mlk means “king”, therefore meaning “father of the king ” Closely related is the name abrm which corresponds to the Hebrew “Abiram” or “Abram” which Abraham was called before his name was changed (Genesis 17:5; Gordon 1965, Text #2095:4; Albright 1935, 193) The word abrm is probably from AB (father) plus rm (high) meaning “exalted father” (Clements 1974, 52-53; See the summary chart in Table 13) The place-name ablm in Ugaritic “probably connects with such Hebrew toponyms as Abel-beth-Maacah, Abel ha-Shittim, Abel Mizraim” according to Gaster (Astour 1975, 255) Barton thinks that Daniel and Aqht were pre-Israelite heroes of Galilee, and translates qrt ablm as “city of the meadows” and identifies it with Abel-beth-Maacah in I Kings 15:20,29 (Astour 1975, 255) The word ablm may also mean “mourners” (Gordon 1965,49; Glossary #27
Ugaritic Texts with Old Testament Names Transliteration Translation Ugaritic Text qrt ‘ablm city of Abel CTA 19 IV:165 abmlk Abimelech UT14:8 abrm Abraham UT 2095:2,4 AB ‘adm father of mankind (Adam) CTA 14 III:151 atr B’l Asher Baal (place-name) UT 62:7 wl ‘udm trrt and to well-watered Edom CTA 14 III:109 ysril Israel UT 2069:3 bnmt son of Moses UT 2046:rev 5 yw Yahweh CTA 1 IV:14 y’l Ya(hweh) is God UT11:7 zbl Zebulon UT 1084:13 UT-Ugaritic Textbook by Gordon in 1965 CTA-Corpus Tablettes Alphabetiques by Herdner in 1963 The city ablm in Aqht is the “meadow” were Aqht, son of Daniel, was slain (CTA 19 IV:163-166; Astour 1975, 254; Gibson 1977, 199) Because of the spilling of Aqht’s blood there would be crop failure for seven years The land would dry up Could there be a double meaning here, and in Genesis 4 for Abel meaning “meadow” and “mourner” (or dried up) was slain in a field Cain also would have crop failure (Gen 4:12) The Ugaritic mt according to Aistleitner is derived from the Egyptian ms meaning “child” (Gordon 1965, 440; Glossary #1579) Gordon states, “The vocalization of the Eg (Egyptian) mose (as in ‘Thutmose’) suggests that ‘Moses’ is the same n (noun) that appears in Ug (Ugaritic) lit (literature)” (1965, 440; Glossary #1579) In Ugaritic the place-name zbl is mentioned that is the same in Hebrew as “Zebulon” (Gordon 1965, Text 1084:13; Glossary #815) Both words come from the same root meaning “to raise, elevate” (Astour 1975, 284) This text is a list of the quantities of wine from the areas it was produced Astour notes that zbl is “A town in the Piedmont district of the Kingdom of Ugarit, now Karzbil” (1975, 284) Although this does not refer to the tribe of Zebulon, it shows the use of this word during the Late Bronze Age (1550-1200 BC) There is one tablet among the administrative records at Ugarit that mentions a man from Canaan The text says y’l kn’ny, “Ya’el the Canaanite” (Gordon 1965, 206; Text11:7; Rainey 1963, 45) Ya’el may have been a Hebrew This also seems to indicate that Canaan was “a district separate and distinct from the kingdom of Alalah” (Rainey 1963, 43; Na’aman and Aviv 1994, 403) The Ugaritic story of Keret is about a just king named Keret who had no heir He was told by El in a dream to gather an army and march seven days to Udm (Edom) He is then to wait seven days before he asks for the daughter of the king of Udm in marriage He will then have eight sons and daughters Albright says, “The name (Udumu) is clearly identical with that of Edom (‘Udumu) and the legendary land of ‘Udm (‘Udumu ) in the Keret Epic of the fifteenth century BC” (1943, 14 note6) Gordon states, “It is no accident that Udm (cf & ‘Idomeneus’ the Cretan leader of the Iliad) occurs in the Krt text The Caphtorians settled in Canaan, from Ugarit to Edom” (1965,52; Glossary #85; CTA 14 III:108-9) The seven day wait is reminiscent of the seven day wait around the city of Jericho (Joshua 6:3-4) This story shows that Edom is already a kingdom at this time The Philistines Around 1200 BC the Philistines migrated in great numbers to Canaan after the great sea battle with the Egyptians On the walls of Ramses III’s Temple of Medinet Habu there are reliefs showing the battle with the Philistines (ANEP 1969, figs 7,9,57,&41; Yadin 1963,36-43; Dothan 1992, 16-22) In the topographical list of Ramses III the city of Jacob-El is listed as well as the city of Levi-El (ANET 1969, 242-3) In the book of Judges the Philistines do not come into the picture until the end of the judges with Samson (Bimson 1981, 86-88) So most of the book deals with problems before the Philistines came to power in 1200 BC The Philistines probably fled their homeland of Crete after the eruption of Santorini on the island of Thera They are mentioned in the Iliad of Homer (Book I, Bierling 1992, 51, 72) Probably after the Trojan War the Philistines migrated south and tried to take over Egypt Because they were not successful they settled in Canaan There are five groups of sea people, Philistines, Tjeker, Shekelesh, Denye(n), and Weshesh (ANET 1969, 262) One group of sea peoples called “Denye(n)” or “Dannuna” is what Dothan suggests could be the tribe of Dan in the Bible (1992, 215-19; Iliad, Book 1 56, 87) Philistine pottery Philistine pottery, U of Penn Settlement There have been a number of theories that have questioned the conquest of Canaan They opt for a peaceful infiltration or a peasant’s revolt in the hill country It was Alt who first suggested in 1925 that the Israelites gradually infiltrated into Canaan peacefully (Yamauchi 1994, 16) In 1962 George Mendenhall first proposed the “Peasant Revolt Model” which was further developed by Norman Gottwald (Mendenhall 1962, 66-87; 1973; 1958, 61-64) Mendenhall suggested that “Israel came into existence as the result of sociopolitical upheaval and retribalization among the Canaanites at the end of the Late Bronze Age” (Yamauchi 1994, 17-18; Freedman and Graf 1983) Some of the evidence that is put forth is that tribes are already in the land, but this is because they are assuming a late date for the Exodus The names of the tribes, or patriarchs show that they were already settled in Canaan by Thutmose III’s campaigns into Canaan (1490 BC) An analysis of the genealogies in the Bible is very illuminating According to the book of Chronicles there is no genealogy for the tribe of Dan, and Zebulon Manassah had an Aramean concubine, while some claim Gad and Asher are Canaanite divinities Yeivin states, “it should be observed that many of the names occurring in these genealogies are either blatantly geographical or connected with place-names; while others are definitely personal names” (1971, 11; De Geus 1993, 74-5) De Vaux goes into much detail on the origins of the different tribes mentioned in the genealogies of the Bible (1978) The best explanation of this seems to be that Israel is a confederation of Hapiru tribes in the hill country of Canaan, that formed the nation of Israel in the Iron Age Originally Abraham was part of an Amorite migration south into Canaan from Mesopotamia which continued down to Egypt climaxing in the Hyksos rule In Deuteronomy 26:5 Jacob is called a “wandering Aramean” which is a late term for Amorite (De Vaux 1978, 200) The exodus is to be identified with the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt by Ahmose (1570 BC) Then they wandered in the wilderness being included among the Shasu, and caused the fall of MBIIIC cities in Canaan (the conquest) The Conquest was not total but just in the highlands for Egypt controlled the lower lands and coast They were called Hapiru (from which the name Hebrew originates) in the Amarna period (time of the judges) until their league was consolidated into 12 tribes which became the nation of Israel in the Iron Age Conclusion It seems clear after looking at a number of ancient writers that all the ancient Jewish writers took the 430 or 400 years to cover the time in Egypt as well as Canaan The Book of Jubilees counted 400 years from Abraham’s entry into Canaan Most of the Jewish writers counted the 400 years from Isaac’s birth to the exodus The actual time in Egypt was only 185 to 215 years according to most writers; however, Midrash Abkhir specifically states 86 years in Egypt (Rappoport 1966, Vol 2, 286-7) Another important note is that most of the Jewish writers pushed the date of the exodus back to about the time of the expulsion of the Hyksos Joseph would have rose to power just before or during the time of the Hyksos Josephus says there are 592 years from the Exodus to the founding of Solomon’s Temple (960 BC), while Sedar Olan Zutta says 480 years The best explanation of this discrepancy is the omission of the oppressions in the Book of Judges (111 years) This was a common ancient practice as seen in ancient Egyptian king lists Josephus goes into detail quoting Manetho showing that the Jews were in Egypt He equates the Jews with the Hyksos, and the Exodus with the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt by Ahmose who founded the 18th dynasty (1570-50 BC) Manetho had access to the original Egyptian hieroglyphics that modern scholars do not have Yet modern scholars today, both liberal and conservative place the Exodus much later, and claim there is no evidence of the Exodus in Egyptian writings The best explanation is to identify the Exodus from Egypt with the expulsion of the Hyksos for there is no other mass exit from Egypt A number of secular writers tell about the origin of the Jews with disdain Some picture the Jews as leprous They identify the Jews with the Hyksos who were expelled from Egypt by Ahmose This expulsion is seen as a great defeat and humiliation, yet the Jews claim a great victory This scenario is seen in other ancient writings like Ramses II and the war with the Hittites Each side claims victory Sennachrib destroyed 46 cities in Judah, yet Hezekiah claims a victory because he did not take Jerusalem The early Church Fathers all equated the Hyksos with the Jews, and the Exodus with the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt by Ahmose The only exception is Eusebius who did not account for overlap of reigns, and omits the years of oppression A look at the New Testament gives convincing proof that Paul in Galatians:17-18 saw the 430 years starting with the promise to Abraham The Jews were not in Egypt for 400 years, but the 400 years applied to their sojourn in Canaan as well which was controlled by Egypt The LXX interprets it this way in Exodus 12:40 In Acts 13:20 it is clear that there are 450 years for the time of the judges, but this does not seem to square with the 480 years from Solomon’s Temple to the Exodus, because the years of oppression are omitted This would place the exodus back to the time of the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt A look at all the archaeological evidence shows that the best fit of the data is to identify the Exodus with the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt around 1570-50 BC The most important discovery is the Merneptah stele that mentions Israel which forced the revision of a number of liberal theories Before the discovery of this stele scholars placed the date of the exodus and entry into Canaan much later They were now forced to admit that Israel was already in Canaan at the time of Merneptah This puts a terminus ante quem date of 1210 BC for the exodus The execration texts which date back to at least 1630 BC mention city-states like Jerusalem, Shechem, and Hazor, but no mention of Israel Another inscription of Khu-Sebek mentions Shechem, but not Israel Most scholars will place the Jews, pro-Israelites, or even Jacobites in Egypt at the time of the Hyksos There are many scarabs with the name “Jacob-El ” This seems most likely to refer either directly or indirectly to Jacob of the Old Testament The expulsion of the Hyksos seems to fit well with the story of the Exodus Not all Hyksos were pro-Israelites It says in Exodus that a “mixed multitude” left Egypt Although the Egyptians saw the expulsion of the Hyksos as a great military victory, the Israelites viewed this as a great salvation victory for them This seems similar to other events recorded in ancient history where both sides claim a great victory The evidence from the Sinai shows little occupation during the Late Bronze Age which is probably due to the expulsion of the Hyksos, and when Ahmose marched to Sharuhen, and besieged it for three years The Middle Bronze Age destructions seem to fit well with the conquest of Canaan by Joshua Egyptian topographical lists are key in showing who and where people lived The oldest list is from Tuthmosis III which names “Jacob-El” and “Joseph-El” as cities in Canaan It is paramount to understand that cities were named after an important person or god This seems to be clear evidence that pro-Israelites were in Canaan at this time (1481 BC) During Amenhotep II’s reign (1453-1419 BC) there is a list of prisoners that mentions600 ‘apiru, and 15,200 living Shasu that were taken as prisoners from Canaan Some of these were probably Hebrews In the Temple of Amon in Soleb (Nubia) there is a topographical list from the time of Amenhotep III (1408-1372 BC) That gives the name “Yahweh of the land of the Shasu” (Giveon 1964, 244; Redford 1992, 272; Astour 1979, 17-34) In the ancient Near East a divine name was also given to a geographical place where the god was worshipped (Axelsson 1987, 60) This is the first clear extra-biblical evidence of the name “Yahweh ” Also named are “Asher” and “Joseph-El” which indicates that the Hebrews were in Canaan at this time In Seti’s first campaign (1291 BC) There is a battle with the Shasu which is pictured on the Karnak reliefs (ANEP 1969, fig23-9) The tribal chiefs of the Shasu are gathered on the mountains of kharu (upper Galilee) to fight the Egyptians It seems that this general term “Shasu” is referring to the Hebrews who lived in the mountain ranges of upper Galilee at this time In Ramses II’s topographical list (ca 1275 BC) the place-name “Jacob-El” (#9) appears again (ANET 1969, 242; Simons 1937) The first appearance was in Thutmose III’s list This means that this city of Jacob has been around for two hundred years Another interesting name that was found is yhw which is “Yahweh” in Hebrew (Horn 1953, 201; Giveon 1964, 244) It seems abundantly clear from all these topographical lists concerning Canaan that the Hebrews were in Canaan at this time, but they did not use the name “Israel” until there league of tribes was well formed by the time of Merneptah The El Amarna letters describe the troublesome Hapiru that were taking over the land of Canaan This seems to fit well with the Hebrews during the time of the judges The word “Hebrew” probably came from the word “Hapiru ” In Ugaritic texts one of the most interesting personal names is ysril which equals “Israel” in Hebrew (Gordon 1965, Text 2069:3; Glossary #1164) While this is not referring to Israel as a nation it does show the use of this personal name in the Late Bronze Age Another interesting name is yw (CTA 1 IV:14; Herdner 1963, 4) which may be identified with “Yahweh” in Hebrew While one of these names alone is not conclusive, yet when all of the personal names and place names are considered, there seems to be abundant evidence for the Hebrews living in Canaan during the Late Bronze Age Therefore the best explanation for all of the archaeological evidence seems to be that Israel is a confederation of Hapiru tribes in the hill country of Canaan, that formed the nation of Israel in the Iron Age Originally, Abraham was part of an Amorite migration south into Canaan from Mesopotamia which continued down to Egypt climaxing in the Hyksos rule The exodus is to be identified with the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt by Ahmose (1570-50 BC; Frerichs and Lesko, 1997, 82, 96) Then they wandered in the wilderness being included among the Shasu, and caused the fall of MBIIIC cities in Canaan (the conquest) The Conquest was not total but just in the highlands for Egypt controlled the lower lands and coast They were called Hapiru (from which the name Hebrew originates) in the Amarna period (time of the judges) until their league was consolidated into 12 tribes which became the nation of Israel in the Iron Age This paper has shown that most of the ancient writers equated the Exodus with the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt around 1570-50 BC Most ancient writers put the Jews in Egypt for 215 years or less According to most ancient writers the 430 years in Egypt was taken to start with the promise to Abraham, and the 400 years from the birth of Isaac Others begin these years with Abraham’s entry into Canaan All of the ancient Jewish and Christian writers considered in this paper took the 430 or 400 years to cover the time in Egypt as well as Canaan Biblical writers also agree with these ancient traditions, and the archaeological evidence reinforces these views

