Saturn’s war with Osiris.
After becoming master over most of the ancient world, Saturn had to wage two long and arduous wars, one against Osiris, who had proclaimed himself king of Egypt, and the other with his son Jove, wars which had fatal consequences for the fate of the Pelasgian empire.
Osiris, also called Dionysos by the Greeks (Herodouts, lib. II. 144; Diodorus Siculus, lib. I. 11), was an African from Ethiopia by origin. His father, as he asserted, had been Ammon (Uranos), the king of Libya and Egypt (Diodorus Siculus, lib. I. 15. 6; III. 68, 70). According to some traditions, Osiris had been reared at Nysa in Arabia, and according to other authors, at Nysa near the river Triton in Libya, where he had received instruction in all the branches of ancient sciences.
We find with Diodorus the following notes about the war of Saturn with Dionysos-Osiris:
After occupying the kingdom of Ammon, Saturn led his troupes against Dionysos-Osiris, who had proclaimed himself at Nysa as legitimate son of Ammon (lib. I. III. 71-72), and where he had gathered a numerous army, composed especially of African elements. After a fierce battle on both sides, Saturn being wounded and defeated, retreated with the troupes of the Titans to the places where Ammon had previously ruled.
Dionysos-Osiris, taking with him the Titans which he had taken prisoners, returned to Nysa. There, he proclaimed himself “god” (king over Egypt); he asked the captive Titans to swear to faithfully fight for him, in order to accomplish what he had started, and then he led again his troupes against Saturn and his other allied Titans, who were in the city of Ammon, polis ‘Amonion, or Theba.
Saturn with the troupes of the Titans met Dionysos-Osiris in front of the walls of the citadel, but was again defeated. Saturn tried to put fire to the city overnight and then fled. But Osiris caught Saturn and Rhea, and freed them only after they adopted him as a son, with the right of inheriting the empire (Pierret, Le livre d. morts, p. 116, 213, 397).
Saturn’s war with Jove (Titanomachia).
Saturn grew old (Saturnus senex) and weary because of his many expeditions to far away countries (Philo, Phoen. Hist. fr. 2. 24; Tertullianus, adv. Gentes, c. 10), made with the purpose of founding a single monarchy over the entire ancient world, a single government, the same laws and the same religion, and to introduce everywhere in the empire the benefits of agriculture, but he still had to sustain a 10 years long and fierce war with his son Jove, war which ended with his dethronement and the total annihilation of the ancient Pelasgian nobility, the Titans.
The causes of this war were, according to Greek traditions, on the one hand the troubles existing between Saturn and his wife Rhea, and on the other hand the harshness shown by Saturn to the powerful class of the Titans, with the help of whom he had dethroned Uranos, but whom he had again thrown in subterranean prisons, because these Titans were always conspiring, always wanted to be masters.
Saturn, as the ancients tell us, being forewarned by the oracle that one of his sons will oust him (Hesiodus, Theog. v. 463 seqq; Apollodorus, Bibl. I. 1. 5; Diodorus, I. V. 70), had tried many times to kill the children born by his wife Rhea. But notwithstanding his precautions, the decisions of his destiny were fulfilled. Rhea, being pregnant for the sixth time, ran to the island of Crete in order to escape Saturn’s anger, and gave birth in secret, in the cave called Dicte, to Jove. She entrusted him to the nymphs, or the mountain women from there, to rear him, and to the Curetes to guard him. Upon reaching maturity, Jove decided to take revenge on his father for persecuting the Titans and his own sons. So, he called to his help the Centimanii (leaders of the armies) and the Cyclops, masters of all sorts of mechanical works, who manufactured for him the thunderbolts, and freed from prisons the Titans discontented by Saturn’s reign. It is probable though that the biggest part of his troupes was composed of elements gathered from the southern countries, where he had been educated and where he had a lot of support.
In the first war Saturn was defeated and forced to withdraw to Ianus, in Italy, a kingdom which was dependent on the Pelasgian empire. The most ancient Italic traditions speak about Saturn with a particular respect. He is shown as the civilizing factor of that country. He taught the inhabitants of Italy to recognize the benefits of agriculture and introduced there the first laws of divine origin (Virgil, Aen. VIII. 319 seqq; Tertullianus, Adv. gentes, c. 10; Isidorus, Orig. XIV. c. 4. 18; Macrobius, Sat. I. 7). After a while though, Saturn vanished from Italy.
Incensed by the revolution taking place in his empire, Saturn called again the Titans to arms, asking for their help to decide their fate one way or another (Ovid, Fast. III. 796; Hyginus, Fab. 150). Saturn was again defeated. He was caught, chained (Cicero, N. D. II. 24; II. 25; Plato, Euthyphro, c. 6) and thrown into the cave, or the dark cavern called Tartaros by Greek sources, and Tatu in Egyptian papyri.
As the historian Thallus tells us (fragm. 2 in Fragm. Hist. gr. III. 517), Belus, the king of Babylonia and Assyria, had helped Staurn in this war, and had fought together with the Titans of his kingdom against Jove and his other allies.
The Greek poems present this war as a general commotion of the mortal people, of the men gods, and of all the elements of nature.
The clamor of the war, writes Hesiodus, rose to the sky, Jove threw continuously his thunderbolts from Olympus, the earth shook and started to scream, the fire engulfed the huge woods, the Ocean (Istru) and the vast Pontos boiled, the entire atmosphere burnt, and it seemed that the sky had blended with the earth (Theog. v. 678 seqq).
We find the same picture with the poet Quintus: the sky poured on the Titans all the power of its fire; the earth took fire and the flames engulfed the Titans from everywhere; the vast river of the Ocean started to boil in its depths, the springs dried up, and all the animals born by the earth perished (Posthomer, V. 104; VIII, 461 seqq).
The place where all these extraordinary war events happened was, as results from the ancient traditions and legends, near Oceanos potamos (Istru), close to Atlas mountain (Hesiodus, Theog. v. 746; Hyginus, Fab. 150).
The defeated troupes of the Titans withdrew towards the west, to the mountainous region called Tartaros (Homer, Iliad, XIV. 279; VIII. 481; Hymn. Apoll. v. 335-6; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 721), or Tatu by the Egyptians, at the Iron Gates, sidareiai pylai (Homer, Iliad, VIII. 13-15), “Porta Ser” in Egyptian papyri (Pierret, Le livre d. morts, p. 58) and the high Riphei mountains, behind which the sun passes into another geographical world, that of the dark, or of the night (Orpheus, Argon. v. 1123; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 748; Homer, Odyss. XI. 14 seqq).
In the middle of these mountains, “covered by fog and by dark woods”, the glorious troupes of the Titans sustained the last defensive battles, but they were defeated and overwhelmed by Jove’s army and by the flames of the burning woods. This group of mountains, called by the ancients “Tartaros” and “Tatu” [Tatra].
The historian Dio Cassius, who lived in the 2nd century ad, also mentions a cave on the territory of the Getae, called Keiren, vast and strong (without doubt a cave in the deep roots of Cerna mountains), where, says he, the Titans, defeated by the gods, had withdrawn, according to legends.
This war ended with the total annihilation of the ancient and illustrious noble class of the Titans, called theoi Titanes (Homer, Iliad, XIV. 378), genus antiquum Terrae and Terrae filii (Virgil, Aen. vI. 580), which in fact seems to have been the very purpose of the southern coalition, because, according to the ancients, the Titans and the Giants (Gigantes) had placed the other peoples under the heavy yoke of slavery.
The Greek authors attributed to Jove the honorific epithet of Titanochtonos, killer of Titans (Homer, Batr. V. 282), and this entire war was celebrated in ancient Greek literature under the name Titanomachia, the divine defeat of this powerful and arrogant race.
Part of the Titans faithful to Saturn, were imprisoned alive in the caves, or the dark depths called “Tartaros”. Those who managed to escape the wrath of the new master of the world, emigrated and were scattered through various parts of the western world.
Their genealogic name of Titans, meaning from the race or the family of the Titans, still appears in various regions of Italy, Gallia, Dalmatia and Pannonia during the Roman epoch, and until late in the Middle Ages
According to Ravennas (ed. Parthey, p. 292), the Alps near the Gallic sea were also called Montes Titani (var. Tytani). These mountains were inhabited by the Ligurii, among whom a principal role had been played by the so-called Deciates – var. Decietes, Dicaei (Florus, lib. II. 3).
One Tetenius is mentioned on an inscription from Dalmatia (Lucius, Inscr. Dalm. p. 25); one Tatinos is mentioned on an ante-Roman coin from Gallia (Mionnet, Descr. d. med. Suppl. t. I. 161).
The traditions of the ancients are not quite clear about the place where Saturn had been buried.
According to some mentions found with Homer and Hesiodus, Saturn had been thrown underground near Oceanos potamos (Iliad, XIV. 204), or had been buried alive, together with the other Titans, in the precipice, or vast and dark cave, called Tartaros (Homer, Iliad, VIII, 482; XIV, 274 seqq; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 851; Eschyl, Prom. vinct. v. 219; Apollonius Rhodius, I. 507).
Finally, there is another tradition, which presents Saturn as living in the blessed islands from Oceanos potamos, where he reigns over the souls of the deceased heroes (Hesiodus, Op. v. 169; Pindar, Olymp. II. 136).
