King Yima rules over the golden age which ends when he sins. The khvaranah, or Divine Glory, flees his side in the direction of the mythical lake Vourukasa, and Aplm Napat, the keeper of the lake, seizes the khvaranah and deposits it in the midst of the waters. Ahura Mazda urges men to try and claim the khvaranah, promising the victor numerous earthly and heavenly rewards. The first attempt is made by the Turanian, Frafirasyan, a foreigner, who dives three times into the lake, but who fails because only the airya are entitled to the khvaranah. In each attempt, the khvaranah escapes from Franrasyan whose wild pursuits cause great overflows from the lake. In this way various rivers come into being, and one, the Haetu- mant which still contains the escaped khvardnah, is Lake Vourukasa’s most eulogized tributary. Yast V. ? 25 f. relates that he sacrificed to the goddess Arodvi Stira Anahita on Hukairya,2 the peak of the mountain Hara or Haraiti from which the waters sent by her flow down into the lake Vourukasa, whence they fertilise the whole earth (cf. Yast XII. ? 24), and that he prayed that he might become sovereign lord over all countries, over daevas and men, sorcerers (yatu) and witches (pairikd), rulers, kavis, and karapans, and that he might take from the daevas wealth and welfare, riches and flocks, comfort and fame; and the goddess granted his request (cf. Yast XIX. ? 31 f.). Hara or Haraiti, from whose peak Hukairya the heavenly river descends into the lake Vourukasa,1 seems to correspond to the celestial “mountain “, ndka, of the Veda, beside or upon which the poets locate the realm of Yama, with its abounding streams of water and its fountain of Soma. Yast VIII. ? 32, which speaks of a ” mountain beyond India ” (or perhaps “north of India “), ushandavat paiti garoit, as lying in the midst of Vourukasa, suggests that popular imagination assigned to it a southerly location; but originally both lake and mountain were probably mythical. ‘Sing to Apam Napat, to Savitar, for favor;’ is invoked in two other verses with him; 38 and achieves cosmogonic significance in a hymn to him: ‘Where the (now-) established ocean gushed forth, of that Savitar knows, Apam Napat! From there the earth, from there the spaces arose; from there Heaven and Earth spread out’ (RV.X.149.2). The source of the waters in the Iranian system is the maiden Ardvisfira Anahita (lit. ‘the great stream, the unblemished’), the personification of a mythical fountain, through which flow all terrestrial waters from the summit of Mount Hukairya down to the sea Vourukasa (Varkas), pouring out over the seven quarters of the earth. Ardvt, who in her cult-aspect is the goddess of fecundity, like Ea, represents the life-giving springs and river-sources which are forced up from the subterranean zrayah vourukasa, ‘the sea with far-(extended) bays’ (Bartholomae, Wort., col. 1429), the analogue of the apsu, by the pressure of the returning floods from above, which empty around its circumference, causing the center to boil up (cf. Yast 5, 4, and Yasna 65, etc.). The celestial waters are sent up through special channels to the top of Mount Hukairya, whence they are carried over the earth by the rain clouds. The Avestic Gandarowa is simply a demon dwelling beneath the waters of Vourukasa, ” sole lord of the depths,” who was slain by Korosaspa (Yast V. ? 38, XV. ? 28; cf. Windischmann, Zor. Stud., p. 40 f.) when he sought to destroy the ” bodied beings of Righteousness ” (XIX. ? 41). Yima, as a Pahlavi text (SBE. XVIII. p. 419; cf. Windischmann, Zor. Stud., p. 31) represents him as son of Yima by a witch. On the other hand, Yast XV. ? 28 calls him the son of Ahura, and the litany in Yast XIII worships the fravasi of Gandarowa’s son the holy Parsanta, two facts which look like survivals from an earlier time, before he had become a devil. Between Athene and these deities there is, of course, only a general resemblance due to the association of water with wisdom in the minds of the ancient people. This association is quite clear in the mythical aspect of Athene. The story of her birth, as is well known, is a thinly disguised storm-myth with the normal features of such myths, as the swallowing of a bright goddess (M7rTt, pregnant of Athene), the flash of the thunderbolt (the sudden birth of Athene with the lance and the atyti), or the loud voice of the thunder (Zeus utters a war-cry when he sees his brilliant daughter); and like all the Aryan storm-myths it takes place in a mythical sea (e. g. the Hara Barazaiti and the sea Vourukasa of the Iranians) which in the Greek version is the Triton-river. The geographers cannot determine with precision the location of this river. Like all mythical names, it is found in many places in the Greek world, although tradition places the scene in the remote west, the far-away watery recess from which, according to the old conception of the Greeks, storms rush upon the earth (Roscher, Gorgonen, p. 30). Metis, the mother of Athene in the classical form of the myth, is an abstraction. Apam Napat was a keeper of a sacred lake, Vourukasa, in which the Xvarsnah, the luminous and fiery symbol of the Iranian royal power, was kept. The Turanian king Frangrasyan tried to claim the Xvars nah three times, but each time Xvaranah escaped by flowing out of Vourukasa. Finally Xvar anah and the water flowed into the sea in three channels and circled the earth. The etymology of Neptunus also suggests that the deity is closely associated with water. The term Neptunus is considered to have derived from I-E *nept-, *nepot- (i. e. ‘sister’s son’)’, and to have the same etymology as the Iranian Apam Napat wihich is interpreted as ‘Nephew of Water’, attested by IE *ap- ‘water’ and *nepot, though Neptunus seems to have lost the form for water like the Irish figure Nechtan. The reconstructed form *Neptonosli) for Nechtan denotes the close similarity with the Indo-Iranian Nep(a)t-, and this also suggests the relevance of Neptunus indicating Nechtan as the ‘Nephew of Water’. This fact also indicates that the Greek equivalence of Neptunus, Poseidon, must be closely related with water. The Vedic god [Apâm Napât] has no obvious myth, but his characteristics, gleaned from the hymns,… mark him as a fiery deity immersed and inherent in watery depths, giving off light and lightning without visible energy source, and as a power that needs to be ritually placated for proper utilization of waters. In this instance Iran contributes the story. YaSt 19 of the Avesta, celebrating the x’aranah as the luminous and fiery hallmark of the duly elect king of Iran, tells of a mythical time when it became a pawn in the tug-of-war between the poles of Zoroastrian dualism (Spanta Mainyu and Angra Mainyu), in the course of which it withdrew from the fray in the direction of the mythical Lake Vourukasa. At that point Apâm Napât seized the x’arsnah and deposited it in the safety of the waters of the lake. Ahura-mazda thereupon declared open season on the x’aronah as a legitimate goal of striving for qualified humans, holding out sacerdotal, pastoral, and martial rewards. the idea of the x’aranah “as a legitimate goal of striving for qualified humans.” As we are told by YaSt 19, the first human who tried to seize x’aranah was the Turanian Frarjrasiian, who happens to be the prototype of