Poseidon is supposed to be associatedwith fresh water. The name Poseidon has been interpreted to mean ‘Husband of Earth’, andthe *da- component was assumed as a pre-Greek name of the earth goddess Ge.
After the death of Hyperion, the myth relates, the kingdom was divided among the sons of Ouranos, the most renowned of whom were Atlas and Kronos Of these sons Atlas received as his part the regions on the coast of Oceanus (the Ocean), and he not only gave the name of Atlantioi (Atlantians) to his peoples but likewise called the greatest mountain in the land Atlas Seneca, Medea 375 ff (trans Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A D ) : “Any little craft now wanders at will upon the deep All bounds have been removed There will come an age in the far-off years when Oceanus shall unloose the bonds of things, when the whole broad earth shall be revealed, when Tethys shall disclose new worlds and Thule [a mythical northern land] not be the limit of the lands ” The Elysian Fields in Egyptian Texts, has clarified the role of the bull, except that he has not seen the astronomical meaning
To gain admittance to the Elysian Fields, the hero must defeat the bull; he enters as the conqueror of the bull that guards the route to the West, that guards the Elysian Fields One of Pyramid texts reads: “The Bull of the Sky inclines his horn, so that he [the deceased] may pass ” At times the bull instead of being presented as an enemy is a friend who helps in in crossings; the bull itself is identified with the hero and becomes the actor of the triumphant crossing: “He comes out into the sky He crosses the vault of heaven, lively and powerful, he crosses the foamy Oceanus, overthrowing the wall of Shu ”
The name of Melqaart was usually rendered by the Greeks by “Herakles,” but also by “Kronos ” Hence the Straits of Gibraltar were associated also with the name of Kronos, and the Atlantic Ocean beyond them was called the Sea of Kronos According to Homer and Hesiodus, the country of the first deified kings of the ancient world had been in the extreme parts of the Greek horizon, at north of Thrace or Istru, called in Greek legends Oceanus potamos, the father of gods (Homer, Iliad, XIV, v. 201. 227).
The ancient “Oceanus potamos” of the geography of Pelasgian times was not an internal sea, but neither external, as it was later believed, but a simple river, roos (Homer, Iliad, XVIII. 402; Odyss. XI. 21. 639; XII. 1; Hesiodus, Op. 566); mediteranean, messo; big, megalos potamos (Homer, Odyss. XI. 157-8); deep flowing, bathurroos (Homer, Odyss. XI. 13); which had its sources (Hesiodus, Theog. v. 282), cataracts (Homer, Iliad, XVIII. 403; Orpheus, Argon. V. 1069. 1160; Strabo, I. 1. 7) and whirlpools (Homer, Odyss. X. 511), and which, as Homer tells us, could not be crossed by foot, but only by ship or well built boats (Odyss. XI. 158). Beyond Oceanus potamos, meaning in the northwards regions, there still existed a considerable part of the European continent, with other rivers, high mountains, rocks, woods (Homer, Odyss. X. 508 seqq; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 129), vast and fertile plains (Homer, Iliad, XVIII. 541 seqq), often named in the geography of those times ta eschata and peirata gaies meaning the extreme regions, and “ultima terra” by Ovid (Trist. III. 4. 52) .
[2. That Oceanus potamos must have been a river, or a flowing sea, which encircled the extreme parts of the whole earth, is an entirely wrong interpretation of the ancient geographical traditions. Homer does not say anywhere that Oceanus had been an external sea. In fact, the Greeks did not know in those times either the western Ocean, or the northern one.
It is true that Homer (Hymn. in Ven. 228) and Hesiodus (Theog. 79. 282) tell us that Oceanus potamos flew alongside Gaea or Terra; but under this expression must not be understood the entire earth, but only a certain geographical region, Gaia or Terra, the land or the blessed country, which forms the theater of the traditional legends and great events of the Pelasgian times; in the same way, the Istru, or the lower Danube, circles even today, on three sides, in the shape of an arc, the territory called “Tera” and “Tera Romanesca”, which from the point of view of its geography and name is identical with “Gaea” or “Terra” of the legends of antiquity.
The same geographical idea is also expressed in the text of the Iliad. On the shield of Achilles, Homer tells us, Vulcan had represented in fact not the entire terrestrial globe, but only the fertile land from the northern parts of Thrace, Gaia (Terra), also called “polus Geticus”; where the constellations of the “Ursa” rotate; where some plough the rich and wide plains, and others harvest the abundant crops, where are vineyards with excellent grapes, golden and black, which young girls and boys gather in baskets, singing with pleasant voices, and beating the earth rhythmically with their feet. Near this land, so rich in its crops and attractive for its customs and its pastoral and agricultural festivities, Vulcan, the Iliad tells us, had also shown on the edge of the shield the river Oceanus potamos.
In ancient Greek poems, Oceanus potamos has also the epithet aphorroos (Homer, Iliad, XVIII. 399; Odyss. XX. 65), a word whose real meaning is that the flowing water of the river Oceanus was turning back in some places, or formed whirlpools. The same term is often replaced by the epithet bathudines, with deep eddies (Homer, Odyss. X. 511; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 133).
In regard to the ancient geographical meanings of the word Oceanus, we can distinguish three periods. In the first period, or ante-Homeric, under the name of “Oceanus” was understood the Pontos, or the Black Sea, a name from which the epithet axeinos had been preserved until late, but with an entirely different meaning in Greek language than the original one, and the Istru was considered in those times only as a gulf of the Ocean (Strabo, I. 1. 7). Another gulf of this Ocean was formed by the Meotic Lake (Pliny, II. 67). In the second geographical period, or the Homeric and Hesiodic times, the Black Sea is Pontos, and the Istru appears under the name ‘Ocheanos potamos and roos ‘Ocheanoio.
Finally, in the third period, the names “Oceanus” and “Oceanus potamos” are merge and the term “Oceanus” is applied only to the external seas]. In the Argonautic legends, Oceanus potamos is the same slowly flowing river like the Istru of later times. According to Hesiodus, Pindar, Antimachus and Orpheus, the Argonauts pass from the Euxine Pontos in the Mediterranean, sailing on Oceanus potamos (Hesiodus, Fragm. 57); and according to Apollonius Rhodius (Argon. IV. 288) and Valerius Flaccus (Argon. VIII. 185), they take the same way westwards, but navigating on the Istru, also called cheras ‘Ocheanoio.
The great river called Oceanus potamos, came from remote regions (Eschyl, Prom. v. 284), flew towards the Pontos from west to east; it then crossed the narrow straits of the Riphei mountains or Carpathians (Orpheus, Argon. V. 1080. 1123; 1201), where it formed many deep whirlpools, very dangerous for navigation (Ibid. v. 1083). From the same Riphei mountains flew, according to Eschyl (fragm. 73), the Istru. Near Riphei and near the Istru dwelt the Agathyrsii (R. Avienus, Descr. Orb. v. 455). Oceanus potamos, after leaving the precipitous straits of the Riphei mountains, flew through the valley or basin of these mountains (Orpheus, Argon. v. 1079), passed alongside plains with extensive pastures, where dwelt the most just of people (Ibid. v. 1136) and numerous pastoral tribes of Scythians, Hyperboreans, Getae, Sauromatae, Sindi, Arimaspians, etc (Ibid. v. 1062 seqq). The sailing boats navigated upriver on Oceanus potamos helped by the north wind Boreas (Homer, Odyss. X. 97). For Hesiodus, Oceanus potamos is a “sacred” river, ieros roos (Opera et dies, v. 566), or in other words it belonged to the religious history of primitive times.
The same epithet is inherited later by the Istru (Dionysius, Descr. orb. v. 298). Near Oceanus potamos were “the islands of the blessed”, macharon nasoi, destined as eternal residence for the illustrious men fallen at Thebes and Troy (Hesiodus, Opera et dies. v. 171). Among these “blessed” islands, the most famous had been in Homeric times Leuce (Pliny, lib. IV. 27. 2), today the Serpents’ Island, situated near the mouths of the Danube, where according to legends Achilles, the great hero of Trojan times, had been buried.
Close to Oceanus potamos had their dwellings the legendary Pygmeii, who, as Homer tells us, were in a perpetual war with flocks of cranes, which, departing from the winter and the many rains of the northern region, flew towards the south, over the flowing waters of the Ocean. The same Pygmeii appear also in the geographical notes of Pliny as settled in the southern parts of the lower Istru, or on the territory of actual Dobrogea. It is therefore without any doubt that the renowned river of ante-Homeric times, Oceanus potamos, which flew in the northern parts of Illyria and Thracia, from west to east, was identical with the great and sacred river of Greco-Roman antiquity, called Istros and Danubius. III.
The vast and fertile plains near Oceanus potamos are called in theogonies and the epic poems of antiquity Gaia or Terra, and the mountains of the northern parts, which encircled like a crown this country, are called Ourea machra “the long and high mountains” by Hesiodus (Theog. v. 129, “the high mountains” by Homer (Odyss. IX. 114), and “the mountains with high ridges” by Asius (frag. in Pausanias, lib. VII. 1). Even since the most remote of times this land had the renown of a blessed country (Diodorus Siculus, lib. III. 56), endowed in abundance with all the gifts of nature, and with an extraordinary fertility .
