Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
He built the sheepfolds, carried out their cleaning, made the cow-pens, bestowed on them the best fat and cream, and brought luxury to the gods’ dining places. He made the plain, created for greenery, achieve prosperity. Enki placed in charge of all this the king, the good provider of E-ana, the friend of An, the beloved son-in-law of the youth Suen, the holy spouse of Inana the mistress, the lady of the great powers who allows sexual intercourse in the open squares of Kulaba — Dumuzid-ušumgal-ana, the friend of An.

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Enki spoke to the minister Isimud: “Isimud, my minister, my Sweet Name of Heaven!” “Enki, my master, I am at your service! What is your wish?” “Since she said that she would not yet depart from here for Unug Kulaba, that she would not yet depart from here to the place where Utu ……, can I still reach her?” But holy Inana had gathered up the divine powers and embarked onto the Boat of Heaven. The Boat of Heaven had already left the quay. As the effects of the beer cleared from him who had drunk beer, from him who had drunk beer, as the effects of the beer cleared from Father Enki who had drunk beer, the great lord Enki turned his attention to the …… building. The lord looked up at the abzu. King Enki turned his attention to Eridug.

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Her minister Ninšubur spoke to holy Inana: “My lady, today you have brought the Boat of Heaven to the Gate of Joy, to Unug Kulaba. Now there will be rejoicing in our city, now there will be rejoicing in our city. …… barges on our river …….”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Holy Inana replied to her: “Today I have brought the Boat of Heaven to the Gate of Joy, to Unug Kulaba. It shall pass along the street magnificently. The people shall stand in the street full of awe.” (1 line fragmentary) …… in joy. …… the old men of the city …… comfort, …… the old women …… counsel, …… the young men …… strength of arms, …… the children …… joy. …… Unug. (1 line fragmentary) (1 line missing) (3 lines fragmentary)”…… festival …… the Boat of Heaven. He shall recite great prayers. The king shall slaughter bulls, shall sacrifice sheep. He shall pour beer from a bowl. He shall have the šem and ala drums sound, and have the sweet-sounding tigi instruments play. The foreign lands shall declare my greatness. My people shall utter my praise.”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
When she had …… the Boat of Heaven to the Gate of Joy at Unug Kulaba, it passed magnificently along the street. It reached the maiden’s house, and she …… its place. …… the purified well, her principal well. Inana …… the divine powers which had been presented to her, and the Boat of Heaven, at the Ĝipar Gate. At the Agrun Chamber ……. Holy Inana …… the Boat of Heaven …….

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Holy Inana answered the demons: “Outstanding Lulal follows me at my right and my left. How could I turn him over to you? Let us go on. Let us go on to the great apple tree in the plain of Kulaba.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
They followed her to the great apple tree in the plain of Kulaba. There was Dumuzid clothed in a magnificent garment and seated magnificently on a throne. The demons seized him there by his thighs. The seven of them poured the milk from his churns. The seven of them shook their heads like ……. They would not let the shepherd play the pipe and flute before her (?).

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, placing his trust in Inana, did not take seriously the advice of his city’s elders. Gilgameš { (1 ms. adds:), the lord of Kulaba, } presented the issue again, this time before the able-bodied men of his city, carefully choosing his words: “There are wells to be finished, many wells of the Land yet to be finished; there are shallow wells of the Land yet to be finished, there are wells to deepen and hoisting gear to be completed. { Never before have you submitted to the house of Kiš. Should you not smite it with weapons? } { (1 ms. has instead:) We should not submit to the house of Kiš. We should smite it with weapons! }”

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Then Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, rejoiced at the advice of his city’s able-bodied men and his spirit brightened. He addressed his servant Enkidu: “On this account let the weaponry and arms of battle be made ready. Let the battle mace return to your side. May they create a great terror and radiance. When he comes, my great fearsomeness will overwhelm him. His reasoning will become confused and his judgment disarrayed.”

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Not five, not 10 days had passed when Aga, the son of En-me-barage-si, laid siege to Unug with his men. Unug’s reasoning became confused. Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, addressed its warriors: “{ My warriors shall have the choice. } { (2 mss. have instead:) My warriors, choose! } Let someone with courage volunteer { “I shall go to Aga” } { (1 ms. has instead:), and I will send him to Aga }.”