Afrâsiyâb, King of the Turanians and arch-enemy of the hero Rostam in the Shâhnâma. In YaSt 19, there is no mention of Rostam. Instead, what we see is that the x’ardnah recoils by itself from the grasp of Frarjrasiian, creating an outflow from the lake that leads a multitude of rivers, one of which, the Haêtumant, still contains the “escaped” x”ar9nah “Apam NapSt is not a warrior hero, but a god, an ahura- (like Ahura Mazda and Mitra, and he is addressed, in the Avesta, as in the Veda, as the creator of mankind)” “Frangrasyan the Turanian was in possession of the ‘Glory of the Kavis’ when he killed Zainigav, the adherent of the false faith (Yt. 19.93). Another time he sacrificed in vain to Aredvi in the hope of acquiring the Khvarenah (The Royal Glory) of the Aryan countries which was floating in the middle of Lake Vourukasa (Yt. 5,41-43)… “The name ‘Vourukasa’ (‘with the wide bays’) is originally an epithet, given to a certain lake well-known in the territory inhabited by the Aryans. Nothing compels us to give a mythical explanation to this name in the passages of Yashts 13,19 and 5 where we meet it. It is only in Yt. 8, whose redaction is probably more recent than those of Yts. 13, 19 and 5, and in the Vendidad, a still more recent book, that the name of Vourukasa is used to designate the celestial ocean. Apart from Varuna, in Vedic religion the Waters themselves Ápas (plural) were divinities, and from their midst Varuna “looks upon the truth and untruth of people” (RV VII, 49,3). In the waters resides a self-luminous spirit or essence called Apàm Nápát, ‘Offspring of the Waters’, often described as “swift-horsed”. This is clearly related to the effulgence of the Firegod, Agni, as is obvious by the association of the two in hymn II, 35, 15, etc, and by Agni’s entering and hiding deep in the waters (RV I, 65 and X, 51); the motif is elaborated in the Bráhmanas and post-Vedic texts. When the priests go for the water required for the sacrifice, they address a prayer to Apàm Nápát. (RV X,30,3). b) In the Avesta, Yast 19, we find Apám Napát, ‘the swifthorsed, tall and shining lord, the lord of females’, and the Xvarenah, the ‘luminous glory’ of Kings, made by Ahura Mazda and belonging to archangels and gods: the one deity in the RV appears as two entities in the Avesta. The Xvarenah becomes the most desired object in the struggle between good and evil forces. As it flies away, it is seized-even though it “cannot be forcibly seized”-by “the swift-horsed Son of the Waters” (Apám Napát) and put down to the bottom of the mythical sea Vourukasa “in the bottom of the rivers” ( II, p 299). There only the most worthy can ever approach it. This motif appears in a Celtic tale and in Greek postarchaic poetry. c) Greece has Poseidon, who, like the Indo-Iranian Apám Napát, is also associated with splendid horses, like Pegasus. Another one is Pontos, a deification of the sea, 6trúgeton pélagoV (Theogony, 131-2): cognate with póntoV are L pon-s/-t- ‘bridge’, Old Prussian pintis, Sl pati, S path/panth-, all meaning ‘way, course’. Another one is Okeanos (E ocean), the source of all waters (Iliad 21/194) which surrounds the earth (Herodotus IV,8): this may be cognate with S áßayána ‘lying abundantly, surrounding’-“said of V®tra who surrounds the water” (MSD), although Aramaic ôgána ‘basin’ has been just as plausibly suggested (West 1971: 50) There is also Nereus, father of the water-nymphs Nereids (cf S nira ‘water’) and others, whom we need not pursue. There is much literature on Poseidon (as there are many myths) and much speculation on the etymology of his name (Poteidón/Potidas etc). Most interesting are the suggestions ‘husband of waters’ or ‘source of waters’ (Littleton 1973b). However, B. Louden (1999) argues reasonably that Bacchylides 17 narrates an incident in the life of Theseus which seems to be related to the Iranian rather than the Vedic version of the myth. Minos casts a golden ring into the sea and Theseus has to retrieve it to prove that he is Poseidon’s son. Theseus dives and in the depths he encounters “a brilliance like fire… shining from [the Nereids’] radiant limbs”. Certainly, the Apám Napát motifs are present in the Greek narrative, but no cognate name. However, I think, Louden quite rightly mentions (1999: 73- 74) the possible cognation V nápát, L nepotes and Gk népodeV (Od 4.404). All early attestations in the GEL are in the plural denoting “offspring/children” as in the Odyssey passage; GEL gives “seals” but in Od 4/404 seals are f«kai (still so in NGk). Etymologies like “wet-” or “web-” or “no-footed” for nep«V are, of course, possible, but so is the IE cognation. d) The Romans had the well known Neptunus as their Seagod, whose name is thought to be cognate with Napát (Puhvel 1989: 279 ff, gives similarities with the Iranian tale). The stem appears in L nepos/nepot- and Gk 6-nep-sio-V, all meaning ‘offspring, nephew, grandson’-whence E nepotism. e) Some scholars link the stem napát/nept with Irish necht (Ford 1974: 67; Puhvel 1989: 279). Thus in the Irish tradition, Nechtan of the Túatha Dé Dannan had a secret well: only he and his three cupbearers could approach it with impunity; anyone else would suffer the loss of his two eyes because of some powerful light or energy within the well. Nechtan’s wife approaches it arrogantly and, indeed, gets so shattered, losing an eye, a hand and a leg as the water rushes against her, that she flees and drowns in the sea. The Celts had other waterdeities with different names. f) All branches have, of course, their own gods of waters or sea, but, as we have seen, these have unrelated names. The same applies to the Germanic branch. The Scandinavians had at least two gods associated with the sea and water Njord and Aegir (Davidson 1981: 106-7, 128-30), but these names, like the Celtic Ir/W Ler/Llyr and Manannan/Manawyddan (MacCulloch 1948: 33-34; MacCana 1983: 78-80, 66-67), stand isolated from names in other branches. The royal glory passes into the keeping of Mithra ; thereafter, fleeing from the monster Azi Dahaka, it is saved by Fire, and escapes to the mythical sea Vourukasa where ity is seized by Apam Napat. The wandering Iranians called great mountains near which they lived Hara, and broad lakes VourukaSa is deference to the mythological homeland of therir far distant ancestors. Every year Tistrya and Apaosa meet on the shores of Vourukasa in the form of horses and fight. At first Tistrya is driven back from the shore but eventually strengthened by the prayers of man, rushes the waves. “He goes to all the bays of the sea VourukaSa, the mighty, beautiful, deep, and to all the beautiful tributaries and all the beautiful outlets, in the shape of a … horse. Then the waters flow out from Vourukasa. The waters are often personified as a horse driven by Apam Napat. “Then Tistrya rises again from Vourukasa and the wind and rain visits the seven regions.” The Tree of All Seeds on which the Saena nests grows in the middle of the sea VourukaSa (Yi.12.17) ; and round it swims the vigilante and deadly Kara fish. The yellow healed Gandarva troubled the waters of the sea VourukaSa An incantation that links light and the waters, high Hara and the sea VourukaSa. The name of this sea means “having many inlets” ; and occupied one third of the earth on the south skirts of Harburz. On