THERE is above Minyas in the land of Armenia a very great mountain which is called Baris to which, it is said, that many persons retreated at the time of the deluge, and were saved; and that one in particular was carried thither in an ark, and was landed on its summit, and that the remains of the vessel were long preserved upon the mountain Perhaps this was the same individual of whom Moses the legislator of the Jews has made mention –Jos Ant Jud I –Euseb Præp Evan 9
THE priests who escaped took with them the implements of the worship of the Enyalian Jove, and came to Senaar in Babylonia But they were again driven from thence by the introduction of a diversity of tongues: upon which they founded colonies in various parts, each settling in such situations as chance or the direction of God led them to occupy –Jos Ant Jud I c 4 –Euseb Præp Evan 9
THE Sibyl says: That when all men formerly spoke the same language; some among them undertook to erect a large and lofty tower, that they might climb up into heaven But God3 sending forth a whirlwind, confounded their design, and gave to each tribe a particular language of its own: which is the reason that the name of that city is Babylon After the deluge lived Titan and Prometheus; when Titan undertook a war against Cronus 4–Sync 44 –Jos Ant Jud I c 4–Eus Præp Evan 9
BUT when the judgements of the Almighty God Were ripe for execution; when the Tower Rose to the skies upon Assyria’s plain, And all mankind one language only knew: A dread commission from on high was given To the fell whirlwinds, which with dire alarms Beat on the Tower, and to its lowest base Shook it convulsed And now all intercourse, By some occult and overruling power, Ceased among men: by utterance they strove Perplexed and anxious to disclose their mind; But their lip failed them; and in lieu of words Produced a painful babbling sound: the place Was thence called Babel; by th’ apostate crew Named from the event Then severed far away They sped uncertain into the realms unknows: Thus kingdoms rose; and the glad world was filled
She then mentions Cronus, Titan and Jäpetus, and the three sons of the patriarch governing the world in the tenth generation after the deluge, thus, a t te d de t e e µe p p , ‘ pe ata sµ p p t et’ d a , a ßas e se , a t , ‘ apet te,
The triple division of the earth is afterwards mentioned, over which each of the partriarchs ruled in peace ssa d µ de a at dt , a ßas e se ast µ , d µ t
Then the death of Noah, and lastly the war between Cronus and Titan a µa sa t t te p a t
The parents of all the heresies, and the prototypes from which they derive their names, and from which all other heresies originate, are these four primary ones
The first is Barbarism,7 which prevailed without a rival from the days of Adam through ten generations to the time of Noah It is called Barbarism, because men had no rulers, nor submitted to any particular discipline of life; but as each thought proper to prescribe to himself; so he was at liberty to follow the dictates of his own inclination
The second is Scythism which prevailed from the days of Noah and thence downwards to the building of the tower and Babylon, and for a few years subsequently to that time, that is to the days of Phalec and Ragau But the nations which incline upon the borders of Europe continued addicted to the Scythic heresy, and the customs of the Scythians to the age of Thera, and afterwards; of this sect also were the Thracians
The third is Hellenism, which originated in the days of Seruch with the introduction of idolatry: and as men had hitherto followed each some demonolatrous superstition of his own, they were now reduced to a more established form of polity, and to the rites and ceremonies of idols And the followers of this began with the use of painting, making likenesses of those whom they had formerly honoured, either kings or chiefs, or men who in their lives had performed actions which they deemed worthy of record, by strength or excellence of body
The Egyptians, and Babylonians, and Phrygians, and Phœnicians were the first propagators of this superstition of making images, and of the mysteries: from whom it was transferred to the Greeks from the time of Cecrops downwards But it was not till afterwards and at a considerable interval that Cronus and Rhea, Zeus and Apollo, and the rest were esteemed and honoured as gods
The following extract is given in Epiphanius preceding the above
AND from the times of Tharra the father of Abraham, they introduced images and all the errors of idolatry; honouring their forefathers, and their departed predecessors with effigies which they fashioned after their likeness They first made these effigies of earthern ware, but afterwards according to their different arts they sculptured them in stone, and cast them in silver and gold, and wrought them in wood, and all kinds of different materials
OF the tribe of Japhet was born Seruch, who first introduced Hellenism and the worship of idols For he and those who concurred with him in opinion honoured their predecessors whether warriors or leaders, or characters renowned during their lives for valour or virtue with columnar statues, as if they had been their progenitors, and tendered to them a species of religious veneration as a kind of gods and sacrificed But after this their successors, overstepping the intention of their ancestors that they should honour them as their progenitors and the inventors of good things with monuments alone, honoured them as heavenly gods and sacrificed to them as such And the following was the form of their canonization: they inscribed their names after their decease in their sacred books and established a festival to each at certain seasons, saying that their souls had departed to the islands of the blessed and were never condemned or burnt with fire
THE city of Babylon owes its foundation to those who were saved from the catastrophe of the deluge: they were the Giants, and they built the tower which is noticed in history But the tower being overthrown by the interposition of God, the Giants were scattered over all the earth
He says moreover that in the tenth generation in the city Camarina of Babylonia, which some call the city Urie, and which signifies a city of the Chaldæans, the thirteenth in descent lived Abraham, of a noble race, and superior to all others in wisdom; of whom they relate that he was the inventor of astrology and the Chaldæan magic, and that on account of his eminent piety he was esteemed by God It is further said, that under the directions of God he removed and lived in Phœnicia, and there taught the Phœnicians the motions of the sun and moon and all other things; for which reason he was held in great reverence by their King –Euseb Præp Evan 9
ABRAM was king of Damascus, and he came thither as a stranger with an army from that part of the country which is situated above Babylon of the Chaldæans: but after a short time he again emigrated from this region with his people and transferred his habitation to the land, which was then called Cananæa, but now Judæa, together with all the multitude which had increased with him; of whose history I shall give an account in another book The name of Abram is well-known even to this day in Damascus: and a village is pointed out which is still called the House of Abram –Euseb Præp Evan 9 –Jos Ant Jud 1 7
FOR the Babylonians say that the first was Belus, who is the same as Cronus And from him descended Belus and Chanaan; and this Chanaan was the father of the Phœnicians Another of his sons was Chum, who is called by the Greeks Asbolus, father of the Ethiopians, and the father of Mestraim, the father of the Egyptians The Greeks say, moreover, that Atlas was the discoverer of astrology –Eus Pr Ev lib IX
THALLUS makes mention of Belus, the king of the Assyrians, and Cronus the Titan; and says that Belus, with the Titans, made war against Zeus and his compeers, who are called Gods He says, moreover, that Gygus was smitten, and fled to Tartessus
According to the history of Thallus, Belus preceded the Trojan war22 years –Theoph ad Aut 281, 282
IN like manner all the other kings succeeded, the son receiving the empire from his father, being altogether thirty in their generations to Sardanapalus In his time the empire passed to the Medes from the Assyrians, having remained with them upwards of 13608 years, according to the account of Ctesias the Cnidian, in his second book –Diod Sic lib II p 77
IN the manner above related, the empire of the Assyrians, after having continued from Ninus thirty descents, and more than 1400 years, was finally dissolved by the Medes –Diod Sic lib II p 81
THE Medes were the first who began the revolt from the Assyrians after they had maintained the dominion over Upper Asia for a period of 520 years –Lib I c 95
NABOPOLASAR, whom Alexander Polyhistor calls Sardanapallus, sent to Astyages the Satrap of Media, and demanded his daughter Amuïtes in marriage for his son Nabuchodonosor He was the commander of the army of Saracus King of the Chaldæans, and, having been sent upon some expedition, turned his arms against Saracus and marched against the city of Ninus (Nineveh) But Saracus confounded by his advance set fire to his palace and burnt himself in it And Nabopolasar obtained the empire of the Chaldæans: he was the father of Nabuchodonosor –Euseb Chron 46
IN addition to the above Polyhistor continues thus: After the deluge Evexius held possession of the country of the Chaldæans during a period of four neri And he was succeeded by his son Comosbelus, who held the empire four neri and five sossi But from the time of Xisuthrus and the deluge, to that at which the Medes took possession of Babylon, there were altogether eighty-six kings Polyhistor enumerates and mentions each of them by name from the volume of Berossus: the duration of the reigns of all which kings comprehends a period of thirty-three thousand and ninety-one years But when their power was thus firmly established, the Medes suddenly levied forces against Babylon to surprise it, and to place upon the throne kings chosen from among themselves
He then gives the names of the Median Kings, 8 in number, who reigned during the period of 224 years: and again 11 Kings during years Then 49 Kings of the Chaldæans 458 years Then 9 Kings of the Arabians 245 years After all these successive periods of years he states that Semiramis reigned over the Assyrians And again minutely enumerates the names of 45 Kings, assigning to them a term of 526 years After whom, he says there was a King of the Chaldæans, whose name was Phulus: Of whom also the historical writings of the Hebrews make mention under the name of Phulus (Pul) who they say invaded the country of the Jews –Eu Ar Chron9
AFTER the reign of the brother of Senecherib, Acises reigned over the Babylonians, and when he had governed for the space of thirty days, he was slain by Marodach Baladanus, who held the empire by force during six months: and he was slain and succeeded by a person named Elibus But in the third year of his reign Senecherib king of the Assyrians levied an army against the Babylonians; and in a battle, in which they were engaged, routed, and took him prisoner with his adherents, and commanded them to be carried into the land of the Assyrians Having taken upon himself the government of the Babylonians, he appointed his son Asordanius their king, and he himself retired again into Assyria
When he received a report that the Greeks had made a hostile descent upon Cilicia, he marched against them and fought with them a pitched battle, in which, though he suffered great loss in his own army, he overthrew them, and upon the spot he erected the statue of himself as a monument of his victory; and ordered his prowess to be inscribed upon it in the Chaldæan characters, to hand down the remembrance of it to posterity He built also the city of Tarsus after the likeness of Babylon, which he called Tharsis And after enumerating the various exploits of Sinnecherim, he adds that he reigned 18 years, and was cut off by a conspiracy which had been formed against his life by his son Ardumusanus –Eu Ar Chron 42
AND after him (Pul) according to Polyhistor, Senecherib was king
(The Chaldæan historian also makes mention of Senecherib himself, and Asordanus his son, and Marodach Baladanus, as well as Nabuchodonosorus )
And Sinecherim reigned eighteen years; and after him his son eight years Then reigned Sammuges twenty-one years, and likewise his brother twenty-one years Then reigned Nabupalsar twenty years, and after him Nabucodrossorus forty-three years (Therefore, from Sinecherim to Nabucodrossorus is comprehended a period altogether of eighty-eight years )
After Samuges, Sardanapallus the Chaldæan, reigned twenty-one years He sent an army to the assistance of Astyages the Mede, Prince and Satrap of the family, that he might give the Amuhean daughter of Astyages to his son Nabucodrossorus Then reigned Nabucodrossorus forty-three years; and he came with a mighty army, and led the Jews, and Phœnicians, and Syrians into captivity
And after Nabucodrorossus reigned his son Amilmarudochus, twelve years And after him Neglisarus reigned over the Chaldæans four years; and then Nabodenus seventeen years In his reign Cyrus, the son of Cambyses, invaded the country of the Babylonians Nabodenus went out to give him battle, but was defeated, and betook himself to flight: and Cyrus reigned at Babylon nine years He was killed, however, in another battle, which took place in the plain of Daas After him reigned Cambyses eight years; then Darius thirty-six years; after him Xerxes and the other kings of the Persian line –Eu Ar Chron pp 41, 42 44, 45
At the same time the twenty-fifth who was Senecherib can hardly be recognized among the kings It was he who subjected the city of Babylon to his power, and defeated and sunk a Grecian fleet upon the coast of Cilicia He built also a Temple at Athens and erected brazen statues, upon which he engraved his own exploits And he built the city of Tarsus after the plan and likeness of Babylon, that the river Cydnus should flow through Tarsus, in the same manner as the Euphrates intersected Babylon
Next in order after him reigned Nergillus who was assassinated by his son Adramelus: and he also was slain by Axerdis (his brother by the same father, but of a different mother,) and his army pursued and blockaded in the city of Byzantium Axerdis was the first that levied mercenary soldiers, one of whom was Pythagoras a follower of the wisdom of the Chaldæans: he also reduced under his dominion Egypt and the country of Cælo-Syria, whence came Sardanapallus 10
After him Saracus reigned over the Assyrians, and when he was informed that a very great multitude of barbarians had come up from the sea to attack him, he sent Busalossorus as his general in haste to Babylon But he, having with a treasonable design obtained Amuhean, the daughter of Astyages the prince of the Medes, to be affianced to his son Nabuchodrossorus, marched straightways to surprise the city of Ninus, that is Nineveh But when Saracus the king was apprized of all these proceedings he burnt the royal palace And Nabuchodrossorus succeeded to the empire and surrounded Babylon with a strong wall –Eu Ar Chron 53
BELUS (says Castor) was king of the Assyrians; and under him the Cyclops assisted Zeus with thunder-bolts and lightnings in his contest with the Titans At that time there were kings of the Titans, one of whom was Ogygus (After a short digression he proceeds to say, that) the Giants, in their attempted inroad upon the Gods, were slain by the assistance of Hercules and Dionysus, who were themselves of the Titan race
Belus, whom we have mentioned above, after his death was esteemed a God After him, Ninus reigned over the Assyrians fifty-two years He married Semiramis, who, after his decease, reigned over the Assyrians forty-two years Then reigned Zames, who is Ninyas (Then he enumerates each of the successive Assyrian kings in order, and mentions them all, down to Sardanapallus, by their respective names: whose names, and the length of their reigns, we shall also give presently Castor mentions them in his canon in the following words )
We have first digested into a canon the kings of the Assyrians, commencing with Belus: but since we have no certain tradition respecting the length of his reign, we have merely set down his name, and commenced the chronological series from Ninus; and have concluded it with another Ninus, who obtained the empire after Sardanapallus; that in this manner the whole length of the time, as well as of the reigns of each king, might be plainly set forth Thus it will be found, that the complete sum of the years amounts to 1280 –Eus Ar p 81
THE Asiatic empire was subsequently transferred from the Assyrians, who had held it 1070 years, to the Medes, from this time, for a period of 870 years For Sardanapalus, the king of the Assyrians, a man wallowing in luxury, being the thirty-third from Ninus and Semiramis, the founders of Babylon, from whom the kingdom had passed in a regular descent from father to son, was deprived of his empire, and put to death by Arbaces the Mede Æmilius Sura also, in his annals of the Roman people, says, “That the Assyrian princes extended their empire over all nations They were succeeded by the Medes, then by the Persians, then by the Macedonians and shortly afterwards by two kings Philip and Antiochus, of Macedonian origin, who, not long after the destruction of Carthage, were conquered by the Romans, who then obtained the empire of the world To this time, from the beginning of the reign of Ninus, king of the Assyrians, who first obtained the empire, there has elapsed a period of 1995 years “–Hist I c 6
ANTICLIDES relates that they (letters) were invented in Egypt by a person whose name was Menon, fifteen years before Phoroneus the most ancient king of Greece: and he endeavours to prove it by the monuments On the contrary, Epigenes, a writer of first-rate authority, informs us, that among the Babylonians were preserved observations of the stars, inscribed upon baked tiles, extending to a period of 720 years Berosus and Critodemus, who are the most moderate in their calculations, nevertheless extend the period of the observations to 480 years Whence may be inferred the eternal use of letters among them –Lib VII c 56
We must also conTumn the Babylonians, and those who, in the reigion of Caucasus, pretend to have observed the heavens and courses of the stars: we must condemn them, I say, of folly, or of vanity, or of impudence, who assert that they have preserved upon monuments observations extending back during an interval of 470,000 years –De Divin

Israel was given to Yahweh, Moab was given to Chemosh, and Babylon was given to Marduk Zeus won the sky, Poseidon the sea, and Pluto was given Hades Anu went up to the sky and Ellil took the earth for his people. the bolt which bars the sea Was assigned to far-sighted Enki

G-d descended from the heavens at Sinai surrounded by a majestic entourage of twenty-two-thousand angels. The entourage, arrayed around the divine presence, was divided into four groups.2
The eastern group was led by the angel Michael. The western group was led by the angel Gabriel. The northern group was led by the angel Raphael and the southern group was led by the angel Uriel.3
Arrayed around the first circle of angels was yet another circle of angels, also comprised of four groups. This outer circle numbered six-hundred-thousand angels

When Jacob passed away he instructed his sons to carry his coffin in the same formation that their children would later use in the desert.
“Judah would lead to the east, followed by Issachar and Zebulun. Reuben would lead to the south, followed by Simon and Gad. Ephraim would lead to the west, followed by Menasseh and Benjamin. Dan would lead to the north, followed by Asher and Naftali.”

The tribe of Judah led to the east, corresponding to the angelic camp led by Gabriel. Judah was a symbol of strength and firm discipline as is Gabriel, the angel of divine strength.

The tribe of Reuben led to the south, corresponding to the angelic camp led by Michael. Reuben was a symbol of kindness; he was the first to rush to Joseph’s rescue. This corresponds to Michael, the angel of divine benevolence.

The tribe of Ephraim led to the west, corresponding to the angelic camp led by Raphael. Generation later, the tribe of Ephraim would prevent Jews from the north of Israel from visiting the Temple in Jerusalem. They never repented for this sin and were never spiritually healed. They were therefore aligned with Raphael, the angel of divine healing.

The tribe of Dan led to the north, corresponding to the angelic camp led by Uriel. The tribe of Dan actually implemented Ephraim’s ban on the pilgrimage and denied themselves access to spiritual light. They were therefore aligned with Uriel, the angel of divine light.
Funeral Ceremonies for Israelite Kings From long ago Jerusalem was surrounded by fields and orchards but west of the city arose 20 mysterious earth and stone mounds Albright excavated mound #2 in the 1920’s and found them to contain Early Iron pot sherds which he attributed to 1100 BC Later digs by Ruth Amiran determined the three mounds she exposed were of late kingdom of Judah times So we read: “Hezekiah slept with his fathers and they buried him with the sons of David, and all of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem honored him at his death ” [2 Chr2:33; Jeremiah4:5] The `honor’ paid by all of Judah and Jerusalem is mentioned after the king was buried, so it apparently does not refer to the funeral Giving honor is a separate matter On the death of king Asa he was buried, “in his own sepulcher A very great fire was made in his honour ” [Ibid 16:14] On the death of Jehoram, “His people made no fire for him ” [Ibid 21:19] These `mounds of burning’ were protected in that people were not allowed to take stones from them for their own projects When a king died, a month or so later, after the king was buried in the City of David, a ceremony took place for all the people (2 Chr2:33) There was no space for them in the narrow streets of Jerusalem To avoid damaging agricultural plantations that ringed the city, they gathered on the barren hills outside the city The entire ceremony took only a few hours A platform was built around which the crowd stood in sorrow Perhaps there were a few speeches, then a huge fire was ignited in memory of the deceased king Afterward each participant took a basket of stones and dirt and piled the material within rings of stone walls in order to cover the place of burning, forming a large artificial memorial mound (Jeremiah4:5) It is interesting that there are 19 (or 20) of these mounds Between king David and Zedekiah, there were 21 kings [Gabrial Barkay,

Ham: ‘It is observed that Cham, and his famely, were the only far Travellers, and Straglers into diverse unknowne countries, searching; exploring and sitting downe in the same; as also yt is said of his famely that what country soever the children of Cham happened to possesse, there beganne both the Ignoraunce of true godliness and that no inhabited countryes cast forth greater multytudes, to raunge and stray into diverse remote Regions ‘ Thus far the comments of one William Strachey, who added to these words in 1612 the following damning indictment, accusing Ham’s posterity of instigating: the ignoraunce of the true worship of God the inventions of Heathenisme, and [the] adoration of falce godes and the Devill ‘ cit Hogden, p 262 See Bibliography (Refs: 1DB 2:515 NBD 500 JA 1 vi 2 P 1:27)

Cush: Josephus writes: ‘Time has not at all hurt the name of Cush; for the Ethiopians, over whom he reigned, are even at this day, both by themselves and by all men in Asia, called Cushites ‘ The name of Cush (originally rendered Chus in Josephus) is preserved in Egypt’s hieroglyphic inscriptions as Kush, these records referring to the country that lay between the second and third cataracts of the Nile This same land was later known as Nubia Additional information on this location is gleaned from the records of Esarhaddon, king of Assyria (681-668 BC), who tells us that he made himself king of Musur , of Paturisi, and Cush Some have claimed also that the name of Cush was likewise perpetuated in that of the Babylonian city of Kish, one of the earliest cities to be built after the Flood (Refs: 1DB 1:751 NBD 284 JA 1, vi 2 P 1:27)

Sebah: He founded the nation that was known to later history as the Sabaeans Strabo writes of their city of Sabai along with its harbour of Saba (same spelling as in Josephus), which lay on the west coast of the Arabian peninsula (see Map 2) (Refs: 1DB 4:260 JA 1 vi 2)

Havilah: The progenitor of the Hamitic tribe of Havilah (There were two tribes of Havilah, one of them Semitic in origin. His descendants settled on the east coast of Arabia looking out onto the Persian Gulf Their land was known to the pre-Islamic writers as Hawlan, and to Josephus as Evilas Kautsch renders the name as Huwailah, and confirms their settlement on the east coast of Arabia (Refs: 1DB 2:537 NBD 506 JA 1 vi 2 P 1:29)