As we know, the most renowned of these blessed islands had been Leuce, or the “Serpents’ island”, near the mouths of the Danube, also called the “dwelling of the souls”, sedes animarum (Avienus, Descr. orb. v. 724), where, as the poet Arctinos said (Homer, Carmina, ed. Didot, p. 583), the ashes of Achilles had been taken and buried
According to Philochorus (fragm. 184), Saturn had been buried in Sicily (Sichelia). This is a simple geographical confusion. The term Sichelia is used here instead of Thrinachia, or Trinachria. With Homer though, Thrinachie nasos is an island in Oceanos potamos (Odyss. XI. 107; XII, 127; XIX, 275). With Apollonius Rhodius (Iv. 84), pontos trinachrios is the sea in which flows the eastern arm of Istru (the western arm flew into the Ionic sea). He calls the Danube delta (Peuce) triglochis, meaning triangular].
The war of Osiris with Typhon . The war of Jove with Typhon.
After the dethronement of Saturn, the internal peace of the great Pelasgian empire was again shattered, and a new war, much more violent and widespread broke out between the sons of Saturn, for the rule of the ancient world.
Saturn had, according to ancient traditions, three sons (Homer, Iliad, XV. v. 187), who bear though in ancient theogonies different names. The first one is called Typhon by the Greek authors (Philo, H. Ph. Fr. 2. 21; Plutarc, De Is.; Diodorus, I. I. 13. 21), Set by the Egyptians (Plutarc, De Is. c. 41), and Ahriman in the religious traditions of Persia and Bactria.
The second son was Osiris, also called Dionysos by the Greeks, an African of obscure origin, but adopted by Saturn with rights of inheritance of the empire. Finally, the third son was Jove, who had been also reared in southern lands.
The war waged by the Osiris and Jove against Typhon for the mastery of the ancient world bear in ancient Greek literature the name Gigantomachia, or the fight against the superb and ferocious tribes of the Guganii from the Mountains, agria phyla Giganton (Homer, Odyss. VII. 59-60), fight which took place near Oceanos potamos.
We have two traditions about these remote events, which appear to have been the beginning of a new phase in the history of human civilization: an Egyptian one, which presents Osiris as the victor and the destroyer of the Gigantes (Giants), and a Greek one, in which all the victories and honors are attributed to Jove, not to Osiris. Each of these two versions presents important data, geographical and historical, which complement each other in many respects.
We shall present first the Egyptian version of the war of Osiris against Typhon, called Set in Egyptian papyri and inscriptions.
After the dethronement of Saturn, the northern parts of the Pelasgian empire had in fact remained under the rule of Typhon, whose residence was in the country of the Arimii (Homer, Iliad, II. 783), north of Oceanos potamos (Istru), from where also derives his name Ahriman (Dupuis, Orig. d. tous les cultes, Iv. 410) given him by the populations of Persia and Bactria.
In Egypt though, an African adventurer called Osiris had usurped the reign.
In the beginning, he had asserted that he was a natural son of Ammon / Uranos (Pierret, Le Pantheon Egypt. p. 23, 107), but later that he was the eldest son of Saturn, who had transmitted to him the entire inheritance of the empire (Pierret, Le livre d. morts, p. 213, 83, 395, 488).
We find with Diodorus Siculus the following data, collected from the Egyptian priests, about the expedition of Osiris in Asia and Europe, for the conquest of the ancient world:
Osiris, wishing to earn an everlasting glory for his good deeds, gathered a large army with the intention to travel through the entire inhabited world, and to teach the humans everywhere how to plant the grape vine and how to cultivate the wheat and the barley, the use of which he said had been discovered by himself and his wife Isis. After he prepared all that was necessary for his expedition, Osiris entrusted the administration of the kingdom to his wife Isis, to whom he gave Hermes as counselor, and Hercules as military commander. Then, departing with his troupes, he passed from Egypt to Ethiopia, from there to Arabia, and advanced to the ends of the inhabited lands of India. From India he turned to the other peoples of Asia, crossed over the Hellespont to Europe, subjected Thrace and Macedonia, and finally returned to Egypt, bringing with him the most beautiful gifts, received from the subjugated peoples. In memory of this expedition, some said, a column was erected at Nysa in Arabia, with the following inscription: “My father was Saturn, the youngest of all the gods, and I am Osiris, that king who led his armies to all the lands right to the uninhabited lands of the Indians, and from there towards the parts of Ursa, to the sources of the river Istru, and from there even further, to the other parts of the earth, as far as the Ocean. I am by my age, the eldest son of Saturn….There is no place in the world which I had not reached, and I shared with everybody the good things which I myself have discovered (I. I. c. 17, 27).
Osiris had conquered therefore, according to ancient traditions, not only Thrace and Macedonia, but also the central regions of Europe, as far as the Western Ocean.
He is often called in religious texts: “Lord of the regions of the south and of the north”. He has two residences, one “in the southern country”, the other “in the northern country” (Pierret, Le livre d. morts, p. 444). But under this latter name the Egyptian papyri did not understand the lower Egypt, but the northern parts of the Pelasgian empire (Grebaut, Hymne a Ammon-Ra, p. 7).
The expedition of Osiris in Europe had the character of a formidable invasion of African and Asiatic hordes. With these semi-wild elements Osiris had formed numerous colonies in the countries which he had conquered, true permanent garrisons, destined to inspire terror and submission in the conquered peoples. Apollonius Rhodius (IV. v. 272 seqq) writes in this regard that someone (Osiris), departing from Egypt, had wandered across the whole of Europe and Asia, and, basing himself on the strength and number of his soldiers, had colonized a big number of cities, some of which are inhabited even today, while others are not, because a long series of centuries have passed since those times”.
In Europe though, the expedition of Osiris was met with a much stronger and resolute resistance, than in the vast provinces of Asia. Here the Arimic tribes from the lower Danube rose against Osiris, whom they did not acknowledge, either as son of Saturn, or as legitimate king over the Pelasgian empire.
“The Egyptians”, writes Diodorus Siculus, “tell that in the time of queen Isis had lived those whom the Greeks call Gigantes, and that they are represented in Egyptian temples as being beaten by Osiris” (I. 26). This arrogant triumph of Osiris refers in any case only to the first successes of his expedition in Europe.
The historical traditions of the Germans, extracted from ancient Greek sources, also mention Osiris under the name Oserich (Grimm, Die d. Heldensage, gottingen. 1829, p. 139, 180), about whom they say that he had inherited the rule over the entire north from his father Hertnit (Terra editus?), that he had undertaken an expedition against the country of the Giants (Getae), at the time when those were ruled by Melias (Greek melas, ep. meilas, black), meaning Nehes Set, Negru Set (TN – black Set), the name given to Set by the Egyptians.
We find finally a historical note with Tacitus, saying that a part of the German tribes of the Svevs sacrificed to the Isis divinity. The origin of this Egyptian cult in the German countries is reduced without doubt to the times of Osiris (Germ. c. 9).
But Typhon, reared in ancient Arimic traditions, a superb character, brave, martial and passionate, considered himself as the only legitimate heir of Saturn, and could not accept that a bastard, as he called Osiris, should reign over the empire of his father (Plutarc, De Is. c. 19. 54; Lepsius, Uber d. ersten agypt. Gotterkreis, p. 53).
In that time, the most excellent force of the Pelasgian empire, the ancient noble class of the Titans, had been extinguished. Some had died in the many expeditions and wars of Saturn, and others had scattered through various countries, so that now the only war power of the Pelasgian empire was formed by the generation of the Gigantes, the ferocious tribes from Oceanos potamos, people from the mountains who, with their tall stature and their strength, surpassed by far the middle and pygmeic statures of the African indigenes.
Against this southern invasion Typhon rose with the tribes of the Giants.
Osiris was defeated and forced to withdraw beyond the Istru, and Typhon chased him with his mounted troupes of the Giants as far as Egypt.
The religious Egyptian texts tell us that Osiris and his other allies had changed into animals, as soon as they saw that Typhon had reached Egypt with his armies (Pierret, Le livre d. morts, p. 78), but this is a simple allusion to the animal figures under which the Osyric divinities were depicted. Finally, Typhon caught Osiris and cut him to pieces (Diodorus, 1. I. 21; III. 62, 6; Macrobius, Somn. Scip. I. 12), which, as Suidas tells us (see ‘Osiris), had caused great sorrow for the Egyptians, who later celebrated for ever the memory of this deed.
According to Egyptian traditions, Osiris was killed by Typhon in Egypt.
Some of the Egyptian priests attributed this expedition to Sesostris or Sostris, a king whose personality and chronology could not be fixed to this day.
According to Malala (I. II), Sesostris lived in the times of Hermes. He was therefore contemporary with Saturn and Typhon, so identical, from the chronological point of view, with Osiris.
According to Herodotus (II. 103), Justinus (II. 3), and Strabo (XV. 1. 6), Sesostris was the first Egyptian king who subjugated all the peoples of Asia, passed from Asia over the Hellespont to Europe, and subjected the Thracians and the Scythians. But, according to religious Egyptian texts, the first expedition to Asia and Europe was attributed to Osiris, and on this glory of his was founded the whole system of Osyric religion, and the national pride of the Egyptian pharaohs.
We also note here that according to Val. Flaccus (Argon. V. 418), Sesostris had been the first to come with war against the Getae, but frightened by the defeat of his armies, he had quickly returned to Theba on the banks of the Nile, accompanied by only a small number of his men].