its shores Trita battles the serpent and it is fed by the river Harahvaiti which is as big as all the rivers on the earth combined. This river flowed down from the mountain Hara to Vourukasa. Thus all the water that flows or falls in the world comes from the sea Vourukasa Indeed the fact that VourukaSa is said to lie to the south of Hara fits with the theory that its original may have been the Black Sea or Caspian. In addition to the mythical VourukaSa, itself of sweet water, three large salt seas were recognized, the Pudig [Puitica], Kamrod and Syawbum. Of these the biggest was the Pudig, whose name comes from the base pu “cleanse”. This sea was tidal, and was held to be directly connected to VourukaSa. The Pudig [Puitica] was thought to be the Persian Gulf, the Kamrod to be the Caspian Sea and Syawbum the Black Sea. Each single well or stream was regarded as being linked with the cosmic water, since it had its ultimate source in the sea Vourukasa. Meru Region Meru mountain, (comparable to the Olympus of the Greeks) is said to harbour many exotic tribes There, on the mountain Meru the Devas, the Gandharvas, the Asuras, and the Rakshasas, accompanied by the tribes of Apsaras, always sport. Tumvuru, and Narada and Viswavasu, and the Hahas and the Huhus, repair their. The seven Rishis, and Kasyapa repair thither. Upon the summit of that mountain, Usanas, also called the Poet and Sukra, sporteth with the Daityas. One fourth of the wealth from there is taken by Kuvera the king of the Yakshas. Only one in 16 part reach Aryavarta (ancient northern India). (6,6) Around Meru, are established separately many regions owned by the Devas, the Sadhyas, and the Vaiswas, the great sages, Yamas, and the Dharmas, and the Gandharvas and the Apsaras.(3,259) Mountain named Meru is the haunt of the Devas and the Gandharvas. (1,17) Meru is the abode of the Devas, Rishis, and Gandharvas. (6,11) Remote and unknown regions There are the seven successive Varshas (sub-continents) where Devas and Gandharvas dwells (6,12). After Munidesa is the region called Dundubhiswana teeming with Siddhas and Charanas. The people there are almost white in complexion. All these countries are the habitations of Devas and Gandharvas.(6,12). The Naga Island Ramaniyaka contained a forest inhabited by Gandharvas (1,27). Kasyapa’s forest was the resort of bands of Siddhas, of the Charanas, of tribes of Gandharvas, and Apsaras, of apes and Kinnaras (1,70). The countries famous for horses where all situated in the north and north-west regions of ancient India Gandharva king Angaraparna mentions to Arjuna about a country of Gandhravas which was famous for its horses. They were used by Devas and Gandharvas. They were lean-fleshed, but fast and will not get tired easily. (1,172). Pururavas was the son of Ila, the daughter of Manu. (Manu and Yama were two sons of Vivaswat). It was Pururavas who first brought from the region of the Gandharvas the three kinds of fire (for sacrificial purpose). And he brought thence, the Apsara Urvasi also. And the son of Ila begat upon Urvasi six sons who were called Ayus, Dhimat, Amavasu and Dhridhayus, and Vanayus, and Satayus. (1,75) Gardens of Chitraratha Gandhrava These gardens are mentioned at many places ((1-70,75,78) King Yayati sported with Apsara Viswachi at gardens of Chitraratha (1,75) Asura priest’s daughter Devayani and Asura king’s daughter Sarmista sported there (1,78) The soldiers of Duryodhana, having reached the region of the Dwaita lake, were about to enter the gates of the wood, a number of Gandharvas appeared and forbade them to enter. The king of the Gandharvas accompanied by his followers, had come thither beforehand, from the abode of Kuvera. The king of the Gandharvas, Chitrasena had also been accompanied by the several tribes of Apsaras, as also by the sons of the Devas. Intent upon sport, he had come to that place for merriment, and occupying it, had closed it against all comers. (3-238). Duryodhana attacked the Gandharvas. The angry Chitrasena, their king, resolved to exterminate the Kuru army.(3-239). Gandharvas took Duryodhana and allies captive (3,240). Commanded by Yudhisthira, Arjuna fought with the Gandravas. Seeing that their king was Chitrasena, his old friend, Arjuna stopped fighting. Gandharvas then released Duryodhana. (3-241,242,243,244). Chitraratha (1,75), the king of Gandharvas, the friend of Indra, gave four hundred horses gifted with the speed of the wind to Yudhisthira as tribute for Rajasuya. And the Gandharva Tumvuru gladly gave a hundred horses. (2,51), (3,80). The steeds of the Tittiri, Kalmasha, and Gandharva breeds, decked with ornaments, where given by Chitraratha, having been vanquished in battle, unto Arjuna. (2,60). Chitraratha among the Gandharvas is the foremost (6,34) Churning the entire universe, a mass of energy was found. That energy is gold. It is for this reason that the Devas and Gandharvas and Uragas and Rakshasas and humans and Pisachas hold it with care. All these beings shine in splendour, with the aid of gold, after converting it into crowns and armlets and diverse kinds of ornaments. (13,83) West of Babylonia is found the Hebrew conception of a quadrifurcate river of Paradise which flowed forth in opposite directions to water the four quarters of the pristine earth. In the Indo-Aryan as in the Babylonian system the lowest hells are antipodal to the highest heavens; hence the statement in the Vishnu Purana (Wilson, p. 209): “The gods in heaven are beheld by the inhabitants of hell as they move with their heads inverted.” In the Jain Satras also persons in hell are represented as moving about with their “heads downwards.” (SBE. xlv. p. 279.) Even in Plutarch the same ancient idea survives. In both systems the diurnal movement of the sun is in a horizontal instead of a vertical plane, and night’s darkness is caused simply by the passage of the sun around the farther side of the Weltberg. According to Maspero, the same apparent paradox as to the sun’s motion was held and taught by the most ancient Egyptians as well as by the most ancient Chaldaeans. (Dawn of Civilization, Eng. ed., p. 544.) In both systems a cross-section of the cosmos in the plane of the equator would show seven solid horizontal world-rings, one within another, and all of them inclosing their common center. X. x. 4 definitely states that Yama’s parents were the Gandharva in the Waters and the Water-Lady (gandharvo apsv apyd ca yosa s n no nbhih paramdm jami tan nau). Yama in RV. is chiefly worshipped as the king of the blessed dead, who led the souls of the Fathers into Paradise (for details see Macdonell, V.M., pp. 167, 171), where he reigns in bliss among them, together with Varuna (of whom we shall speak later), Agni, and other gods, the company including Vivasvant. This paradise of Yama is the third and highest heaven, a place of unfading light and unfailing waters (I. xxxv. 6, IX. cxiii. 