Sabta: Josephus records the name of his (Sabta’s) descendants as the Sabateni or Sabathes Ptolemy knew them as the Saptha, and Pliny called them the Messabathi They settled on the eastern side of the Arabian peninsula Sabta’s name is also preserved in that of the ancient city of Shabwat (modern Sabota), the capital of the Hadramaut (Hazarmaveth See Shem 16) (Refs: 1DB 4:146 NBD i112 JA 1 vi 2 P 1:27)

Raamah: We know from the inscriptions of ancient Sheba (see 7) that Ramah’s descendants settled near to the land of Havilah (see 4), and to the east of Ophir (see Shem 24) They are known from other sources to have traded with the children of Zidon (see 22) in the city of Tyre Ptolemy agreed with the LXX in the name Ragma, which Josephus rendered Ragmas There is still a place called Ramah near Ma’in in south-west Arabia (Refs: 1DB 4:1 NBD 1072 JA 1 vi 2 P 1

Sheba: Minaean inscriptions from the north Yemen, and which date to the 9th century BC, tell us that Sheba was that kingdom’s southern neighbor The land of Sheba is also known to us from Assyrian inscriptions of the 8th century BC Sheba was famous as the Land of Spices (there were four ‘spice kingdoms’–Minaea, Kataban, and Hadramaut ), and we know from the vast archaeological ruins, some of whose walls still stand some 60 feet above the desert sands, that the land was extremely fertile, being watered by ingenious irrigation systems controlled by a great dam that once spanned the river Adhanat In the year 542 BC, the dam collapsed after more than a thousand years of service, an event that is recalled in the Koran and described there as a judgment of God upon the people (Refs: 1DB 4:311-2 NBD 1171 JA1, vi 4 P 1:27)

Dedan: His posterity are known to have traded with the Phoenicians Identified from various cuneiform inscriptions, their main place of settlement was the city that is known today as Al-ula, and which lies some 70 miles south-west of modern Taima (Refs: 1DB 1:812 NBD05)

Sabtecha: Identified by Josephus as the Sabactens or Sabactas, Sabtecha’s descendants appear to have settled in southern Arabia, the modern Yemen (Refs: 1DB 4:146 NBD 1112 JA 1 vi 2 P 1:27)

Nimrod: Writing in 1876, George Smith tells us that: ‘Nearly thirteen hundred years before the Christian era, one of the Egyptian poems likens a hero to the Assyrian chief Kazartu, ‘a great hunter and it has already been suggested that the reference here is to the fame of Nimrod A little later, in the BC 1100 to 800, we have in Egypt many persons named Nimrod, showing a knowledge of the mighty hunter there ‘ (Chaldean Genesis p13) Nimrod was undoubtedly the most notorious man in the ancient world who is credited with instigating the Great Rebellion at Babel, and of founding the vs, astrology and even human sacrifice Moreover, there is much evidence to suggest that he himself was worshipped from the very earliest times His name, for example, was perpetuated in those of Nimurda, the Assyrian god of war; Marduk, the Babylonian king of the gods; and the Sumerian deity Amar-utu His image was likewise incorporated very early on in the Chaldean zodiac as a child seated on his mother’s lap, and both mother and child were worshipped, she as the Queen of Heaven, and he as her erstwhile sacrificial son, the precursor of today’s worship of the Madonna and Child Nimrod was also worshipped by the Romans under the name of Bacchus, this name being derived from the Semitic bar-Cush, meaning the son of Cush A mountain not far from Ararat, has been called Nimrud Dagh (Mount Nimrod) from the earliest times since the Flood, and the ruins of Birs Nimrud bear the remains of what is commonly reputed to be the original Tower of Babel The Caspian Sea was once called the Mar de Bachu, or Sea of Bacchus, as is witnessed by the map appearing in Sir Walter Raleigh’s History of the World, published in 1634 One of the chief cities of Assyria was named Nimrud, and the Plain of Shinar, known to the Assyrians as Sen’ar and the site of the Great Rebellion, was itself known as the Land of Nimrod Iraqi and Iranian Arabs still speak his name with awe, and such was the notoriety of the man that his historical reality is beyond dispute (Refs: 1DB:551 NBD 888 JA 1 vi 2 P 1:27)

Mizraim: A collective name, these people settled in Egypt Modern Israelis still use the name for that country; it is preserved as Msrm in the Ugaritic inscriptions; as Misri in the Amarna tablets; and in the Assyrian and Babylonian 4 records as Musur and Musri respectively Modern Arabs still know it as Misr Josephus (rendering the name Mesraites) relates a curious episode that he called the Ethiopic War, incident that was apparently well-known throughout ancient world According to Josephus, some six or sevev nations descended from the Mizraim were destroyed, clearly a major conflict that would have had profound far-reaching repercussions in the world of those times Josephus lists those nations as the Ludim (see 12); the Anamim (see 13); the Lehabim (see 14); the Naphtuhim (see 15); the Pathrusim (see 16); the Cashuhim (see 17); and the Caphtorim (see 19) (Refs: 1DB:409 NBD 833 JA Lvi 2 P 1:27)

Ludim: Seemingly known in later records as the Lubim (which Josephus rendered Ludicim) this people settled on the north coast of Africa and gave their name to the land of Lybia They are known to have provided Egypt on more than one occasion with mercenary troops The records that tell us this give the Ludim’s name as Lebu Otherwise, Josephus records their destruction, or rather defeat, in the Ethiopic War (Refs: 1DB:178-9 NBD 755 JA 1 vi 2 P 1:28)

Anamim: Few occurrences of this name can now be found in the surviving records This may be due to the devastations of the Ethiopic War However, the Assyrian king, Sargon II, does tell us in his inscriptions of the land of the A-na-mi which lay adjacent to that of Kaptara (see 19) Josephus rendered the name Enemim (Refs: 1DB 1:124 JA 1 vi 2 P 1:28)

Lehabim: The Egyptians recorded this name as ‘rbw’, although it is uncertain where they settled Some authorities (including Josephus who renders the name Lybyos) give Lybia (Libya) as their country This people were, however, destroyed in the Ethiopic War (Refs: 1DB:110 NBD 728 JA 1 vi 2 P 1:28)

Naphtuhim: This people are known to have settled in Nile delta and the western parts of Egypt, where early cords refer to them as the p’t’mhw–literally, ‘they of the marshland ‘ Their name also appears as Na-patob-im in the same records Josephus records their destruction in the Ethiopic War (see Map) (Refs: 1DB:510 NBD 865 P 1:28)

Pathrusim: The people of this name migrated to Upper Egypt, where the Egyptians recorded their name as the p’t’r or Ptores The district of Pathros thus bears their name Esarhaddon, king of Assyria from 681-668 BC, records hi conquest of the Paturisi, thus showing that this particular tribe at least were not totally destroyed in the Ethiopic War as asserted by Josephus, who renders the name Phethrosim (Refs IDB:676 NBD 938 JA I vi 2)

Casluhim: The precise whereabouts of their country is uncertain, although the book of Genesis does record that the Philistines came from this people Some cite Crete as their possible place of settlement, which, if true, would make the Ethiopic War of Josephus a truly international conflict, as he records the destruction of the Casluhim in that war This, however, only serves to make Crete a most unlikely place for their settlement, the northern areas of Egypt being a far more reasonable proposition Josephus gives their name as the Chesloim (Refs: 1DB 1:541 NBD 201 JA 1 vi P 1:28)

Philistim: Better known to us as the Philistines, they were known to the Assyrians as the Palashtu and the Pilisti, and to the Greeks as the Palastine–hence the later name of Palestine After the Assyrian conquests of the 8th century BC, the Philistines effectively disappear as a coherent nation It is currently but wrongly believed that the Philistines did not appear until the 13th century BC, and that they are to be identified as the ‘Sea Peoples’ of Egyptian literature But this view is erroneous The Genesis record states emphatically that the Philistim occupied parts of Canaan as early as the time of Abraham, and far from implying that their place of origin was Crete, as currently taught, it is much more likely to have been northern Egypt (Refs: 1DB:791-5 NBD ‘Philistines’ 988-991 JA 1 vi 2 P 1:28)

Caphtorim: Some confusion has reigned in recent years over the question of the geographical location of Caphtorim This is mainly due to modernist efforts to identify Caphtor as Crete This would allow the assertion that the Philistines were the Sea Peoples of the 13th century BC, and that the Genesis record therefore errs when it speaks of the Philistines as the 19th century BC conTemporaries of Abraham In opposition to this view, however, the Genesis record gives the common sense and verifiable place of the Caphtorim’s settlement as Egypt, or Mizraim where the name of the Caphtorim was rendered Keftiu in a record that is conventionally dated to ca 2200 BC Genesis tells us that the Caphtorim were descended from the Mizraim, and, through the absence of any qualifying remarks, leaves us with the strong implication that the Caphtorim therefore dwelt on the mainland of Egypt or North Africa either amongst, or in close proximity to, their forebears the Mizraim Only the descendants of Japheth are said to have occupied the isles of the sea, e g Cyprus or Crete et al, whereas this qualification is entirely absent with either the Semitic or Hamitic race The early Cretans, we know, were not a Hamitic people, but rather were Indo-European in race, language and culture, which confirms their descent from Japheth (and not Ham) as provided in the Genesis account Furthermore, Josephus relates the involvement and subsequent defeat of the Caphtorim (whom he names the Cephtorim) in the Ethiopic War, a conflagration that was confined to the borders of Egypt and Ethiopia, and which did not, as far as we know, involve the isles of the sea Moreover, Jeremiah 47:4 describes the Philistines as the ‘remnant of the country of Caphtor’, thus implying that by his own day the Caphtorim were a depleted nation There is also strong evidence of a direct etymological link between the ai-Kaphtor of the Old Testament and the Aiguptos of Greek literature, Aiguptos being merely the archaic form of the western name for Egypt That Caphtor’s descendants were mainland dwellers is also confirmed in the Assyrian inscriptions in which they are named as the Kaptara; and in the Ugaritic inscriptions as the ‘kptr’ Later, Egyptian records speak of the ‘kftyw’ or Kaphtur, a term that was used in relation to Phoenicia, not Crete Intriguingly, the Septuagint translates the name as Kaphtoriim in Genesis 10:14; whereas in the book of Deuteronomy (2:23) the name is rendered Kappadokes or Cappadocians Likewise, the Latin Vulgate gives the rendering Caphtorim in Genesis 10:14, thus following the original Hebrew; whereas in Deuteronomy 2:23 it follows the Greek Septuagint in the rendering Cappadoces and Cappadocia–Cappadocia, of course, referring to mainland Asia Minor Thus, to identify the Caphtorim as early Cretans is clearly untenable (Refs: 1DB 1:534 NBD 199 JA 1 vi P 1:28)

Put: The country in which the descendants of Put settled is well known to us from Egyptian records, which render the name Put or Punt (Josephus calls it Phut ) It is always spoken of as closely associated with Egypt, and its close geographical proximity to Egypt is confirmed by an inscription from the archives of Darius the Great, king of Persia from 522-486 BC Here the land of Puta is shown as lying in the proximity of Cyrenaica, i e on the North African coast to the west of Egypt This same land was known as Puta to the Babylonians, and as Putiya in the Old Persian inscriptions (Refs: 1DB:971 NBD 1066 JA 1 vi 2 P 1:27)

Canaan: The posterity of Canaan settled in the land that was later to be given to Israel At the time of the Israelite conquest of Canaan, the population consisted of all the tribes descended from Canaan. th Sanchuniathon and Phylo of Byblos confirm the fact that the Canaanites derived their name from their founder The Greeks and Phoenicians rendered the name Kna’an; the Egyptians knew it as Kn’nw and Kyn’nw; the Assyrians rendered the name Kinnahu; and the Hurrians described certain dyed cloths as Kinahne or Canaanite cloth In spite of their Hamitic descent, however, the Canaanites spoke a Semitic language (Refs: 1DB 1:494 NBD 183-6 JA 1 vi 2 P 1:27)

Zidon: He settled, with his descendants, on the Mediterranean coast of Canaan, where his name is still perpetuated in the modern-day city of Sidon Originally known as Zidonians, his posterity were later known as Phoenicians They are known to us from many and various inscriptions of the old world, the Akkadians, for example, rendering the name Sidunu, and the Armana tablets as Sa’idunu Josephus adopted this spelling when he rendered the name Sidonius (Refs: 1DB 4:343-5 NBD ‘Sidon’ 1184-5 JA 1 vi 2 P 1:28)

Heth: Heth was the progenitor of the Hittite nation, whose name was known to the Assyrians as the Khatti

The Hittites were apparently the first nation to smelt iron on any appreciable scale

The Armana tablets contain letters that were sent between the Hittite emperor Subbiluliuma and Amenhotep IV of Egypt Rameses II tells us how he engaged the Hittites in what was the earliest recorded battle involving massed battle chariots

This was the famous battle of Kadesh, and it appears that the Hittites got the better of the Egyptian forces Heth’s name was perpetuated in the Hittite capital of Hattushash, modern Boghazkoy in Turkey (Refs: 1DB 2:597 NBD ‘Hittites’ 528-9 P 1:28)

Jebusite: The posterity of Jebus (whom Josephus knew as Jebuseus) settled in the mountainous regions of Judea where, due to their strong and natural fortifications they were able to withstand the armies of Israel

The chief city of the Jebusites came later to be known as Jerusalem, the Urusalimmu of the Armana tablets (Refs: (1DB 2:807 NBD 601-2 JA l vi 2 P 1:28)

Amorite: Known to the Sumerians as the Martu, and to the Akkadians as the Ammurru, this people settled in the land of Canaan They appear to have initially adopted a nomadic way of life, although they were soon to organise themselves into a very powerul and aggressive nation

Indeed, the Amorites later came to conquer Babylonia, subsequently producing one the most famous of Babylonian kings, Hammurabi, whose name perpetuates the designation Annurru Josephus the name as Amorreus (see Map 4) (Refs: 1DB 1:115 NBD1-2 JA l vi 2 P 1:28)

Girgashite: The name of the Girgashites has been discovered in the Ugaritic inscriptions as ‘grgs’ and ‘bngrgs’, in other words Girgash and the sons of Girgash They are also known to us in Hittite documents as the Karkisa or Qaraqisha; and in Egyptian records as the Kirkash

They settled to the east of the river Jordan, between Galilee and the Dead Sea, and their descendants are probably to be identified with the Gadarenes of the NT Josephus rendered the name Gergesus (Refs: 1DB 2:399 NBD 471 JA 1 vi 2 P 1:28)

Hivite: Known to the ancient Greeks as the Heuaios, and to Josephus as Eueus, this people moved from Canaan to the foothills of Lebanon during the Israelite conquest under Joshua King Solomon was later to use Hivites as builders (see Map 4) (Refs: 1DB 2:615 NBD 529 JA l vi 2 P 1:28)

Arkite: This people come to our notice in the inscriptions of Shalmaneser II and Tiglath-pileser III, both kings of Assyria, and both of whom describe the Arkites as ‘rebellious’

The Arkites were known also to the Egyptians and are mentioned in the Armana tablets as the Irkata

They were known for their worship of Astarte Their city is known to this day as Tell-Arqa, a place known to Thutmose III of Egypt as Arkantu Josephus calls it Arucas, and it was known to the Romans as Caesari Libani (Refs: 1DB 1:226 NBD 82 JA 1 vi 2 P 1:28)

Sinite: The name of this people is still to be found in the modern-day towns of Nahr as-Sinn and Sinn addarb, which are both in close proximity to Arqa (see 28) The Phoenicians knew the Sinites as the Usnu; the Assyrians called them the Usana and Siannu; and the Ugaritic tablets refer to them as the ‘sn’ Strabo called their town Sinna, and Heironymous rendered it civitas Sini (which Josephus gave as Sineus), (Refs: 1DB 4:379 NBD 1194 JA l vi P 1:28)

Arvadite: This people settled on the island that bore their founder’s name, Arvad

Today it is called Ruad and lies north of the bay of Tripoli about two miles out to sea The Arvadites were famed in the old world for their skilful seamanship, drawing for this even the grudging admiration of the Assyrians

Later, the Arvadites were to play an important part in the conquests of Alexander the Great

The Arvadites were known in the Armana tablets as the Arwada, to the Akkadians as the Aruda, and the Armana tablets as Aruadi Josephus renders the name Arudeus (Refs: 1DB 1:242 NBD 93 JAl vi 2 P 1:28)

Zemarite: The posterity of Zemar were known to the Assyrians as the Simirra, and to the Egyptians as the Sumur The name is still perpetuated in the modern city of Sumra, just north of Tripoli (Refs: 1DB 4:950 NBD 1357-8 P 1:28)

Hamathite: The city where this people settled lay on the Orontes, and was named after their forebear, Hamath Sargon II of Assyria tells us how he conquered the city, and it was at Hamath that Nebuchadnezzar defeated the Egyptian armies in 605 BC

The city was known to the Akkadians as Amatu, to the Egyptians as Hmtu, and to the Arabs as Hamat The Greeks and Romans subsequently knew the city as Epiphaneia, although today it has reverted to its ancient name, Hamah In 853 BC the men of Hamath were able to successfully defeat Assyrian advances in the west by mobilizing an army of no less than 63,000 foot soldiers, 2,000 light horsemen, 4,000 battle chariots and 1,000 camels This is the Assyrian estimate of their forces, not an exaggerated Hamathite boast! (Refs: 1DB 2:516 NBD 501 P 1:28)

Of the wind Colpias, and his wife Baau, which is interpreted Night, were begotten two mortal men, Æon and Protogonus so called: and Æon discovered food from trees

The immediate descendants of these were called Genus and Genea, and they dwelt in Phœnicia: and when there were great droughts they stretched forth their hands to heaven towards the Sun; for him they supposed to be God, the only lord of heaven, calling him Beelsamin, which in the Phœnician dialect signifies Lord of Heaven, but among the Greeks is equivalent to Zeus

Afterwards by Genus the son of Æon and Protogonus were begotten mortal children, whose names were Phôs, Pûr, and Phlox These found out the method of producing fire by rubbing pieces of wood against each other, and taught men the use thereof