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
They hit him, they struck him. They beat Birḫar-tura’s entire length. Gilgameš climbed up on the rampart after the officer of Unug. His radiance overwhelmed Kulaba’s young and old. He armed Unug’s able-bodied men with battle maces and stationed them on the causeway at the city gate’s door. Only Enkidu went out through the city gate. Gilgameš leaned out over the rampart. Looking up, Aga saw him: “Slave, is that man your king?”

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, { spoke to } { (1 ms. has instead:) approached close to } Aga: “Aga my overseer, Aga my lieutenant, { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) Aga my governor, Aga my commander, } Aga my military commander! Aga gave me breath, Aga gave me life: Aga took a fugitive into his embrace, Aga provided the fleeing bird with grain.”

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
O Gilgameš, lord of Kulaba, praising you is sweet.

Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
In masculine fashion, the maiden Inana grasped it by the lapis-lazuli tether. Holy Inana brought the Bull of Heaven { out } { (1 ms. has instead:) down }. At Unug, the Bull devoured the pasture, and drank the water of the river in great slurps. With each slurp it used up one mile of the river, but its thirst was not satisfied. It devoured the pasture and stripped the land bare. It broke up the palm trees of Unug, as it bent them to fit them into its mouth. When it was standing, the Bull submerged Unug. { The aura } { (1 ms. has instead:) the name } of the Bull of Heaven submerged Kulaba.

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
…… hero …… has lain down and is never to rise again. …… has lain down and is never to rise again. He of well-proportioned limbs …… has lain down and is never to rise again. …… has lain down and is never to rise again. He who …… wickedness has lain down and is never to rise again. The young man …… has lain down and is never to rise again. He who was perfect in …… and feats of strength has lain down and is never to rise again. …… has lain down and is never to rise again. The lord of Kulaba has lain down and is never to rise again. He who spoke most wisely has lain down and is never to rise again. The plunderer (?) of many countries has lain down and is never to rise again. He who climbed the mountains has lain down and is never to rise again. He has lain down on his death-bed and is never to rise again. He has lain down on a couch of sighs and is never to rise again.

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
(3 lines fragmentary) For six days, he …… ill. …… on his skin like resin. Lord Gilgameš …… ill. ……

Unug and Kulaba. …… the words spoken …….
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
…… Gilgameš ……. (3 lines fragmentary) …… lord of Kulaba, …… hero of the pristine mountain, …… handiwork of the gods, (1 line fragmentary) …… of Ninsumun, …… Lugalbanda, …… Lord Nudimmud, (approx. 7 lines missing)

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
Kulaba ……. As Unug rose ……, as Kulaba rose ……. Within the first month ……, it was not five or 10 days before they …… the Euphrates. …… its shells. Then, as in the bed of the Euphrates, the earth cracked dry. …… was built from stone. …… was built from stone. …… were hard diorite. …… its latches were hard stone. …… were cast in gold. …… heavy blocks of stone. …… heavy blocks of stone. …… brought in ……. …… for future days. (1 line fragmentary)…… should not find ……. …… Gilgameš …… has established in …….

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
Then the young lord, Lord Gilgameš, who never ceases to …… for the …… of Enlil — Gilgameš, the son of Ninsumun, …… offshoot ……; no king who could match him has ever been born, (1 line unclear)Gilgameš, lord of Kulaba, it is sweet to praise you!

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
The great wild bull has lain down and is never to rise again. Lord Gilgameš has lain down and is never to rise again. He who was unique in …… has lain down and is never to rise again. The hero fitted out with a shoulder-belt has lain down and is never to rise again. He who was unique in strength has lain down and is never to rise again. He who diminished wickedness has lain down and is never to rise again. He who spoke most wisely has lain down and is never to rise again. The plunderer (?) of many countries has lain down and is never to rise again. He who knew how to climb the mountains has lain down and is never to rise again. The lord of Kulaba has lain down and is never to rise again. He has lain down on his death-bed and is never to rise again. He has lain down on a couch of sighs and is never to rise again.