7-9, X. xiv. 8, etc.), which seems to be identical with the third abode of Visnu ” where godly men revel, for there, akin (bandhu) to the Wide-Strider, is a spring of honey [the celestial Soma] in Visnu’s highest realm ” (I. cliv. 5; cf. X. xv. 3).1 This localisation, however, is not primitive: originally Yama’s realm lay outside heaven, though not very far, As the Avesta knows of Yima, son of Vivanghvant, so the Veda speaks of Yama, son of Vivasvant. As Yima is the chief of a remote kingdom, a marvellous realm where there is neither cold nor suffering, so Yama is the ruler of the fathers, the departed souls, with whom he revels in a huge tree. Just as Yima’s vara is concealed either on a mountain or in some recess where sun and moon are not seen, Yama’s dwelling is in the remote part of the sky. While Yima calls a gathering of men to assemble them in his vara, Yama collects the people and gives the dead a resting-place. Yima has opened the earth for mankind; Yama is “lord of the settlers” (vispati) and “father.” Yima has found new countries, following a road toward the sun; Yama has a path for the dead to lead them to their abode, being the first to die and having discovered “a way for many.” A bird brings messages into Yima’s vara; Yama has the owl or the pigeon as his envoy. In spite of these points in common, there is an important discrepancy. Yama is the first mortal being and is clearly associated with death and with a kingdom of the departed, whereas Yima is simply a monarch of ancient times, his reign is a golden age for mankind, and his enclosure has no clear location. “After Ahura Mazda has warned Yima that destruction in the form of winter, frost, and floods, subsequent to the melting of the snow, are threatening the sinful world, he proceeds to instruct him to build a vara, ‘fortress or estate,’ in which specimens of small and large cattle, human beings, dogs, birds, red flaming fires, plants and foodstuffs will have to be deposited in pairs.” [Kramer, p. 344] “Beneath this earth there is water everywhere.” [Kramer, p. 339] 2.9. Then they asked Jam (the beautiful) (those whose duty was to ask): “O beautiful Jam, son of Winwanghan! this earth has become full of small and large animals, men, , birds and red and blazing fires; small and large animals and men do not find room, across this place (across this earth). 2.10 Then Jam stepped forward, in light (in his own light), on to the southern direction, towards the sun’s path; [it is revealed that he who dutifully desires to go for work, he shall go three steps to the southern direction, and for him, the Gäthäs146 will be bet- ter as it is evident]. He pierced this earth with a hollow golden ; he pierced it with the goad (he tore it down). Thus he spoke: “With love O Spandar- mad147 do! (do this thing with love for the creatures); go forward (keep increasing), press! (may you be worshipped) for upholding the small and large animals and men (do this thing). 2.11 Then, Jam expanded this earth to one third larger than what it had been; stepped forward small and large animals and men, at their own will and pleasure, each one as was his/her pleasure (each person. There is one who says that of Jam, the adversary cannot come to the creatures). 2.12 Then when under Jam’s sovereignty, six hundred winters came to an end (it was ended), then this earth became full of small and large animals, men, dogs, birds, and red and blaz- ing fires; (they), small and large animals, and men did not find room throughout this place (throughout this earth) (as I wrote above). 2.13-15 Then Jam expanded this earth to two thirds larger than what it had been before. 2.16 Then, when under Jam’s sovereignty, nine hundred winters came to an end (it was ended); then this earth became full of small and large animals, men, dogs, birds and red and blazing fires ; (they) the small and large animals and men did not find room through- out this place (throughout this earth). 2.17 Then they asked Jam (those whose duty was to ask): “O Jam, the beautiful, son of Win- wanghânî this earth has become full of small and large animals, men, dogs, birds and red and blazing fires; small and large animals and men do not find room throughout this place (throughout this earth)”. 2.18 Then Jam stepped forward, in light (in his own light), on to the southern direction, towards the sun’s path; [it is revealed that he who dutifully desires to go for work, he shall go three steps to the southern direction, he shall recite &yatä ahü wairyö148; for him the Gäthäs will be better as it is evident from “gäw” : “usdhistat. gàus. barai. daijhus”.149 This that he shall recite the Ay esta is evident from the “pasushöiw”150 “srïra. uxöa. vaca, sasaijham” .151 This that it is the Avesta of a y ata ahü wairyö is evi- dent from “Ahunö. vairiiö” ]. He pierced this earth with the hollow, golden instrument; he pierced it with the goad (he tore it down); he thus said: “Do by love, O Spandarmad! ” [you will do this thing with love for the creatures]; go forward (may you keep increas- ing), press! (may you be worshipped) for upholding the small and large animals and men (may you do this thing). 2.19 Then Jam expanded this earth to three thirds larger than what it had been before. 2.20 There, stepped forward small and large animals and men according to their own will and pleasure, each one according to his/her pleasure [each person. There is one who says that of Jam, the adversary cannot come to the creatures. The three hundred winters under Jam’s sovereignty was ended. Jam kept these creatures without death and without decrepitude, six hundred years more. How he maintained them is not clear to me. That they sawed Jam at the end of the millennium, is evident from by three times “auuaiti. bqzö”153. Even so is this; how he did it, is not clear to me. There is one who thus says, “he filled up the moun- tain peak with *göbar.” There is one who thus says, “he recited a *stanza.” There is one who thus says, “just like a lean sheep whom they give fodder and becomes fat.” Ohrmazd maintained this creation for 3000 years in spiritual state; 3000 years in mater- ial state without the Adversary; 3000 years from the coming of the Adversary to the crea- tures, until the coming of the Religion; 3000 years from the coming of the Religion until the Final Body; this is evident from the passage “cuuaijtdm. zruuändm. mainiiauua. stis. asaone. data, as” l54]. 2.21 Ohrmazd, the creator, called a meeting (he fixed the time) with the spiritual gods in the famous Eran-wëz155 (where) the good Dâitï156 is. The shining Jam of good herds, (son of Wiwanghän) called a meeting (he fixed the time) with the best men, in (this) famous Eran-wëz (where) the good Dâitï is. To that meeting came Ohrmazd, the creator, (he came at the time fixed), with the spiritual gods, in this famous Eran-wëz (where) the good Dâitï is. To that meeting came the shining Jam of good herds (he came at the time fixed) with the best men, in this famous Eran-wëz (where) the good Dâitï is. [Ohrmazd fixed this meeting for the war; he fixed it for that severe winter, as it is evident from the fol- lowing. Jam received the information from Ohrmazd, and men received the information from Jam. Jam listened to what Ohrmazd said; he saw when he was supposed to see; men listened to what Jam said; they listened to what Ohrmazd said; since they were meant for this work, they too, went to the place with Jam. 2.22 Ohrmazd, spoke to Jam: “O beautiful Jam, son of Wiwanghän! upon the material world the very wicked winter will come, by which there will be oppression (so fierce that it will spread everywhere), deadly winter (it will destroy things); upon the material world the worst winter will arrive (which they call malkösän157) by which intense *ice-vStorm and *snow will fall upon the highest mountain summits, of the *thickness of an ardvi. (The place where it will settle the least, it will be one span and two fingers). 