[3. In ante-Homeric times the temperature of the countries on the lower Danube was much more favorable for vegetation growth; this results from many fragmentary data found with the Greek authors and in the Egyptian papyri, in which the country of the great gods from the region of the north is mentioned]. Here, writes Homer, the earth produces everything, without seed and without tilling, wheat, oats and grapevines (Odyss. IX. 109). Near Oceanus (potamos), Hesiodus tells us, the earth blossoms and produces fruit three times a year (Opera, v. 169; Diodorus, II. 47; Chronicon Dubnicense, Ed. Florianus, c. 28). With Homer, Oceanus potamos is called “father of gods” (theon genesis), understand of the deified ancient kings. With Hesiodus though, the genealogy of these kings is reduced to Gaea, the blessed country near Oceanus potamos.
Finally, according to the poet Asius, Pelasg, the first king of the Pelasgian nation, identical in fact with Uranos, had been born on the “Mountains with high ridges”, on the territory called Gaia melaina, meaning from the “Black Country (Tera)”. As we see, we have here the same historical tradition about the same geographical region which Homer characterizes by its proximity with Oceanus potamos, Hesiodus by its fertile plains called Gaia or Terra, and the poet Asius by its “Mountains with high ridges”.
In regard to the geographical configuration of this country, the stoic philosopher Posidonius (2nd century bc) tells us that Terra or Gaea had the shape of a sling, wider in its middle part and narrower on its eastern and western parts (fragm. 69 in Fragm. Hist. gr. III. 282; Dionysius, Orb. Descr. 7). The same geographical shape had, according to Strabo, the country of the Getae, a Geton ga, which was narrow at one end (western), stretched along the Istru on its southern side, while on the opposite or northern side, it stretched to the foothills of the Hercinic mountains, also comprising a part of these mountains; finally, in the northern parts (understand east) it opened right to the Tyregetae (Geogr. Lib. VII. 3. 1). About the country of the Getae, considered in antiquity as identical with the country near Oceanus potamos, we also have an important geographical note.
The astronomer Pytheas of the 4th century bc, had called the country of the Getae Parocheanitis, meaning the country near Oceanus potamos, and he had based this geographical name on ancient astronomical and geometrical descriptions (Strabo, Geogr. VII. 3. 1).
There is no doubt that the territory called Gaea or Terra by the legends of antiquity, which also had the epithet orestera, “mountainous” (Sophocles, Philoctetes, v. 391) and pelore “country of the giants” (Hesiodus, Theog. v. 731), was identical with the region at north of the lower Danube, which bears to this day the name “Tera” and “Tera muntenesca” (TN – Mountainous Country), and the “country of the giants” in our folk legends. IV. According to other historical traditions, the great empire of the Pelasgian race had its beginnings near the high Atlas mountain, on the northern parts of the Greek zone, situated in the geographical region Gaea or Terra (Hesiodus, Theog. v. 517-8; Diod. Siculus, lib III. 60).
The titan Atlas, according to Greek theogonies, had been brother with Oceanus potamos (Eschyl, Prom. v. 347 seqq), or with Saturn (Diodorus Siculus, lib.III. 60; Fragm Hist. Gr. III. 567.14), and according to other genealogies, with Prometheus (Hesiodus, Theog. v. 509-510). Atlas had taken part in the battles of the Titans against Jove, because of which the new master of the ancient world had condemned him to support the sky on his tireless shoulders and arms (Hesiodus, Theog. v. 517-519).
But Atlas had been later transformed in a vast mountain, on which was supported the northern pole of the sky, called cardines mundi, septentrio (Pliny, lib. IV. 26. 11; Isidorus, Orig. XIII. 1. 8; Ovid, Pont. Lib. II. 10), Rhiphaeus axis (Claudianus, lib. XXXVIII. v. 30-31; Virgil, Aen. IV. 481-482), Hyperborei axes (Silvius, Thebaid. XII. v. 650; Mela, lib. III. 5) and Geticus polus (Martial, Epigr. Lib. IX. 46. v. 1-2 – On the sky this pole was represented by the 7 stars, called Ursa Major).
From the point of view of its geographical position, Atlas mountain of the legends of antiquity represents the southern chain of the Carpathians, the center of which is crossed by the river today called Olt, Atlas by Herodotus and Alutus in the Roman epoch . [4. The geography of prehistorical times is not the geography of Greco – Roman times. A large number of geographical names, together with their legends and traditions, had migrated at the same time as the Pelasgian pastoral tribes, some westwards, others southwards.
Atlas mountain of the legends of theogony is in no way the Atlas mountain of the north-west parts of Africa, as it results from the poems of Homer and Hesiodus, and as expressed very clearly in fact by the grammarian Apollodorus (Bibl. II. 5. 11)]. On the oldest coins of Dacia, Maia, the daughter of the titan Atlas, is often represented as a protective divinity of this country (see Ch. XXXIII. 4).
The country over which the titan Atlas had ruled is called in Greek traditions Atlantis (Plato, Critias, p. 251 seqq), identical by name and geographical position with the regions near the mountain and the river Atlas, on both sides of the Carpathians, today Oltenia and Tera Oltului. Diodorus Siculus writes (lib. III. 56) about the inhabitants of this land, called Atlantes (Olteni): The Atlantes, who dwell in the regions near Oceanus (potamos), owners of that blessed country, distinguish themselves, as it is said, among all their neighboring peoples, for their particular piety and hospitality. They boast that the gods had been born there, and say that the first king of theirs had been Uranos (Munteanul), who had gathered in villages and cities the people who used to dwell scattered, and had forbidden them to continue living without laws, and by the manner of wild animals.
This Uranos had under his rule the best part of the world, especially the regions towards west and north. Another historical narrative about the inhabitants from near Atlas mountain is found with Plato, extracted from a manuscript of Solon, which had been left in the possession of the Critias family.
Solon, the illustrious archontas of Athens, born around 639bc, had made several travels during his life, in order to know the state of civilization and customs of the neighboring peoples. Visiting the Egypt also, Solon had had on this occasion an interesting conversation with the priests of Sais, a city situated in the Nile delta. One of these priests said the following towards Solon (Plato, Timaeus, ed. Didot, II. 199 seqq): All the big and memorable events, whose fame had reached even Egypt, had been written down since the most remote of times, and these documents had been later conserved in the archives of our temples.
Namely, it is written in our ancient annals that Athens had once defeated a great power, which had departed from the great Atlantic water, had subjected several lands and had mastered Libya as far as Egypt, and Europe as far as Tyrrhenia. This country, called Atlantis, had once gathered all its strength to also conquer our country (Egypt) and yours (Hellada). Then, your city, Solon, which distinguished itself by its courage and strength, placing itself at the head of the other Hellenic allies, had obtained a brilliant victory over those invaders, and in this way had saved from slavery those who had not yet been subjugated, and had freed from their rule all the peoples which dwell on this side of the Columns of Hercules. But, after these great events of war had passed, some earthquakes followed, together with flooding, and the land Atlantis disappeared in a single day and night under the waves of the waters, so that not even to this day those parts can be navigated, because of the mud deposited by the sunken land .
[5. In this historical narrative, as reproduced by Plato, not all the Greek expressions correspond exactly to their original meaning. If we analyzed the Greek text of this description from a critical point of view, it is very easy to see that in the Greek translation of Solon had been changed, not only the original form of the personal names (which even Plato admits), but, under the influence of newer ideas, also the original meaning of a number of geographical terms. So we see for example that in the Greek translation of Solon, Atlantis figures as nasos, meaning “island”, because it was situated on this side of Oceanus (potamos); the river Oceanus itself, which flew alongside Atlantis, is mistaken for the western Ocean, because of which it is sometimes called pelagos, and other times thalassa (Aristotle, De mundo, c. 3). In fact, the term nasos was also applied in older times to regions which did not form real islands, like for example Peloponnesos (Eustath. Comm. ad Dionys. 403).
In order not to continue with these geographical errors, we have translated here the term nasos with the words “region” and “country”, basing ourselves in this regard on the text of Diodorus Siculus, in which Atlantis figures as chora, not as “island”].
The manuscript of Solon about his conversations with the priests of Sais, addressed then the political, military and economic history of the country called Atlantis. From these notes we extract the following: In the beginning, the gods (kings of the divine dynasty of the Pelasgians), had divided among themselves the earth by drawing lots, and had governed the mortals according to their wisdom, exactly like the captains of ships. Neptune (Posidaon) had received the land called Atlantis, which he had divided among the ten sons of his.
The best part of this country he gave to Atlas, his eldest son, whom he named king over the other brothers, and these he named army commanders (archontas), giving to each extensive domains and governing power over a great multitude of people. From the name of Atlas, this entire region and that great water were called “Atlantis”. This region was rich in all sorts of minerals, extracted from the depth of the earth in solid or fluid form; but it was especially extracted from the mines a sort of yellow copper (aurichalcum), which in those times was considered as the most precious metal after gold. (In a Romanian carol from Constanta district the same metal is mentioned: “chair of chier galbin, on which God sits”).
This region (Plato, Critias, Ed. Didot, II. 255 seqq) was also rich in all sort of timber needed for constructions, and the soil produced there abundant crops twice a year. This entire region was formed of a plain, the best of all plains, endowed with all the gifts of nature and encircled by a crown of mountains, which descended to the great water. For the extension, size and beauty, these mountains surpassed all the mountains known at that time. In these mountains were a great number of rich villages, with rivers, lakes and abundant pastures and all sort of tame and wild animals.