Typhon reestablished the authority of the Pelasgian empire in North Africa, and reigned over Egypt as a legitimate king of the divine dynasty for 29 years. During this time he built near the Nile delta, towards Arabia, one of the vastest fortifications of Egypt, called in Egyptian theology Abaris and the Citadel of Typhon, with a periphery of 10,000 jugers (1000? = 46km), according to Manetho (Josephus, c. Apion. I. 26). This fortification, of such a gigantic size, was destined for the withdrawal of the army and of the Pelasgian population in case of a new war with the African indigenes
The name of this citadel is not Egyptian. One Abaris, Hyperborean by nationality, is known as a famous prophet of Apollo. Virgil (Aen. Ix. 344) also mentions one Abaris, a soldier in the army of Turnus].
Typhon, with the troupes of the Giants, crossed afterwards from Egypt into Asia, to punish there the clients of Osiris, and the turbulent elements who had allied themselves with the African mob against the Pelasgian rule. He conquered Palestine, founded the kingdom of Judeea and the capital called Jerusalem (this is how we explain the tradition transmitted by Plutarc – c. 31 – that Typhon’s sons were Hierosolymos and Judaios).
The holy books of the Hebrews also mention the expedition of the Giants to Palestine.
The prophets Jeremiah (c. 4, 6) and Ezekiel (c. 38, 39) threaten the Hebrews with the terrible invasion of a people coming from the depth of the north, called “the spoiler of the tribes” and “the lords of the earth”. Their king, Gog from the country Magog, will fall on the Hebrews with his fine army of riders, armed with bows, swords, helmets and shields. They will take with them as allies the peoples of Libya and Ethiopia; the inhabitants of the cities and citadels will run from the clamor made by the riders and the archers, who afterwards will go in triumph all over the earth and will take the Hebrews in captivity.
The poet Manilius mentions the war of Typhon on the territory of Babylonia (Astron. IV. 580; Ovid, Fast. II. v. 462). From Babylonia Typhon advanced victorious over Persia, then crossed into Bactria, and became all powerful over the whole of Asia. The new kings bowed at his feet. Typhon reached now with one hand to the east and with the other to the west, as Apollodorus writes. He had conquered again the entire ancient world.
The terror spread by Typhon and his Giants among the peoples, which had accepted the illegitimate rule of Osiris, had remained legendary with the Egyptians and the Hebrews, the Persians and the Greeks. He is the most terrifying enemy of the southern peoples not of Pelasgian race, a severe avenger of his father and of the ancient nobility, the Titans
In the national religion of Persia and Bactria, founded by Zoroastrus, Typhon, under the name Ahriman, is presented as the principle of evil and darkness, which is in perpetual battle with Oromazes, the god of good and light. He is represented under the form of a dragon, who had tried to measure himself with the sky].
After the killing of Osiris a new coalition of the southern peoples was formed against Typhon. Isis, the sister and wife of Osiris, helped by his son Horus, and by the southern nations inimical to the Pelasgian race, rose to avenge the death of Osiris and to reclaim the rule of the empire (Diodorus, I. I. 21). In this war Horus was wounded by Typhon on one eye (Plutarc, De Is. c. 55; Pierret, Livre d. morts, p. 252, 281, 299, 338, 345), and according to other traditions, he was killed by the Titans (Gigantes) (Diodorus, I. I. 25. 6).
It is said about Typhon that he was defeated, caught and tied up, but that Isis had freed him (Lepsius, Uber d. e. agypt. Gotterkreis, p. 55). A new war then started, in which Typhon was defeated, chased away, or killed (Diodorus, I. I. 21, 3; 88, 4).
According to the ancient Egyptian monuments though, the facts appear in a completely different light: Horus could not dethrone Typhon, and after many and prolonged battles, a brotherly affection was born between them, so that they divided the empire of the ancient world in two halves, Set or Typhon ruling over the northern regions, and Horus over the southern (Maspero, Etudes, II. 329; Lepsius, p. 51; Pierret, Le Pantheon Egypt. 49).
With the advent of the wars of Osiris and Horus against Typhon, a general revolution against the ancient Pelasgian domination and civilization began in the southern countries.
In those times Egypt, Phoenicia, Palestine, Chaldea, Assyria and Media contained an immense servile population, formed of subjugated races, and of elements of obscure origin, gathered from the sands of the deserts and from various wild lands.
These colonies of slaves, private and public, were regularly used for the reclamation works of lakes and swamps, for regularizing the course of rivers, opening of roads, fortification of cities, building of palaces, temples, towers, pyramids, transportation of the war machines, and finally, for pastoral and agricultural works.
The ancient Arimic monarchy, exactly like the ancient Pelasgoan family, was composed only by masters and slaves.
In the Egyptian religious texts, Osiris and Horus appear only as representatives of the subjugated races of Egypt, Libya, Ethiopia and Arabia. They wanted to free the indigenous populations from the oppression of the Pelasgian pastoral aristocracy. But on another hand, Osiris and Horus wanted to snatch from the hands of Typhon the scepter of the divine dynasty, and to bring the southern elements to supremacy, to overthrow the superb, despotic, luxury loving race from the northern parts.
This is why Osiris went from Egypt to Ethiopia, and from there to Arabia, and all the other southern provinces of Asia: to firstly incite to revolt the lands from further away from the center of the empire. He then turned towards Europe, followed by a great multitude of foreign elements, in order to occupy the ancient and glorious reigning seat of the divine dynasty (Pierret, LIvre d. morts, p. 136).
With the rule of Osiris over Egypt started the persecution of the divinities, the customs, and the Pelasgian dominant class. Osiris proclaimed himself in Egypt as sovereign of all the gods, replacing Uranos (Montu) and Saturn (Seb). The ancient Pelasgian religion was replaced by the priests of Osiris with the primitive religion of the indigenous African peoples, a stupid superstition, which venerated their divinities under animal forms (Gibbon, Hist. d. decad. d. I. l’empire rom, ed. 1835, I. 19; Dion, I. 40. 53; Val. Maxim. I. 3); which proclaimed as a principle that after the death of the human body, the soul entered in other animals which were born at that moment; and that only after the soul passed through all the terrestrial, marine and flying animals, for a long 3,000 years period, it returned into the body of another man (Herodotus, lib. II. 123).
King Amenophis, one of the most ancient pharaohs of Egypt, ordered that all the images of the kings of the divine dynasty be destroyed, and their names be erased from all the public monuments (Lepsius, p. 40-43).
This persecution was especially directed against the name and images of Ammon (Uranos, Tum).
At Theba, writes Plutarc, a column existed, on which were written curses against king Minis (Saturn), he who had first prompted the Egyptians to lead a simple and sober life (De Iside, c. 8), while in ancient Pelasgian traditions, Saturn was celebrated as the author of a better way of life, “vitae melioris auctor”.
But the name and figure of Set or Typhon especially, had been erased from all public monuments (Lepsius, p. 52). The images of Osiris and Horus had been painted in the tombs of the Egyptian kings instead and over the figure of Set, and this persecution of the memory of Set had continued until the times of the 21st dynasty.
In Osyric theology, Typhon is presented as a destroyer, all powerful and undefeatable (Lepsius, p. 53); he shakes everything from its foundation, and ruins everything; he destroys all the sacred teachings of Osiris; he is the sun or the draught which dries and burns; he is the evil spirit, which has filled the earth and the sea with misery; he is the darkness and the lie, the calumniator, who has accused Osiris to have been born of an illegitimate marriage; finally, he is the great serpent which dwells in the primordial water Nun (Oceanos, Istru) and is compared with Python (Pierret, Panth. Egypt. p. 57, 98; Le livre d. morts, p. 23, 46, 135-137), the dragon born of Gaea or Terra, the enemy of the gods, killed by Apollo.
The Phoenicians and the Egyptians also called Typhon Smy, Smu (Plutarc, De Isid. c. 62), a name which cannot be explained in the southern languages.
The Egyptian priests had also attributed to Typhon the constellation of the north, or Ursa major (Plutarc, De Is. c. 21, ed. Parthey, p. 36); Dupuis, II. 357; Maspero, Etudes, II. p. 49).According to the geographical ideas of antiquity, the two “Ursae” were the particular constellations of Dacia, called Ursa Getica, Geticum plaustrum, Geticus polus. This region was therefore indicated in the geography of the Egyptian priests as the country of Typhon.
Finally, the Egyptian priests had also consecrated to Typhon one of the most destructive comets. There is, writes Pliny, a comet, fatal for the peoples of Ethiopia and Egypt, known under the name Typhon, a king from the ancient times. This comet has an appearance of fire, a shape twisted in spirals and a fearful aspect, so that it can be considered more as a knot of fire, than as a real star (Pliny, I. II. 23. 2; Maneto, fragm 84).
Typhon was also called by the Egyptians Set nehes, meaning Set the Black (TN – Negru).
Under this name he was represented in Egyptian hieroglyphs by a raven with its ears raised up, and with blunt tips. The raven of Set was often used as the first graphic sign indicating the “Blacks” and the “country of the Blacks” (Lepsius, p. 51).
The raven, as we know, had been a religious symbol of the Hyperboreans from the Carpathians; it was the companion of Apollo the Hyperborean as god of light (Eratosthenes, Cataster. 41; Herodotus, I. IV. 15. 2).