2.23 From three places hither the beneficent animals will arrive, O Jam! (those) who will be in the most fearful of places (like Spähän); those who will be over the mountain tops (like Abarsën158), and those who will be from the deep river-beds (like *Erästän159) over the built residences. 2.24 Before winter, their countries were bearing pastures (they had a good *leader, they had pre- pared a store), before the flowing of water, after the melting of the snow (before and after); and a marvel will appear here in the material world, O Jam ! if the footprint of an animal sheep were seen here (from this *footprint up to the sheep-fold many survive). 2.25 Then make that war the length of a racecourse on each of the four sides (two hâsarsifi0 from one side. There is one who says, from all four sides). Bring together the seeds of animals, small and large, men, dogs, birds, and red and blazing fires. Then make that war of the length of a racecourse on each of the four sides, for the habitation of men; of the length of a racecourse on each of the four sides, for housing oxen and cattle. 2.26 Make the water flow together of the length of a häsar ; settle the birds together (around the water) over the eternal green (fresh), (over) the eternal indestructible food (when eat- ables have come); establish houses together (around the birds), house (walls), balcony, citadel, and enclosure (it is such a house). 2.27 Bring together the seeds of all men and women, who are the greatest (in body), the best (in value), the most beautiful (to look at) on this earth; bring together the seeds of all the species of the beneficent animal, who are the greatest (in body), the best (in value), the most beautiful (to look at) on this earth. 2.28 Bring together the seeds of all the plants, that are the tallest on this earth (like the cypress and the plane-tree), and the most fragrant (like jasmine); bring together the seeds of all the eatables, which are the sweetest on this earth (like the date) and the most fragrant (like quince and citron); make for those (staying in the war), couples, imperishable [*into pairs.161 There is one who says “mixture”. There is one who says “^constantly”] ever from that until when those men are residents of the war (it is evident that there remain those who are not residents of the war). 2.29 There shall not be with a hump in front (in the front) nor with a hump in the back (at the back; do not take him to that place), nor ^disabled (whose spine is broken down into the breast), nor imbecile (who does not have authority), nor *driwïg (who brings *death), nor deceiver, nor *short-sighted, nor * with crooked (legs); (there is one who says that, nor *religious work . There is one who thus says neither the leper whose body is set apart), nor a person of other marks that are the Evil Spirit’s marks given to men (then do not take him to that place)”.162 2.30 Make nine passages for the foremost (the large) district (nine streets), six for the middle, three for the smallest; bring a thousand seeds of men and women to the fore- most passage (of the large district), six hundred to the middle, and three hundred to the smallest; (when the number of districts is revealed, the number of men also would be revealed). For those dwellers in the war (make) with the hollow golden and on to the war *a dividing wall (separate it), a window163 (leave a doorway), self- illuminated from inside (shall be, when thus was done). 231 Then thought Jam: “How shall i make for them the war of which Ohrmazd spoke to me?” Ohrmazd said to Jam: “O beautiful Jam son of Wiwanghän! stamp this earth with your heels and *knead it with your hands as men now extend the wet earth.”164 232 = all Mss om. 233 Then Jam made that war the length of a racecourse on each of the four sides (two häsars from one side. There is one who says from all the four sides); he brought together the seeds of animals, small and large, men, dogs, birds, and red and blazing fires. Then Jam made that war the length of a racecourse on each of the four sides, for the habi- tation of men, of the length of a racecourse on each of the four sides for housing oxen and cattle. 234 He made the water to flow together of the length of a häsar; he settled the birds together (around the water) over the eternal green (fresh), (over) the eternal indestructible food (when eatables have come); he established houses together (around the birds) house (walls), balcony (the fore-roof), citadel and enclosure (thus he did). 235 He brought together the seeds of all men and women, who were the greatest (in body), the best (in value) and the most beautiful (to look at) on this earth; he brought together the seeds of all the species of the beneficent animal, who were the greatest (in body), the best (in value), the most beautiful (to look at) on this earth. 236 He brought together the seeds of all the plants, that were the tallest on this earth (like the cypress and the plane-tree) and the most fragrant (like jasmine); he brought together the seeds of all the eatables, which were the sweetest on this earth (like the date) and the most fragrant (like quince and citron); he made (for those staying in the war) couples, imper- ishable (*into pairs. There is one who says “mixture”. There is one who says ‘^con- stantly”), ever from that until when those men were residents of the war (it would become evident that there were those who were not residents of the war). 237 And there was not with a hump in front (in the front), nor with a hump in back (at the back) (he did not lead him to the place); nor ^disabled (whose spine was broken down into the breast), nor imbecile (who did not have authority), nor *driwïg (who brought *death), nor the deceiver, nor * short-sighted, nor * with crooked (legs); (there is one who says that) nor teeth were malformed (who made mockery. There is one who thus says whose teeth were decayed), nor the leper whose body was set apart (the word ^religious work is not proper . There is one who thus says neither the leper whose body is set apart, nor a person of other marks that are the Evil Spirit ‘s marks given to men (he did not lead him to that place). 2.38 (He) made nine passages for the foremost (large) district (nine streets), six for that of the middle part, three for the smallest; he brought a thousand seeds from men and women to the front passage (of the large district), six hundred to the middle, and three hundred to the smallest; (when the number of districts is revealed, the number of men also would be revealed); and for those dwellers in the war (he made) with the hollow, golden and on to the war *a dividing wall (he separated it), a window (he left a doorway), self-illuminated from inside (he did thus). It is revealed that the adversary, during Jam’s sovereignty, could not seek remedy, it was possible Kay Us. There is one who thus says then, too, it was possible but he thought that when will arrive, he will be the more oppressive). 