The plain was level, and seen from the sea it had the aspect of an elevated plain. In its largest part this plain had the shape of a longish square with the direction south-west to north-east, being situated on the line of the northern wind. One of the sides of this square had a length of 3000 stades (540km), and the width at its center, starting from the great water upwards, was 2000 stades (360km).
Finally, the perimeter of this plain had a length of about 10,000 stades. The manuscript of Solon about the conversations which he had with the priests of Sais, ends in this way: In the course of a number of centuries, the inhabitants of this country (Atlantis), being led by the noblest feelings of justice, had been moderate and wise, they despised all worldly things, in order to be virtuous. But, after the divine part in them had started to disappear and their human nature had won, they fell into depravity, and Jove, the father of gods, who rules by law, understanding that a good genus of humans had become wicked, had decided to punish them, so that they would become more moderate .
[6. From this last part of the narrative results therefore that, from a historical point of view, a total disappearance or submersion of the country or region called Atlantis cannot be understood here, but only an extraordinary flooding, yet only temporary. A proof in this regard offers Diodorus (III. 57), who speaks about some historical traditions of the Atlantes (or the inhabitants near Atlas), gathered much later than those remote times about which spoke the priests of Sais.
Eumelus of Corinth or Arctinus of Miletus, Titanomachia Fragment 7 (from Athenaeus 11. 470B) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : “Theolytos says that he [Herakles] sailed across the sea [i.e. Oceanus] in a cauldron; but the first to give this story is the author of the Titanomakhia.” Stesichorus, Geryoneis Fragment S17 (from Athenaeus, Scholars at Dinner) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (Greek lyric C7th to C6th B.C.) : “Helios (the Sun) too was conveyed to his setting in a cup Stesichorus tells us in the following words: `And then Hyperion’s strong child [Helios] went down into the cup of solid gold, so that he might cross over Oceanus and reach the depths of holy, dark night and his mother [Theia] and wedded wife and dear children; while he Zeus’ son [Herakles], who has reached Erytheia in the cup or has traveled back to the mainland in it, now retuns it to Helios went on foot into the grove, shady with its laurels.'” Stesichorus, Geryoneis Fragment S17 (from Athenaeus, Scholars at Dinner) : “Stesichorus says that Helios (the Sun) sailed across Oceanus in a cup and that Herakles also crosssed over in it when travelling to get Geryon’s cattle.” Aeschylus, Fragment 37 Heracleidae (from Scholiast on Aristeides) (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) : “Starting thence, when that he [Herakles] had crossed Oceanus in a golden bowl [i.e. the boat of the sun-god Helios], he drave the straight-horned kine from the uttermost parts of the earth, slew the evil herdsmen and their triple-bodied master [Geryon].” Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 107 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “When Helios (the Sun) made him [Herakles] hot as he proceeded, he aimed his bow at the god and stretched it; Helios was so surprised at his daring that he gave him a golden goblet, in which he crossed Oceanus [to reach Erytheia] . . . He then loaded the cattle [of Geryon] into the goblet, sailed back to Tartessos, and returned the goblet to Helios.” Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 119 : “Then after proceeding through Libya to the sea beyond, he [Herakles] appropriated the goblet from Helios (the Sun) [for the trip round the river Oceanus from Libya to the Prometheus in the Kaukasos mountains].”
HE’LIOS (Hêlios or Êelios), that is, the sun, or the god of the sun. He is described as the son of Hyperion and Theia, and as a brother of Selene and Eos. (Hom. Od. xii. 176, 322, Hymn. in Min. 9, 13; Hes. Theog. 371, &c.) From his father, he is frequently called Hyperionides, or Hyperion, the latter of which is an abridged form of the patronymic, Hyperionion. (Hom. Od. xii. 176, Hymn. in Cer. 74; Hes. Theog. 1011; Hom. Od. i. 24, ii. 19, 398, Hymn. in Apoll. Pyth. 191.) In the Homeric hymn on Helios, he is called a son of Hyperion and Euryphaëssa.
Homer describes Helios as giving light both to gods and men: he rises in the east from Oceanus, though not from the river, but from some lake or bog (limnê) formed by Oceanus, rises up into heaven, where he reaches the highest point at noon time, and then he descends, arriving in the evening in the darkness of the west, and in Oceanus. (Il. vii. 422, Od. iii. 1, &c., 335, iv. 400, x. 191, xi. 18, xii. 380.)
Later poets have marvellously embellished this simple notion: they tell of a most magnificent palace of Helios in the east, containing a throne occupied by the god, and surrounded by personifications of the different divisions of time (Ov. Met. ii. 1, &c.); and while Homer speaks only of the gates of Helios in the west, later writers assign to him a second palace in the west, and describe his horses as feeding upon herbs growing in the islands of the blessed. (Nonn. Dionys. xii. 1, &c.; Athen. vii. 296; Stat. Theb. iii. 407.)
The points at which Helios rises and descends into the ocean are of course different at the different seasons of the year; and the extreme points in the north and south, between which the rising and setting take place, are the tropai êelioio. (Od. xv. 403; Hes. Op. et Dies, 449, 525.) The Olympus of the Iliad is not the Olympus of Thessaly, but the ancient Olympus from near Oceanus Potamos or Istru, where the “Origin of the gods” was (Homer, Iliad, XIV.v.199-205), “at the ends of the earth, which fed many people”.
The Olympus and Uranos of Homer are the holy mountains of theogony, Ourea macra (Hesiodus, Theog.v.129, 113), where Uranos, Gaea and Saturn had their residence (Homer, Iliad, VIII.v.470 seqq), where the people resembled the gods, and where these Titans warred with one another for the mastery of the world. The traditions of the ancients are not quite clear about the place where Saturn had been buried.
According to some mentions found with Homer and Hesiodus, Saturn had been thrown underground near Oceanus potamos (Iliad, XIV. 204), or had been buried alive, together with the other Titans, in the precipice, or vast and dark cave, called Tartaros (Homer, Iliad, VIII, 482; XIV, 274 seqq; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 851; Eschyl, Prom. vinct. v. 219; Apollonius Rhodius, I. 507).
Finally, there is another tradition, which presents Saturn as living in the blessed islands from Oceanus potamos, where he reigns over the souls of the deceased heroes (Hesiodus, Op. v. 169; Pindar, Olymp. II. 136). As we know, the most renowned of these blessed islands had been Leuce, or the “Serpents’ island”, near the mouths of the Danube, also called the “dwelling of the souls”, sedes animarum (Avienus, Descr. orb. v. 724), where, as the poet Arctinos said (Homer, Carmina, ed. Didot, p. 583), the ashes of Achilles had been taken and buried .
[2. According to Philochorus (fragm. 184), Saturn had been buried in Sicily (Sichelia). This is a simple geographical confusion. The term Sichelia is used here instead of Thrinachia, or Trinachria. With Homer though, Thrinachie nasos is an island in Oceanus potamos (Odyss. XI. 107; XII, 127; XIX, 275). With Apollonius Rhodius (Iv. 84), pontos trinachrios is the sea in which flows the eastern arm of Istru (the western arm flew into the Ionic sea). He calls the Danube delta (Peuce) triglochis, meaning triangular]. war with Osyris.
After becoming master over most of the ancient world, Saturn had to wage two long and arduous wars, one against Osyris, who had proclaimed himself king of Egypt, and the other with his son Jove, wars which had fatal consequences for the fate of the Pelasgian empire. Osyris, also called Dionysos by the Greeks (Herodouts, lib. II. 144; Diodorus Siculus, lib. I. 11), was an African from Ethiopia by origin. His father, as he asserted, had been Ammon (Uranos), the king of Libya and Egypt (Diodorus Siculus, lib. I. 15. 6; III. 68, 70).
According to some traditions, Osyris had been reared at Nysa in Arabia, and according to other authors, at Nysa near the river Triton in Libya, where he had received instruction in all the branches of ancient sciences. We find with Diodorus the following notes about the war of Saturn with Dionysos-Osyris: After occupying the kingdom of Ammon, Saturn led his troupes against Dionysos-Osyris, who had proclaimed himself at Nysa as legitimate son of Ammon (lib. I. III. 71-72), and where he had gathered a numerous army, composed especially of African elements.
After a fierce battle on both sides, Saturn being wounded and defeated, retreated with the troupes of the Titans to the places where Ammon had previously ruled. Dionysos-Osyris, taking with him the Titans which he had taken prisoners, returned to Nysa. There, he proclaimed himself “god” (king over Egypt); he asked the captive Titans to swear to faithfully fight for him, in order to accomplish what he had started, and then he led again his troupes against Saturn and his other allied Titans, who were in the city of Ammon, polis ‘Amonion, or Theba. Saturn with the troupes of the Titans met Dionysos-Osyris in front of the walls of the citadel, but was again defeated. Saturn tried to put fire to the city overnight and then fled. But Osyris caught Saturn and Rhea, and freed them only after they adopted him as a son, with the right of inheriting the empire (Pierret, Le livre d. morts, p. 116, 213, 397).
The war of Osyris with Typhon (I – II). The war of Jove with Typhon (III – IV). After the dethronement of Saturn, the internal peace of the great Pelasgian empire was again shattered, and a new war, much more violent and widespread broke out between the sons of Saturn, for the rule of the ancient world. Saturn had, according to ancient traditions, three sons (Homer, Iliad, XV. v. 187), who bear though in ancient theogonies different names.