Finally, the raven was also consecrated in antiquity to Saturn and to Mithras. The epithet nehes, “negru” (TN – black), used by the Egyptians to characterize Typhon, was in fact only an ancient ethnographic attribute of the Arimic peoples from the lower Danube. Typhon, according to the poet Quintus, was from Gaia melaina, Terra nigra (Posthom. V. 485). The raven, the sacred symbol of Apollo the Hyperborean, represents an emblematic connection with the “black country”, or the “country of the Blacks” from the lower Danube.
Finally, to Typhon was also consecrated the ass, the characteristic animal of the Hyperborean shepherds from the Carpathians
See Northcote et Brownlow, Rome souterraine, p. 334 for the crucifix with an ass head, of the Christians; Tertullianus, Apol. c. 16. The head of the ass was in antiquity one of the symbols of intelligence. The ass was also consecrated to Saturn (Dupuis, VII. 214).
The sect of the Gnostics showed Sabaot (Sabazius) with an ass head (Dupuis, III. 531). The Egyptians understood under the symbolic figure of the ass, especially their enemies from the northern regions (Lepsius, p. 54)].
Pindar mentions in one of his odes, the famous feasts of the Hyperboreans, who sacrificed to Apollo hecatombs of asses, chleitas onon echatombas (Pyth. X. v. 33).
On a Gnostic Papyrus from Leiden, Set is shown with the head of an ass, holding in each hand a spear, the national weapon of the Giants. On his chest is written CH(TH), and underneath OEPBHT and BOLXOCH(TH) (Lepsius, p. 55). The last words are composite: OEP – BHT and BOLXO – CH(TH).
In regard to the second part of this word BHT, its explanation is more difficult, but BOLXO – CH(TH) is without doubt Seth the Volch or the Valach.
The figure of the ass head was also used in antiquity as an emblem of Dacia.
On some coins from the time of the emperor Trajan Decius (249ad), Dacia, personified as divinity, is shown holding in her right hand a lance or a spear, on the tip of which is seen thrust an ass head (Mitth. d. k. k. Central-Commission z. Erforsch. d. Baudenkmale, VII. 225).
A particular veneration though was shown to Set in the times of the 19th dynasty.
Several kings of this dynasty had received the name Set. Set was often honored also with the name Sutech (Lepsius, p. 49; Pierret, Le livre d. morts, p. 173).
One of the ancient Titans was called Sudych (var. Sudech) by the Phoenicians, a word which, as the historian Philo tells us (H. Phoen. Fr. 2), meant dichaios, that is “justus”, but more correctly judex, (TN – judge) and “judet” (TN – district).
Finally, we also have an inscription from the times of Ramses II, in which are mentioned the representatives, called Sutech, of several cities (Lepsius, p. 50).
The term Sutech designated therefore in the times of Typhon a superior administrative and judiciary high office, exactly as in the first times of the Roman republic the consuls were also called judices (Livy, Hist. rom. I. III. 55)
the word Judea, as results from the above historical data, is not Hebraic, but it seems to have been a name given to a province governed at the time of the Pelasgian domination by a superior Judex or “Jude”. This is also confirmed by the geographical genealogy of Typhon, as being the father of Judaios and Hierosolymos].
We arrive now at the Greek version about the battles with the Giants, events which the peoples, once subjected to the Pelasgians, had celebrated during the course of a long series of centuries, as a divine revenge on those conquerors and despots of the ancient world.
According to Greek authors, the great war with the Giants had been waged by Jove, not Osiris. Jove was the victor, and Osiris, called Dionysos by the Greeks, had only fought under Jove’s command (Apollodorus, Bibl. I. 6; Diodorus Siculus. IV. 5).
“The Greeks”, writes Philo of Byblus (2nd century), “had attributed to themselves several historical events of that epoch, and because their authors wanted to please the ears and hearts of the people, with the sweetness of their fables, they had over-exaggerated those things, using a lot of fiction and embellishments. Hesiodus and the cyclical poets especially, had invented from their own fantasy various deeds and battles of the Giants and the Titans, and in this way they had darkened the truth” (H. Ph. Fr. 2; Diodor. I. 23. 8).
The Giants were, according to Hesiodus, a people of divine origin, born of the blood (people) of Uranos and of Gaea or Terra. By their country or mother they were called gegeneis Gigantes (Homer, Batr. V. 7; Diodorus, I. I. 21), Terrae filii, filii Terras, Terrigenae (Naevius, De Bell. Pun.; Val. Flaccus, Argon. II. 18).
The Giants were of a huge stature, much taller than normal. They wore long tresses and beards, and they used in battle shining weapons and long spears (Diodorus, IV. 21. 7; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 185 seqq; Apollodorus, Bibl. I. 6; Apollon. Rh. III. 499).
The Giants, the Greek authors also tell us, were a superb and wild people from the mountains, who hated men of foreign nationalities (Homer, Odyss. VII. 22. 206; Batrach. v. 285; Macrobius, Sat. I. 20; Eustathius, Comment. ad Dionys. v. 327). Their dwellings were in the northern parts of the river Oceanos potamos (Istru), near the country of the Arimii, close to the place where the Titans had been defeated, near Tartaros.
Hesiodus speaks about the battles of the Giants only in the war of Typhon with Jove.
Typhon himself is presented as the most terrifying among the Giants (Theog. v. 820; Claudianus, Gigant. v. 32; Hyginus, Fab. Principium). The residence of Typhon was in the country of the Arimii, ein ‘Arimois (Homer, Iliad, II. 783), or according to Quintus, in the “Black country”, Gaia melaina (Posthom. V. 416).
Typhon had a monstrous figure with the Greek authors. He had a mixed nature of beast and human.
By the size of his body and by his strength, he surpassed everybody born by the earth until then. With one hand he reached the west, with the other the east. His tresses and beard waved in the air, and fire burnt in his eyes (Apollodorus, Bibl. I. 6. 3).
In the first battles with Jove, the Giants were the victors. Jove, seeing that he couldn’t resist the violent assault of Typhon, ran to Egypt, together with his allies, where they all changed into various animal forms, so that Typhon, who was chasing them, could not recognize them. Another battle followed at Casius mountain, in which Jove was wounded and defeated. Typhon caught Jove there, lifted him on his shoulders, crossed the water with him, and shut him in the Coryciu cave in Cilicia. Jove escaped from this prison though, with the help of a woman who was guarding him. Following this defeat, and seeing that he could not beat the Giants, he asked Hercules for help (Apollodorus, Bibl. I. 6. 1. 6).
From then on the war was led by Hercules, not by Jove. As the Greek authors tell us, the final battles with the Giants took place in a meadow at Phlegra, or near the hill, mountain, and village Phlegra, pedion Phlegras (Pindar, Nem. I. 67; Diodorus, I. IV. 21. 5), pedion Phlegraion apo toy lophou (Timaeus, fr. 10, in Fragm. Hist. gr. I. p. 195), Phlegraia plaxi (Eschyl, Eum. v. 295), Phlegra topos chai chome (Schol. of Pindar in Boeckhius II. 434), Phlegraea juga (Propertius, Eleg. III. 9. 48).
The Giants, writes Timeus, hearing about the coming of Hercules, gathered all their forces, arranged themselves in battle order and came up against him. A fierce battle ensued (fragm. 10 in Fragm. Hist. gr. I. 195). In the end, the Giants withdrew to a well fortified place, to the rock and the cave called Aornos and Avernis by the Greek authors, Avernus by the Roman poets. Hercules attacked three times the Giants, but without success, and he finally withdrew because of some great earthquakes and other prodigious phenomena (Arrianus, Indica, c. 5; Strabo, I. XV. 1. 8; Diodorus, I. XVII. 85. 2).
According to other traditions though, Hercules totally defeated and destroyed the Giants at Phlegra (Eustathius, Cpomm. Ad Dionys. v. 327; Ephorus, fragm. 70).
The Giants fought against Jove and his allies with pieces of lighted wood, with giant rocks, with spears, swords and copper maces; Jove used against them the thunderbolts, and Vulcan hit them with hot chunks of metal (Apollodorus, Bibl. I. 6). The plains and woods where this battle took place took fire and burnt, because of which this mountain was called Phlegra, meaning the “Burnt” (TN – Arsul), from phlegein, to burn (Diodor. V. 71. 4; Strabo, XIII. 4. 11; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 859). The Giants, the legends tell us, also threw against their adversaries a dreadful dragon, whose memory was later immortalized in the constellation called the “Dragon” (TN – Balaurul), near the northern pole (Dupuis, Origine de tous les cultes, II. 199). It is without doubt meant by this the war standards of the Giants, in the shape of dragons, also used by the Dacians in their battles with the Romans.
We return now to the geographical situation of the Phlegra mountain in particular.
The Greek and Roman authors from later times of antiquity have tried to move the theater of the battles with the Giants to the regions near the Mediterranean Sea, some to Syria, Asia Minor, Thrace, Thessaly, Epirus and in the Greek islands, while others to the Italic Campagna.
But, according to the most ancient historical sources, these events had taken place on the territory of ancient Dacia.
The famous mountain Phlegra, which had terrified Jove and his allies, was situated in the northern parts of the Istru, in the regions inhabited by the Getae. The poet Statius calls this locality Getica Phlegra (Theb. III. 595). According to Orpheus (Argon. 1125) this place was also near the straits of the Riphei mountains.
Especially the Roman poets though had considered their wars with the Dacians as a historical continuation of the battles with the Giants. So, the poet Horatio (Od. III. 4) celebrates the emperor Augustus, who had waged a war with the Dacians, as a victor over the Titans and the Giants. The emperor Domitianus also had decided to conquer Dacia. But his expedition had ended with the withdrawal of the Roman legions from the territories occupied by the Dacians. Nevertheless, the friends of Domitianus celebrated his supposed victories as a triumph over the Giants (Martial, Epigr. VIII. 50, 78).