These begat sons of vast bulk and height, whose names were conferred upon the mountains which they occupied: thus from them Cassius, and Libanus, and Antilibanus, and Brathu received their names Memrumus and Hypsuranius were the issue of these men by connexion with their mothers; the women of those times, without shame, having intercourse with any men whom they might chance to meet Hypsuranius inhabited Tyre: and he invented huts constructed of reeds and rushes, and the papyrus

And he fell into enmity with his brother Usous, who was the inventor of clothing for the body which he made of the skins of the wild beasts which he could catch

And when there were violent storms of rain and wind, the trees about Tyre being rubbed against each other, took fire, and all the forest in the neighbourhood was consumed

And Usous having taken a tree, and broken off its boughs, was the first who dared to venture on the sea

And he consecrated two pillars to Fire and Wind, and worshipped them, and poured out upon them the blood of the wild beasts he took in hunting: and when these men were dead, those that remained consecrated to them rods, and worshipped the pillars, and held anniversary feasts in honour of them

And in times long subsequent to these; were born of the race of Hypsuranius, Agreus and Halieus, the inventors of the arts of hunting and fishing, from whom huntsmen and fishermen derive their names Of these were begotten two brothers who discovered iron, and the forging thereof

One of these called Chrysor, who is the same with Hephæstus, exercised himself in words, and charms and divinations; and he invented the hook, and the bait, and the fishing-line, and boats of a light construction; he was the first of all men that sailed

Wherefore he was worshipped after his death as a God, under the name of Diamichius

And it is said that his brothers invented the art of building walls with bricks

Afterwards, of this race were born two youths, one of whom was called Technites, and the other was called Geïnus Autochthôn

These discovered the method of mingling stubble with the loam of bricks, and of baking them in the sun; they were also the inventors of tiling

By these were begotten others, of whom one was named Agrus, the other Agrouerus or Agrotes, of whom in Phœnicia there was a statue held in the highest veneration, and a Temple drawn by yokes of oxen: and at Byblus he is called, by way of eminence, the greatest of the Gods

These added to the houses, courts and porticos and crypts: husbandmen, and such as hunt with dogs, derive their origin from these: they are called also Aletæ, and Titans

From these were descended Amynus and Magus, who taught men to construct villages and tend flocks

By these men were begotten Misor and Sydyc, that is, Well-freed and Just: and they found out the use of salt

From Misor descended Taautus, who invented the writing of the first letters: him the Egyptians called Thoor, the Alexandrians Thoyth, and the Greeks Hermes

But from Sydyc descended the Dioscuri, or Cabiri, or Corybantes, or Samothraces: these (he says) first built a ship complete
From these descended others. Contemporary with these was one Elioun, called Hypsistus, (the most high); and his wife named Beruth, and they dwelt about Byblus

By these was begotten Epigeus or Autochthon, whom they afterwards called Ouranus (Heaven); so that from him that element, which is over us, by reason of its excellent beauty is named heaven: and he had a sister of the same parents, and she was called Ge (Earth), and by reason of her beauty the earth was called by the same name Hypsistus, the father of these, having been killed in a conflict with wild beasts, was consecrated, and his children offered libations and sacrifices unto him

But Ouranus, succeeding to the kingdom of his father, contracted a marriage with his sister Ge, and had by her four sons, Ilus who is called Cronus, and Betylus, and Dagon, which signifies Siton (Bread-corn,) and Atlas

But by other wives Ouranus had much issue; at which Ge, being vexed and jealous of Ouranus, reproached him so that they parted from each other: nevertheless Ouranus returned to her, again by force whenever he thought proper, and having laid with her, again departed: he attempted also to kill the children whom he had by her; but Ge often defended herself with the assistance of auxiliary powers

But when Cronus arrived at man’s estate, acting by the advice and with the assistance of Hermes Trismegistus, who was his secretary, he opposed himself to his father Ouranus, that he might avenge the indignities which had been offered to his mother

And to Cronus were born children, Persephone and Athena; the former of whom died a virgin; but, by the advice of Athena and Hermes, Cronus made a scimitar and a spear of iron

Then Hermes addressed the allies of Cronus with magic words, and wrought in them a keen desire to make war against Ouranus in behalf of Ge

And Cronus having thus overcome Ouranus in battle, drove him from his kingdom, and succeeded him in the imperial power In the battle was taken a well-beloved concubine of Ouranus who was pregnant; and Cronus bestowed her in marriage upon Dagon, and, whilst she was with him, she was delivered of the child which she had conceived by Ouranus, and called his name Demarous
After these events Cronus surrounded his habitation with a wall, and founded Byblus, the first city of Phœnicia

Afterwards Cronus having coneived a suspicion of his own brother Atlas, by the advice of Hermes, threw him into a deep cavern in the earth, and buried him

At this time the descendants of the Dioscuri, having built some light and other more complete ships, put to sea; and being cast away over against Mount Cassius, there consecrated a Temple
But the auxiliaries of Ilus, who is Cronus, were called Eloeim, as it were, the allies of Cronus; being so called after Cronus And Cronus, having a son called Sadidus, dispatched him with his own sword, because he held him in suspicion, and with his own hand deprived his child of life

And in like manner he cut off the head of his own daughter, so that all the gods were astonished at the disposition of Cronus

But in process of time, whilst Ouranus was still in banishment, he sent his daughter Astarte, being a virgin, with two other of her sisters, Rhea and Dione, to cut off Cronus by treachery; but Cronus took the damsels, and married them notwithstanding they were his own sisters

When Ouranus understood this, he sent Eimarmene and Mora with other auxiliaries to make war against Cronus: but Cronus gained the affections of these also, and detained them with himself

Moreover, the god Ouranus devised Bætulia, contriving stones that moved as having life And by Astarte Cronus had seven daughters called Titanides, or ArTumides; by Rhea also he had seven sons, the youngest of whom was consecrated from his birth; also by Dione he had daughters; and by Astarte again he had two other sons, Pothos and Eros

And Dagon, after he had found out bread-corn, and the plough, was called Zeus Arotrius To Sydyc, who was called the just, one of the Titanides bare Asclepius: and to Cronus there were born also in Peræa three sons, Cronus bearing the same name with his father, and Zeus Belus, and Apollo

ConTemporary with these were Pontus, and Typhon, and Nereus the father of Pontus: from Pontus descended Sidon, who by the excellence of her singing first invented the hymns of odes or praises: and Poseidon But to Demarous was born Melicarthus, who is also called Heracles Ouranus then made war against Pontus, but afterwards relinquishing the attack he attached himself to Demarous, when Demarous invaded Pontus: but Pontus put him to flight, and Demarous vowed a sacrifice for his escape

In the thirty-second year of his power and reign, Ilus, who is Cronus, having laid an ambuscade for his father Ouranus in a certain place situated in the middle of the earth, when he had got him into his hands dismembered him over against the fountains and rivers
There Ouranus was consecrated, and his spirit was separated, and the blood of his parts flowed into the fountains and the waters of the rivers; and the place, which was the scene of this transaction, is shewed even to this day (Then our historian, after some other things, goes on thus:)

But Astarte called the greatest, and Demarous named Zeus, and Adodus who is entitled the king of gods, reigned over the country by the consent of Cronus: and Astarte put upon her head, as the mark of her sovereignty, a bull’s head: and travelling about the habitable world, she found a star falling through the air, which she took up, and consecrated in the holy island of Tyre: and the Phœnicians say that Astarte is the same as Aphrodite

Moreover, Cronus visiting the different regions of habitable world, gave to his daughter Athena the kingdom of Attica: and when there happened a plague with a great mortality, Cronus offered up his only begotten son as a sacrifice to his father Ouranus, and circumcised himself, and compelled his allies to do the same: and not long afterwards he consecrated after his death another of his sons, called Muth, whom he had by Rhea; this (Muth) the Phœnicians esteem the same as Death and Pluto

After these things, Cronus gave the city of Byblus to the goddess Baaltis, which is Dione, and Berytus to Poseidon, and to the Caberi who were husbandmen and fishermen: and they consecrated the remains of Pontus at Berytus

But before these things the god Taautus, having pourtrayed Ouranus, represented also the countenances of the gods Cronus, and Dagon, and the sacred characters of the elements

He contrived also for Cronus the ensign of his royal power, having four eyes in the parts before and in the parts behind, two of them closing as in sleep; and upon the shoulders four wings, two in the act of flying, and two reposing as at rest

And the symbol was, that Cronus whilst he slept was watching, and reposed whilst he was awake And in like manner with respect to the wings, that he was flying whilst he rested, yet rested whilst he flew

But for the other gods there were two wings only to each upon his shoulders, to intimate that they flew under the controul of Cronus; and there were also two wings upon the head, the one as a symbol of the intellectual part, the mind, and the other for the senses

And Cronus visiting the country of the south, gave all Egypt to the god Taautus, that it might be his kingdom

These things, says he, the Caberi, the seven sons of Sydyc, and their eighth brother Asclepius, first of all set down in the records in obedience to the commands of the god Taautus

All these things the son of Thabion, the first Hierophant of all among the Phœnicians, allegorized and mixed up with the occurrences and accidents of nature and the world, and delivered to the priests and prophets, the superintendants of the mysteries: and they, perceiving the rage for these allegories increase, delivered them to their successors, and to foreigners: of whom one was Isiris, the inventor of the three letters, the brother of Chna who; is called the first Phœnician –Euseb Præp Evan lib I c 10

Virgil calls Carthage the city of Agenor, by which he alludes to the descent of Dido from Agenor German philologist Philipp Karl Buttmann points out that the genuine Phoenician name of Agenor was Chnas or Khna, which is the same as Canaan, and upon these facts he builds the hypothesis that Agenor or Chnas is the same as the Canaan in the books of Moses Quintus Curtius Rufus considered Agenor to have been the founder of Sidon, and he was also popularly supposed to have introduced the Phoenician alphabet, which was later taught by Cadmus to the Greeks and became the foundation of their own writing system

Phoenician Influence in the Mediterranean Phoenician culture had a huge effect upon the cultures of the Mediterranean basin in the early Iron Age

For example, in Greece, the tripartite division between Zeus, Hades and Poseidon, seems to have been influenced by the Phoenician division between Baal, Mot and Yam Stories like the Rape of Europa, and the coming of Cadmus also draw upon Phoenician influence

The recovery of the Mediterranean economy after the late Bronze Age collapse, seems to have been largely due to the work of Phoenician traders and merchant princes, who re-established long distance trade between Egypt and Mesopotamia in the 10th century BC

Phoenician motifs are also present in the Orientalising period of Greek art, and Phoenicians also played a formative role in Etruscan civilisation in Tuscany Phoenician Temples in various Mediterranean ports sacred to Phoenician Melkart, during the classical period, were recognised as sacred to Hercules

The Ionian revolution was led by philosophers such as Thales of Miletus or Pythagoras, both of whom had Phoenician fathers

Phoenicians in the Bible Hiram (also spelled Huran) associated with the building of the Temple ” 2Ch 2:14–The son of a woman of the daughters of Dan, and his father [was] a man of Tyre, skilful to work in gold, and in silver, in brass, in iron, in stone, and in timber, in purple, in blue, and in fine linen, and in crimson; also to grave any manner of graving, and to find out every device which shall be put to him ”

This is the architect of the Temple, Hiram Abiff of Masonic lore They are vastly famous for their purple dye Later, reforming prophets railed against the practice of drawing royal wives from among foreigners: Elijah execrated Jezebel, the princess from Tyre who became a consort of King Ahab and introduced the worship of her gods Long after Phoenician culture had flourished, or Phoenicia had existed as any political entity, Hellenized natives of the region where Canaanites still lived were referred to as “Syro-Phoenician”, as in the Gospel of Mark 7:26: “The woman was a Greek, a Syrophoenician by birth ”

The word Bible itself ultimately derives through Greek from the word Byblos which means Book, and not from the Hellenised Phoenician city of Byblos (which was called Gebal), before it was named by the Greeks as Byblos

The Greeks called it Byblos because it was through Gebal that bublos (B ß [“Egyptian papyrus”]) was imported into Greece Present day Byblos is under the current Arabic name of Jbeil ( Gubayl) derived from Gebal

There are some who use the Bible for genealogical reference and actually believe Biblical characters such as Noah, Shem, Ham etc really existed and thereafter the Semites came from Shem and the Hamites from Ham etc
These claims are categorically rejected and have no basis in purely scientific genealogical studies of ethnic origins of races Ethnic Origin and Language

There speculations that the Phoenicians were the ancestors of the Celts who displaced the Picts According to Irish records, they descend from a Scythian King named Phoeniusa Farsa according to the Irish this kings’ descendents eventually populated the country of Phoenicia and named the country in his honor Phoeniusa son; other studies trace their origin to a very distant past in India 10,000 B C where they were closely associated with the Aryans

There is a controversial study by Rajeswar Gupta is published in full as originally translated from Bengali in 1902 It is based on the ancient Rig Veda and puts forth the following suggestions regarding the origin of the Phoenicians:

1 A great war broke out in the remote old days (maybe 10,000 B C ) between the Indian Aryans and the Phoenicians in which the latter were defeated and compelled to leave wholly or partially the land of the Aryans

2 The Phoenicians were the first of the civilized nations of the world The civilization of Assyria, Babylonia, Egypt, Greece and other ancient countries owed its origin to the union of the civilization of the Aryans with that of the Phoenicians

3 The Phoenicians originally lived in some part of India, whence driven out they migrated gradually westwards While still residing in the neighborhood of India they colonized and traded with Arabia and the countries bordering on the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea 4

The Phoenicians had colonies in many countries from each of which they were driven away by the natives after severe struggles In this way they were expelled from India, Egypt, Greece, and Rome, or they mixed with the natives when they lost their supremacy in those countries 5 In ancient time the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea were connected together by a strait through which the Phoenician and Aryan trading ships entered the Mediterranean Sea and Indian goods were taken to Europe

As that passage gradually silted up the connection between India and Europe broke off It must be noted that historians and archaeologist do theorize about supposed various origins of the Phoenicians with little hard evidence and one is left with nothing more than mere hypotheses

The Phoenician, as a people, even though they may come from Semitic origin or from India, did not survive the ages as an ethnically pure race Invading Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonian, Hittites, Persians, Macedonians, Greeks, and Romans, in addition to many others, added genetic material and culture to the Phoenicians

They in turn through their trade and frequent contact with cultures and races of the Mediterranean world added new dimensions to their stock from lands as close as Cyprus or as far as Spain or even Britain A form of Aramaic was the language of the Phoenicians

It was a Semitic language of the Northern Central, or Northwestern, group that was originally spoken in Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, and neighboring towns and in other areas of the Mediterranean colonized by Phoenician people known as Aramaeans

It was most closely related to Hebrew, Syriac, and Moabite which were written in a script derived from the Phoenician alphabet The earliest Phoenician inscription deciphered dates probably from the 11th century BC; the latest inscription from Phoenicia proper is from the 1st century BC, when the language was already being superseded by Aramaic proper

They are part of the full service in Aramaic which was held in Maalula, Syria (a town which were Aramaic is still spoken today), 1994, for the first time in00 years

The Melkite Greek Catholic Patriachal Office of the Cathechism holds the copyright and is indebted for providing this rare service In addition to being used in Phoenicia, the language spread to many of its colonies In one, the North African city of Carthage, a later stage of the language, known as Pun which was influenced by the Barber, became the language of the Carthaginian empire Phoencian survived in use as a vernacular in some of the smaller cities of North Africa at least until the time of St Augustine, bishop of Hippo (5th century AD) and continued to be used by North African peasants until the 6th century AD Phoenician words are found in Greek and Latin classical literature as well as in Egyptian, Akkadian, and Hebrew writings The language is written with a 22-character alphabet that does not indicate vowels The Byblos Syllabic texts is the earliest known example of mixing a Semitic language with modified Egyptian hieroglyphic characters It appeared as an inscriptions (eighteenth century B C ), from the city of Byblos on the Phoenician coast

This script is described as a “syllabary [that] is clearly inspired by the Egyptian hieroglyphic system, and in fact is the most important link known between the hieroglyphs and the Canaanite alphabet ”

During the period of the Roman Empire the native Phoenician language died out and was replaced by Aramaic as the vernacular Latin, the language of the soldiers and administrators, in turn fell before Greek, the language of letters of the eastern Mediterranean, by the 5th century AD

Zechariah 4:7, seems to refer to this hill, but is also ambiguous, depending on the punctuation In Hebrew it reads “Mi attah Har-haGadol lifnei Zerubbabel l’mishor “; the plain text has no punctuation, but the Masoretic text puts a pause following Har-haGadol, to mean “What are you, great mountain

Before Zerubbabel, [you will become just] a plain ” However, if the pause is placed following Zerubbabel, it would mean instead “What are you, “great mountain” before Zerubbabel [You are just] a plain ” Since this hill is where Zerubbabel built the Second Temple, it appears to be a reference to the “Daughter of Zion” (the hill), as distinct from Zion (the mountain)

This article is about Typhon in Greek mythology, for other uses see Typhon (disambiguation) In Greek mythology, Typhon (ancient Greek: f ), also Typhoeus ( f e ), Typhaon ( f ) or Typhos ( f ) is the final son of Gaia, with Tartarus and is the god of wind Typhon attempts to replace Zeus as the king of gods and men Typhon was described as the largest and most grotesque of all creatures that have ever lived, having a hundred serpent heads

He was defeated by Zeus who crushed Mount Etna on him Hesiod narrates Typhon’s birth: But when Zeus had driven the Titans from Olympus, mother Earth bare her youngest child Typhoeus of the love of Tartarus, by the aid of golden Aphrodite –Hesiod, Theogony 820-822 In the alternative account of the origin of Typhon (Typheous), the Homeric Hymn to Apollo makes the monster Typhaon at Delphi a son of archaic Hera in her Minoan form, produced out of herself, like a monstrous version of Hephaestus, and whelped in a cave in Cilicia and confined there in the enigmatic land of the Arimi– en Arimois (Iliad, ii 781-783) It was in Cilicia that Zeus battled with the ancient monster and overcame him, in a more complicated story:

It was not an easy battle, and Typhon temporarily overcame Zeus, cut the “sinews” from him and left him in the “leather sack”, the korukos that is the etymological origin of the korukion andron, the Korykian or Corycian Cave in which Zeus suffers Temporary eclipse as if in the Land of the Dead