The first one is called Typhon by the Greek authors (Philo, H. Ph. Fr. 2. 21; Plutarc, De Is.; Diodorus, I. I. 13. 21), Set by the Egyptians (Plutarc, De Is. c. 41), and Ahriman in the religious traditions of Persia and Bactria. The second son was Osyris, also called Dionysos by the Greeks, an African of obscure origin, but adopted by Saturn with rights of inheritance of the empire. Finally, the third son was Jove, who had been also reared in southern lands. The war waged by the Osyris and Jove against Typhon for the mastery of the ancient world bear in ancient Greek literature the name Gigantomachia, or the fight against the superb and ferocious tribes of the Guganii from the Mountains, agria phyla Giganton (Homer, Odyss. VII. 59-60), fight which took place near Oceanus potamos. Saturn’s war with Jove (Titanomachia). Saturn grew old (Saturnus senex) and weary because of his many expeditions to far away countries (Philo, Phoen. Hist. fr. 2. 24; Tertullianus, adv. Gentes, c. 10), made with the purpose of founding a single monarchy over the entire ancient world, a single government, the same laws and the same religion, and to introduce everywhere in the empire the benefits of agriculture, but he still had to sustain a 10 years long and fierce war with his son Jove, war which ended with his dethronement and the total annihilation of the ancient Pelasgian nobility, the Titans. The causes of this war were, according to Greek traditions, on the one hand the troubles existing between Saturn and his wife Rhea, and on the other hand the harshness shown by Saturn to the powerful class of the Titans, with the help of whom he had dethroned Uranos, but whom he had again thrown in subterranean prisons, because these Titans were always conspiring, always wanted to be masters. Saturn, as the ancients tell us, being forewarned by the oracle that one of his sons will oust him (Hesiodus, Theog. v. 463 seqq; Apollodorus, Bibl. I. 1. 5; Diodorus, I. V. 70), had tried many times to kill the children born by his wife Rhea. But notwithstanding his precautions, the decisions of his destiny were fulfilled. Rhea, being pregnant for the sixth time, ran to the island of Crete in order to escape Saturn’s anger, and gave birth in secret, in the cave called Dicte, to Jove. She entrusted him to the nymphs, or the mountain women from there, to rear him, and to the Curetes to guard him. Upon reaching maturity, Jove decided to take revenge on his father for persecuting the Titans and his own sons. So, he called to his help the Centimanii (leaders of the armies) and the Cyclops, masters of all sorts of mechanical works, who manufactured for him the thunderbolts, and freed from prisons the Titans discontented by Saturn’s reign. It is probable though that the biggest part of his troupes was composed of elements gathered from the southern countries, where he had been educated and where he had a lot of support. In the first war Saturn was defeated and forced to withdraw to Ianus, in Italy, a kingdom which was dependent on the Pelasgian empire. The most ancient Italic traditions speak about Saturn with a particular respect. He is shown as the civilizing factor of that country. He taught the inhabitants of Italy to recognize the benefits of agriculture and introduced there the first laws of divine origin (Virgil, Aen. VIII. 319 seqq; Tertullianus, Adv. gentes, c. 10; Isidorus, Orig. XIV. c. 4. 18; Macrobius, Sat. I. 7). After a while though, Saturn vanished from Italy. Incensed by the revolution taking place in his empire, Saturn called again the Titans to arms, asking for their help to decide their fate one way or another (Ovid, Fast. III. 796; Hyginus, Fab. 150). Saturn was again defeated. He was caught, chained (Cicero, N. D. II. 24; II. 25; Plato, Euthyphro, c. 6) and thrown into the cave, or the dark cavern called Tartaros by Greek sources, and Tatu in Egyptian papyri. As the historian Thallus tells us (fragm. 2 in Fragm. Hist. gr. III. 517), Belus, the king of Babylonia and Assyria, had helped Staurn in this war, and had fought together with the Titans of his kingdom against Jove and his other allies. The Greek poems present this war as a general commotion of the mortal people, of the men gods, and of all the elements of nature. The clamor of the war, writes Hesiodus, rose to the sky, Jove threw continuously his thunderbolts from Olympus, the earth shook and started to scream, the fire engulfed the huge woods, the Ocean (Istru) and the vast Pontos boiled, the entire atmosphere burnt, and it seemed that the sky had blended with the earth (Theog. v. 678 seqq). We find the same picture with the poet Quintus: the sky poured on the Titans all the power of its fire; the earth took fire and the flames engulfed the Titans from everywhere; the vast river of the Ocean started to boil in its depths, the springs dried up, and all the animals born by the earth perished (Posthomer, V. 104; VIII, 461 seqq). The place where all these extraordinary war events happened was, as results from the ancient traditions and legends, near Oceanus potamos (Istru), close to Atlas mountain (Hesiodus, Theog. v. 746; Hyginus, Fab. 150) The defeated troupes of the Titans withdrew towards the west, to the mountainous region called Tartaros (Homer, Iliad, XIV. 279; VIII. 481; Hymn. Apoll. v. 335-6; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 721), or Tatu by the Egyptians, at the Iron Gates, sidareiai pylai (Homer, Iliad, VIII. 13-15), “Porta Ser” in Egyptian papyri (Pierret, Le livre d. morts, p. 58) and the high Riphei mountains, behind which the sun passes into another geographical world, that of the dark, or of the night (Orpheus, Argon. v. 1123; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 748; Homer, Odyss. XI. 14 seqq). In the middle of these mountains, “covered by fog and by dark woods”, the glorious troupes of the Titans sustained the last defensive battles, but they were defeated and overwhelmed by Jove’s army and by the flames of the burning woods. This group of mountains, called by the ancients “Tartaros” and “Tatu”, seem to have been the strong citadel formed by the western ridge of Cerna According to what Diodorus Siculus says, the traditions of the inhabitants from near Atlas mountain told the following about the reign of Saturn over the ancient world: After the death of Uranos, the sovereign power over the empire passed on to his daughter Basilea (Lat. Regina), who had married her elder brother Hyperion. But, Hyperion dieing, the other sons of Uranos divided among themselves the empire of their father. Among these sons Atlas and Saturn especially distinguished themselves. Atlas received the regions near the river Oceanus (Istru), and Saturn, who had married Rhea, his second sister, ruled over Sicily, Libya, Italy, and especially over the regions from sundown, en tois pros esperan topois (III. c. 57-61, 66; V. 66. 5), understand the western parts of Atlas mountain, called by the ancients Hesperia (Ovid, Metam. IV. 618). Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1 498 ff : “He [the poet Orpheus] sang of How, in the beginning, Ophion and Eurynome, daughter of Oceanus, governed the world from snow-clad Olympos; how they were forcibly supplanted, Ophion by Kronos, Eurynome by Rhea; of their fall into the waters of Oceanus ” [N B Ophion and Eurynome might be Ouranos and Gaia or Oceanus and Tethys ] Callimachus, Aetia Fragment 43 (trans Trypanis) (Greek poet C3rd B C ) : “The builders made strong wooden towers with battlements [building the city of Zankle in Sicily], and placed them around the sickle of Kronos–for there in a cave is hidden under the earth the sickle with which he cut off his father’s genitals [the sickle was reputedly buried near where the city of Zankle (the Sickle) was founded] ” Lycophron, Alexandra 760 ff (trans Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B C ) : “The island [Drepane island of the Phaiakians] abhorred by Kronos–the isle of the Sickle that severed his [Ouranos’] privy parts ” Strabo, Geography 14 2 7 (trans Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B C to C1st A D ) : “Since they [the Telkhines] excelled in workmanship they first came from Krete to Kypros, and then to Rhodes; and that they were the first to work iron and brass, and in fact fabricated the scythe for Kronos ” Pausanias, Description of Greece 7 23 4 (trans Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A D ) `Divine one, you speak that which we know well: nay, even of ourselves we know that your wisdom and understanding is exceeding, and that you became a defender of the deathless ones from chill doom And through your devising we are come back again from the murky gloom and from our merciless bonds, enjoying what we looked not for, O lord, son of Cronos And so now with fixed purpose and deliberate counsel we will aid your power in dreadful strife and will fight against the Titans in hard battle ‘ (ll 664-686) So he said: and the gods, givers of good things, applauded when they heard his word, and their spirit longed for war even more than before, and they all, both male and female, stirred up hated battle that day, the Titan gods, and all that were born of Cronos together with those dread, mighty ones of overwhelming strength whom Zeus brought up to the light from Erebus beneath the earth An hundred arms sprang from the shoulders of all alike, and each had fifty heads growing upon his shoulders upon stout limbs These, then, stood against the Titans in grim strife, holding huge rocks in their strong hands And on the other part the Titans eagerly strengthened their ranks, and both sides at one time showed the work of their hands and their might The boundless sea rang terribly around, and the earth crashed loudly: wide Heaven was shaken and groaned, and high Olympus reeled from its foundation under the charge of the undying gods, and a heavy quaking reached dim Tartarus and the deep sound of their feet in the fearful onset and of their hard missiles So, then, they launched their grievous shafts upon one another, and the cry of both armies as they shouted reached to starry heaven; and they met together with a great battle-cry (ll 687-712) Then Zeus no longer held back his might; but straight his heart was filled with fury and he showed forth all his strength From Heaven and from Olympus he came forthwith, hurling his lightning: the bold flew thick and fast from his strong hand together with thunder and lightning, whirling an awesome flame The life-giving earth crashed around in burning, and the vast wood crackled loud with fire all about All the land seethed, and Ocean’s streams and the unfruitful sea The hot vapour lapped round the earthborn Titans: flame unspeakable rose to the bright upper air: the flashing glare of the thunder- stone and lightning blinded their eyes for all that there were strong Astounding heat seized Chaos: and to see with eyes and to hear the sound with ears it seemed even as if Earth and wide Heaven above came together; for such a mighty crash would have arisen if Earth were being hurled to ruin, and Heaven from on high were hurling her down; so great a crash was there while the gods were meeting together in strife Also the winds brought rumbling earthquake and duststorm, thunder and lightning and the lurid thunderbolt, which are the shafts of great Zeus, and carried the clangour and the warcry into the midst of the two hosts An horrible uproar of terrible strife arose: mighty deeds were shown and the battle inclined But until then, they kept at one another and fought continually in cruel war (ll 713-735) And amongst the foremost Cottus and Briareos and Gyes insatiate for war raised fierce fighting: three hundred rocks, one upon another, they launched from their strong hands and overshadowed the Titans with their missiles, and buried them beneath the wide-pathed earth, and bound them in bitter chains when they had conquered them by their strength for all their great spirit, as far beneath the earth to Tartarus For a brazen anvil falling down from heaven nine nights and days would reach the earth upon the tenth: and again, a brazen anvil falling from earth nine nights and days would reach Tartarus upon the tenth Round it runs a fence of bronze, and night spreads in triple line all about it like a neck-circlet, while above grow the roots of the earth and unfruitful sea There by the counsel of Zeus who drives the clouds the Titan gods are hidden under misty gloom, in a dank place where are the ends of the huge earth And they may not go out; for Poseidon fixed gates of bronze upon it, and a wall runs all round it on every side There Gyes and Cottus and great-souled Obriareus live, trusty warders of Zeus who holds the aegis (ll 736-744) And there, all in their order, are the sources and ends of gloomy earth and misty Tartarus and the unfruitful sea and starry heaven, loathsome and dank, which even the gods abhor It is a great gulf, and if once a man were within the gates, he would not reach the floor until a whole year had reached its end, but cruel blast upon blast would carry him this way and that And this marvel is awful even to the deathless gods (ll 744-757)