Although in Latin language the nominative was Avernus, the Roman poets also used the neuter plural Averna (Virgil, Aen. III. 442), certainly basing themselves on an ancient geographical source.
In Homeric antiquity, the place and woods around the cave Avernus, were consecrated to Persephone (Proserpina), the queen of the lower world (Homer, Odyss. X. 499; Diod. IV. 22). This name is still preserved by the village Presna, near Isvernea, where the feast day of the local church is even today that of “The entombment of the Mother of God”.
Not only Pregleda, but almost all the heights and ridges of the upper reaches of Cerna present even today the aspect of a vast complex of mountains, which had once been burnt by an extraordinary fire. The Egyptian priests, writes Plato (ed. Didot, II. 200), said the following to Solon: that which is told by your people, that at the time of Phaeton all that was on the surface of the earth took fire and burnt, is true, although it seems a fable.
The ancient Greek traditions also told that Jove’s thunderbolts had made the mountains to cave in, and that part of the Giants had been covered at Phlegra with earth, tree trunks and rocks (Lucilius, Aetna, v. 62). According to other traditions though, Hercules had been the one who had buried there the defeated Giants, under huge quantities of earth (Silius Ital. lib. XII. 151; Val. Flaccus, Arg. II. 19; Strabo, Geogr. I. VI. 3. 5).
The word Phlegra, from a linguistic point of view, is only a simple Greek form. Even during Greco-Roman antiquity, there also existed for this mountain the name Prochyta (Silius Ital. I. VIII. 542; Statius, Silv. II. 2. 76; Virgil, Aen. IX. 715; Pliny, I. II. 89. 3), a form which is even closer to the actual name “Pregleda” and “Pregreda”
According to Apollodorus, the battle of Neptune with the Gygant Polybotes had taken place on the island (understand the mountain) Cos. Another tradition tells us that Hercules, after conquering the island (mountain) Cos, went to Phlegra (Apoll. Bibl. I, 6, 2, 4; II. 7, 1-3; Pherecydis fr. 35). It is therefore evident that the mountain Casios, or better said Cos, of the history of the Giants, was in the same orographic region as Phlegra].
As for Typhon, the ancient legends contained different versions: that he had been covered by the cave-in of the mountain Procyta (Silius Ital. VIII. 542); that he had been thrown into Tartaros (Hesiodus, Theog. v. 868; Pindar, Pyth. I. 15); that he had run either to Italy (Pherecydis, fr. 14 in Fragm. Hist. gr. I. 72), or to Sicily (Apollod. Bibl. I. 6. 3. 32; Val. Flaccus, Argon. II. 24).
In memory of this war, the Greek authors attributed to Jove the epithet gigantoletes, or gigantoletor, killer of the Gygantes (Lucianus, Philopat. 4; Tim. 4).
Among the leading Giants who had taken part in this war, the ancient authors mention:
1. Porphyrion (Apollod. I. 6), Purpureus with Naevius. He seems to be identical though with Typhon, whom Plutarc calls pirros ta chroa, ruddy.
2. Runcus or Rhuncus (Naevius). The original form was Rumcus though.
3. Coemse (Hygin. Fab.).
4. Alemone (Hygin. Fab.). Phorcus (Hygin. Fab.), a name which corresponds to the rustic form Porcus, like in porphyra = purpura.
5. Ienios (Hygin. Fab.).
6. Enceladus (Hygin. Fab.; Apollod. I. 6), a name composed of Ence and Ladus.
7. Capeleus (Ersch u. Gruber, Allg. Encycl. d. Wissenschaften. 1 Sekt, 67. Th. p. 169), a Greek form which corresponds to the Latin form Capillatus. Pliny mentions the Ligurii called “Capillati” (III. 7. 1). The lower class of the Getae was also called chomatai and “Capillati”.
8. Eurymedon, one of the most ancient kings of the Giants, the father of the most beautiful woman, called Periboea (Homer, Odyss. VII. 58). Eurymedon, is composed in its Greek form, of eurys, wide, and medon, lord, king (TN – domn). Giving the names a Greek form had become even in the times of Homer a literary law for the Greek authors. In Romanian form, Eurymedon would mean “Lat”, “Lad Domnul”, or “Latin Domnul”. King Telephus or Latinus, who had ruled over the regions south of the Istru (see Ch. XXXIII.18) was given the epithet eurymedon (late regnans) by Tzetzes (Antehom. 270), epithet formed as we see, from the ethnic name “Latinus”.
9. Oromedon, (Propert. III. 9. 48), with the meaning “Lord of the mountains”, or “Lord from the mountainous region”. He seems to be a different person than Eurymedon.
10. Damysus (called Hephaestion by Ptolemy, Ersch ub. Gruber, ibid. p. 169).
11. Briareus (Homer, Iliad, I. 404), Greek briaros, strong, powerful.
12. Pallas (Hygin. Fab., Claud. Gig.), certainly Ballas in rustic form.
13. Mimas (Homer, Odyss. III. 4; Sil. Ital. XII. 157). He was buried under the ruined mountainside at Prochyta.
14. Foetus (Phoitos), on a vase painting (Gerhard, Trinkschalen d. k. Museums z. Berlin; Schol. of Hesiodus in Ersch. u. Gruber, ibid. 169). It seems to correspond to the family name Fatu (Fetu).
15. Polybotes or Poliboetes (Apollod. I. 6; Hygin. Fab.), meaning “he with many cattle herds”.
16. Otus and Ephialtes s. Ephialta (Homer, Odyss. X. 307; Apollod. Bibl. I. 6; Sidon. Apollin. Carm. II. 25). Alkyoneus, whom Pindar (Istm. V. 30-31) calls boubotes, the Giant with oxen.
17. Antlas Caeneus (Tzetzes, Theog. in Ersch. u. Gruber, ibid. p. 169). He was probably dwelling near Atlas mountain. In the war of the Giants, writes Naevius (De bello Punico), had also taken part magni Atlantes (the tall Olteni).
18. Musaeus (Diod. V. 1. 3), is one of the Giants from Phlegra, who had deserted his comrades in the middle of the battle and had crossed over to Jove’s side.
19. Besbicus (Steph. Byz). The original form had been in any case Bebiscus.
20. Gration (Apollod. I. 6), more correctly Kration (Romanian Craciun?).
21. Erylus = Erulus (Hygin. Fab.)

Hesiod, Theogony 820 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :
“Now after Zeus had driven the Titanes out of heaven, gigantic Gaia (Earth), in love with Tartaros (the Pit), by means of golden Aphrodite, bore the youngest of her children, Typhoeus; the hands and arms of him are mighty, and have work in them, and the feet of the powerful god were tireless, and up from his shoulders there grew a hundred snake heads, those of a dreaded drakon, and the heads licked with dark tongues, and from the eyes on the inhuman heads fire glittered from under the eyelids: from all his heads fire flared from his eyes’ glancing; and inside each one of these horrible heads there were voices that threw out every sort of horrible sound, for sometimes it was speech such as the gods could understand, but at other times, the sound of a bellowing bull, proud-eyed and furious beyond holding, or again like a lion shameless in cruelty, or again it was like the barking of dogs, a wonder to listen to, or again he would whistle so the tall mountains re-echoed to it.
And now that day there would have been done a thing past mending, and he, Typhoeus, would have been master of gods and of mortals, had not [Zeus] the father of gods and men been sharp to perceive it and gave a hard, heavy clap of thunder, so that the earth gave grisly reverberation, and the wide heaven above, and the sea, and the streams of Okeanos, and the underground chambers. And great Olympos was shaken under the immortal feet of the master as he moved, and the earth groaned beneath him, and the heat and blaze from both of them was on the dark-faced sea, from the thunder and lightning of Zeus and from the flame of the monster, from his blazing bolts and from the scorch and breath of his stormwinds, and all the ground and the sky and the sea boiled, and towering waves were tossing and beating all up and down the promontories in the wind of these immortals, and a great shaking of the earth came on, and Haides, lord over the perished dead, trembled, and the Titanes under Tartaros, who live beside Kronos, trembled to the dread encounter and the unending clamour.
But now, when Zeus had headed up his own strength, seizing his weapons, thunder, lightning, and the glowering thunderbolt, he made a leap from Olympos, and struck, setting fire to all those wonderful heads set about on the dreaded monster. Then, when Zeus had put him down with his strokes, Typhoeus crashed, crippled, and the gigantic earth groaned beneath him, and the flame from the great lord so thunder-smitten ran out along the darkening and steep forests of the mountains as he was struck, and a great part of the gigantic earth burned in the wonderful wind of his heat, and melted, as tin melts in the heat of the carefully grooved crucible when craftsmen work it, or as iron, though that is the strongest substance, melts under stress of blazing fire in the mountain forests worked by handicraft of Hephaistos inside the divine earth. So earth melted in the flash of the blazing fire; but Zeus in tumult of anger cast Typhoeus into broad Tartaros.
And from Typhoeus comes the force of winds blowing wetly, except Notos and Boreas and clear Zephyros. These are a god-sent kind, and a great blessing to men; but the others blow fitfully upon the seas. Some rush upon the misty sea and work great havoc among men with their evil, raging blasts; for varying with the season they blow, scattering ships and destroying sailors. And men who meet these upon the sea have no help against the mischief. Others again over the boundless, flowering earth spoil the fair fields of men who dwell below, filling them with dust and cruel uproar.”