The region of Cilicia in southeastern Anatolia had many opportunities for coastal Hellenes’ connection with the Hittites to the north

From the first reappearance of the Hittite myth of Illuyankas, it has been seen as a prototype of the battle of Zeus and Typhon Walter Burkert and Calvert Watkins each note the close agreements Watkins’ How to Kill a Dragon:

Aspects of Indo-European Poetics (Oxford University Press) 1995, reconstructs in disciplined detail the flexible Indo-European poetic formula that underlies myth, epic and magical charm texts of the lashing and binding of Typhon

The inveterate enemy of the Olympian gods is described in detail by Hesiod as a vast grisly monster with a hundred serpent heads “with dark flickering tongues” flashing fire from their eyes and a din of voices and a hundred serpents legs, a feature shared by many primal monsters of Greek myth that extend in serpentine or scaly coils from the waist down The titanic struggle created earthquakes and tsunamis

Once conquered by Zeus’ thunderbolts, Typhon was cast into Tartarus, the common destiny of many such archaic adversaries, or he was confined beneath Mount Aetna, also known as Mount Etna, (Pindar, Pythian Ode 1 19 – 20; Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound70), where “his bed scratches and goads the whole length of his back stretched out against it,” or in other volcanic regions, where he is the cause of eruptions Typhon is thus the chthonic figuration of volcanic forces, as Hephaestus (Roman Vulcan) is their “civilized” Olympian manifestation

Amongst his children by Echidna are Cerberus, the serpent-like Lernaean Hydra, the Chimera, the hundred-headed dragon Ladon, the half-woman half-lion Sphinx, the two-headed wolf Orthus, Ethon the eagle who tormented Prometheus, and the Nemean Lion Typhon is also the father of hot dangerous storm winds which issue forth from the stormy pit of Tartarus, according to Hesiod

His name is apparently derived from the Greek “typhein”, to smoke, hence it is considered to be a possible etymology for the word typhoon, supposedly borrowed by the Persians (as Tufân) and Arabs to describe the cyclonic storms of the Indian Ocean The Greeks also frequently represented him as a storm-daemon, especially in the version where he stole Zeus’s thunderbolts and wrecked the earth with storms (cf Hesiod, Theogony; Nonnus, Dionysiaca)

Since Herodotus, Typhon has been identified with the Egyptian Set (interpretatio Graeca) In the Orphic tradition, Typhon leads the Titans when they attack and kill Dionysus, just as Set is responsible for the murder of Osiris

Furthermore, the slaying of Typhon by Zeus bears similarities to the killing of Vritra by Indra(a deity also associated lightning and storms), and possibly the two stories are ultimately derived from a common Indo-European source

Cronus daughter is Athena Belus, Baal, Rephas, Chiun, Ham [adam to ham 11 generations protogonus to Cronus 11 generations] from Keren [king] Cronos Uranos [father] = Noah bochart says Cronus is noah

Belus Canaan / Mizraim [Zeus] 400yrs after flood
Phoenicians Coum [Cush] whom the Greeks call Asbolos, the father of Ethiopes Meitraim the father of the Egyptians Apollo [Carneus]
Sydyc married Cronus daughter > Cabiri, asclepius
Thoth [son of misor] made king by Cronus

Cronos in the Sibylline Oracles, particularly book three, which makes Cronos, ‘Titan’ and Iapetus, the three sons of Ouranos and Gaia, each to receive a third division of the Earth, and Cronos is made king over all After the death of Ouranos, Titan’s sons attempt to destroy Cronos’ and Rhea’s male offspring as soon as they are born, but at Dodona, Rhea secretly bears her sons Zeus, Poseidon and Hades and sends them to Phrygia to be raised in the care of three Cretans Upon learning this, sixty of Titan’s men then imprison Cronos and Rhea, causing the sons of Cronos to declare and fight the first of all wars against them

The Phoenician Cronus = Ham The account ascribed by Eusebius to the semi-legendary pre-Trojan War Phoenician historian, Sanchuniathon, indicates that Cronus was originally a Canaanite ruler who founded Byblos and was subsequently deified

This version gives his alternate name as Elus or Ilus, and states that in the2nd year of his reign, he emasculated, slew and deified his father Epigeius or Autochthon “whom they afterwards called Uranus” It further states that after ships were invented, Cronos, visiting the ‘inhabitable world’, bequeathed Attica to his own daughter Athena, and Egypt to Thoth the son of Misor and inventor of writing

One of the earliest Greek writings was a composition written by a Phoenician named Sanchoniathon His work preceded that of Homer, but how long before no one knows

In it Sanchoniathon described the origin of the major gods and goddesses — and that many of them were once humans who lived on the earth and were later, after their deaths, deified and sent into the starry heavens Sanchoniathon’s main interest was in the early Phoenician deities

His account is important to biblical students because the Phoenicians lived next door to the Israelites of Palestine

And what is interesting, he records events about the pagan gods which occurred in the biblical areas, and he mentions deities that the later Greeks and Romans adopted into their own pantheons

Remarkably, some of those early pagan gods and goddesses are none other than people of the Bible that God dealt with in a personal way in the patriarchal period Take for example the ancient pagan god Cronus

This early Phoenician author Sanchoniathon states that Cronus went about the world establishing settlements and colonies

He gave the best part of Greece to his daughter Athena But he did more than that Sanchoniathon said, “Cronus offered up his only son as a sacrifice and circumcised himself, and forced his allies to do the same ”

This account is so reminiscent of the chief events in the life of Abraham that there can be little doubt that the pagan Cronus was none other than a mixed-up version of Abraham — the father of the faithful!

And recall, Abraham sent the twelve children of Ishmael into the areas south and east of Palestine, and his six sons of Keturah into the east country to settle and colonize those areas (Genesis 25:1-18)

The Phoenicians knew that Cronus did the same thing but they had some of his descendants going into Greek areas

The offspring of Cronus went to Crete, from thence to Troy (some of them), and all over Greece Many of these stories are vague (often being mixed-up tales) but remnants of truths can be seen here and there within them

It may be astonishing to realize, but the historical Zeus (one of the major gods of the Greeks and the Romans) was none other than a literal descendant of Abraham who went to Crete and established a kingdom for himself

The fact is, God told Abraham that he was to become a “father of many nations” (not only of the Jews and Israelites), and that many famous kings of the world would issue forth from him (Genesis 17:4-6) It can be shown from history that some of the later Parthian kings, who were the chief adversaries of the Roman Empire in the time of Christ, were descendants of Abraham 5

Indeed, even the Austrian Chronicle (which has a confused history of peoples who first lived in the Danube valley region) says that an Abraham had a prime influence in the early colonization of that area

It was common for pagans to call Abraham by various names, but the Phoenician name was Cronus, the god who controlled time!

As for Cronus, he was often confused with other historical beings, but his Abrahamic connection is clear Sanchoniathon 6 gives evidence to further substantiate this “For Cronus, whom the Phoenicians call Il [the word “Il” is phonetically the Semitic “God” or sometime “Bull”] a man who after his death was deified and instated in the planet which now bears his name ”

The particular planet that the Phoenicians called “Cronus” was the one the Romans referred to as “Cronos ” It was well known that the day of Cronos was Saturday (the weekly Sabbath of the Jews) And note this Sanchoniathon went on in his description of Cronus by saying that one of his sons was called Ieoud — clearly a corrupt take-off on the Israelitish tribe of “Judah ”

There can be little doubt that Cronus (the god of time) was basically the biblical Abraham (with elements of Shem thrown in) Since Abraham was given promises by God to last throughout time, he was designated as the one who best governed time

What the heathen did was to elaborate the account of Abraham in the biblical history by adding new and erroneous information

In most of the later pagan myths one could hardly find the actual Abraham in the tales of Cronus as shown by the Greeks, Phoenicians, and Romans, just as today it is difficult for us to find Ruth and Boaz in the story of Cinderella, but there is little doubt that the original Cinderella was the biblical Ruth Abraham is not the only biblical person found in the early mythical stories of the Phoenicians and Greeks

The patriarchs Jacob and his brother Esau are prominently featured Sanchoniathon said that a man by the name of Hypsuranius (a name signifying High-Heaven) took up an abode in the city of Tyre ”

And he fell into enmity with his brother Usous, who first made clothing for the body of the skins of the wild beasts which he could catch ”

It is plain that this Usous of the Phoenicians is the biblical “Esau” — the brother of Jacob Note that the Bible says that Esau was a hairy man (like that of an animal), and that Jacob received the blessings and birthright of Esau by deceiving his father by putting on animal skins (Genesis 27) Even the prestigious Dictionary of Religion and Ethics (vol XI p 179) states that there is no question but that this Usous within the Phoenician pantheon was the biblical “Esau ” Sanchoniathon said that the god Usous (Esau) was the one who taught the Phoenicians the art of ship-building and navigation The other name for Esau was Edom (meaning “Red”)

The Greek name for “Red” was Erythras, and it was recognized in ancient times that a King Erythras was one who made sailing vessels 7 The Red Sea near Egypt and also the arm of the Indian Ocean called the Persian Gulf was named after this King Erythras (Edom) Usous was the one who inspired the Phoenicians on the Mediterranean to do the same

Really, both were the same man! Jewish beliefs also thought that Esau helped to colonize Tyre and that his descendants became some of the Phoenicians who settled North Africa and parts of Spain 8 As a matter of interest, the Jews in the time of Christ (and later) said that the aristocratic Romans who came to Italy from the ruins of the Trojan War were Edomites from Esau

There may be some truth to this One of the principal tribes that helped defend Troy (the supposed homeland of the original Romans) was the Paiones who came from the Strymon River region of Macedonia (Iliad 2 99) Herodotus called these people the Syro-Paiones (History 5 15) and Plutarch (De Fluv 11) said the Strymon River was Pestinian

This seems to show that people from Palestine (Syria, to the Greeks) were in Macedonia Another name for these people was the Odomantoi (Edomites ) Amazingly, Aristophanes (The Acharnians, 157) said these people practiced circumcision, and an early commentator to Aristophanes said they thought themselves to be kin to the Jews

Whatever the case, it is clear that people from Palestine colonized a lot of the western and northern areas of the Mediterranean and that the early traditions attest that Esau (Edom) was among the ones who went in that direction

For certain, we can know that Usous (Esau) was one of the prime gods of the ancient Phoenicians

What must be realized is the fact that many of the pagan deities were actually people within the early biblical period who often had special spiritual experiences in their lives that had profound effects upon society at the time

These individuals were finally deified after their deaths

Later people added many fallacious accounts to the history of their lives so that if Abraham, Jacob, Esau, Joseph, Samson, Ruth, Boaz, etc , could come back to life and witness what later interpreters said they did, they would be astonished and no doubt disappointed
Sanchoniathon He mentions that one of the major gods of the Phoenicians was Ouranus

This deity was the first one who constructed stones that were looked on later as having life in themselves — in other words, he was the one who originated an idolatry based on pillars or stones Here is how Sanchoniathon put it, ”

Moreover, the god Ouranus devised Baetulia, these are the contriving stones that move as having life ”

The word “Baetulia” is a clear reference to “Bethel” — the place where Jacob first raised up a memorial pillar stone Really, the god Ouranus and teachings about him are a corruption of Jacob and some events associated with his life

The word Ouranus means “Heaven” and is a part of the name Hypsuranus (High-Heaven) who had a brother by the name of Usous (Esau)

Though the early Phoenician stories are much confused, as are all fairy tales and myths that arose in times of illiteracy, Ouranus (Heaven) is a Phoenician reference to Jacob He was called “Heaven” by the pagans because he was the first man in history to see “the Gate of Heaven” (Genesis 28:17)

It was Jacob who dreamed and beheld “a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven: and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it” (Genesis 28:11) Jacob was terrified at what he saw ”

And he was afraid, and said, ‘How dreadful is this place! this is none other than the house of God [that is, Bethel], and this is the Gate of Heaven ‘” Genesis 28:17 What did Jacob do as a result of seeing heaven opened and the entrance to the heavenly abode of God displayed in front of him

He decided to set up the stone pillar on which he had lain his head (which was probably, in this case, a rectangular stone that was once a part of a building from the ruined city of Luz — the site where he had been sleeping ) “And Jacob rose up in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a PILLAR, and poured oil upon the top of it

And he called the name of that place Bethel: but the name of that city was called Luz at the first “Genesis 28:18-19 This event, believe it or not, was the excuse for later pagans to commence their use of stone pillars (in the form of images, etc ) in an idolatrous way

It is NOT that Jacob himself began the nonsense, but this occasion was reckoned by later people as so profound in the history of religion, that they imagined that the heavens themselves opened their doors and the gods descended down the ladder directly into the stone itself This made the pillar a “live” or “spirit-filled” stone

The heathen began to call this pillar stone (and all such stones like it) “Bethel stones” — or in the Greek language Baetulia or Baetylus There came to be thousands of these Bethel-stones raised up in various parts of the world Note what the Enyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed ) has to say under the article titled “Baetylus,” “Baetylus (Greek), a word of Semitic origin that means Bethel and denoting a sacred stone, which was supposed to be endowed with life

These fetish objects of worship were meteoric stones, which were dedicated to the gods or reserved as symbols of the gods themselves (Pliny, Nat Hist xvii 9; Photius, Cod 242) In Greek mythology the term specially applied to the stone supposed to have been swallowed by Cronus This stone was carefully preserved at Delphi, anointed with oil every day [italics mine — this is exactly what Jacob did to the first Bethel-stone] and on festal occasions covered with raw wool (Pausanias x 24) [to put on rough wool, or a wool garment, was like Esau who was covered with hair It supposedly represented the prophetic office — see Zechariah 13:4] In the Phoenician mythology, one of the sons of Uranus [Jacob, who supposedly initiated the use of Bethelstones] is named Baetylus Another famous stone was the effigy of Rhea Cybele, the holy stone of Pessinus, black and of irregular form, which was brought to Rome in 204 B C and placed in the mouth of the statue of the goddess In some cases an attempt was made to give a more regular form to the original shapeless stone: thus Apollo Agyieus was represented by a conical pillar with pointed end, Zeus Melichius in the form of a pyramid Other famous baetylic idols were those in the Temples of Zeus Teleios at Tegea Even in the declining years of paganism, these idols still retained their significance, as is shown by the attacks upon them by ecclesiastical writers ”
“Baetylus,” Enyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed ) vol pp 191-192 The truth is, there came to be thousands of these Bethelstones scattered around the world There were many of them in Ireland and Scotland In fact, some people claim the rectangular stone which is under the throne of England is the actual stone that Jacob anointed back at Bethel 11 What nonsense! That type of red sandstone is not found anywhere near Bethel in Palestine (but is found in abundance around Dunstaffnage in Western Scotland) And just because the stone very early had the name “Bethel” associated with it is no proof whatever that it was Jacob’s actual pillow stone which he set up as a pillar This is especially so because there were thousands of such Bethel-stones in the various Temples and shrines of the pagans It may be surprising but the first use of tombstones (by the early heathen) was a take-off on these Bethel-stones “There is reason to think that baetyls originated upright tombstones, which from being at first Divine or ghostly dwelling places became merely commemorative in a late age ”
Dictionary of Religion and Ethics, vol I p 143 The stones in front of sacred shrines, such as obelisks, or even special pillars in Temples or homes (if used for divine purposes) were also types of these Bethel-stones (ibid ) 12 The setting up of the pillar stone by Jacob was not of itself idolatrous Even the manufacture of images of heavenly creatures, humans, or animals on this earth was not wrong in the patriarchal period Egypt and Babylon were filled with such representations from a very early date But after the death of Joseph in Egypt, the whole scenario changed People then began to believe that the images and pictures of divine beings took on the characteristics of the deities themselves 13 This is when idolatry began By the time of Moses the practice was rampant (Exodus 20:1-9)
The Importance of the Book of Job The Book of Job is the main biblical key to show when idolatry started in the world This is easy to prove if one will pay close attention to what the Book of Job relates Note how this is done It is possible that the patriarch Job was the son of Issachar and the grandson of Jacob (Genesis 46:13) At any rate, we know that he lived before the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt Eliphaz who counseled Job was a son of Esau, and Jacob was his uncle (Genesis6:10; Job 4:1) Bildad the Shuhite was a person from Shuah (Genesis 25:2) who descended from Abraham through Keturah What this shows is that Job lived in the third generation from Jacob — and before the Israelites left Egypt at the Exodus This can be further proved because there are no references in the Book of Job to special Mosaic customs, ceremonies, priesthood, laws of tithing, Moses’ dietary regulations, festivals, fasts, sabbaths, etc Had Job lived after the Exodus (and with him having kinship to Israelites), some of these Mosaic ceremonies could not fail to be mentioned The point is, none of those Mosaic customs or rituals (including the sabbaths) were in force when the patriarch Job underwent his trial This point is very important! It is important because when Job’s three counselors tried to point out the sins they thought Job had committed that caused God to afflict him, not once did they tell him that he must have transgressed the weekly Sabbath, Mosaic ceremonies, or tithing laws True, they were aware (as was Job) that he was not a murderer, and not an adulterer, or a thief But his counselors looked at every little nook and cranny of his life to find some kind of sins that normally disgrace mankind, but they could find no obvious ones with Job And while Job recounted all types of sins done by the wicked (see Job chapters 24 &1), it is a marvel that Job called no one a sinner for Sabbath breaking, or any other Mosaic laws The reason he did not do so is because those ceremonies were not then in force Indeed, in Nehemiah 9:14 and Ezekiel 20:12 we have the plain staTuments that the sabbaths came into existence for man to observe in the time of Moses! Abraham, the father of the faithful (who kept all of God’s commandments authorized for his time — whom Paul called a chief example for Christians) NEVER kept the Sabbath! But more than this, even the start of image/idolatry is a point that is also dealt with in the Book of Job It has some very remarkable indications which show that during the trial of Job, no images were being used as idols! The only idolatry that Job refers to was man’s penchant to worship the heavenly bodies — notably giving adoration to the sun and moon (Job1:26-28) That’s all! Nothing else! This is an important and very significant recognition Since Job’s friends were nit-picking to find any sin that Job might have done, and Job gave a survey of all the sins of mankind (including even rituals and ceremonies), it is a very instructive matter to note that the only idolatry that he pays attention to is the worship of the celestial bodies! Had images of stone, metals, woods, etc , been used in worship there would surely have been some recognition of it But there is not one word about such degeneracy 14 What does all this mean It shows Job lived at a period before people were making images or pictures and saying that the gods and goddesses inhabited them This only occurred when people of later times (not long before the Exodus) began to interpret the pillar of Jacob, which he erected at Bethel, as having been imbued with an actual nature of God Jacob had no intention that such an interpretation would be placed on his symbolic pillar But it happened! The later pagans turned that pillar (and all others like them — and there came to be thousands of these Bethel-stones) into idolatrous religious objects In the time of Job, however, people were not worshipping stone, metal, or wood images of the gods In fact, in the oldest parts of the Book of Proverbs (in the Bible) are some of the proverbial staTuments made by Joseph or his conTemporaries — and recorded in Proverbs by King Solomon — yet there is not a word about the sin of image/idolatry in these early sections See Proverbs chapters 1 through 9, and the special section that has its counterpart in early Egypt, Proverbs 22:17 to 24:22 15 The only idolatrous rites that Job referred to were placing divine significance in the heavenly bodies — the sun and the moon And the fact that this was the first type of idolatry (not images, etc ) is attested by the ancient historians themselves Diodorus Siculus of the 1st century C E spoke of the early Egyptians and mentioned the type of idolatry they practiced “The first men looking up to the world above them, and terrified and struck with admiration at the nature of the universe, supposed the sun and moon to be the principal and eternal gods ”
Diodorus Siculus, Bk I Even earlier, Plato in his book Cratylus said “The first men who inhabited Greece, held only to be gods which many barbarians at present worship, namely the sun, moon, earth, stars, and heaven ”
Plato, Cratylus The early church historian Eusebius, who had access to many ancient pagan writings, expressly affirmed that even the etymology of the Greek word Theos (“God”), ” proved that no beings were formerly accounted gods or divine beings but only the celestial bodies — the sun, moon, stars, ”
Eusebius, Praep Evang I 9 There is not the slightest hint in the early records that images of deities, men, animals, etc , were adored in a form of worship Certainly there were images of divine beings (note the images that Rachel carried with her to Palestine mentioned in Genesis1) — but these were mere title deeds to lands, and they were not used to worship divine beings When Jacob set up his pillar stone at Bethel, there was no thought in his mind that God had entered the stone — or that the stone itself should be worshipped But when the Israelites left Egypt at the time of the Exodus, Moses bore down hard on them NOT to set up any images or draw any pictures of divine things (and even things on this earth), other than the images of the two cherubs in the holy of holies and the pictures of cherubs on the curtains of the Tabernacle