There stands the awful home of murky Night wrapped in dark clouds In front of it the son of Iapetus (22) stands immovably upholding the wide heaven upon his head and unwearying hands, where Night and Day draw near and greet one another as they pass the great threshold of bronze: and while the one is about to go down into the house, the other comes out at the door And the house never holds them both within; but always one is without the house passing over the earth, while the other stays at home and waits until the time for her journeying come; and the one holds all-seeing light for them on earth, but the other holds in her arms Sleep the brother of Death, even evil Night, wrapped in a vaporous cloud (ll 758-766) And there the children of dark Night have their dwellings, Sleep and Death, awful gods The glowing Sun never looks upon them with his beams, neither as he goes up into heaven, nor as he comes down from heaven And the former of them roams peacefully over the earth and the sea’s broad back and is kindly to men; but the other has a heart of iron, and his spirit within him is pitiless as bronze: whomsoever of men he has once seized he holds fast: and he is hateful even to the deathless gods (ll 767-774)
There, in front, stand the echoing halls of the god of the lower-world, strong Hades, and of awful Persephone A fearful hound guards the house in front, pitiless, and he has a cruel trick On those who go in he fawns with his tail and both is ears, but suffers them not to go out back again, but keeps watch and devours whomsoever he catches going out of the gates of strong Hades and awful Persephone (ll 775-806) And there dwells the goddess loathed by the deathless gods, terrible Styx, eldest daughter of back-flowing Ocean She lives apart from the gods in her glorious house vaulted over with great rocks and propped up to heaven all round with silver pillars Rarely does the daughter of Thaumas, swift- footed Iris, come to her with a message over the sea’s wide back But when strife and quarrel arise among the deathless gods, and when any of them who live in the house of Olympus lies, then Zeus sends Iris to bring in a golden jug the great oath of the gods from far away, the famous cold water which trickles down from a high and beetling rock Far under the wide-pathed earth a branch of Oceanus flows through the dark night out of the holy stream, and a tenth part of his water is allotted to her With nine silver-swirling streams he winds about the earth and the sea’s wide back, and then falls into the main (24); but the tenth flows out from a rock, a sore trouble to the gods For whoever of the deathless gods that hold the peaks of snowy Olympus pours a libation of her water is forsworn, lies breathless until a full year is completed, and never comes near to taste ambrosia and nectar, but lies spiritless and voiceless on a strewn bed: and a heavy trance overshadows him But when he has spent a long year in his sickness, another penance and an harder follows after the first Helios loaned his golden cup-boat to Herakles when that hero sought passage to Erytheia, the land of the setting sun in the west, in his quest for the cattle of Geryon Eumelus of Corinth or Arctinus of Miletus, Titanomachia Fragment 7 (from Athenaeus 11 470B) (trans Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th B C ) : “Theolytos says that he [Herakles] sailed across the sea [i e Oceanus] in a cauldron; but the first to give this story is the author of the Titanomakhia ” Stesichorus, Geryoneis Fragment S17 (from Athenaeus, Scholars at Dinner) (trans Campbell, Vol Greek Lyric III) (Greek lyric C7th to C6th B C ) : “Helios (the Sun) too was conveyed to his setting in a cup Stesichorus tells us in the following words: `And then Hyperion’s strong child [Helios] went down into the cup of solid gold, so that he might cross over Oceanus and reach the depths of holy, dark night and his mother [Theia] and wedded wife and dear children; while he Zeus’ son [Herakles], who has reached Erytheia in the cup or has traveled back to the mainland in it, now retuns it to Helios went on foot into the grove, shady with its laurels ‘” Stesichorus, Geryoneis Fragment S17 (from Athenaeus, Scholars at Dinner) : “Stesichorus says that Helios (the Sun) sailed across Oceanus in a cup and that Herakles also crosssed over in it when travelling to get Geryon’s cattle ” Aeschylus, Fragment 37 Heracleidae (from Scholiast on Aristeides) (trans Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B C ) : “Starting thence, when that he [Herakles] had crossed Oceanus in a golden bowl [i e the boat of the sun-god Helios], he drave the straight-horned kine from the uttermost parts of the earth, slew the evil herdsmen and their triple-bodied master [Geryon] ” Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2 107 (trans Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A D ) : “When Helios (the Sun) made him [Herakles] hot as he proceeded, he aimed his bow at the god and stretched it; Helios was so surprised at his daring that he gave him a golden goblet, in which he crossed Oceanus [to reach Erytheia] He then loaded the cattle [of Geryon] into the goblet, sailed back to Tartessos, and returned the goblet to Helios ” Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2 119 : “Then after proceeding through Libya to the sea beyond, he [Herakles] appropriated the goblet from Helios (the Sun) [for the trip round the river Oceanus from Libya to the Prometheus in the Kaukasos mountains] ” Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 1. 563 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “It was only after the battle with fierce Iapetus [general of the Titanes] and the toils of Phlegra [against the Gigantes] that Olympus’ palace set me [Zeus] over the universe.” Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1. 378 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “[Zeus speaks :] `What will my aigis [storm-cloud] do fighting with Typhon’s thunderbolt? I fear old Kronos may laugh aloud, I am shy of the proud neck of my lordly adversary Iapetos.'” Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. 298 ff : “[Typhoeus boasts of his intentions once he has seized the throne of heaven :] `I will keep the chains of Iapetos for Poseidon [i.e. he will free Iapetos from his chains and replace him with Poseidon in Tartaros].'” Euripides, Hippolytus 742 ff (trans. Vellacott) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) : “The apple-bearing Hesperian coast, of which the minstrels sing. Where the Lord of Oceanus denies the voyager further sailing and fixes the solemn limit of Ouranos (Heaven) which Giant Atlas upholds. There the streams flow with ambrosia by Zeus’s bed of love and holy Gaia (Earth), the giver of life, yield to the gods rich blessedness.” After the death of Uranos, the sovereign power over the empire passed on to his daughter Basilea (Lat. Regina), who had married her elder brother Hyperion. But, Hyperion dieing, the other sons of Uranos divided among themselves the empire of their father. Among these sons Atlas and Saturn especially distinguished themselves. Atlas received the regions near the river Oceanus (Istru), and Saturn, who had married Rhea, his second sister, ruled over Sicily, Libya, Italy, and especially over the regions from sundown, en tois pros esperan topois (III. c. 57-61, 66; V. 66. 5), understand the western parts of Atlas mountain, called by the ancients Hesperia (Ovid, Metam. IV. 618). Homer and Hesiodus show Saturn as king of the Titans, or the ancient and powerful nobility from Oceanus potamos (Homer, Iliad, VIII. 479; XIV. 203, 279; XV, 225; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 851; Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. I. 507; Apollodorus, Bibl. I. 1. 4). OCEANUS (or Oceanus) was the Titan god or Protogenos (primeval deity) of the great earth-encircling river Oceanus, the font of all the earth’s fresh-water: including rivers, wells, springs and rain-clouds. Oceanus was also the god who regulated the rising and setting of the heavenly bodies which were believed to emerge and descend into his watery realm at the ends of the earth. Oceanus’ wife was Tethys, the nurse, who was probably thought to distribute his water to the earth via subterranean caverns. Their children were the Potamoi or River-Gods and Okeanides, nymphs of springs and fountains. Unlike his brother Titanes, Oceanus neither participated in the castration of Ouranos nor joined the battle against the younger Olympian gods. He was probably identical to Ophion, an elder Titan in the Orphic myths who ruled heaven briefly before being wrestled and cast into the Ocean stream by Kronos. Oceanus was depicted in ancient Greek vase painting as a bull-horned god with the tail of a serpentine fish in place of legs, similar to his river-god sons. His usual attributes were a fish and serpent. In the Hellenistic era, Oceanus was redefined as the god of the newly accessible Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and the old cosmological idea of a great, earth-encircling, fresh-water stream was discarded. In mosaic art he therefore appears simply as a sea-god or the sea personified, with crab-claw horns, and for attributes, a serpent, oar and school of fish. His wife Tethys, shown seated beside him, had wings on her brow, in the role of mother of rain-clouds. In the Apollinic legends, near the pious Hyperboreans, and north of the Greek zone, appears also the archaic Ocean, which plays such an important role in the Urano – Saturnian theogony. Hecateus Abderitas tells us that Apollo’s island from the region of the Hyperboreans, was in the parts of the Ocean. The word Oceanus did not have in the beginning the meaning which was later given to it by the Greek authors, or in other words, the primitive Ocean of the old legends is not the Ocean of the historians and geographers, beginning even with old Herodotus’ time. At the time of Homer, the Greeks did not know the external sea, which today we call ocean. They had not explored westwards even the whole of the Mediterranean Sea. And as for the northern areas of Europe, their geographical notions had not extended in that epoch farther than the Black Sea and the Lower Danube.