2.39 O creator of the material world, O orderly one ! Of what thus are their lights made, O orderly Ohrmazd! which thus illumine the war, (that place) which Jam made? 2.40 Ohrmazd said: “Of the self-produced lights and those made for the existence [vispa, ana- yra. raocà. usca. us-raocaiieti. vispa, sudata, raocà. aora. äraocaiieti. antarät165]. (Their) *doom seems to be of one kind (their difficulty more than ours, this one. There is one who thus says there one of their own ); the sight of the stars, the moon and the sun (is not for them).166 2.41 And they consider a day as a year then, there [hapta. hdnti. haminö. manha. panca, zai- ¿ana161]. There, every forty years from every couple two beings are born in a pair, of female and male; and thus from those who are species of the beneficent animals, (these too, thus give birth).168 These men live the happiest life (they live one hundred and fifty years. There is one who thus says they live the happiest life, that is, they never die), in the war, the one that Jam made. 2.42 O orderly creator of the material world! who brought there the Mazdayasnian religion to those who dwell in the war which Jam made? Ohrmazd said: “The bird karsifi169, O Spi- tama Zarathustra!” (the *caxrwäkm who will return to the spiritual existence). The Vendidad, as claimed by tradition, is the only one of the twenty-one Nosks (works) that has escaped the auto-da-fé at the hands of the drunken Iskander the Rumi, he whom posterity calls Alexander the Great – though the epithet is justifiable only when applied to the brutality, vices and cruelty of this conqueror. It is through the vandalism of this Greek that literature and knowledge have lost much priceless lore in the Nosks burnt by him. The Vendidad is a corruption of the compound-word “Vidaevo-datern”, meaning “the anti- demoniac law “, and is full of teachings how to avoid sin and defilement by purification, moral and physical – each of which teachings is based on Occult laws. It is a pre-eminently occult treatise, full of symbolism and often of meaning quite the reverse of that which is expressed in its dead-letter text. In the second chapter of the Vedidad, a very succinct description of the vara is given. It has three concentric circles with nine passages through the outer ring, six through the middle and 4 to the inner. in the Avesta a winter depopulates the earth except in the Vara (“enclosure”) of the blessed Yima In each case the earth is peopled anew with the best two of every kind, and is afterward divided into three realms The three sons of Yima’s successor Thraetaona, named Erij (Avesta, “Airya”), Selm (Avesta, “Sairima”), and Tur (Avesta, “Tura”), are the inheritors in the Persian account; Shem, Ham, and Japheth ” uranos – yima ” cronos – el ” zeus – hadad, baal ” posiedon – Yamm, thraetoana, Yam-Nahar ” hades – Mot ” hercules – keresaspa Eranvej Airyanem Vaejah The Airyanem Vaejah (Aryan Expanse) was the legendary home of the Indo-Iranian people It is believed that between ca 5000 B C and 2000 B C , Indian and Iranian tribes lived together in one place and spoke mutually intelligible languages Sometime in the third millennium B C , the two groups separated, reaching Iran and India via much-debated routes Not surprisingly, the Avesta and the Rig Veda, the literary monuments of the Iranians and Indians respectively (second millennium B C ) have similarities which extend beyond linguistics, to the very gods themselves, and the themes of parts of the narratives Regrettably, the Iranian epic material in the Avesta was purged, sanitized or recast by the zeal of Zoroaster and his followers in the 7th century B C and later Complicating matters is the fact that only a tiny percentage of the historically known Avesta has survived It is only in oblique, presumably pre-Zoroastrian passages or in much later epic material (supposedly deriving from the earliest Iranian myths) that one encounters anything comparable to the passions and jealousies of the Greek or Indian deities Airyanem Vaejah, whose location is disputed, contained the first mountain created on earth, Hara Berezaiti or High Hara The Vedas, which do not mention Airyanem Vaejah directly, nonetheless are familiar with this premier mountain Close to the mountain was a sea, called Vourukasha in the Avesta, where the “Tree of All Seeds” grew Coursing down the mountain, or near it, was a mighty river The early Indo-Iranians believed that all mountains were connected by their roots to High Hara; and that all bodies of water were connected to the magical sea Ahura Mazda, the god who created High Hara, also built palaces on it for the greatest gods: Mithra, Sraosha, Rashnu, Ardvi-sura Anahita, and Haoma, all of whom ride in special chariots While humans could not live on the holy mountain, the greatest mythical heroes made sacrifices there The way to the other world, a special abode of the blessed (where the largest and most choice specimens of plants and animals were found) lay through the foothills of Hara/Meru The Chinvat bridge of Zoroastrian mythology, over which the souls of the dead had to pass was on or near High Hara The motif of birds dwelling near the summit is shared by Iranian and Indian accounts, as is the theme of the theft of the intoxicating plant haoma/soma from the mountain’s summit by a magical bird (Syena/Garuda/Simurgh); and the slaying of a multi-headed, multi-eyed dragon nearby In the Indian tradition, Agni, the rock-born god of fire with tawny hair and iron teeth is connected with the sacred mountain In the Iranian tradition, High Hara is also associated with metallurgy Fire and metals were introduced to humanity after the hero Hoshang(Haoshyangha) sacrificed on the mountain High Hara was also the locale of many of the most memorable contests in Iranian mythology The Avesta and the Vedas do not contain sufficiently precise geographical information to locate Airyanem Vaejah Despite this, for more than a century scholars have attempted to locate this legendary “original homeland” based on various interpretations of details Thus, unbelievably, references to the severity of the winter storms in the mountains and certain poetic statements led to a “polar hypothesis” The fact that the Avesta has survived only in an eastern Iranian language, the statement that the prophet Zoroaster’s initial visions and early teaching occurred here, and the belief that cattle raising developed exclusively on the steppes of eastern Iran, led to the selection of eastern Iran as the most likely site, by some In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a number of scholars suggested that Airyanem Vaejah should be sought in the Caucasus or adjacent areas This view, which was developed most thoroughly by A V W Jackson, was shared by James Darmesteter, an early translator of the Avesta and A J Carnoy, author of the article on Iranian mythology in Mythology of all Races (vol 6), among others According to these hypotheses, the sacred mountain (High Hara) and the magical sea (Vourukasha) would correspond to either Mt Rewanduz and Lake Urmiah; Mt Ararat or Mt Aragats and Lake Sevan; Mt Suphan or Mt Nemrut and Lake Van; or Mt Savalan or Mt Demavend and the Caspian Sea This last is the favorite of later Iranian tradition Jackson suggested that Azerbaijan was the most likely site for Airyanem Vaejah, and that the later Zoroaster also hailed from this land of mountains, rivers, and prized pasturage The Arax River Two place names mentioned in