Mystery in BAR, Vol 29, May/Jun, 2003, p2-39f ]
Given the supposed relation between the Greek, Phoenician and Mayan languages, it is interesting to speculate on a possible meaning of the name “Kukulkan ” The “Kukul” part of the word sounds very similar to the Greek word for “circle”, “Kuklos”, which could render the title as “King of the Circle”, or “King of All ” When Viracocha came out of Lake Titicaca, he proclaimed himself “Lord of the Four Quarters”, meaning the four corners of the world Many such figures used identical titles Later they would be shortened to the more straight-forward “King of the Earth” or “Lord of the World”, both titles eventually bestowed on Lucifer himself Kukulkan’s alternate title, “Kinich Ahan” easily equates with a simple Sumerian title “Kinich” is “Kin-ash”, “The Lord Kin ” “Ahan” appears to be rooted in “Aha”, a title meaning “the Warrior”, and a word that was virtually the same in ancient Sumer, Egypt and India It was part of the title of Menes, son of Sargon the Great, and the first dynastic pharaoh of Egypt
“The Phrygians had an equipment very like that of the Paphlagonians with some slight difference Now the Phrygians, as the Macedonians say, used to be called Brigians during the time that they were natives of Europe and dwelt with the Macedonians; but after they had changed into Asia, with their country they changed also their name and were called Phrygians The Armenians were armed just like the Phrygians, being settlers from the Phrygians Of these two together the commander was Artochmes, who was married to a daughter of Dareios ” Herodotus, vii, 73 “Phrygia is the Greek name of an ancient state in western-central Anatolia (modern Turkey), extending from the Eskishehir area east to (perhaps) Bogazköy and Alishar Hüyük within the Halys River bend The Assyrians, a powerful state in northern Mesopotamia to the south, called the state Mushki; what its own people called it is unknown We know from their inscriptions that the Phrygians spoke an Indo-European language Judging from historical records supported by ceramic evidence, settlers migrating from the Balkans in Europe first settled here a hundred or more years following the destruction of the Hittite empire (ca 1200 BC) ” The Metropolitan Museum of Art: ‘Phrygia, Gordion, and King Midas in the Late Eighth Century B C ‘ “There is evidence that in ancient times a distinct subfamily of Indo-European languages existed that is now called Thraco-Phrygian To it belonged Phrygian (an ancient and now extinct Indo-European language of Anatolia) and Thracian (a now dead Indo-European tongue of the Balkans in antiquity) Modern Armenian may well be a direct descendant of Phrygian ” The Columbia Encyclopedia: ‘Armenian language’ “All the unrooted trees agree that there are four supergroups of IE languages (Balto-Slavonic, Romano-Germano-Celtic, Armenian-Greek, and Indo-Iranian)” Rexova K (2003) Cladistic analysis of languages: Indo-European classification based on lexicostatistical data, Cladistics 19(2)
This theme was widespread over the Old World Compare the following lines from the Rigveda; “I will proclaim the deeds of Indra, The first that he performed, the lightning-wielder He slew the serpent, then discharged the waters, And cleft the caverns of the lofty mountains He slew the serpent lying on the mountain: For him the whizzing bolt has Tvastar fashioned Like lowing cows, with rapid current flowing, The waters to the ocean down have glided Impetuous like a bull he chose the Soma, And drank in threefold vessels of its juices The bounteous god grasped lightning for his missile; He struck down dead that first-born of the serpents When thou hadst slain the first-born of the serpents, And thwarted all the wiles of crafty schemers, Anon disclosing sun, and dawn, and heaven, Thou truly foundest not a foe, O Indra ” (Masterpieces of the Orient, 139f ) Ba’al (pronounced: [ba al]; Arabic, ; Hebrew: ) (ordinarily spelled Baal in English) is a Northwest Semitic title and honorific meaning “master” or “lord” that is used for various gods who were patrons of cities in the Levant, cognate to Assyrian Belu A Baalist means a worshipper of Baal “Ba’al” can refer to any god and even to human officials; in some texts it is used as a substitute for Hadad, a god of the rain, thunder, fertility and agriculture, and the lord of Heaven Since only priests were allowed to utter his divine name Hadad, Ba’al was used commonly Nevertheless, few if any Biblical uses of “Ba’al” refer to Hadad, the lord over the assembly of gods on the holy mount of Heaven, but rather refer to any number of local spirit-deities worshipped as cult images, each called ba’al and regarded in that context as a false god Because more than one god bore the title “Ba’al” and more than one goddess bore the title “Ba’alat” or “Ba“alah,” only the context of a text can indicate which Ba’al ‘lord’ or Ba’alath ‘Lady’ a particular inscription or text is speaking of Though the god Hadad (or Adad) was especially likely to be called Ba’al, Hadad was far from the only god to have that title The Ugaritic texts (mainly preserved in the Ba’al cycle) place the dwelling of Baal on Mount Saphon, so references to Baal Zephon in the Tanach and in inscriptions and tablets referring to the Baal of Mount Saphon may indicate the storm-god Hadad It is said[citation needed] that Ba’al Pe’or, the lord of Mount Pe’or, whom Israelites were forbidden from worshipping (Numbers 25:3) was also Hadad In the Canaanite pantheon, Hadad was the son of El, who had once been the primary god of the Canaanite pantheon Baal of Tyre Melqart is the son of El in the Phoenician triad of worship, He was the god of Tyre and was often called the Ba’al of Tyre 1 Kings 16:31 relates that Ahab, king of Israel, married Jezebel, daughter of Ethba’al, king of the Sidonians, and then served habba’al (‘the Ba’al’ ) The cult of this god was prominent in Israel until the reign of Jehu, who put an end to it (2 Kings 10:26): And they brought out the pillars (massebahs) of the house of the Ba’al and burned them And they pulled down the pillar (massebah) of the Ba’al and pulled down the house of the Ba’al and turned it into a latrine until this day Some scholars claim it is uncertain whether “Ba’al” ‘the Lord’ refers to Melqart in Kings 10:26, they point out that Hadad was also worshipped in Tyre However this position negates the real possibility that Hadad and Melqart are one in the same god, only having different names because of different languages and cultures Hadad being Canaanite and Meqart being Phoenician Both Hadad and Melqart are professed to be the son of El both carrying the same secondary position in the pantheons of each culture This fact reveals them to be the same deity with different names due to different languages A conTemporary example of this would be God in English and Dios in Spanish Josephus (Antiquities 8 13 1) states clearly that Jezebel “built a Temple to the god of the Tyrians, which they call Belus” which certainly refers to Melqart In any case, King Ahab, despite supporting the cult of this Ba’al, had a semblance of worship to Yahweh (1Kings 16-22) Ahab still consulted Yahweh’s prophets and cherished Yahweh’s protection when he named his sons Ahaziah (“Yahweh holds”) and Jehoram (“Yahweh is high “) Ba’al of Carthage The worship of Ba’al Hammon flourished in the Phoenician colony of Carthage Ba’al Hammon was the supreme god of the Carthaginians and is generally identified by modern scholars either with the northwest Semitic god El or with Dagon, and generally identified by the Greeks with Cronus and by the Romans with Cronos The meaning of Hammon or Hamon is unclear In the 19th century when Ernest Renan excavated the ruins of Hammon ( ammon), the modern Umm al-‘Awamid between Tyre and Acre, he found two Phoenician inscriptions dedicated to El-Hammon Since El was normally identified with Cronus and Ba’al Hammon was also identified with Cronus, it seemed possible they could be equated More often a connection with Hebrew/Phoenician amman ‘brazier’ has been proposed Frank Moore Cross argued for a connection to Khamon, the Ugaritic and Akkadian name for Mount Amanus, the great mountain separating Syria from Cilicia based on the occurrence of an Ugaritic description of El as the one of the Mountain Haman Classical sources relate how the Carthaginians burned their children as offerings to Ba’al Hammon See Moloch for a discussion of these traditions and conflicting thoughts on the matter Such a devouring of children fits well with the Greek traditions of Cronus Prostitution as a form of worship also may have been done, especially when the Carthaginians began to recognize Ba’al as a fertility god Scholars tend to see Ba’al Hammon as more or less identical with the god El, who was also generally identified with Cronus and Cronos However, Yigal Yadin thought him to be a moon god Edward Lipinski identifies him with the god Dagon in his Dictionnaire de la civilisation phenicienne et punique (1992: ISBN 2-503-50033-1) Inscriptions about Punic deities tend to be rather uninformative In Carthage and North Africa Ba’al Hammon was especially associated with the ram and was worshiped also as Ba’al Qarnaim (“Lord of Two Horns”) in an open-air sanctuary at Jebel Bu Kornein (“the two-horned hill”) across the bay from Carthage Ba’al Hammon’s female cult partner was Tanit He was probably not ever identified with Ba’al Melqart, although one finds this equation in older scholarship Ba’alat Gebal (“Lady of Byblos”) appears to have been generally identified with ‘Ashtart, although Sanchuniathon distinguishes the two Priests of Ba’al The Priests of Ba’al are mentioned in the Hebrew Bible numerous times, including a confrontation with the Prophet Elijah (1 Kings 18:21-40), the burning of incense symbolic of prayer (2 Kings 23:5), and rituals followed by priests adorned in special vestments (2 Kings 10:22) offering sacrifices similar to those given to honor YaHWeH (Jehovah in English) The confrontation with the Prophet Elijah is also mentioned in the Qur’an (37:123-125) Ba’al as a divine title in Israel and Judah At first the name Ba’al was used by the Jews for their God without discrimination, but as the struggle between the two religions developed, the name Ba’al was given up in Judaism as a thing of shame, and even names like Jerubba’al were changed to Jerubbosheth: Hebrew bosheth means “shame” Zondervan’s Pictorial Bible Dictionary (1976) ISBN 0-310-23560-X The sense of competition between the priestly forces of Yahweh and of Ba’al in the ninth century is nowhere more directly attested than in 1 Kings 18, where, Elijah the prophet offering a sacrifice to Yahweh, Ba’al’s followers did the same Ba’al in the Hebrew text did not light his followers’ sacrifice, but Yahweh sent heavenly fire to burn Elijah’s sacrifice to ashes, even after it had been soaked with water Since Ba’al simply means ‘Lord’, there is no obvious reason for which it could not be applied to Yahweh as well as other gods In fact, Hebrews generally referred to Yahweh as Adonai (‘My Lord’) in prayer (the word Hashem – ‘The Name’ – is substituted in everyday speech) The judge Gideon was also called Jeruba’al, a name which seems to mean ‘Ba’al strives’ though it is written in Judges 6:32 that the name was given to mock the god Ba’al, whose shrine Gideon had destroyed, the intention being to imply: “Let Ba’al strive as much as he can it will come to nothing ” After Gideon’s death, according to Judges 8:33, the Israelites went astray and started to worship the Ba’alîm (the Ba’als) especially Ba’al Berith (“Lord of the Covenant “) A few verses later (Judges 9:4) the story turns to all the citizens of Shechem — actually kol-ba’alê š kem another case of normal use of ba’al not applied to a deity

These citizens of Shechem support Abimelech’s attempt to become king by giving him 70 shekels from the House of Ba’al Berith It is hard to dissociate this Lord of the Covenant who is worshipped in Shechem from the covenant at Shechem described earlier in Joshua 24:25, in which the people agree to worship Yahweh

It is especially hard to do so when Judges 9:46 relates that all “the holders of the tower of Shechem” (kol-ba’alê midgal-š kem) enter bêt ‘el b rît ‘the House of El Berith’, that is, ‘the House of God of the Covenant’ Was “Ba’al” here a title for El

Or did the covenant of Shechem perhaps originally not involve El at all but some other god who bore the title Ba’al

Or were there different viewpoints about Yahweh, some seeing him as an aspect of Hadad, some as an aspect of El, some with other perceptions –

Again, there is no clear answer Ba’al appears in theophoric names One also finds Eshba’al (one of Saul’s sons) and Be’eliada (a son of David) The last name also appears as Eliada

This might show that at some period Ba’al and El were used interchangeably; even in the same name applied to the same person

More likely a later hand has cleaned up the text Editors did play around with some names, sometimes substuting the form bosheth ‘abomination’ for ba’al in names, whence the forms Ishbosheth instead of Eshba’al and Mephibosheth which is rendered Meriba’al in 1 Chronicles 9:40 1 Chronicles 12:5 mentions the name Be’aliah (more accurately be’alyâ) meaning “Yahweh is Ba’al ”

It is difficult to determine to what extent the ‘false worship’ which the prophets stigmatize is the worship of Yahweh under a conception and with rites, which treated him as a local nature god, or whether particular features of gods more often given the title Ba’al were consciously recognized to be distinct from Yahwism from the first
Certainly some of the Ugaritic texts and Sanchuniathon report hostility between El and Hadad, perhaps representing a cultic and religious differences reflected in Hebrew tradition also, in which Yahweh in the Tanach is firmly identified with El and might be expected to be somewhat hostile to Ba’al/Hadad and the deities of his circle

But for Jeremiah and the Deuteronomist it also appears to be monotheism against polytheism (Jeremiah 11:12): Then shall the cities of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem go and cry to the gods to whom they offer incense: but they shall not save them at all in the time of their trouble For according to the number of your cities are your gods, O Judah; and according to the number of the streets of Jerusalem you have set up altars to the abominination, altars to burn incense to the Ba’al Multiple Ba’als and ‘Ashtarts One finds in the Tanach the plural forms b ‘alîm ‘Ba’als’ or ‘Lords’ and ‘aštarôt ”Ashtarts’, though such plurals don’t appear in Phoenician or Canaanite or independent Aramaic sources

One theory is that the people of each territory or in each wandering clan worshipped their own Ba’al, as the chief deity of each, the source of all the gifts of nature, the mysterious god of their fathers As the god of fertility all the produce of the soil would be his, and his adherents would bring to him their tribute of first-fruits

He would be the patron of all growth and fertility, and, by the use of analogy characteristic of early thought, this Ba’al would be the god of the productive element in its widest sense

Originating perhaps in the observation of the fertilizing effect of rains and streams upon the receptive and reproductive soil, Ba’al worship became identical with nature-worship

Joined with the Ba’als there would naturally be corresponding female figures which might be called ‘Ashtarts, embodiments of ‘Ashtart Ba’al Hadad is associated with the goddess “Virgin” Anat, his sister and lover

Through analogy and through the belief that one can control or aid the powers of nature by the practice of magic, particularly sympathetic magic, sexuality might characterize part of the cult of the Ba’als and ‘Ashtarts Post-Exilic allusions to the cult of Ba’al Pe’or suggest that orgies prevailed

On the summits of hills and mountains flourished the cult of the givers of increase, and “under every green tree” was practised the licentiousness which was held to secure abundance of crops

Human sacrifice, the burning of incense, violent and ecstatic exercises, ceremonial acts of bowing and kissing, the preparing of sacred cakes (see also Asherah), appear among the offences denounced by the post-Exilic prophets; and show that the cult of Ba’al (and ‘Ashtart) included characteristic features of worship which recur in various parts of the Semitic (and non-Semitic) world, although attached to other names

But it is also possible that such rites were performed to a local Ba’al ‘Lord’ and a local ‘Ashtart without much concern as to whether or not they were the same as that of a nearby community or how they fitted into the national theology of Yahweh who had become a ruling high god of the heavens, increasingly disassociated from such things, at least in the minds of some worshippers

Another theory is that the references to Ba’als and ‘Ashtarts (and Asherahs) are to images or other standard symbols of these deities, that is statues and icons of Ba’al Hadad, ‘Ashtart, and Asherah set up in various high places as well as those of other gods, the author listing the most prominent as types for all