The world was not always known as it is today, and even in Herodotus’ time, a quite late epoch after all, the geographic Greek horizon stopped at the Lower Danube. “North of Thrace” writes Herodotus, “nobody can know what sort of people live; it only seems that beyond the Istru there is uninhabited, infinite land” (lib. V. c. 9).
On another hand, the word Oceanus is not even Greek (the Greeks had only the general term of Thalassa for the notion of sea). It belongs to the archaic Pelasgian lexicon, by its original form (aqua), as well as by the ending an – os. By its primitive meaning, the word Oceanus meant big stagnant water . [1.
In Romanian, the word ochiu (and more correctly ociu) has the meaning of locus paluster (Lexiconul de Buda) and lake (TN – lac)(Cihac, Dictionnaire d’etymologie Daco-Romane, I. 184). So the form Ocean appears only as an increase in meaning of ochiu, ociu, meaning big lake.
According to Diodorus Siculus (I, 12. 5) the ancients understood by the word Oceane, humidity]. In the beginning the authors of antiquity used the word Oceanus as they had borrowed it from the Pelasgians, applying it exclusively to the Black Sea, which in a very remote prehistoric epoch, was only an immense lake, having no outlet to the Mediterranean Sea (Strabo, Geogr. I. 3. 4).
Strabo also tells us (Geogr. I. 2.10), when speaking about the Argonauts sailing towards the land rich in gold (Colchis), that in that epoch the Black Sea was considered as another Ocean. He says that those who navigated on the Black Sea, considered themselves as having traveled as far from the inhabited world, as if they had gone beyond the Columns of Hercules, and everybody believed that this sea was the most vast among the seas, reason for which it had been given the name of Pontos.
Even the archaic name Axenos (Axenus), given in the beginning to the Black Sea, was only a simple form of Greek pronunciation of the old Pelasgian word Ocean (Oceanus)(Strabo, Geogr. V. 3; Mela, lib. I. c.19). The antique etymologies which propose that Oceanus would derive from the adjective ochus, fast, and Axenus from the Greek word Axenos, inhospitable, have neither meaning, nor historical basis.
On another hand we find in Gaul even in the 4th century ad, the form Accion ( = Ocean), used as a name for the vast lakes (Rufus Aviennus, Ora maritima/ after Mullerus in Cl. Ptolemaei Geographia, Ed. Didot, p.235). This Ocean (or vast lake) of prehistoric geography, included not only the hydrographic basin of the Black Sea, but at the same time the wide, deep and slow course of the Istru, or the lower Danube.
So, in the Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius (Argon. IV. 282), a work of important Alexandrine erudition, the “wide and deep” lower Danube or Istru appears under the name of the Gulf or Horn of the Ocean (Keras Okeanoio). But the name of Oceanus was applied exclusively to the lower Danube (Oceanus potamos), especially in the theogonic legends of Homer (Odyss. XII.1) and Hesiodus (Theogonia, v.242. 959), probably because this great river of the ancient world was considered the final left over of the great masses of water which had covered the basin of the Romanian country and Hungary in past geological epochs.
This explains at the same time why the dwellings of the Hyperboreans appear to have been near the Ocean with Hecateus, while with Pindar they appear near the Istru or the lower Danube (Olymp.III.17). We’ve therefore established that, from a geographical point of view, the Hyperboreans’ Ocean, about which Hecateus Abderita writes, is neither the Arctic Ocean, nor the Western Ocean, or other unknown or imaginary sea, but exclusively the sea located north of the Greek world, the sea which Herodotus names “the most admirable of all seas” (lib. IV. 85), which Pomponius Mela (lib. I.c.19) and Dionysius Periegetus (Orbis Descriptio, v. 165) name “immense sea”, which the Romanian folk traditions name the Sea of seas (Codrescu, Bucium. Rom. III. 139) and which is named “Mare majus” on the medieval geographic maps.
In this Ocean therefore, at the edge of the Greek known world, was the holy island of Apollo, which, as we shall see in the following chapters, presents itself in everything as the Leuce Island or Alba (TN – white), which later on was consecrated to the memory and tomb of Achilles. Tartaros (Tartarus), a deep place, precipice, or dark cave, in which Jove had shut the Titans and Saturn.
According to the geographical notes of the ancients, the place called “Tartarus” was in the extreme parts, near Oceanus potamos, close to sidereiai pylai (Iron Gates). Tartaros is a barbarian word, rotacised, formed from tatan (TN – father), in Cod. Voronetian tatanru and tataru. Val. Flac. calls Saturn Tartarus pater, where “pater” is only a simple explanation, or a repetition of the word “Tartarus”, which had become obsolete. Euxine Pontos is often named by the authors of antiquity Scythicus Pontus, Scythicum and Sarmaticum mare
The titan Atlas, according to Greek theogonies, had been brother with Oceanus potamos (Eschyl, Prom. v. 347 seqq), or with Saturn (Diodorus Siculus, lib.III. 60; Fragm Hist. Gr. III. 567.14), and according to other genealogies, with Prometheus (Hesiodus, Theog. v. 509-510).
pela^g-os , eos, to, gen. pl. A. pelageôn Hdt.4.85 , S.Aj.702 (lyr.), pelagôn Th.4.24 ; Ep. dat. pelagessi (v. infr.) :–the sea, esp. high sea, open sea, p. mega Il.14.16 , Od.3.179, etc.; en pelageï anapeptamenôi Hdt.8.60 .a ; dia pelagous out at sea, opp. para gên, Th.6.13 : freq. coupled with other words denoting sea, halos en pelagessin Od.5.335 ; p. thalassês A.R.2.608 ; p. pontion, pontou p., Pi.O.7.56, Fr.235 ; halion p. E.Hec.938 (lyr.). 2. of parts of the sea ( [thalassa] ), freq. with geographical epith., Aigaion p. A.Ag.659, etc., cf. Hdt.4.85 (p. Aigaias halos E.Tr.88 , Men.Pk.379) ; Ikariôn huper pelageôn S.Aj.702 (lyr.), cf. Luc.Icar.3 ; ek megalôn pelagôn tou te Tursênikou kai tou Sikelikou Th.4.24 . 3. flooded plain, ginetai p. Hdt.2.97, cf. 3.117.
OCE’ANUS (Ôkeanos), the god of the river Oceanus, by which, according to the most ancient notions of the Greeks, the whole earth was surrounded. An account of this river belongs to mythical geography, and we shall here confine ourselves to describing the place which Oceanus holds in the ancient cosmogony. In the Homeric poems he appears as a mighty god, who yields to none save Zeus. (Il. xiv. 245, xx. 7, xxi. 195.) Homer does not mention his parentage, but calls Tethys his wife, by whom he had three daughters, Thetis, Eurynome and Perse. (Il. xiv. 302, xviii. 398, Od. x. 139.) His palace is placed somewhere in the west (Il. xiv. 303, &c.), and there he and Tethys brought up Hera, who was conveyed to them at the time when Zeus was engaged in the struggle with the Titans.