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
The lord imposed a levy on his city. The herald made the horn signal sound in all the lands: “Unug, arise! Open up the Euphrates! Kulaba, arise! Divert the waters of the Euphrates!” Unug’s levy was a flood, Kulaba’s levy was a clouded sky. Meanwhile not even the first month { had passed } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… }, it was not five or 10 days before they had opened up the Euphrates and diverted its high water. Utu looked at its shells with admiration. Then as soon as the water in the bed of the Euphrates had receded, his tomb was built there from stone. Its walls were built from stone. Its door leaves were installed in the sockets (?) of the entrance. Its bolt and thresholds were hard stone. Its door-pivots were hard stone. They installed its gold beams. Heavy blocks of stone were moved to ……. …… { was completely covered with a thick layer of } { (1 ms. has instead:) was completely covered (?) with } dark soil. …… for future days. (1 line fragmentary)…… who are searching for it should not find its precinct (?). He set up a solid house in the middle of Unug.

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
They returned to Unug, they returned to their city. He entered outfitted with tools and armaments, with an axe and a spear, and deposited them in his palace happily. Looking at the statue, the young men and women of Unug and the old men (?) and women of Kulaba rejoiced. As Utu came forth from his bedchamber, Gilgameš (?) raised his head and told them (?): “My father and my mother, drink clean water!” Midday had hardly passed when they touched the statue’s (?) crown.

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
Gilgameš threw himself down at the place of mourning, he threw himself down for nine days at the place of mourning. The young men and women of Unug and the old men (?) and women of Kulaba wept. As soon as he had said that, he repulsed the citizen of Ĝirsu.” My father and my mother, drink clean water!”

Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
Utu of heaven put on his lapis-lazuli diadem and came forward with head high. In his hand Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, held a holy staff before his nose: “Utu, I want to set off into the mountains! May you be my helper! I want to set off into the mountains of Cedar-felling! May you be my helper!”

Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
Gilgameš organised a levy in his city. In …… Kulaba he had the horn sounded.” Citizens! You who have a wife, go to your wife! You who have children, go to your children! Warriors, whether experienced or inexperienced, who have no wife, who have no children — let such people join me at my side as the companions of Gilgameš.”

Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
The king left the city. Gilgameš left Kulaba, to follow the route to the Mountains of Cedar-felling. He crossed the first mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the second mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the third mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the fourth mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the fifth mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the sixth mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. When he had crossed the seventh mountain range, there his intuition led him to find the cedars.

Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
“You who have gone to sleep, you who have gone to sleep! Gilgameš, young lord of Kulaba, how long will you sleep for? The mountains are becoming indistinct as the shadows fall across them; the evening twilight lies over them. Proud Utu has already gone to the bosom of his mother Ningal. Gilgameš, how long will you sleep for? The sons of your city who came with you should not have to wait at the foot of the hills. Their own mothers should not have to twine string in the square of your city.”

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
When in ancient days heaven was separated from earth, when in ancient days that which was fitting ……, when after the ancient harvests …… barley was eaten (?), when boundaries were laid out and borders were fixed, when boundary-stones were placed and inscribed with names, when dykes and canals were purified, when …… wells were dug straight down; when the bed of the Euphrates, the plenteous river of Unug, was opened up, when ……, when ……, when holy An removed ……, when the offices of en and king were famously exercised at Unug, when the sceptre and staff of Kulaba were held high in battle — in battle, Inana’s game; when the black-headed were blessed with long life, in their settled ways and in their ……, when they presented the mountain goats with pounding hooves and the mountain stags beautiful with their antlers to Enmerkar son of Utu —

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
— now at that time the king set his mace towards the city, Enmerkar son of Utu prepared an …… expedition against Aratta, the mountain of the holy divine powers. He was going to set off to destroy the rebel land; the lord began a mobilization of his city. The herald made the horn signal sound in all the lands. Now levied Unug took the field with the wise king, indeed levied Kulaba followed Enmerkar. Unug’s levy was a flood, Kulaba’s levy was a clouded sky. As they covered the ground like heavy fog, the dense dust whirled up by them reached up to heaven. As if to rooks on the best seed, rising up, he called to the people. Each one gave his fellow the sign.