The Deuteronomistic editor is as angered and saddened by worshiping of images as by worshiping divinities other than Yahweh and wishes to emphasize the plurality of false deities as opposed to true worship of Yahweh at his single Temple in Jerusalem as called for in the reforms of Josiah

A reminiscence of Ba’al as a title of a local fertility god (or referring to a particular god of subterraneous water) may occur in the Talmudic Hebrew phrases field of the ba’al and place of the ba’al and Arabic ba’l used of land fertilised by subterraneous waters rather than by rain

Common confusion over Ba’al Because the word Ba’al is used as a common substitute for the sacred name Hadad, confusion often arises when the same word is used for other deities, physical representations of gods and even people

Historically, this confusion was resolved in the nineteenth century as new archaeological evidence indicated multiple gods bearing the title Ba’al and little about them that connected them to the sun In 1899, the Encyclopædia Biblica article Baal by W Robertson Smith and George F Moore states:

That Baal was primarily a sun-god was for a long time almost a dogma among scholars, and is still often repeated This doctrine is connected with theories of the origin of religion which are now almost universally abandoned

The worship of the heavenly bodies is not the beginning of religion Moreover, there was not, as this theory assumes, one god Baal, worshipped under different forms and names by the Semitic peoples, but a multitude of local Baals, each the inhabitant of his own place, the protector and benefactor of those who worshipped him there

Even in the astro-theology of the Babylonians the star of Bel was not the sun: it was the planet Zeus

There is no intimation in the OT that any of the Canaanite Baals were sun-gods, or that the worship of the sun (Shemesh), of which we have ample evidence, both early and late, was connected with that of the Baals ; in 2 K 235 cp 11 the cults are treated as distinct

Non-religious usage of Ba’al Ba’al (Bet-Ayin-Lamed; / , Standard Hebrew Bá al, Tiberian Hebrew Bá al / Bá al) is a northwest Semitic word signifying ‘The Lord, master, owner (male), keeper, husband’ cognate with Akkadian Bel of the same meanings The feminine form is Phoenician Ba alat, Hebrew Ba alah signifying ‘lady, mistress, owner (female), wife’ The words themselves had no exclusively religious connotation, just as “father” or “lord” are used in religious meaning today–but they were not used in reference between a superior and an inferior or of a master to a slave

The words were used as titles in reference to one or various gods and goddesses, either in declaration of the deity as the Lord or Lady of a particular place (or rite), or standing alone as a term of reverence Ba’al in Judaism From the Tanach: Genesis 14:13 ba’alê b rît-‘Abram ‘lords of the covenant of Abram’, i e ‘holders of an agreement with Abram’, i e ‘confederates of Abram’ or ‘allies of Abram’; Genesis 20:3: b ‘ulat ba’al ‘lady of a lord’, i e ‘wife of a man’; Genesis7:19: ba’al ha alomôt ‘lord of the dreams’, i e ‘the one who made himself important in his dreams’ or simply ‘the dreamer’; Exodus 21:3: ba’al ‘iššâ ‘lord of a woman’, i e ‘married man’; Exodus 21:22: ba’al ha’iššâ ‘lord of the woman’, i e ‘husband of the woman’; Exodus 24:14: mî-ba’al d barîm ‘who (is) lord of matters’, i e ‘whoever possesses some matter’, i e ‘whoever has a problem’; Leviticus 21:4: ba’al b ’emmayw ‘lord in his people’, i e ‘man of importance among his people’; Deuteronomy 24:4: ba’lah hari’šôn ‘her lord the former’, i e ‘her former husband’; and so forth

But these should suffice to show the range of the words Rabbi Meir, one of Judaism’s greatest second century Tannaim is known as ” – – Rabbi Meir Baal Haneis” (“Rabbi Meir, Master of Miracles”) due to miracles he performed to save people from harm

In medieval Judaism, a rabbi versed in mysticism was called Ba’al Shem ‘Master of the Name’ with no perception of any connection with Ba’al as a title for a pagan god Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer (1698-1760) who founded the Hassidic movement, was commonly known during his later life as Ba’al Shem Tov (“Good Master of the Name”) and is still commonly called by that title today Sons of Ham : Haplogroups A to E Haplogroup F is central to both Shem and Japheth lineages

All other Y DNA haplogroups from G to R2 are derived from once central Haplogroup F

Sons of Shem: Haplgroups H I J – Shemite/semite lines yet to be confirmed as some could be Japeth lines ie H and I (more tests to be done on the semite lines)

Sons of Japeth: Haplogroups K, K is the root division for all of the subsequent Haplogroup divisions from L to R2 L, M, N, O, P, Q and R appear to be Japhethite tribes

Ugaritic texts and the Bible In texts uncovered at Ugarit, references to “Zephon” (Tsephon) have been identified with the Syrian mountain Jebel Aqra In these texts, the mountain is the holy place of the gods, where the god known as the “Lord” reigns over the divine assembly . The word “Zephon” is a common Semitic word for “North”, and some have considered it to be possibly cognate with the Hebrew name Zion (Tsiyyon) Psalm 48:2 mentions both terms together: ” Har-Tsiyyon yarktey Tsafon ” (“Mount Zion on the Northern side”), usually taken to refer to the north side of Mount Zion, not necessarily indicating that Zion is found to the North

According to Sanchoniathon, Ouranos was the son of Autochthon, and, according to Plato, Autochthon was one of the ten kings of Atlantis. He married his sister Ge. He is the Uranos of the Greeks, who was the son of Gæa (the earth), whom he married. The Phœnicians tell us, “Ouranos had by Ge four sons: Ilus (El), who is called Chronos, and Betylus (Beth-El), and Dagon, which signifies bread-corn, and Atlas (Tammuz ).” Here, again, we have the names of two other kings of Atlantis.

Chronos visits the different regions of the habitable world. He gave Egypt as a kingdom to the god Taaut, who had invented the alphabet. The Egyptians called him Thoth, and he was represented among them as “the god of letters, the clerk of the under-world,” bearing a tablet, pen, and palm-branch.

Sanchoniathon tells us, after narrating all the discoveries by which the people advanced to civilization, that the Cabiri set down their records of the past by the command of the god Taaut, “and they delivered them to their successors and to foreigners, of whom one was Isiris (Osiris), the inventor of the three letters, the brother of Chua, who is called the first Phœnician.”

This would show that the first Phœnician came long after this line of the kings or gods, and that he was a foreigner, as compared with them; and, therefore, that it could not have been the Phœnicians proper who made the several inventions narrated by Sanchoniathon, but some other race, from whom the Phœnicians might have been descended.

And in the delivery of their records to the foreigner Osiris, the god of Egypt, we have another evidence that Egypt derived her civilization from Atlantis.

Hekw Shasu meaning the Bedouin-like “Shepherd Kings”, which scholars have only recently shown means “foreign rulers The Hyksos continued to play a role in Egyptian literature as a synonym for “Asiatic” down to Hellenistic times The term was frequently evoked against such groups as the Semites settled in Aswan or the Delta, and this may have led the Egyptian priest and historian Manetho to identify the coming of the Hyksos with the sojourn in Egypt of Joseph and his brothers, and helped modern historians identify the expulsion of the Hyksos with the Exodus Significant in this identification is the fact that some Hyksos pharaohs had names familiar from Israelite traditions, such as Jacobaam of the 16th dynasty

It may also indicate that the “expulsion” of the Hyksos reported in the Egyptian records mainly refers to the expulsion of the Semitic rulers and military/political elite and does not indicate a mass expulsion of the lower classes who, in the Ancient World, were traditionally exploited by their conquerors rather than expelled or massacred

There seems to be slight evidence that the Kings of the 19th Egyptian Dynasty may have had some Hyksos connections: Ramesses I had hereditary estates in the vicinity of Avaris Ramesses II: o Celebrated the 400th anniversary of the worship of Sutekh, in honor of his father, Seti I (Seth was identified by the Hyksos with Baal), o Adopted a Semitic name for one of his favourite daughters (Bintanath meaning “the daughter of the goddess Anath”), o Dedicated several of his favourite chariot horses to Anath (naming them accordingly), and o Pharaoh Ramesses II moved his capital city back to Avaris — and named it after himself (Pi Rameses) The early Ramesside kings promoted Asiatics to positions of prominence in the civil administration

The anti-Hyksos invectives found during the first part of the 18th dynasty are almost wholly lacking With the chaos at the end of the 19th Dynasty, the first pharaohs of the 20th Dynasty in the Elephantine Stele and the Harris Papyrus re-invigorated an anti-Hyksos stance to strengthen their nativist reaction towards the Asiatic settlers of the north, who may again have been expelled from the country Setnakht, the founder of the 20th Dynasty, records in a Year 2 stela from Elephantine that he defeated and expelled a large force of Asiatics who had invaded Egypt during the chaos between the end Twosret’s reign and the beginning of the 20th dynasty and captured much of their stolen gold and silver booty The story of the Hyksos was known to the Greeks, who attempted to identify it within their own mythology with the expulsion of Belus (Baal ) and the daughters of Danaos, associated with the origin of the Argive dynasty

The Northern Semites may be conveniently divided into four distinct nations-viz., the Chaldeans (Babylonians and Assyrians), who were partly Semitic and partly Akkadian, the Aramaeans, the Canaanites, and the Phoenicians. These peoples soon became acquainted with -the astronomical learning of the Akkadians, and were taught the wonderful phenomenon of the precession of the equinoxes; and it is highly probable that the fact of the vernal equinoctial sign having -changed shortly before B.c. 2000 from that of the Bull to that of the Ram or Lamb had much to do with the changing of the old Semitic name Shamsh to that of El, as a designation of the sun-god, El (^^) being the old Chaldean word for Ram.

Owing to the mixed character of the Chaldean nation, their religion was a peculiar blending of the Akkadian and Semitic mythologies, El Ilu, or Ilah, being their chief deity; but, instead of sinking into the lower world each night for peaceful slumber, as the older Shamsh had done, he became the victim of the wicked demons, who tormented him all through the dark hours, until he was avenged by his son Yachavah, who thereby became the conqueror and saviour god, one with his father Ilu, and yet different. To a great extent the religion of the purely Semitic tribes of the north was affected by this Chaldean myth; but there arose many points of difference between them. The Assyrians worshipped El under the name of Asur, their national deity, the Babylonians converting the name into Bel; while the pure Semites worshipped him as Bel and Baal in the west, and as Al in the south. Out of the .story of El and Yachavah was fabricated the great Adonis myth of the Chaldeans, which became so popular in future times among all the Semites except the Arabs of the south, who retained the original character of the supreme Shamsh, El or Al (afterwards Allah), and his son Yachavah, afterwards Yahouh. This Adonis drama, as originally conceived, was that El reigned in supreme power and glory in the highest heaven, enjoying the delights of his spouse Istar, but that in the autumn the wicked gods of winter overcame him, separating him from his lover, and tormenting him all through the winter months, until in the spring he conquered the evil demons as Adon, the beautiful youth, who is restored to his mourning Istar. The worship of Adonis, or Adon was generally adopted by all the Northern Semites, the god becoming eventually the most popular deity of the Semitic people, being known as Yao (lASi of the Greeks) to the Phoenicians, Yahoo (VP) to the- Canaanites, and Tammuz to the Aramaeans, while his lover Istar became the Phoenician Ashtoreth. Ies, the god of wine, and Greek Dionysos, was another saviour sun-god worshipped largely by the Phoenicians ; but was most probably of Egyptian origin, being identical with Mises, the Egyptian Bacchus. As already stated, the Southern Semites of Arabia retained, in common with their Ethiopian brethren, the old and simpler worship of the supreme god El and his son Yahouh, although, owing to their propinquity to Egypt, many strange inferior deities had been introduced into Arabia from that country, which resulted, in much later times, in the formation of various religious sects, each having a particular tribal deity, or patron god, though all recognising El as supreme. One of these tribes, with Yahouh as their tribal god, on which account they were called Yahoudi, having left their native Arabian home, penetrated far into the country of the Northern Semites, learning from the Canaanites, Phoenicians, and Babylonians the strange legends of the Northern Semitic deities, including the Adonis myth; and, after wandering about for many years, one large portion of their tribe settled in the delta of the Nile, while the remainder crossed the desert of Syria and approached the confines of Babylonia, finally settling in the barren and rocky interior of Syria, and making the spot where now stands the small town of El-Khuds (Jerusalem) their headquarters. During their long wanderings they became acquainted not only with the various Semitic myths of the north, but also with the Babylonian and Persian legends, and incorporated a quantity of strange deities and customs into their own rude and primitive religion, thus manufacturing a very complicated and weird system of mythology.


the word by which Judas identifies Jesus. “I know who you are and where you have come from,” Judas says. “You are from the immortal realm of Barbelo.”

According to the scholars and editors who worked on the National Geographic translation of the Gospel of Judas, the word Barbelo “apparently comes from Hebrew,” and perhaps means God. Others state it remains unexplained, and some suggest it refers to a divine “emanation.”

* I am quite confident the Greek word Christ is from the
Egyptian word k Heru or “word,” “voice,” as in Maa k Heru
or the “true-word” which every pious Egyptian claimed to

* Ragaz is usually a quake or agitation, but A-Regaz is
“coffer” (I Sam. 6:8), perhaps as having on it some figure of terror, and yet suggestive in this instance.

f From “Book of the dead of Nesi-Khons, priestess of
Amen-Roa,” who is “the holy Form, beloved,” etc.

60. Even the word Pelishet or “Philistine” seems to me the Egyptian Pe-Lesetau or Pe-Restau or “the Gate-of-the-Passage,” that is, to the After-Life, so often mentioned in the Ritual, and a fearsome place; hence a god of the people feared to Na c h them that way (Ex. 13:17); and the name of Egypt’s northeast fortress, the classic Pe-Lushi-um, must illustrate this suggestion of the origin of the name of this people and of the passage-pylon or Pe-Lesetau ; and it is clear that the Lishech-ath of Nathan-Melech or the “giver-king/’ by which stood the horses of the Sun, which Nathan-u Malech-i or “kings gave them,” &c, was a pro-pylon (2 K. 23:11). The constant prayer of the Book of Dead is that they may “go in and come out, and find food,” wherefore their word Per-t or “coming-forth” (from the Underworld) may give us the word Ae-Ber or Aa-Per-t; and hence it must be seen that the Pelesh-et-im or “Philistines” were so named from their dwelling at the pass-way out of Egypt, but the place itself is equivalent to the Christian Purgatory or place of expiation; hence they are called C h epetor-im, probably C h epereth-im or “expationers,” since it is said
(Gen. 10:14) “for the Selu c h-im or “pardoned” who went out from Egypt (or the Pathros-im) are the Peleshet-im and C h apetor-im.

61. The subsequent battle and pursuit seem a later elaboration, though by putting his hand to his mouth (1 Sam. 14:26-27) we have a confirmation of Jonathan as c Har-pa- k Herad ; as, also, in the third installment of the story (vs.6-46), his “hair” or side-lock as child-god was preserved (v. 45), and he is called “the Jonathan,” no night attack could be made as Jonathan was new risen, and he is accredited with the Je-Shu-Aa-ah or “the Salvation” ; Shu in Egyptian meaning “light.” As Jeshuaa it may be seen that this is another version of the victory and pursuit of the Amorites by Josh-uaa, and so of Gide-Aon, Je-Petha c h, &c, being the pursuit of Set by Horus Be c hud. The flow of “honey-wine” or Dabesh in the forest is important, for honey was a favorite offering of the Egyptians to Deity; and the taste of it “enlightened” (ti-Raen-ah, v. 27; Aor, v. 29) his eyes; perhaps “brightened.”‘

62. It is interesting to note that v. 21 says that the Aibera-im had been with the Philistines; as it is also said (13:7) this people Aaber the Jordan when the Israelites hid in caves, and the word “some” is not there (comp. v.) ; and so, when Pharaoh does not know the God of Bene-Israel, Mosheh tells him he has met the God of the Aibera-im, and of him Pharaoh does not deny knowledge ( Ex. 5:1-4); so that it is probable they were a separate tribe or a different religious sect from the Israelites. Yet the Philistines recognize Jonathan and his armor-bearer as Abera-im (i Sam. 14:11), though that is in the first instalment (vs. 1 -1 6) of this theophany.

63. That there is more than one instalment of this famous chapter appears from vv. 23 and 45, where the Shuaa or “salvation” is ascribed in one verse ‘ to Jehoah and in the other verse to “the Jonathan.” Shu-Aa in Egyptian means “great-light,” and is personified in the god Shu-sa-Ra or “Shu-the-son-of-Sun,” an aspect of c Heru or “Horus.” The fact that Jonathan comes out of a c Hur or “hole,” “cave,” is in touch with the Mithraic and other religious concepts of the Sun, which in Winter was symbolically supposed to dwell in a cave, or lie buried in a cave, as if an ascetic or invalid or even dead. On this occasion he is resurrected, and at once seizes the Ma-Zeb, which is usually a “pillar” for the dead, not a “garrison”; and in Egypt this “pillar” was called a Dekhen or Men, and was the hieroglyph for Amen-Raa. But one may readily see that this resurrection or rise of the solar Jonathan supplied the Matthew author with much of his startling phenomena of a later time.


r. It would not be possible for religious ideas to exist among mankind if they were exempt from physical evils. They find no relief from their fellow-men for many of these; besides which there are terrifying natural phenomena, which ignorance only renders more full of awe; hence the imagination of men leads them to suppose that there are superhuman beings, and they supplicate these for help; hence the religious instinct. It is not a command from above, but a cry from below, from the depths of misery and suffering.

2. Shrewd men, sometimes sincere, organize this instinct, these sentiments, by pretending to knowledge of the super-human beings which the diseased imagination of men create. These shrewd persons also teach that the calamities or evils which befall mankind are invoked by their own vicious conduct; especially conduct not in accord with the teachings they give them. Not only are such events as wars, conflagrations, shipwrecks, plagues, which are social occurrences, but Earth-quakes, storms, lightning, floods, and other natural phenomena, are freely ascribed by these shrewd folk to the impiety of men, or what in English they call “Sin,” rendered from the Hebrew and Chaldean c Hata or c Hete, which differs in the kind of T from the people called c Hit-im or “Hittites.” This word is wholly ecclesiastical or religious, and has no foundation in the natural or social disposition of men, who, though they bring disease occasionally upon themselves, are not inclined at all to offend the super-human powers they rely upon when human help is vain. Shrewdness, however, invariably wins over ignorance, so that the ignorant, who are the mass of mankind, are brought to the belief that the super-human beings are too good to inflict calamities unless provoked to this by human mis-conduct or disobedience of the teachings of these wiser people.