Pindar, Pythian Ode 1. 16 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :
“But violence brings to ruin even the boastful hard-heart soon or late. Kilikion Typhon of the hundred heads could not escape his fate.”
Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 353 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
“Pity moved me [the Titan Prometheus], too, at the sight of the earth-born (gêgenês) dweller of the Kilikian caves curbed by violence, that destructive monster of a hundred heads (hekatonkaranos), impetuous (thouros) Typhon. He withstood all the gods, hissing out terror with horrid jaws, while from his eyes lightened a hideous glare, as though he would storm by force the sovereignty of Zeus. But the unsleeping bolt of Zeus came upon him, the swooping lightning brand with breath of flame, which struck him, frightened, from his loud-mouthed boasts; then, stricken to the very heart, he was burnt to ashes and his strength blasted from him by the lightning bolt. And now, a helpless and a sprawling bulk, he lies hard by the narrows of the sea, pressed down beneath the roots of Aitna; while on the topmost summit Hephaistos sits and hammers the molten ore. There, one day, shall burst forth rivers of fire, with savage jaws devouring the level fields of Sikelia (Sicily), land of fair fruit–such boiling rage shall Typhon, although charred by the blazing lightning of Zeus, send spouting forth with hot jets of appalling, fire-breathing surge.”
Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes 486 ff :
“Hippomedon [one of the leaders of the army of the Seven Against Thebes], tremendous in form and figure. I shuddered in fear as he spun a huge disk–the circle of his shield . . . The symbol-maker who put the design on his shield was no lowly craftsman: the symbol is Typhon, spitting out of his fire-breathing mouth a dark, thick smoke, the darting sister of fire. And the rim of the hollow-bellied shield is fastened all around with snaky braids . . . Hyperbios, Oinops’ trusty son, is chosen to match him . . . Hermes has appropriately pitted them against each other. For the man is hostile to the man he faces in battle, and the gods on their shields also meet as enemies. The one has fire-breathing Typhon, while father Zeus stands upright on Hyperbios’ shield, his lightening bolt aflame in his hand. And no one yet has seen Zeus conquered. Such then is the favor of the divine powers : we are with the victors, they with the vanquished, if Zeus in fact proves stronger in battle than Typhon. And it is likely that the mortal adversaries will fare as do their gods; and so, in accordance with the symbol, Zeus will be a savior for Hyperbios since he resides on his shield. I am sure that Zeus’ antagonist, since he has on his shield the unloved form of an earth-born deity (daimon khthonios), an image hated by both mortals and the long-lived gods, will drop his head in death before the gate.”
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 39 – 44 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
“The defeat of the Gigantes [or Titanes] by the gods angered Ge all the more, so she had intercourse with Tartaros and bore Typhon in Kilikia. He was a mixture of man and beast, the largest and strongest of all Ge’s children. Down to the thighs he was human in form, so large that he extended beyond all the mountains while his head often touched even the stars. One hand reached to the west, the other to the east, and attached to these were one hundred heads of serpents. Also from the thighs down he had great coils of vipers, which extended to the top of his head and hissed mightily. All of his body was winged, and the hair that flowed in the wind from his head and cheeks was matted and dirty. In his eyes flashed fire. Such were the appearance and the size of Typhon as he hurled red-hot rocks at the sky itself, and set out for it with mixed hisses and shouts, as a great storm of fire boiled forth from his mouth.
When the gods saw him rushing toward the sky, they headed for Aigyptos to escape him, and as he pursued them they changed themselves into animal shapes. But Zeus from a distance hurled thunderbolts at Typhon, and when he had drawn closer Zeus tried to strike him down with a sickle made of adamant. Typhon took flight, but Zeus stayed on his heels right up to Mount Kasium, which lies in Syria. Seeing that he was badly wounded, Zeus fell on him with his hands. But Typhon entwined the god and held him fast in his coils, and grabbing the sickle he cut out the sinews from Zeus’ hands and feet. Then, placing Zeus up on his shoulders, he carried him across the sea to Kilikia, where he deposited him in the Korykion cave. He also hid away the sinews there in the skin of a bear, and posted as guard over them the drakaina Delphyne (a girl who was half animal). But Hermes and Aigipan stole back the sinews and succeeded in replanting them in Zeus without being seen. So Zeus, again possessed of his strength, suddenly appeared from the sky in a chariot drawn by winged horses, and with thunderbolts chased Typhon to the mountain called Nysa. There the Moirai (Fates) deceived the pursued creature, for he ate some of the ephemeral fruit on Nysa [i.e. the intoxicating grape of Dionysos] after they had persuaded him that he would gain strength from it. Again pursued, he made his way to Thrake, where while fighting round Haimos he threw whole mountains at Zeus. But when these were pushed back upon him by the thunderbolt, a great quantity of his blood streamed out on the mountain, which allegedly is why the mountain is called Haimos. Then, as Typhon started to flee again through the Sikelian (Sicilian) Sea, Zeus brought down Sikelia’s Mount Aitna on him , a great mountain which they say still erupts fire from the thunderbolts thrown by Zeus.”
Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 38 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :
“Amykos [a king of Mysia] made one think of some monstrous off-spring of the ogre Typhoeus.”
Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 1206 ff :
“On the slopes of Kaukasos by the rock of Typhaon. It was there, they say, that Typhaon, when he had offered violence to Zeus and been struck by his thunder-bolt, dropped warm blood from his head, and so made his way to the mountains and plain of Nysa, where he lies to this day, engulfed in the waters of the Serbonian Lake.”
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 71. 2 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :
“He [Zeus] slew the Gigantes (Giants) and their followers, Mylinos in Krete and Typhon in Phrygia.”
Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 5. 484 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) :
“In the dust outstretched he lay, like Typhon, when the bolts of Zeus had blasted him.”
Oppian, Halieutica 3. 15 (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd A.D.) :
“Pan of Korykos, thy son, who, they say, was the saviour of Zeus–the saviour of Zeus but the slayer of Typhon. For he tricked terrible Typhon with promise of a banquet of fish and beguiled him to issue forth from his spacious pit and come to the shore of the sea, where the swift lightning and the rushing fiery thunderbolts laid him low; and, blazing in the rain of fire, he beat his hundred heads upon the rocks whereon he was carded all about like wool. And even now the yellow banks by the sea are red with the blood of the Typhonian battle.”
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 152 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
“Tartarus begat by Tartara, Typhon, a creature of immense size and fearful shape, who had a hundred Draco (dragon) heads springing from his shoulders. He challenged Jove [Zeus] to see if Jove would content with him for the rule. Jove struck his breast with a flaming thunderbolt. When it was burning him he put Mount Etna, which is in Sicily, over him. From this it is said to burn still.”
Ovid, Metamorphoses 3. 302 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
“[Zeus] he soared ascending to the ethereal sky, and by his nod called up the trailing clouds and massed a storm, with lightnings in the squalls, and thunder and the bolts that never miss . . . wielding the fire with which he’s felled hundred-handed Typhoeus.”
Seneca, Medea 771 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) :
“[Amongst various fabulous ingredients used in a spell by the witch Medea :] To thee [Hekate] I offer these wreaths wrought with bloody hands, each entwined with nine serpent coils; to thee, these serpent limbs which rebellious Typhoeus wore, who caused Jove’s [Zeus’] throne to tremble.”
Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 3. 130 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :
“Huge as Typhon when he glares from the measureless sky, red with fire and tempest, while Jove [Zeus] on high grips him by the hair.”
Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 4. 235 ff :
“Typhoeus, boasting that already the kingdom of the sky and already the stars were won, felt aggrieved that Bacchus [Dionysos] in the van [of a chariot] and Pallas, foremost of the gods, and a maiden’s snakes [Athena’s aegis] confronted him.”
Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 6. 168 ff :
“The ground trembles and quakes at the shock, as when Jupiter [Zeus] strikes Phlegra [home of the Gigantes] with his angry brand and hurls back Typhon to the deepest recesses of the earth.”
Suidas s.v. Haliplanktos (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) :
“Haliplanktos (Sea-roaming) : Thus Pan is called . . . because he hunted Typhon with nets.”
Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 28 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
“Typhon was the son of Ge (Earth), a deity monstrous because of his strength, and of outlandish appearance. There grew out of him numerous heads and hands and wings, while from his thighs came huge coils of snakes. He emitted all kinds of roars and nothing could resist his might.
He felt an urge to usurp the rule of Zeus and not one of the gods could withstand him as he attacked. In panic they fled to Aigyptos (Egypt), all except Athena and Zeus, who alone were left. Typhon hunted after them, on their track. When they fled they had changed themselves in anticipation into animal forms.
Apollon became a hawk [Horus], Hermes an ibis [Thoth], Ares became a fish, the lepidotus [Lepidotus or Onuris], Artemis a cat [Neith or Bastet], Dionysos took the shape of a goat [Osiris or Arsaphes], Herakles a fawn, Hephaistos an ox [Ptah], and Leto a shrew mouse [Wadjet]. The rest of the gods each took on what transformations they could. When Zeus struck Typhon with a thunderbolt, Typhon, aflame hid himself and quenched the blaze in the sea.
Zeus did not desist but piled the highest mountain, Aitna, on Typon and set Hephaistos on the peak as a guard. Having set up his anvils, he works his red hot blooms on Typhon’s neck.”