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Their king went at their head, to go at the …… of the army. Enmerkar went at their head, to go at the …… of the army. (2 lines unclear)…… gu-nida emmer-grain to grow abundantly. When the righteous one who takes counsel with Enlil (i.e. Enmerkar) took away the whole of Kulaba, like sheep they bent over at the slope of the mountains, …… at the edge of the hills they ran forward like wild bulls. He sought …… at the side — they recognised the way. He sought …….

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
At that time there were seven, there were seven — the young ones, born in Kulaba, were seven. The goddess Uraš had borne these seven, the Wild Cow had nourished them with milk. They were heroes, living in Sumer, they were princely in their prime. They had been brought up eating at the god An’s table. These seven were the overseers for those that are subordinate to overseers, were the captains for those that are subordinate to captains were the generals for those that are subordinate to generals. They were overseers of 300 men, 300 men each; they were captains of 600 men, 600 men each; they were generals of seven šar (25,200) of soldiers, 25,200 soldiers each. They stood at the service of the lord as his élite troops.

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Lugalbanda, the eighth of them, …… was washed in water. In awed silence he went forward, …… he marched with the troops. When they had covered half the way, covered half the way, a sickness befell him there, ‘head sickness’ befell him. He jerked like a snake dragged by its head with a reed; his mouth bit the dust, like a gazelle caught in a snare. No longer could his hands return the hand grip, no longer could he lift his feet high. Neither king nor contingents could help him. In the great mountains, crowded together like a dustcloud over the ground, they said: “Let them bring him to Unug.” But they did not know how they could bring him.” Let them bring him to Kulaba.” But they did not know how they could bring him. As his teeth chattered (?) in the cold places of the mountains, they brought him to a warm place there.

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
“If our brother rises like Utu from bed, then the god who has smitten him will step aside and, when he eats this food, when he drinks (?) this, will make his feet stable. May he bring him over the high places of the mountains to brick-built Kulaba.”

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
“But if Utu calls our brother to the holy place, the valued place (i.e. the hereafter), the health of his limbs will leave (?) him. Then it will be up to us, when we come back from Aratta, to bring our brother’s body to brick-built Kulaba.”

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
“Inana, if only this were my home, if only this were my city! If only this were Kulaba, the city in which my mother bore me ……! Even if it were to me as the waste land to a snake! If it were to me as a crack in the ground to a scorpion! My mighty people ……! My great ladies ……! …… to E-ana!” (2 lines unclear)”The little stones of it, the shining stones in their glory, saĝkal stones above, …… below, from its crying out in the mountain land Zabu, from its voice …… open — may my limbs not perish in the mountains of the cypresses!”

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Inana accepted his tears. With power of life she let him go to sleep just like the sleeping Utu. Inana enveloped him with heart’s joy as if with a woollen garment. Then, just as if ……, she went to brick-built Kulaba.

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
The bird presents himself before him, rejoices over him, Anzud presents himself before him, rejoices over him. Anzud says to holy Lugalbanda,” Come now, my Lugalbanda. Go like a boat full of precious metals, like a grain barge, like a boat going to deliver apples, like a boat piled up high with a cargo of cucumbers, casting a shade, like a boat loaded lavishly at the place of harvest, go back to brick-built Kulaba with head held high!” — Lugalbanda who loves the seed will not accept this.

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Holy Lugalbanda answers him: “Let the power of running be in my thighs, let me never grow tired! Let there be strength in my arms, let me stretch my arms wide, let my arms never become weak! Moving like the sunlight, like Inana, like the seven storms, those of Iškur, let me leap like a flame, blaze like lightning! Let me go wherever I look to, set foot wherever I cast my glance, reach wherever my heart desires and let me loosen my shoes in whatever place my heart has named to me! When Utu lets me reach Kulaba my city, let him who curses me have no joy thereof; let him who wishes to strive with me never say “Just let him come!” I shall have the woodcarvers fashion statues of you, and you will be breathtaking to look upon. Your name will be made famous thereby in Sumer and will redound to the credit of the temples of the great gods.”