the Avesta and the Vedas have been associated with the Arax river: the great semi-mythical river Raha which had its source in the High Hara; and a place repeatedly styled “the goodly Daitya”, located somewhere in Airyanem Vaejah It was there that Ahura Mazda convened his assembly of spiritual Yazatas and where the first kings addressed their people It was at the goodly Daitya that Ahura Mazda told of the coming destruction of humanity and the need to build a refuge Some have associated Daitya with the valley of the Arax river, though numerous other sites have been suggested for Daitya and Raha, stretching across Iran and northern India Legend identifies the banks of the Arax river with the birthplace of the god Mithra, god of contracts The Iranist G Widengren writes: According to the “legend” of the mysteries Mithras was born from a rock, petra genetrix giving life to him He is therefore de petra natus We also know that Mithra was born on the shore of the river Araxes, Ps Plutarch, De fluviis 23 par 4 (where, however, a confusion is found in so far as this story is attributed to a son of Mithras), that his father hated women and therefore threw his sperm on a rock which afterwards was pregnant These details are not as the great pioneer in Mithraic studies [Franz Cumont]assumed “de pure fantaisie”, on the contrary they are part of a birth myth attested among the Ossetians in Caucasus and have already in the Hurrian “Epic of Kumarbi” an unmistakable association The localization of this scene of Mithra’s birth to the shore of the Araxes in Armenia confirms our presumption that north-western Iran and Armenia was the homeland of Mithraic mysteries Also the shepherds who are seen on Mithraic reliefs in connection with the birth-scene possess their correspondence in Ossetic tales and Iranian salvation legends, and indicate likewise a north-western origin of the stories about Mithra’s birth It was by the banks of the Arax, too, apparently, that Mithra killed the primeval Ox, seizing it by the nostrils with one hand and plunging his hunting knife into its flank with the other From the limbs and blood of the Ox, all useful species of animals and plants sprang forth The “Soul of the Ox” flew into the firmament, reminiscent of the ram sacrificed by Phrixus in Aia Even though there is insufficient evidence to locate the legendary Airyanem Vaejah, it is clear that certain symbols are associated with it Among these are mountains, metallurgy, the entrance to the other world, and the deities Anahit and Mithra, dwelling on the sacred mountain Scholars who place Airyanem Vaejah and the locale of the early Indo-Iranian myths in eastern Iran suggest that the myths received a Middle Eastern coloration at a later period in western Iran, Azerbaijan, and Media where they were written down and commented on Conclusions Eastern Asia Minor and the Caucasus were familiar in varying degrees to the Greeks, Mesopotamians, and Indo-Iranians The Greeks were familiar with the southeastern corner of the Black Sea and the area to the west of Lake Van; the Mesopotamians with the Diarbekir-Van-Urmia region and perhaps with the Ararat area to the north; the Indo-Iranians with the valley of the Arax river, and the areas around Urmia and south of the Caspian Not only is there familiarity with these areas, but the images defined by them have striking similarities All three traditions associate the area with metals and metallurgy, the entrance to the underworld or other world, and hybrid monsters It was a place of origin and/or salvation of humanity; a place where the Mother Goddess had special sway; where certain non-patriarchal forms of social organization and inheritance obtained; and a place associated with magic potions, medicines, and people knowledgeable in their preparation Concomitant with the association with metallurgy is an association with its finished products: mechanical marvels and magically forged weapons An association with horse and chariot appears in the details of all three traditions Areas south of the Armenian highlands also associate the area with timber, precious stones, and craftsmen, all of which, historically, were obtained from there In addition to the similarity of images, there is a deeper similarity which is thematic Prometheus (son of Iapetus), Noah (father of Japheth), and Hoshang are all civilizing culture-heroes who bring the blessings (or secrets) of the gods down to humanity in this special area The theme of the almost successful destruction of humanity by the gods and its rebirth here is shared by Greek, Mesopotamian, and Iranian mythology Odysseus, Heracles, and Gilgamesh, adventurers turned seekers-after-immortality, all visit here Such similarities have led some to suggest that we are not dealing with independent traditions but with certain great or memorable events in the early history of humanity–interpreted differently– some of which entered sacred tradition while others remained part of classical mythology There is sufficient evidence to suggest that in addition to reflecting foreign images of eastern Asia Minor and the Caucasus, some of the myths reviewed above actually derive from the area The one-eyed cyclops of Greek mythology, and the demon Humbaba of Mesopotamian mythology may descend from the one-eyed T’ork, whose worship was known from areas to the west and southwest of Lake Van Another deity and his gestes, the culture-hero Prometheus may derive from the Vahakn-Ardavazd-Amiram figures known from Armenian and Georgian mythology Tales of dragons and rock-born gods are also known from eastern Asia Minor and the Caucasus It is reasonable to suppose that along with the natural resources and finished products that were exported from this area, the stories themselves travelled This is even more likely if the merchants, traders, and warriors were migrants from the area If so, then these myths, which currently are the earliest literary monuments of humanity, simultaneously become reflections of the earliest native traditions, valuable for the study of eastern Asia Minor and the Caucasus, and extending references to this area back to the dawn of writing Airyana Vaejah Vanguhi Daitya originated in the sea called the Vourukasha While Alborz or Mount Hara was the source for both light and water, the Vourukasha Sea is described in the Avesta as the gathering point of water This important sea occupied ‘one third of the earth, to the south, on the skirts of the Harburz’ [Vendidad 3 21, 66], and was fed by a huge river, the Harahvaiti Forming the boundaries of the inhabited world were two great rivers, which flowed out from the sea to the east and the west The rivers were cleansed as they passed around the earth and, when they returned to the Vourukasha, their clean water was taken back up to the Peak of Hara In the middle of the Vourukasha grew the very first tree, the source of all plants, described in the Avesta (Yasht 12, 17) as the Saena Tree, Tree of All Remedies or Tree of All Seeds This tree held the nest of Saena (Senmurv in Pahlavi, Simurgh in Persian), the legendary bird Growing nearby was another important plant, the ‘mighty Gaokerena’, which had healing properties when eaten and gave immortality to the resurrected bodies of the dead The first animal in the world was the ‘bull’ It was white and as bright as