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 196 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
“When the god in Egypt feared the monster Typhon, Pan bade them transform themselves into wild beasts the more easily to deceive him. Jove [Zeus] later killed him with a thunderbolt. By the will of the gods, since by his warning they had avoided Typhon’s violence.”
Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 28 :
“Egyptian priests and some poets say that once when many gods had assembled in Egypt, suddenly Typhon, an exceedingly fierce monster and deadly enemy of the gods, came to that place. Terrified by him, they changed their shapes into other forms: Mercurius [Hermes] became an ibis, Apollo [Apollon], the bird that is called Thracian, Diana [Artemis], a cat. For this reason they say the Egyptians do not permit these creatures to be injured, because they are called representations of gods. At this same time, they say, Pan cast himself into the river, making the lower part of his body a fish, and the rest a goat, and thus escaped from Typhon.”
Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 30 :
“Pisces. Diognetus Erythraeus says that once Venus [Aphrodite] and her son Cupid [Eros] came in Syria to the river Euphrates. There Typhon, of whom we have already spoken, suddenly appeared. Venus and her son threw themselves into the river and there changed their forms to fishes, and by so doing this escaped danger.”
Ovid, Metamorphoses 5. 139 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
“Typhoeus, issuing from earth’s lowest depths, struck terror in those heavenly hearts, and they all turned their backs and fled, until they found refuge in Aegyptus and the seven-mouthed Nilus . . . Typhoeus Terrigena (Earthborn) even there pursued them and the gods concealed themselves in spurious shapes; `And Juppiter [Zeus] became a ram’, she said, `lord of the herd, and so today great Ammon Libys’ [Zeus-Ammon] shown with curling horns. Delius [Apollon] hid as a raven, Semeleia [Dionysos] as a goat, Phoebe [Artemis] a cat, Saturnia [Hera] a snow-white cow, Venus [Aphrodite] a fish and Cyllenius [Hermes] an ibis.'”
Ovid, Fasti 2. 458 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
“Once Dione [Aphrodite], in flight from terrible Typhon (when Jupiter [Zeus] armed in heaven’s defence), reached the Euphrates with tiny Cupidos [Eros] in tow and sat by the hem of Palestine’s stream . . . She pales with fear, and believes a hostile band approaches. As she clutched son to breast, she cries : `To the rescue, Nymphae, and bring help to two divinities.’ No delay; she leapt. Twin fish went underneath them.”

Hesiod, Theogony 869 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :
“Zeus had headed up his own strength, seizing his weapons, thunder, lightning, and the glowering thunderbolt, he made a leap from Olympos, and struck, setting fire to all those wonderful heads set about on the dreaded monster [Typhoeus] . . . [and] Zeus in tumult of anger cast Typhoeus into broad Tartaros. And from Typhoeus comes the force of winds blowing wetly, except Notos and Boreas and clear Zephyros. These are a god-sent kind, and a great blessing to men; but the others blow fitfully upon the seas. Some rush upon the misty sea and work great havoc among men with their evil, raging blasts; for varying with the season they blow, scattering ships and destroying sailors. And men who meet these upon the sea have no help against the mischief. Others again over the boundless, flowering earth spoil the fair fields of men who dwell below, filling them with dust and cruel uproar.”
Pindar, Pythian Ode 1. 15 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :
“That enemy of the gods, who lies in fearsome Tartaros, Typhon the hundred-headed, who long since was bred in the far-famed Kilikion cave. Today the cliffs that bar the sea o’er Kumai and Sikilia’s (Sicily’s) isle, press heavy on his shaggy breast, and that tall pillar rising to the height of heaven, contains him close–Aitna.” [N.B. Tartaros is here the under-earth, rather than the cosmic pit.]
Aristophanes, Frogs 475 ff (trans. O’Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B.C.) :
“[Aiakos threatens the god Dionysos with torment in the Underworld :] `The black hearted Stygian rock and the crag of Akheron dripping with gore can hold you; and the circling hounds of Kokytos and the hundred-headed ekhidna (serpent) [probably Typhoeus] shall tear your entrails; your lungs will be attacked by the Myraina Tartesia (the Tartesian Eel) [probably Ekhidna], your kidneys bleeding with your very entrails the Tithrasian Gorgones Teithrasiai will rip apart.'”
Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 4. 514 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :
“While they [the Harpyiai, storm-daimones] hovered, wearing and panting with fear of death’s approach [at the hands of the pursuing Boreades], and weighed down in low and timorous flight implored with ghastly shriek their father Typho, he rose and brought up the darkness with him, mingling high and low, while from the heart of the gloom a voice was heard.”
Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 6. 168 ff :
“The ground trembles and quakes at the shock, as when Jupiter [Zeus] strikes Phlegra [home of the Gigantes] with his angry brand and hurls back Typhon to the deepest recesses of the earth.”
Homer and Hesiod describe Typhoeus and Ekhidna imprisoned beneath the land of the Arimoi (also known as the Arimaspoi, or Kimmeroi), a mythical race who dwelt at the ends of the earth shrouded in mist and darkness (beyond the River Okeanos). The gates of Tartaros, the usual prison of the pair, were probably believed to be found in this territory.
Strabo, however, identifies several locations later identified by the Greeks with Homer’s Arimoi.
Homer, Iliad 2. 780 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
“The ground echoed under them, Zeus who delights in thunder were angry, as when he batters the earth about Typhoeus, in the land of the Arimoi, where they say Typhoeus lies prostrate.” [Cf. Hesiod below.]
Hesiod, Theogony 295 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :
“She [Ekhidna] has her cave on the underside of a hollow rock, far from the immortal gods, and far from all mortals. There the gods ordained her a fabulous home to live in which she keeps underground among the Arimoi, grisly Ekhidna, a Nymphe who never dies, and all her days she is ageless.” [N.B. Ekhidna’s home of Arimoi is the same place where Homer says Typhoeus is imprisoned].
The land of the Kimmeroi (Of the Frost-Chilled Air), described by Homer, was probably identical to that of the Arimoi, and the Arimaspoi (which according to Herodotus meant one-eyed in the Scythian tongue, from arimos, one, and spou, eye):–
Homer, Odyssey 11. 10 ff (trans. Shewring) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
“The vessel [of Odysseus] came to the bounds of eddying Okeanos, where lie the land and the city of the Kimmeroi, covered with mist and cloud. Never does the resplendent sun look on this people with his beams, neither when he climbs towards the stars of heaven nor when once more he comes earthwards from the sky; dismal night over hands these wretches always. ariving there, we beached the vessel [near the rivers Akheron and Styx].”
Strabo, Geography 13. 4. 6 ff (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
“Some [poets] add the following fourth verse : `At the foot of snowy Tmolos, in the fertile land of Hyde.’ But there is no Hyde to be found in the country of the Lydians . . . And they add that the place is woody and subject to strokes of lightning, and that the Arimoi live there, for after Homer’s verse, `in the land of the Arimoi where men say is the couch of Typhon,’ they insert the words, `in a wooded place, in the fertile land of Hyde.’
But others lay the scene of this myth in Kilikia, and some lay it in Syria, and still others in the Pithekoussai Islands [volcanic islands off the coast of Italia], who say that among the Tyrrhenians ‘pithekoi’ (apes) are called ‘arimoi.’ Some call Sardeis Hyde, while others call its acropolis Hyde. But the Skepsian thinks that those writers are most plausible who place the Arimoi in the Katakekaumene (Burnt Up) country in Mysia. But Pindaros associates the Pithekoussai which lie off the Kymaian territory, as also the territory in Sikelia (Sicily), with the territory in Kilikia, for he says that Typhon lies beneath Aitna : `Once he dwelt in a far-famed Kilikian cavern; now, however, his shaggy breast is o’er-pressed by the sea-girt shores above Kymai and by Sikelia (Sicily).’ And again, ’round about him lies Aitna with her haughty fetters,’ and again, ‘but it was father Zeus that once amongst the Arimoi, by necessity, alone of the gods, smote monstrous Typhon of the fifty heads.’
But some understand that the Syrians are Arimoi, who are now called the Arimaians, and that the Kilikians in Troy, forced to migrate, settled again in Syria and cut off for themselves what is now called Kilikia.”
Strabo, Geography 12. 7. 19 :
“In fact they make this [the volcanic plains of Lydia] the setting of the mythical story of the Arimoi and of the throes of Typhon, calling it the Katakekaumene (the Burnt Up) country. Also, they do not hesitate to suspect that the parts of the country between the Maiandros River and the Lydians are all of this nature, as well on account of the number of the lakes and rivers as on account of the numerous hollows in the earth. And the lake between Laodikeia and Apameia, although like a sea, emits an eflluvium that is filthy and of subterranean origin.”
Strabo, Geography 13. 4. 11 ff :
“The Katakekaumene (Burnt Up) country [of Lydia or Mysia], as it is called, which has a length of five hundred stadia and a breadth of four hundred, whether it should be called Mysia or Meïonia (for both names are used); the whole of it is without trees except the vine that produces the Katakekaumenite wine, which in quality is inferior to none of the notable wines. The surface of the plain is covered with ashes, and the mountainous and rocky country is black, as though from conflagration. Now some conjecture that this resulted from thunderbolts and from fiery subterranean outbursts, and they do not hesitate to lay there the scene of the mythical story of Typhon . . . but it is not reasonable to suppose that all that country was burnt all at once by reason of such disturbances, but rather by reason of an earth-born fire, the sources of which have now been exhausted. Three pits are to be seen there, which are called ‘bellows,’ and they are forty stadia distant from each other. Above them lie rugged hills, which are reasonably supposed to have been heaped up by the hot masses blown forth from the earth. That such soil should be well adapted to the vine one might assume from the land of Katana, which was heaped with ashes and now produces excellent wine in great plenty.”