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
So Anzud says to holy Lugalbanda: “The power of running be in your thighs! Never grow tired! Strength be in your arms! Stretch your arms wide, may your arms never become weak! Moving like the sun, like Inana, like the seven storms of Iškur, leap like a flame, blaze like lightning! Go wherever you look to, set foot wherever you cast your glance, reach wherever your heart desires, loosen your shoes in whatever place your heart has named to you! When Utu lets you reach Kulaba your city, he who curses you shall have no joy thereof; he who wishes to strive with you shall never say “Just let him come!” When you have had the woodcarvers fashion statues of me, I shall be breathtaking to look upon. My name will be made famous thereby in Sumer and will redound to the credit of the temples of the great gods. May …… shake for you …… like a sandal. …… the Euphrates …… your feet …….”

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Then the men of Unug followed them as one man; they wound their way through the hills like a snake over a grain-pile. When the city was only a double-hour distant, the armies of Unug and Kulaba encamped by the posts and ditches that surrounded Aratta. From the city it rained down javelins as if from the clouds, slingstones numerous as the raindrops falling in a whole year whizzed down loudly from Aratta’s walls. The days passed, the months became long, the year turned full circle. A yellow harvest grew beneath the sky. They looked askance at the fields. Unease came over them. Slingstones numerous as the raindrops falling in a whole year landed on the road. They were hemmed in by the barrier of mountain thornbushes thronged with dragons. No one knew how to go back to the city, no was rushing to go back to Kulaba. In their midst Enmerkar son of Utu was afraid, was troubled, was disturbed by this upset. He sought someone whom he could send back to the city, he sought someone whom he could send back to Kulaba. No one said to him “I will go to the city.” No one said to him “I will go to Kulaba.” He went out to the foreign host. No one said to him “I will go to the city.” No one said to him “I will go to Kulaba.” He stood before the élite troops. No one said to him “I will go to the city.” No one said to him “I will go to Kulaba.” A second time he went out to the foreign host. No one said to him “I will go to the city.” No one said to him “I will go to Kulaba.” He stepped out before the élite troops.

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Lugalbanda alone arose from the people and said to him,” My king, I will go to the city, but no one shall go with me. I will go alone to Kulaba. No one shall go with me.” — “If you go to the city, no one shall go with you. You shall go alone to Kulaba, no one shall go with you.” He swore by heaven and by earth: “Swear that you will not let go from your hands the great emblems of Kulaba.”

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
After he had stood before the summoned assembly, within the palace that rests on earth like a great mountain Enmerkar son of Utu berated Inana: “Once upon a time my princely sister holy Inana summoned me in her holy heart from the bright mountains, had me enter brick-built Kulaba. Where there was a marsh then in Unug, it was full of water. Where there was any dry land, Euphrates poplars grew there. Where there were reed thickets, old reeds and young reeds grew there. Divine Enki who is king in Eridu tore up for me the old reeds, drained off the water completely. For fifty years I built, for fifty years I was successful. Then the Martu peoples, who know no agriculture, arose in all Sumer and Akkad. But the wall of Unug extended out across the desert like a bird net. Yet now, here in this place, my attractiveness to her has dwindled. My troops are bound to me as a cow is bound to its calf; but like a son who, hating his mother, leaves his city, my princely sister holy Inana has run away from me back to brick-built Kulaba. If she loves her city and hates me, why does she bind the city to me? If she hates the city and yet loves me, why does she bind me to the city? If the mistress removes herself from me to her holy chamber, and abandons me like an Anzud chick, then may she at least bring me home to brick-built Kulaba: on that day my spear shall be laid aside. On that day she may shatter my shield. Speak thus to my princely sister, holy Inana.”

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Thereupon holy Lugalbanda came forth from the palace. Although his brothers and his comrades barked at him as at a foreign dog trying to join a pack of dogs, he stepped proudly forward like a foreign wild ass trying to join a herd of wild asses.” Send someone else to Unug for the lord.” — “For Enmerkar son of Utu I shall go alone to Kulaba. No one shall go with me” — how he spoke to them!” Why will you go alone and keep company with no one on the journey? If our beneficent spirit does not stand by you there, if our good protective deity does not go with you there, you will never again stand with us where we stand, you will never again dwell with us where we dwell, you will never again set your feet on the ground where our feet are. You will not come back from the great mountains, where no one goes alone, whence no one returns to mankind!” — “Time is passing, I know. None of you is going with me over the great earth.” While the hearts of his brothers beat loudly, while the hearts of his comrades sank, Lugalbanda took in his hand such of his provisions as he had not eaten, and each of his weapons one by one. From the foot of the mountains, through the high mountains, into the flat land, from the edge of Anšan to the top of Anšan, he crossed five, six, seven mountains.