the moon According to Zoroastrian tradition Angra Mainyu, the Evil Spirit, killed it, and its seed was carried up to the moon From this seed, once thoroughly purified, came many species of animals It also sprouted into plants when part of it fell to the ground The home of the bull was on the bank of the River Veh Daiti (Veh Rod), which flowed to the east from the Vourukasha Sea On the opposite bank lived Gayomartan (Gayomard in Pahlavi, Kiyumars in the Shahnameh) In Yasht 13, 87 he is described as the first man, as wide as he was tall and as ‘bright as the sun’ Gayomartan was slain by Angra Mainyu Eraj came from Eran Vej which came from Airyanem Vaejah, the “original Iran” Salm, representing the Sairimas (Sarmatians) was in the “west” Tur, representing the Tuiryas or the Turas (the Turanians) represented the eastern hordes Since we know that the Sarmatians had a wide distribution, from the Caucasus to the region north of the Caspian and Aral Seas, we can see how Airyanem Vaejah could fit just below the Aral Sea region, where the Sarmatians would be the northwest According to legend, the Turas (Turanians) possessed Sogdiana, hence we can see how they were “east” of Airyanem Vaejah Jewish Viewpoint Information The religion of ancient Persia as founded by Zoroaster; one of the world’s great faiths that bears the closest resemblance to Judaism and Christianity Vala (valá-), meaning “enclosure” in Vedic Sanskrit, is an Asura of the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda, the brother of Vrtra. Historically, it has the same origin as the Vrtra myth, being derived from the same root, and from the same root also as Varuna, *val-/var- (PIE *wel-) “to cover, to enclose” (perhaps cognate to veil). Parallel to Vrtra “the blocker”, a stone serpent slain by Indra to liberate the rivers, Vala is a stone cave, split by Indra (intoxicated and strengthened by Soma, identified with Brhaspati in 4.50 and 10.68 or Trita in 1.52, aided by the Angirasas in 2.11) , to liberate the cows and Ushas, hidden there by the Panis. Indra descends from an Indo-Iranian god known as *vrtra-g’han- (virtually PIE *wltro-gwhen-) “slayer of the blocker”. Triptolemos is analysed by Janda (1998) as a Greek continuation of a variant of the epithet, *trigw-t-welumos, a “terpsimbrotos” compound “cracker of the enclosure”, Greek (w)elumos referring to the casings of grain in Greek being descended from the same root *wel-. On such grounds, a rock or mountain *welos or *welumos split by a heroic deity, liberating Dawn or the Sun is reconstructed for Proto-Indo-European mythology (the “Sun in the rock” myth, sometime also speculated to be connected with the making of fire from flintstone). Already in 2.24, the myth is given a mystical interpretation, with warlike Indra replaced by Brahmanaspati, the lord of prayer, who split Vala with prayer (brahman) rather than with the thunderbolt. Airyanmen Vaeja, Airyena-Vaegah, Airyana-Vaeja (Avestan) Airyam-Veg (Pahlavi) “The Aryans (the noble ones) are said in the Avesta to have had their original home in the far land of Airyana Vaeja (the cradle land of the Aryans), the first among the lands created by Mazda. It was at the center of the earth and in its very center stood the mountain Harabareza. This corresponds with the Hindu descriptions of the Land of the Gods with Mount Meru at its center” (Taraporewala, The Religion of Zarathushtra). The Aryans divided the universe into seven regions or keshvars: 1) Arzah or Arzahe; 2) Shabah, Sava-Cavahe; 3) Fradadafsh, Fradadhfsha; 4) Vidadafsh, Vidadahfshu; 5) Vorubarst, Vourubaresti; 6) Vorugarst, Vourujaresti, Vouruzaresti; and 7) Khvanuras, Ganiratha, Hvaniratha. The seventh land is situated in the middle of the other six. According to the introduction of Abu-Mansouri’s Shah-Nameh (the older Shah-Nameh), the seventh land, which the kings named Iran-Shahr (Airya-Vaeja) is also in the middle of the other six. Airyanem Vaejo is the primeval land of innocence and bliss of the Vendidad, similar to the Sveta-dvipa (white island) of Puranic literature or to Mount Meru. In this “beautiful land,” by the river Daitya, “the stars, the moon, and the sun are only once (a year) seen to rise and set” (Vendidad). Blavatsky equates it with the cradleland of physical humanity, and locates it in Central Asia. It is identical to Sambhala and to Arghya Varsha from which the Kalki avatara is expected (SD 2:416; BCW 4:526-7). In Persian legend, the serpent appeared in Airyanem Vaejo and by his venom transformed the beautiful, eternal spring into winter, generating disease and death. Interpreting this geologically and astronomically, “every occultist knows that the Serpent alluded to is the north pole, as also the pole of the heavens. The latter produces the seasons according to the angle at which it penetrates the centre of this earth. The two axes were no more parallel; hence the eternal spring of Airyana-Vaego by the good river Daitya had disappeared, and ‘the Aryan magi had to emigrate to Sagdiani’ — say exoteric accounts. But the esoteric teaching states that the pole had passed through the equator, and that the ‘land of bliss’ of the Fourth Race, its inheritance from the Third, had now become the region of desolation and woe. This alone ought to be an incontrovertible proof of the great antiquity of the Zoroastrian Scriptures” (SD 2:356). Ahura Mazdah summoned the gods, and Yima summoned the best of mankind in Airyana Vaejah. Ahura warned Yima that cold deadly winters were about to come, so he must make a Close, vara, and put into it the best specimens of mankind, beasts, fires, plants, etc., with houses and streets. It was to be sealed with the golden suwrd, and was to have a door and window. The sun, moon, and stars were not to shine in it: it was to have its own light.2 And Yima did so, and they dwelt in the Close; thither the religion of Ahura was brought by the bird Karsiptar, and there they still dwell, under the rule of Urvatat- nara and Zara0ustra. But Yima, according to other legends, was expelled from it. Yast XIX. ? 28 f., relates that the divine kingly glory (hvaranah) which had belonged to his brother Taxma Urupa passed away from the latter, who was killed and devoured by the Evil Spirit, Anra Mainyu, and descended upon Yima, who reigned blessedly (his reign is described in terms almost identical with Yast V. ? 25 f.) until he began to delight in evil and untrue words, draoyam vacim alahaieim, and then the glory departed from him thrice, in the form of a bird, and was seized successively by Mi6ra, 9raetaona, and Karosaspa. Then the Good Spirit and the Evil Spirit contended for it, and the Evil Spirit sent messengers to claim it, among them being the dragon Azi Dahaka and Spityura, Yima’s brother, who cut Yima in twain (Yim6-karantam).2 A more specific charge was laid against him: it was said that he supported the Daevas and gave men the flesh of kine to eat (Yasna XXXII. ? 8; cf. Windischmann, Zor. Stud. p. 27). Through sin he lost his immortality (SBE. IV, p. 262). Elsewhere we read that after preserving the world for many years from age and death he at last died (SBE. IV, pp. 263 f., 384).

yim, takhmorup, spitur, narsih

barmayun, katayun, feridun

feridun son of pur-tora [pourugau]

pourugau father of zaratust

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