Hesiod (Theog. 133, 337, &c., 349, &c.) calls Oceanus a son of Uranus and Gaea, the eldest of the Titans, and the husband of Tethys, by whom he begot 3000 rivers, and as many Oceanides, of whom Hesiod mentions only the eldest. (Comp. Apollod. iii. 8. § 1, 10. § 1.) This poet (Theog. 282) also speaks of sources of Oceanus. Representations of the god are seen on imperial coins of Tyre and Alexandria. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 106 – 109 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “The tenth labour assigned to Herakles was to fetch the cattle of Geryon from Erytheia. Erytheia was an island, now called Gadeira, lying near Okeanos. On it lived Geryon, son of Khrysaor and Okeanos’ daughter Kallirrhoe. He had the bodies of three men joined into one at the belly, but splitting into three again from the flanks and thighs down. He owned crimson-colored cattle, which were herded by Eurytion and protected by Orthos, the hound with two heads born of Ekhidna and Typhon. As Herakles proceeded through Europe to these cattle, he killed many wild animals, paid a visit to Libya, and went on to Tartessos where he set up two steles opposite each other at the borders of Europe and Libya, as commemorative markers of his trip. Then, when Helios made him hot as he proceeded, he aimed his bow at the god and stretched it; Helios was so surprised at his daring that he gave him a golden goblet, in which he crossed Okeanos. When he reached Erytheia he camped on Mount Atlas. The dog smelled him there and went after him, but he struck it with his club, and when the cowherd Eurytion came to help the dog, he slew him as well. Menoetes, who was there tending the cattle of Haides, reported these events to Geryon, who overtook Herakles by the Athemos river as he was leading away the cattle. They fought, and Herakles slew Geryon with an arrow. He then loaded the cattle into the goblet, sailed back to Tartessos, and returned the goblet to Helios.” Parthenius, Love Romances 30 (trans. Gaselee) (Greek poet C1st B.C.) : “Herakles, it is told, after he had taken the kine of Geryones from Erytheia, was wandering through the country of the Keltoi (Celts).” Herodotus, Histories 4. 8. 1 (trans. Godley) (Greek historian C5th B.C.) : “Herakles, driving the cattle of Geryones, came to this land [Skythia], which was then desolate, but is now inhabited by the Skythians. Geryones lived west of the Pontos, settled in the island called by the Greeks Erytheia, on the shore of Okeanos near Gadeira, outside the pillars of Herakles.” Oppian, Cynegetica 2. 100 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd A.D.) : “These [the breed of bulls called Syrian] are they which report said Herakles, the mighty son of Zeus, when fulfilling his labours, drove of old from Erytheia, what time he fought with Geryoneus beside Okeanos and slew him amid the crags; since he was doomed to fulfil yet another labour, not for Hera nor at the behest of Eurystheus, but for his comrade Arkhippos, lord of holy Pella.” Aeschylus, Fragment 37 Heracleidae (from Scholiast on Aristeides) : “Starting thence, when that he [Herakles] had crossed Okeanos in a golden bowl [belonging to the sun-god Helios], he drave the straight-horned kine from the uttermost parts of the earth, slew the evil herdsmen [Eurytion] and their triple-bodied master [Geryon], who wielded three spears in his (right) hands; in his left, extending three shields, and shaking his three crests, he advanced like unto Ares in his might.” Virgil, Aeneid 6. 289 (trans. Day-Lewis) (Roman epic C1st B.C.) : “Many varieties of monsters can be found stabled here at the doors [of Hades] . . . the ghost of three-bodied Geryon.” Pen of Geryon Geryon was the son of Chryasor who in turn was the son of Poseidon. Geryon lived in a great cow pen which was attacked by Hercules. The pen is generally depicted as a large rectangular structure with a certain selection of mountains in the background and a large river in the foreground. Nesoi Makarioi (Islands of the Blest) When Hades carried off Persephone from the upper world, he rode in a golden chariot drawn by four black immortal horses. (Orph. Argon. 1192, Hymn. 17. 14; Ov. Met. v. 404; Hom. Hymn. in Cer. 19; Claudian, Rapt. Proserp. i. in fin.) Besides these horses he was also believed to have herds of oxen in the lower world and in the island of Erytheia, which were attended to by Menoetius. (Apollod. ii. 5. §§ 10, 12.). Being the king of the lower world, Hades is the giver of all the blessings that come from the earth: he is the possessor and giver of all the metals contained in the earth. Statius, Thebaid 11. 444 ff : “The Warden of the Larvae (Shades) [lord Haides] and the third heir of the world, after the lot’s unkind apportioning, leapt down from his chariot and grew pale, for he was come to Tartarus and heaven was lost for ever.” In the Odyssey Haides is described in even greater detail. It is now located at the end of the earth, on the far western shore of the earth-encircling river Oceanus, beyond the gates of the sun, and the land of dreams. It is bordered by the Akherousian lake and three named rivers–the Styx, Kokytos and Pyriphlegethon. A judge named Minos receives the dead from Hermes Psykhogogos (Leader of the Souls), and sentences the most wicked to eternal torment. ACHERU’SIA (Acherousia limnê or Acherousis), a name given by the ancients to several lakes or swamps, which, like the various rivers of the name of Acheron, were at some time believed to be connected with the lower world, until at last the Acherusia came to be considered to be in the lower world itself. Of these were begotten two brothers who discovered iron, and the forging thereof. One of these called Chrysor, who is the same with Hephæstus, exercised himself in words, and charms and divinations; and he invented the hook, and the bait, and the fishing-line, and boats of a light construction; he was the first of all men that sailed. Wherefore he was worshipped after his death as a God, under the name of Diamichius. And it is said that his brothers invented the art of building walls with bricks. Elysian Fields, Elysium (Greek) Originally in Greek mythology, beautiful meadows or plains, or islands of the blest, located in the far west by the banks of Ocean There certain heroes of the fourth race who never experienced death were said to dwell in perfect happiness ruled by Rhadamanthus The titans after being reconciled with Zeus also lived there under the rule of Kronos Pindar holds that all who have passed blamelessly through life three times live there in bliss Later, Elysium was located in the underworld as the abode of those whom the judges of the dead found worthy The river Lethe (forgetfulness) flowed by the Elysian Fields Happy Fields The name given by the Assyrio-Chaldeans to their Elysian Fields, which were intermingled with their Hades As Mr Boscawen tells his readers – “The Kingdom of the underworld was the realm of the god Hea, and the Hades of the Assyrian legends was placed in the underworld, and was ruled over by a goddess, Nin-Kigal, or ‘the Lady of the Great Land’ She is also called Allat ” A translated inscription states: – “After the gifts of these present days, in the feasts of the land of the silver sky, the resplendent courts, the abode of blessedness, and in the light of the Happy Fields, may he dwell in life eternal, holy, in the presence of the gods who inhabit Assyria” This is worthy of a Christian tumulary inscription Ishtar, the beautiful goddess, descended into Hades after her beloved Tammuz, and found that this dark place of the shades had seven spheres and seven gates, at each of which she had to leave something belonging to her Tartaros (Tartarus), a deep place, precipice, or dark cave, in which Jove had shut the Titans and Saturn. According to the geographical notes of the ancients, the place called “Tartarus” was in the extreme parts, near Oceanus potamos, close to sidereiai pylai (Iron Gates). Tartaros is a barbarian word, rotacised, formed from tatan (TN – father), in Cod. Voronetian tatanru and tataru. Val. Flac. calls Saturn Tartarus pater, where “pater” is only a simple explanation, or a repetition of the word “Tartarus”, which had become obsolete. Tat and Tatu, in the Osyric religion was a mountain or place, the Olympos or Egyptian paradise, situated in the northern parts of the ancient world. In the times of the Pelasgian domination, had been introduced in Egypt, as well as in Greece, the religious mysteries and doctrines of the Hyperboreans, about the places of eternal bliss, which were in the northern parts of the river Oceanus, called Nun by the Egyptians. Tat or Tatu is the residence of Osyris after he died, a place identical with Tartaros, where Saturn lived after his dethronement. The term Tartaros appears in Greek literature as an exotic, barbarian name, exactly as the residence of Saturn, Kronou turdis, was outside the horizon of the Greek world (Homer, Iliad, VIII. v. 479). From its primitive meaning the word Tartaros was identical with the archaic Latin “tata” (in folk Latin language, Varro, Non. 81. 5), Greek pater (TN – father). The following words of Homer are especially memorable, as they refer to Zeus euruopa: “Thetis (Achilles’ mother), departing in early morning, climbed on the great Uranos, and on Olympos, and here she found the son of wide-faced Saturn, sitting separately from the other gods, on the highest point of Olympos, which has many peaks” (Iliad, I. v. 497-499) . [4. It is to be noted that Homer calls here the highest peak of Olympus mountain, on which Jove was seated, choruna, meaning top, head. Homer also calls Choruna the peak of Mount Ida, from where Jove followed the Trojan war (Iliad, XIV. 157). And the same name is used by Hesiod (Theog. v. 62) for the highest point of Olympus]. This is an important text for the history of those obscure times. And here megas Ouranos, which was in close proximity of Olympos, expresses only the notion of mountain (Aristotle, De mundo, c.6), but not the infinite space above the earth. This megas Ouranos, which Thetis climbs first, on her way to Olympus, is from the point of view of rhapsodic geography, identical with Caraiman, the imposing mountain of Dacia, consecrated to Cerus manus, which appears personified in Romanian legends under the name of Caraiman, the creator of “the first people”, and in Romanian folk incantations, as Domn (TN – ruler) of lightning and thunderbolts, and the great sovereign of the world . [5. Both with Homer (Iliad, I. 197) and Hesiod (Theog. v. 689-694), Ouranos and ‘Olympos appear as two heights of the same mountain chain. In the battle with the Titans, Jove throws his lightning from Uranos and Olympos at the same time. Because of this lightning, writes Hesiod, the vast forest was set alight all around. Finally, both with Homer and Hesiod, Olympos was a mountain in the northern region, usually covered in snow]. The Olympus of the Iliad is not the Olympus of Thessaly, but the ancient Olympus from near Oceanus Potamos or Istru, where the “Origin of the gods” was (Homer, Iliad, XIV.v.199-205), “at the ends of the earth, which fed many people”. The Olympus and Uranos of Homer are the holy mountains of theogony, Ourea macra (Hesiodus, Theog.v.129, 113), where Uranos, Gaea and Saturn had their residence (Homer, Iliad, VIII.v.470 seqq), where the people resembled the gods, and where these Titans warred with one another for the mastery of the world. At the time of the migrations of Pelasgian tribes from the Carpathians towards the southern lands, the renown and legends of this sacred mountain also descended with them, to all the lands of Hellada, Asia Minor and down to Egypt. As the civilization and the sweet mores of the Pelasgians had an enormous influence on the Greek people, the same had their beliefs. The religion of Uranos and Gaea, of Saturn and Rhea, of the Sun and the Moon, or in other words, the entire system of the Pelasgian doctrines, with their names, their legends about the origin of the gods, and their forms of the cult, as it had developed in the principal and powerful centre from the Lower Istru, on the territory of the holy Hyperboreans, emigrated southwards from the Carpathians, at the same time with the Pelasgian tribes. The colossal figure from the Carpathians of Dacia, which exudes a sovereign expression of dignity and an immense power, could represent only the great national god of the Pelasgian tribes, to whom the most imposing heights of the mountains were everywhere consecrated. During the first times of history, religious beliefs were clothed in symbolism, and all the sacred images of antiquity were characterized by an infinite variety of symbolic attributes. We ask now, can it be that the origin of this allegorical legend about Minerva’s birth from Zeus’ head was that figure, so archaic, so worshipped, and so unique in its way? We think yes!