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
By midnight, but before they had brought the offering-table to holy Inana, he set foot joyfully in brick-built Kulaba. His lady, holy Inana, sat there on her cushion. He bowed and prostrated himself on the ground. With { (1 ms. adds:) joyful } eyes Inana looked at holy Lugalbanda as she would look at the shepherd Ama-ušumgal-ana. In a { (1 ms. adds:) joyful } voice, Inana spoke to holy Lugalbanda as she would speak to her son Lord Šara: “Come now, my Lugalbanda, why do you bring news from the city? How have you come here alone from Aratta?”

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Holy Lugalbanda answered her: “What Enmerkar son of Utu quoth and what he says, what your brother quoth and what he says, is: “Once upon a time my princely sister holy Inana summoned me in her holy heart from the mountains, had me enter brick-built Kulaba. Where there was a marsh then in Unug, it was full of water. Where there was any dry land, Euphrates poplars grew there. Where there were reed thickets, old reeds and young reeds grew there. Divine Enki who is king in Eridu tore up for me the old reeds, drained off the water completely. For fifty years I built, for fifty years I was successful. Then the Martu peoples, who know no agriculture, arose in all Sumer and Akkad. But the wall of Unug extended out across the desert like a bird net. Yet now, here in this place, my attractiveness to her has dwindled. My troops are bound to me as a cow is bound to its calf; but like a son who, hating his mother, leaves his city, my princely sister holy Inana has run away from me back to brick-built Kulaba. If she loves her city and hates me, why does she bind the city to me? If she hates the city and yet loves me, why does she bind me to the city? If the mistress removes herself from me to her holy chamber and abandons me like an Anzud chick, then may she at least bring me home to brick-built Kulaba: on that day my spear shall be laid aside. On that day she may shatter my shield. Speak thus to my princely sister, holy Inana.””

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
City, majestic bull bearing vigour and great awesome splendour, Kulaba, ……, breast of the storm, where destiny is determined; Unug, great mountain, in the midst of ……. There the evening meal of the great abode of An was set. In those days of yore, when the destinies were determined, the great princes allowed Unug Kulaba’s E-ana to lift its head high. Plenty, and carp floods, and the rain which brings forth dappled barley were then increased in Unug Kulaba. Before the land of Dilmun yet existed, the E-ana of Unug Kulaba was well founded, and the holy ĝipar of Inana in brick-built Kulaba shone forth like the silver in the lode. Before …… carried ……, before ……, before …… carried ……, before the commerce was practised; before gold, silver, copper, tin, blocks of lapis lazuli, and mountain stones were brought down together from their mountains, before …… bathed for the festival, ……, …… time passed. (2 lines missing)

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
…… was colourfully adorned, and ……, the holy place, was …… with flawless lapis lazuli, its interior beautifully formed like a white meš tree bearing fruit. The lord of Aratta placed on his head the golden crown for Inana. But he did not please her like the lord of Kulaba. Aratta did not build for holy Inana — unlike the Shrine E-ana, the ĝipar, the holy place, unlike brick-built Kulaba.