3. It is thus that religious systems and practices and creeds originate and are maintained. Deity is merciful, bountiful, just, even affectionate, and it is his creatures only that sin or are vile. No blame or responsibility, the shrewd ones insist, can attach to Deity for the imperfections of his creatures ; but they declare it to be right for him to inflict the most severe penalties on these creatures for these imperfections, otherwise sins. And in almost every country, or at least among every sect, the failure to supplicate Deity under some particular name such country or sect has bestowed upon him is the most consummate of sins; and no people could have been more frightfully intolerant as to this, for their shrewd men make their Jehoah utter the most ferocious command respecting it (Deut. 13:6-17); a command which must have been written after Jehoah’s priesthood felt their sway undisputed, and long after Besheth and Ba-Aal had been the names of Deity in the days of Jeremiah (11: 13), B. C. 600, who seems to have been father of the fanatic Josiah’s wife (2 K. 23:20,1; comp. Jere. 1:1-3).

4. It would seem from the statements of the Hebrew writing that no king of the northern monarchy worshipped Jehoah, nor perhaps any king of Jehudah (Jere. 8:1-2) till the time of Jeremiah, that is, Je-Rem-Jahu or “Setter-up of Jehoah,” and his son-in-law “Josiah,” that is, Joshi-Jahu or “Supporter-of-Jah,” at which time the name Jahu or Jehoah first began to be applied to Deity, and which name was adopted by Aa-Zer-aa and his sect. Indeed, it may be that the word Hue or “he” was first used, and when Ne c hemiah came from Persia he may have broadened the word by using the Persian word Haava or “he,” whence Jehoah, Yehaueh, Jehoah, Jehovah, or other form.

*The Goddess Kedesh of Egyptian Inscriptions; same perhaps as Miriam, who died at Kadesh, and perhaps the same as Ruth (Ori-nth).

5. Jehoah talks face to face with several of the leading personages, but often employs “angels” or Maleach-im, and occasionally a Rua c h or “spirit,” besides many Nebie-im or “prophets”; and these agents sometimes execute cruel sentences upon enemies as well as sinners. Once Satan was allowed to afflict a good man in the most horrible ways, not for any sin, but merely to test the man’s fidelity to Jehoah; and the word Satan may be Suten or “King,” or Shaat or “pig,” both Egyptian words. The general trend seems to be that Jehoah combined within himself the dual at- tributes of what in Christian creed is called God and Devil; thus showing that Persian dualism had no hold upon Hebrew ideas till toward the time of Jesus. It is Jehoah who drowns all mankind and other animals in Hebrew legend, it is Bel who drowns these in Chaldean epic, and it is Ra the “Sun” who sends Hathor or Sekhet to massacre mankind in Egypt; each of these diabolic horrors tending to show that in neither religion was there a dividual Devil to commit them or order them, but the order came from the chief Deity of the land ; and, while it is clear that these enormities are fictions of the shrewd ones, yet the points under consideration are the provocation and the agency of destruction, for the provocation in each case seems to have been neglect of religious duty, that is, sin. So, in the promise of Jehoah to Bene Iserael respecting the occupation of Canaan (Ex. 23:20-33), he says he will send a Maleach (v. 20) before them to guard them and lead them, and that his own name (Jehoah’s) is “in his midst,” not “in him” (v. 21); but this Maleach or somewhat else is called my iEim-ath (v. 27), which seems the Egyptian Aam-Mit or “Eater-of-the-Dead,” depicted in the Judgment Scene with the head of crocodile, the body of lion, the hindpart of hippopotamus, and this female beast is to be sent before “and Ha-Moth-i all the people,” &c, and Muth in Hebrew and Mit in Egyptian mean “dead” or “death,” yet while there seems a play on this the interpreters understand it “noise,” “discomfit” (comp. Ps. 59:7; Is. 59:11), from Ham or Haman, while ^Eim-ath-ah (Ex. 15 :i6) seems probably more than an abstract term when we find her name means an “idol” (Jere. 50:38) ; besides which she may also be the Zeraa-ah or “hornet” (Ex. 23:28) in the verse next after calling her /Eim-ath, but this seems reverse for Aarez, a word less rarely used, and that it is reverse may be seen in the Deuteronomy (7:20-21) which copies the Exodus here, for the word is Zeraa-ah in v. 20 and th-Aaroz or “affrighted” in v. 21, rather “terrified,” as /Eeim-ath ; yet there was such a town as Zoraa-ah for it was a shrine of Shimesh-on; so that, while the allusion is probably to ^E-ZeRa or “Ezra,” as the leader from the Exile and chief of the Jahvist sect, yet Zar-Aa in Egyptian is “great scorpion,” while Zaa-Ra is a “prince” or “chief-attendant of the Sun” or Ra; neither of which would seem to be the same as TEim-ath if she was the “Eater” or Aamam of the Mit or sinful “dead,” which I can not doubt.

6. It appears thus that Jehoah pronounced judgments and used agents of a subordinate kind to execute them ; even being a Tempter to sin (Ex. 20:20; Deut. 8:2, &c). His Rua c h or “spirit,” his Maleach or “angel” (from the Koptic word Mana c h or “worker,” or the Egyptian Mena k h or “gracious one”) were the usual emissaries. Dualism was out of place in such a religious system, but there can be no pride in a monotheism which combines in one the Good Being and the Bad Being. A careful and candid study of that which purports to be the words and conduct of the Jewish Deity makes of him a malignant and atrocious conception, to whom the adoration of a humane man seems hardly possible. It must be kept in memory, however, that a barbarous and fanatical period produced the bloody and merciless picture of sin and its penalties.

7. There is a glimpse of dualism, however, in the Leviticus (16:5, &c. ; comp. 17:7), where a Seair-Aaz or “he-goat” is made a sin offering to Aaz-Azel as well as to Jehoah, and this on the day C h eppor-im or “Expiations” of sin (vs. 16-18, 29-34). Aaz means “goat” and “strength”; Azel means “depart,” “sent-away.” As this strange chapter and this strange custom find no confirmation of their details elsewhere in the Hebrew scriptures, it was probably a transient rite, perhaps drawn or cited from a Persian rite which Plutarch (“Isis and Osiris,” 46) refers to when he says that at a certain sacred ceremony “they beat a plant called Omomi in a mortar, and cry to Pluto and the Dark ; then mix it with the blood of a sacrificed wolf and carry it to a place where the Sun never shines, and cast it away.” Aaz-Azel means “goat sent-away” or “strength departed.” In the Jewish ceremony one Aaz was loaded with the sins of the people, and sent away, but the words Aaz-Azel seem applied to some evil being; perhaps the one who is supposed to take away the beneficence of the Sun, a very familiar name of whom in Egypt was Khepera,* which sounds like Cheppor; yet it is curious in this connection that the day of Cheppor-im, when the two “goats” figure so conspicuously, suggests the Latin word Caper or “goat.” Cheppor-eth or “mercy-seat” was the lid or “covering” of the sacred Aron or “ark” on which stood the Cherubs, and it can not well be doubted that this “ark,” the Teb-ah of Noa c h and Mosheh, was connected with the winter month Teb-eth when the Sun is mainly in its covering of clouds; and from the Ganges to the Nile the Zodiacal sign for this period was the goat or the goat-fish, which sign in Assyrian was called Uz or E-Nezu, which Nez in the kindred Hebrew would mean “sent-away,” also “desolate,” and the two words are the same as Aaz-Azel; but Mr. Brugsch says this sign was in Egypt called Pa-Anea c h or “the Life,” which I consider in connection with the name Zepan-ath
Pa-Anea c h given Joseph ; Zepan-ath in Hebrew meaning “hidden,” also “north”; and so Ba-Aal Zepon or the Greek form “Typhon.” C. Lenorman says the goat was the symbol of “tempest,” which in Hebrew is Seaar-ah (Job 9:17;8:1, &c), and the Seair Aaz sent with their sins by the Jews into the desert may well be read “storm-goat,” or a sacrifice to the evil power which had overcome the Sun, or carried it ofT in a Sekar or “shut-up” (also c Hennu) barge as we see the solar Osiris represented; and yet this sign must be associated with the caprine nurse of Zeus, perhaps with the satyr concept Pan, and with ^Esav who “returned to his way of Seair-ah,” for Cheper also means “shaggy” in Arabic, hence “lion” or Chephir (Ps.5 117). This isolated ritual, coupled with the annual observance of Cheppor-im, tends to show that the Israelites, like their neighbors, based their worship or religious observances on the movements of the Sun and hosts of Heaven ; and that Jehoah had some rival who must be propitiated because he had power to overcome the Sun, to bring forth storms, &c. And it also appears that propitiation was not all, but that they sacrificed to the Seair-im (Lev. 17:7; 2 Chr. 11:15).

* The figure of a “crab” or Cancer was the Zodiacal sign for themonth in which the Sun begins its retreat ; but the Egyptians altered it to the Khepera or “scarab,” symbol of Khepera and sacred.

An Inquiry Into the Influence of the More Ancient
People Upon Hebrew History and the
Jewish Religion

And Some Investigation Into the Facts
and Statements Made as to
Jesus of Nazareth




In the Babylonian creation Anu is said to select certain stars as measuring stars, and regulators of time and period called ‘period stars.’ A list of seven of these is given[31] named the ‘Measures.’ The proper name is tamsil and the determinative denotes a sheep or flock. These were the shepherding stars of the celestial flock. Sil, or ser (Eg.), means to regulate, dispose, arrange, be at the head. The ser is also the name of the builder’s measuring-line. The guiding-stars and timekeepers were known by the name of the Disposers. Tam, in Akkadian, is a day, but the word tamsil is the amsil formed with the t prefix, and t-am is the equivalent of am-t (Eg.). Am is written with the cross sign, and is a figure of crossing, like tek of the tekani (decani), or stars that crossed every ten days. Amt means in the middle of; that is, in the mid-heaven, the centre at the moment of culmination, the transit or crossing. In the calendar of astronomical observations found in the royal tombs of the twentieth dynasty, the crossing stars are described in seven different positions portrayed by means of the human figure, thus: 1-left shoulder; 2-left ear; 3-left eye; 4-in the middle; 5-right eye; [p.472] 6-right ear; 7-right shoulder. This chart of the seven positions, and measure of seven degrees, will probably be found to be connected with the Akkadian tamsil, and the seven measures of starry time. The first tamsil, whether as constellation or crossing-stars, were the seven stars of Ursa Major, the seven of the Chinese bushel measure, and the seven in number still dominates in the measure by seven vertical lines being drawn to determine the passage of the stars[32]. As so often iterated, for the sake of saving the reader the trouble of continual cross reference, the Great Bear constellation was depicted as the typhonian goddess of gestation, the hippopotamus, one of whose names is Teb. The star Dubhe, in the Great Bear, still preserves the name of Teb or Typhon in heaven. Also tabi is an Egyptian name of the bear. The Assyrian name of the bear is dabu, and this is applied to the constellation Kakabu dabi, the star of the Bear. But the difficulty of Assyriologists has been to determine the nature of the animal when the name was used. For instance, the word sakh is the Akkadian equivalent for the Assyrian dabu, and one translator finds the name to be more appropriate to the hippopotamus than to the bear; another doubtfully suggests the beaver, and each without reference to those Egyptian things which determine the names. The teb was the hippopotamus of Egypt, and the name was afterwards given to the bear, or rather the bear followed the water-horse as the image of the bearing mother, Teb. The Akkadian name of the bear is sakh, and in Egyptian sakh denotes the illuminator and enlightener. Sâhu (sakhu) also means to perambulate, go round, a revolving group of stars. Orion, for instance, is a sahu or sakhu. But the seven stars constituted the first sakhu. These, with Sirius added, are the eight signified by the eight-pointed star of Sut as before explained.

In Egyptian the number seven in one form is written sefekh, in another sekhef. My own conclusion is that these resolve into sef or kef with the value of number five, or the hand, which with the terminal ti signifies number seven, as sebti, hepti or khepti, and that the name of the goddess Seven (read Sefekh) really denotes the secondary form of sef or khef, needing the two horns or tongues, as the ti to make the full sign of number seven.

Skhef will deposit both sef and khef as types for number seven skhef and sefkh will modify and meet in sekhu with the passing of f into u. Here alone, in Egyptian, do we unearth a root or type-word for a particular form of the seven found in schuh, Norway gipsy; sik, Arago, (Papuan); tsook, Skwali; tseek-wah, Skittegats; huisca, Guajiquiro; shakoee, Yankton (Sioux); shahko, Winebago; shakopi, Dakota; seigbe, Khotovzi (Yeniseian); sqwithi, Mingrelian; s’kit, Lazic; isgwit, Suanic; s’widi, Georgian; Targumic, zgtha (אתגז), synonymous with gaish for a group of (seven?) stars; seacht, Irish; seachd, Scotch; shiaght, [p.473] Manx, which latter modify into seyth, Cornish, and saith, Welsh. Sekhf then is probably the older form of sakhu and sâhu, the constellation which is identified by the Akkadian sakh as the seven stars or the sevenfold-star of the Bear. Nor is this the only form of the seven or seventh to be found under the name, for sakus was the Assyrian kaivanu, the Hebrew ןויכ Kivan, the star of Israel which has been mixed up with the male Saturn; Lubatu sakus being a title of Saturn. Sakus as the planet Seven agrees with this derivation of sakh for the seven stars, whilst the seven and seventh of sakhu and sakus afford good evidence that the earlier typical sakhu or sâhu (Eg.) was the constellation of seven stars, and that all these are forms of the word skhf for number seven.

The Bear is also named Sakh-Khussu, in Assyrian Russu. In Egyptian khus means the turner back or returning one, and rus signifies to rise up, watch, and be vigilant. The seven stars of the Bear were the earliest revolvers and watchers, the illuminators of the mind’s eye of the first observers. The Bear is likewise designated, in Akkadian, sakh-sika. Sika (Eg.) means to drag and draw with the leg for determinative, and the Bear is the constellation of the hinder thigh. Sika (Eg.) is also the plough, another name of the same constellation. Further, the Bear is called Sakh-Maganna, and Magan or Makan has been identified as Egypt, or the ship-region. The Bear of Egypt is the hippopotamus, the Egyptian type of the goddess of the seven stars. The pregnant hippopotamus, the bearer of the waters, was the primordial ark; she was Teb, the living Teba; before boats were built she was the ship of the north.

Ma-Khan (Eg.) means the bearer of the waters, and when the Egyptians could build a boat they named it the makhan, from ma, water (or the mother), and khan, to carry, bear, transport, navigate. The makhennu is the boat of souls, and the primordial image of this in heaven was the group of seven stars, whose khenit or sailors were the seven Cabiri, of the Sakh-Maganna, the bearer as the Bear. The proof of this is furnished by the seven spirits of the Great Bear being called the planks in the boat of souls, which is the makhehnu. The mundane type of the boat appears in the magana (Tasmanian), the name of the mons veneris or uterus, the primordial makhen as the boat of the living. In the Kiwomi and Coehetimi dialects maichana is the name for number seven, which illustrates the interchange of the original type-names. In the same way maganna as the name of Egypt equates with khebt which also has the value of number seven, from khep the hand, and ti, two, whence hepti for no.7.

In the Chaldean creation[33] it is said of the god ‘He made the year into quarters,’ and the word for quarters is mizrata, sometimes written mizriti; the etymology is uncertain. Mest (Eg.) represents the Hebrew mitz in Mitzraim, and is the birthplace; ret or rat is to repeat, be repeated, several. Mest-rat yields the divisions of the [p.474] birthplace, and these were the four quarters. Mazzaroth then is first-named from the birthplace of the beginning, formed of the four quarters of the Great Bear, where we find the star Mizar in the tail or Mest-ru. Moreover the Hebrew terminal in תורזמ, represents the aft (Eg.) of the four quarters, and Mitzr-aft is the Mitzr of the four quarters, which belonged either to the constellation or the circle of the Great Bear before Mazzaroth had been extended to the circle of the signs and the four quarters of the solar zodiac. The moon is said to complete its hours (make its dual lunation) in Arbati Mizriti, or four quarters[34]. The division of the circle of the constellation into quarters is marked in the Umazzir for ‘He divided’ the year into the twelve months. The Maz-arta, a watch, was then derived from the division of the night or circle of the stars into quarters. A watch was a piece of time long before it was a timepiece.


3 Responses to “Aabera-im”

  1. 1 farang March 21, 2014 at 10:06 am

    Wow, so were exactly, specifically, would one find “Jaam” and “Jah” in Egyptian hieroglyphs, since they had no “J”? In your rather vivid imagination, one might guess….

    It is “Iam/Yam”, not “Jaam” (Yam: El’s son, Ba’al’s brother). Iah/yah is the Egyptian Moon God. IahWei means Iah from Wia.

    And the “Chaldeans” (“Khaldi in actually fact: Urartian/Hurrian/Armenian) chief deity was Tesub, sometimes Hiya. Tesub is pronounced Tae Sheba. His wife, Istar, is the Queen of (Tae) Sheba. Sent as a statue to Amenhotep III by Mittani (Hurrian) king Tushratta. he is the REAL Solomon”, and it derives from the Jebusite god of the city (Jerusalem) “Shulamnu.” dervitiatives of which you will find in a Jewsih surname to this day: Shulman.

    Amenhotep III was The Aten: Ba’al. Worshiped by his son as a GOD.

    • 2 farang March 21, 2014 at 10:13 am

      “Moderate” this: “Ester” is actually Istar. her uncle “Mordecai” is actually Marduk. The prince she murders, Hanum”, is actually hanuman, Rama’s monkeygod bff.
      “Vach”, the queen she “replaces” is the eastern Vedic Mother Goddess: Vashti.

      As usual, Jews stole myth, twisted it (Torah’ed it) into barely recognizable VEDIC MYTHS.

      Why? Because “jews” are actually WESTERN Vedic Brahma worshipers….”Abram…A Brahma. From the Sarasvati River valley Brahma worshiping culture. Sarasvati, another name for Vashti. SARAI! A tributary river there? Ghaggar….Hagar.

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