Homer places the origin of all the gods, known and worshipped in Greek lands, in the northern parts of Thrace, at Istru, at ‘Ocheanos potamos. Herodotus tells us that the pillars or columns of Sesostris (the same with Osiris) still existed in the lands of Scythia even during his times (lib. II. 103). And the poet Ovid also mentions the triumphal roads of Bachus or Liber Pater, through Scythia (Fast. III. 714 seqq).
According to the old Greek geographical traditions, the legendary column of the sky was located in the extreme parts, or northern, of the known world, on the high and vast mountain called Atlas, in the country of the Hyperboreans.
This column was considered in the southern legends as the miraculous column of the earth, which supported the starry vault of the sky, or the northern pole of the universe. As the old historical sources used by Diodorus Siculus said (lib. III. 57. 60), Atlas was Saturn’s brother and both were the sons of Uranus and Gaea. The titan Atlas especially was a powerful and wealthy king who ruled over the people of the Atlantes, who were part of the big family of the Hyperboreans.
It was said about this Atlas that he had flocks of fine sheep, of a reddish golden color (Ibid,lib.IV.27). And the poet Ovid presents this shepherd king from the times of the theogony with the following words: “Thousands of flocks and cattle herds wander on his plains. His country is not pressed on either side by his neighbors’ boundaries. On his trees leaves grow glowing with gold, the branches of the trees are of gold and of gold also are the fruit that covers them” (Metam. lib. IV. v. 634 seqq). The titan Atlas, according to Greek theogonies, had been brother with Oceanus potamos (Eschyl, Prom. v. 347 seqq), or with Saturn (Diodorus Siculus, lib.III. 60; Fragm Hist. Gr. III. 567.14), and according to other genealogies, with Prometheus (Hesiodus, Theog. v. 509-510).
Atlas had taken part in the battles of the Titans against Jove, because of which the new master of the ancient world had condemned him to support the sky on his tireless shoulders and arms (Hesiodus, Theog. v. 517-519). But Atlas had been later transformed in a vast mountain, on which was supported the northern pole of the sky, called cardines mundi, septentrio (Pliny, lib. IV. 26. 11; Isidorus, Orig. XIII. 1. 8; Ovid, Pont. Lib. II. 10), Rhiphaeus axis (Claudianus, lib. XXXVIII. v. 30-31; Virgil, Aen. IV. 481-482), Hyperborei axes (Silvius, Thebaid. XII. v. 650; Mela, lib. III. 5) and Geticus polus (Martial, Epigr. Lib. IX. 46. v. 1-2 – On the sky this pole was represented by the 7 stars, called Ursa Major).
Pre-Hellenic Pelasgians of Athens were called Cranai. They were originally natives of “Achaean Argos” descended from Pelasgus, the son of Zeus and Niobe. They migrated from there to Haemonia (later called Thessaly), where they “drove out the barbarian inhabitants” and divided the country into Phthiotis, Achaia and Pelasgiotis, named after Achaeus, Phthius and Pelasgus, “the sons of Larissa and Poseidon.” Subsequently “… about the sixth generation they were driven out by the Curetes and Leleges, who are now called Aetolians and Locrians ….”
“Those who live on the shores of Okeanos tell a fable of how the ancient kings of Atlantis, sprung from the seed of Poseidon, wore upon their head the bands from the male Ram-fish, as an emblem of their authority, while their wives, the queens, wore the curls of the females as a proof of theirs.” – Aelian, On Animals 15.2
book 1, card 400: … and hold aloof from fight. For Zeus went yesterday to Okeanos, to a feast among the Ethiopians, and the other
book 3, card 1: … rain and winter drive them over the flowing waters of Okeanos to bring death and destruction on the Pygmies, and
book 5, card 1: … brilliantly in summer after its bath in the waters of Okeanos – even such a fire did she kindle upon
book 7, card 396: … vault of heaven from the slow still currents of deep Okeanos, when the two armies met. They could hardly recognize
book 8, card 432: … no answer. The sun’s glorious orb now sank into Okeanos and drew down night over the land. Sorry indeed
book 14, card 133: … I am going to the world’s end to visit Okeanos (from whom all we gods proceed) and mother
book 14, card 211: … to sleep without compunction, not even excepting the waters of Okeanos from whom all of them proceed, but I dare
book 14, card 296: … I am going to the world’s end, to visit Okeanos, from whom all we gods proceed, and mother Tethys;… me later on, if I went to the house of Okeanos without letting you know.” And Zeus said, “… can choose some other time for paying your visit to Okeanos – for the present let us devote ourselves to
book 16, card 131: … grazing in a meadow by the waters of the river Okeanos. In the side traces he set the noble horse
book 18, card 183: … busy sun, loath though he was, into the waters of Okeanos; so he set, and the Achaeans had rest from
book 18, card 388: … had not Eurynome, daughter of the ever-encircling waters of Okeanos, and Thetis, taken me to their bosom. Nine years … for them in their cave, with the roaring waters of Okeanos foaming as they rushed ever past it; and no… facing. Orion, and alone never dips into the stream of Okeanos. He wrought also two cities, fair to
book 18, card 590: … the shield he set the mighty stream of the river Okeanos. Then when he had fashioned the shield
book 19, card 1: … in robe of saffron was hastening from the streams of Okeanos, to bring light to mortals and immortals, Thetis reached
book 20, card 1: … house of Zeus. There was not a river absent except Okeanos, nor a single one of the nymphs that haunt
book 21, card 114: … Akheloos can compare, nor the mighty stream of deep-flowing Okeanos, from whom all rivers and seas with all springs and deep wells proceed; even Okeanos fears the lightnings of great Zeus, and his thunder
book 23, card 177: … she said, “I must go back to the streams of Okeanos and the land of the Ethiopians who are offering
book 4, card 11: … Elysium there falls not rain, nor hail, nor snow, but Okeanos breathes ever with a West wind that sings softly
book 5, card 5: … facing Orion, and alone never dipping into the stream of Okeanos – for Calypso had told him to keep this
book 10, card 10: … of itself. When your ship has traversed the waters of Okeanos, you will reach the fertile shore of Persephone’s … untimely; here beach your ship upon the shore of Okeanos, and go straight on to the dark abode of
book 11, card 2: … them there are great and terrible waters, and there is Okeanos, which no man can cross on foot, but he
book 11, card 13: … whereon the ship went down the stream of the river Okeanos. We had to row at first, but presently a
book 19, card 6: … the fields, fresh-risen from the slow still currents of Okeanos, they came to a mountain dell. The dogs were
book 20, card 1: … darkness till it drop me into the mouths of overflowing Okeanos, as it did the daughters of Pandareus. The daughters
book 22, card 5: … know very well when morning comes from the streams of Okeanos, and it is time for you to be driving
book 23, card 4: … far west, while she would not suffer Dawn to leave Okeanos, nor to yoke the two steeds Lampos and Phaethon
book 23, card 6: … of repose, she bade gold-enthroned Dawn rise out of Okeanos that she might shed light upon humankind.
But what really caused me surprise is this. There is a small city of upper Lydia called The Doors of Temenus. There a crest broke away in a storm, and there appeared bones the shape of which led one to suppose that they were human, but from their size one would never have thought it. At once the story spread among the multitude that it was the corpse of Geryon, the son of Chrysaor, and that the seat also was his. For there is a man’s seat carved on a rocky spur of the mountain. And a torrent they called the river Ocean, and they said that men ploughing met with the horns of cattle, for the story is that Geryon reared excellent cows.
And when I criticized the account and pointed out to them that Geryon is at Gadeira, where there is, not his tomb, but a tree showing different shapes, the guides of the Lydians related the true story, that the corpse is that of Hyllus, a son of Earth, from whom the river is named. They also said that Heracles from his sojourning with Omphale called his son Hyllus after the river.