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“My sister, let Aratta fashion gold and silver skilfully on my behalf for Unug. Let them cut the flawless lapis lazuli from the blocks, let them …… the translucence of the flawless lapis lazuli ……. …… build a holy mountain in Unug. Let Aratta build a temple brought down from heaven — your place of worship, the Shrine E-ana; let Aratta skilfully fashion the interior of the holy ĝipar, your abode; may I, the radiant youth, may I be embraced there by you. Let Aratta submit beneath the yoke for Unug on my behalf. Let the people of Aratta bring down for me the mountain stones from their mountain, build the great shrine for me, erect the great abode for me, make the great abode, the abode of the gods, famous for me, make my me prosper in Kulaba, make the abzu grow for me like a holy mountain, make Eridug gleam for me like the mountain range, cause the abzu shrine to shine forth for me like the silver in the lode. When in the abzu I utter praise, when I bring the me from Eridug, when, in lordship, I am adorned with the crown like a purified shrine, when I place on my head the holy crown in Unug Kulaba, then may the …… of the great shrine bring me into the ĝipar, and may the …… of the ĝipar bring me into the great shrine. May the people marvel admiringly, and may Utu witness it in joy.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Come, Enmerkar! I shall offer you advice: let my counsel be heeded. I shall speak words to you; let them be heard. Choose from the troops as a messenger one who is eloquent of speech and endowed with endurance. Where and to whom shall he carry the important message of wise Inana? Let him bring it up into the Zubi mountains, let him descend with it from the Zubi mountains. Let Susa and the land of Anšan humbly salute Inana like tiny mice. In the great mountain ranges, let the teeming multitudes grovel in the dust for her. Aratta shall submit beneath the yoke to Unug. The people of Aratta shall bring down the mountain stones from their mountains, and shall build the great shrine for you, and erect the great abode for you, will cause the great abode, the abode of the gods, to shine forth for you; will make your me flourish in Kulaba, will make the abzu grow for you like a holy mountain, will make Eridug shining for you like the mountain range, will cause the abzu shrine to shine forth for you like the glitter in the lode. When in the abzu you utter praise, when you bring the me from Eridug, when, in lordship, you are adorned with the crown like a purified shrine, when you place on your head the holy crown in Unug Kulaba, then may the …… of the great shrine bring you into the ĝipar, and may the …… of the ĝipar bring you into the great shrine. May the people marvel admiringly, and may Utu witness it in joy. Because …… shall carry daily, when …… in the evening cool ……, — in the place of Dumuzid where the ewes, kids and lambs are numerous, the people of Aratta shall run around for you like the mountain sheep in the akalag fields, the fields of Dumuzid. Rise like the sun over my holy breast! You are the jewel of my throat! Praise be to you, Enmerkar, the son of Utu!”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Your father, my master, has sent me to you; the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba, has sent me to you.” “What is it to me what your master has spoken? What is it to me what he has said?”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Say whatever you will say to me, and I shall announce that message in the shrine E-ana as glad tidings to the scion of him with the glistening beard, whom his stalwart cow gave birth to in the mountain of the shining me, who was reared on the soil of Aratta, who was given suck at the udder of the good cow, who is suited for office in Kulaba, the mountain of great me, to Enmerkar, the son of Utu; I shall repeat it in his ĝipar, fruitful as a flourishing meš tree, to my king, the lord of Kulaba.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
When he had spoken thus to him, (the lord of Aratta replied): “Messenger, speak to your king, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: “It is I, the lord suited to purification, I whom the huge heavenly neck-stock, the queen of heaven and earth, the goddess of the numerous me, holy Inana, has brought to Aratta, the mountain of the shining me, I whom she has let bar the entrance of the mountains as if with a great door. How then shall Aratta submit to Unug? Aratta’s submission to Unug is out of the question!” Say this to him.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
When he had spoken thus to him, the messenger replied to the lord of Aratta: “The great queen of heaven, who rides upon the awesome me, dwelling on the peaks of the bright mountains, adorning the dais of the bright mountains — my lord and master, who is her servant, has had them instal her as the divine queen of E-ana. Aratta shall bow, O lord, in absolute submission! She has spoken to him thus, in brick-built Kulaba.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Messenger! Speak to your king, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: “This great mountain range is a meš tree grown high to the sky; its roots form a net, and its branches are a snare. It may be a sparrow but it has the talons of an Anzud bird or of an eagle. The barrier of Inana is perfectly made and is impenetrable (?). Those eagle talons make the blood of the enemy run from the bright mountain. Although in Aratta there is weeping ……, water libations are offered and flour is sprinkled; on the mountain, sacrifices and prayers are offered in obeisance. With fewer than five or 10 men, how can mobilised Unug proceed against the Zubi mountains? Your king is heading in all haste against my military might, but I am equally eager for a contest. (As the proverb goes,) he who ignores a rival, does not get to eat everything up, like the bull which ignores the bull at its side. But he who acknowledges a contest can be the outright winner, like the bull which acknowledges the bull at its side — or does he reject me in this contest? Like ……, …… can match no one — or does he still reject me in this contest? Again, I have words to say to you, messenger: I have an artful proposal to make to you ……, may it get across to you ……. Repeat this to your master, to the lord of Kulaba, a lion lying on its paws in E-ana, a bull bellowing within it, within his ĝipar, fruitful as a flourishing meš tree. The mountain range is a warrior, …… high, like Utu going to his abode at twilight, like one from whose face blood drips; or like Nanna, who is majestic in the high heavens, like him whose countenance shines with radiance, who …… is like the woods in the mountains.””