The Serbonian Lake or Marsh lay on the borders of Egypt and Phoenicia. Typhoeus was here identified with the Egyptian god Set, who was believed to have been vanquished by Osiris in the marsh.
Aeschylus, Suppliant Women 556 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
“The fertile groves sacred to Zeus [Aigyptos or Egypt], that snow-fed pasture assailed by Typho’s fury, and the water of the Neilos (Nile) that no disease may touch.”
Herodotus, Histories 3. 5 (trans. Godley) (Greek historian C5th B.C.) :
“Now the only apparent way of entry into Egypt is this. The road runs from Phoinikia as far as the borders of the city of Kadytis . . . from Ienysus as far as the Serbonian marsh, beside which the promontory Kasios stretches seawards; from this Serbonian marsh, where Typho is supposed to have been hidden, the country is Egypt. Now between Ienysus and the Kasian mountain and the Serbonian marsh there lies a wide territory for as much as three days’ journey, terribly arid.”
Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 1206 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :
“Typhaon struck by his thunder-bolt, dropped warm blood from his head, and so made his way to the mountains and plain of Nysa, where he lies to this day, engulfed in the waters of the Serbonian Lake.”
Strabo, Geography 13. 4. 6 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
“[Quoting Pindar :] `But it was father Zeus that once amongst the Arimoi, by necessity, alone of the gods, smote monstrous Typhon of the fifty heads.’ But some understand that the Syrians are Arimoi, who are now called the Arimaians [and it is here that Typhon is buried].”

Pindar, Olympian Ode 4. 6 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :
“O son of Kronos [Zeus], lord of Aitna, that windswept mount where Typhon the monster hundred-headed is held in thrall.”
Pindar, Pythian Ode 1. 15 ff :
“That enemy of the gods, who lies in fearsome Tartaros, Typhon the hundred-headed, who long since was bred in the far-famed Kilikian cave. Today the cliffs that bar the sea o’er Kymai (Cumae) and Sikilia’s (Sicily’s) isle, press heavy on his shaggy breast, and that tall pillar rising to the height of heaven, contains him close–Aitna (Etna) the white-clad summit, nursing through all the year her frozen snows. From the dark depths below she flings aloft fountains of purest fires, that no foot can approach. In the broad light of day rivers of glowing smoke pour forth a lurid stream, and in the dark a red and rolling flood tumbles down the boulders to the deep sea’s plain in riotous clatter. These dread flames that creeping monster sends aloft, a marvel to look on, and a wondrous tale even to hear, from those whose eyes have seen it. Such is the being bound between the peaks of Aitna in her blackened leaves and the flat plain, while all his back is torn and scarred by the rough couch on which he lies outstretched.”
Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 363 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
“He [Typhon] was burnt to ashes and his strength blasted from him by the lightning bolt. And now, a helpless and a sprawling bulk, he lies hard by the narrows of the sea, pressed down beneath the roots of Aitna; while on the topmost summit Hephaistos sits and hammers the molten ore. There, one day, shall burst forth rivers of fire, with savage jaws devouring the level fields of Sikelia (Sicily), land of fair fruit–such boiling rage shall Typhon, although charred by the blazing lightning of Zeus, send spouting forth with hot jets of appalling, fire-breathing surge.”
Lycophron, Alexandra 688 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :
“The island [Sikelia] that crushed the back of the Gigantes and the fierce from of Typhon, shall receive him [Odysseus] journeying alone: an island boiling with flame.”
Strabo, Geography 5. 4. 9 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
“The Khalkidians [who settled the island of Pithekoussai, Italia] . . . were driven out of the island by earthquakes, and by eruptions of fire, sea, and hot waters . . . Hence, also the myth, according to which Typhon lies beneath this island, and when he turns his body the flames and the waters, and sometimes even small islands containing boiling water, spout forth, But what Pindaros says is more plausible, since he starts with the actual phenomena; for this whole channel, beginning at the Kaumaian (Cumaean) country and extending as far as Sikelia (Sicily), is full of fire, and has caverns deep down in the earth that form a single whole, connecting not only with one another but also with the mainland; and therefore, not only Aitna clearly ahs such a character as it is reported by all to have, but also the Liparoi Islands, and the districts around about Dikaiarkheia, Neapolis, and Baia, and the island of Pithekoussai. This, I say, is Pindaros’ though when he says that Typhon lies beneath this whole region : `Now however, both Sikelia and the sea-fenced cliffs beyond Kume press hard upon his shaggy breast.’”
Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 28 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
“When Zeus struck Typhon with a thunderbolt, Typhon, aflame hid himself and quenched the blaze in the sea. Zeus did not desist but piled the highest mountain, Aitna, on Typon and set Hephaistos on the peak as a guard. Having set up his anvils, he works his red hot blooms on Typhon’s neck.”
Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 5. 14 (trans. Conybeare) (Greek biography C1st to C2nd A.D.) :
“They came to Katana, where is Mount Aitna; and they say that they heard from the inhabitants of the city a story about Typho being bound on the spot and about fire rising from him, and this fire sends up the smoke of Aitna.”
Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 5. 16 :
“Poetical myths are given by the vulgar of Aitna . . . belonging to the class of dramatic stories which fill the mouths of our poets. For they sway that a certain Typho or Enkelados lies bound under the mountain [of Aitna], and in his death agony breathes out this fire that we see.
Now I admit that Gigantes have existed, and that gigantic bodies are revealed all over earth when tombs are broken open; nevertheless I deny that they ever came into conflict with the gods; at the most they violated their temples and statues, and to suppose that hey scaled the heaven and chased away the gods therefrom,–this it is madness to relate and madness to believe.”
Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 5. 13 :
“Typho a many-headed monster, was threatening Sikelia (Sicily) with his violence [i.e. threatening a volcanic eruption].”
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 152 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
“Jove [Zeus] struck his [Typhon’s] breast with a flaming thunderbolt. When it was burning him he put Mount Etna, which is in Sicily, over him. From this it is said to burn still.”
Ovid, Metamorphoses 5. 346 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
“The huge three-angled isle of Trinacris [Sicily] lies piled upon the body of the giant, Typhoeus, whose hopes had dared heaven’s palaces and hold him fast beneath its mighty mass. Often he strives and strains to rise again but on his right hand long Pelorus stands, and on his left Pachynum; Lilybaeum crushes his legs, Etna weighs down his head, where, face upturned, his fierce throat vomits forth cinders and flames. Often he strains his strength to heave earth’s heavy weight aside, to roll away the mountain range and the teeming towns. Then the land quakes and even Rex Silentum (the king who rules the land of silence) [Hades] shudders lest the ground in gaping seams should open and the day stream down and terrify the trembling Umbrae (Shades).”
Ovid, Metamorphoses 14. 2 ff :
“Etna heaped high upon the Gigante’s [Typhon’s] throat.”
Ovid, Fasti 1. 543 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
“You would think every blast was Typhoeus’ breath, a bolt of lightning hurled from Etna’s fire.”
Ovid, Fasti 4. 491 ff :
“Soaring Etna lies over huge Typhoeus’ mouth, whose gasping fires ignite the very earth.”
Seneca, Hercules Furens 80 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) :
“Unbar Sicily’s mountain cave, and let the Dorian land, which trembles whenever the giant [Typhon] struggles, set free the buried frame of that dread monster.”
Seneca, Medea 407 ff :
“What ferocity of beasts, what Scylla, what Charybdis, sucking up the Ausonian and Sicilian waters, or what Aetna, resting heavily on panting Titan [Typhoeus], shall burn with such threats as I?”
Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 2. 16 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :
“Typhoeus lies crushed beneath Sicilian soil. Men say that as he fled, blasting forth the sacred fires from his breast, Neptunus [Poseidon] grasped him by the hair, bore him out to see and entangled him in the waters, and as the bloody mass rose again and again, churning the waves with serpent limbs, took him far away to the Sicilian waters and down upon his head placed all Aetna with her cities; savage still he throws up the foundations of the caverned mountain; then heaves Trinacria [Sicily] throughout her length and breadth, as he struggles and shifts the burdening mass with weary breast, to let it fall again with a groan–baffled.”
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. 600 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :”For I [Zeus] with one hand have vanquished your hands, two hundred strong. Let three-headland Sikelie (Sicily) receive Typhon whole and entire, let her crush him all about under her steep and lofty hills, with the hair of his hundred heads miserably bedabbled in dust. Nevertheless, if you did have an over-violent mind, if you did assault Olympos itself in your impracticable ambitions, I will build you a cenotaph, presumptuous wretch, and I will engrave on your empty tomb, this last message : `This is the barrow of Typhoeus, son of Gaia, who once lashed the sky with stones, and the fire of heaven burnt him up.'”
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 13. 319 ff :
“Aitna (Mt Etna), where the rock is alight and kettles of fire boil up the hot flare of Typhaon’s bed.”
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 45. 210 ff :
“He [the gigante Alpos] lifted the waters and deluged Typhaon’s rock [Sicily], flooding the hot surface of his brother’s bed and cooling his scorched body with a torrent of water.”


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