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After he had spoken thus to him, the lord of Aratta made the messenger repeat the message just as he himself had said it. The messenger turned on his thigh like a wild cow; like a sand fly he went on his way in the morning calm. He set foot joyfully in brick-built Kulaba. The messenger rushed to the great courtyard, the courtyard of the throne room. He repeated it word perfect to his master, the lord of Kulaba; he even bellowed at him like a bull, and Enmerkar listened to him like an ox driver. The king had him sit …… at his right side. As he turned his left side to him, he said: “Does Aratta really understand the implications of his own stratagem?”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After day had broken and Utu had risen, the sun god of the Land lifted his head high. The king combined the Tigris with the Euphrates. He combined the Euphrates with the Tigris. Large vessels were placed in the open air, and he stood small vessels beside them, like lambs lying on the grass. …… vessels were placed in the open air adjacent to them. Then the king, Enmerkar, the son of Utu, placed wide apart the ešda vessels, which were of gold. Thereupon, the …… clay tablet, the pointed stylus of the assembly, the golden statue fashioned on a propitious day, beautiful Nanibgal, grown with a fair luxuriance, Nisaba, the lady of broad wisdom, opened for him her holy house of wisdom. He entered the palace of heaven, and became attentive. Then the lord opened his mighty storehouse, and firmly set his great lidga measure on the ground. The king removed his old barley from the other barley; he soaked the greenmalt all through with water; its lip …… the ḫirin plant. He narrowed the meshes of the carrying nets. He measured out in full (?) the barley for the granary, adding for the teeth of locusts. He had it loaded on the packasses at whose sides reserve donkeys were placed. The king, the lord of broad wisdom, the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba, despatched them directly to Aratta. He made the people go on to Aratta on their own, like ants out of crevices. Again the lord added instructions for the messenger going to the mountains, to Aratta:

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Messenger, speak to the lord of Aratta and say to him: “The base of my sceptre is the divine power of magnificence. Its crown provides a protective shade over Kulaba; under its spreading branches holy Inana refreshes herself in the shrine E-ana. Let him snap off a splinter from it and hold that in his hand; let him hold it in his hand like a string of cornelian beads, a string of lapis lazuli beads. Let the lord of Aratta bring that before me.” So say to him.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“As for us, in the direst hunger, in our direst famine, let us prostrate ourselves before the lord of Kulaba!”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“What is it to me what your master has spoken? What is it to me what he has said?” “This is what my master has spoken, this is what he has said: “The base of my sceptre is the divine power of magnificence. Its crown provides a protective shade over Kulaba; under its spreading branches holy Inana refreshes herself in the shrine E-ana.Let him snap off a splinter from it and hold that in his hand; let him hold it in his hand like a string of cornelian beads, a string of lapis lazuli beads. Let the lord of Aratta bring that before me. So say to him.””

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Messenger, speak to your king, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: “Let him put in his hand and contemplate a sceptre that is not of wood, nor designated as wood { — not ildag wood, nor šim-gig wood, not cedar wood, nor cypress wood, not ḫašur cypress, nor palm wood, not hardwood, nor zabalum wood } { (1 ms. has instead:) — not ildag wood, nor šim-gig wood, not ḫašur cypress, nor palm wood, not cedar wood, nor zabalum wood, not cypress wood, nor hardwood }, not poplar as in a chariot, not reedwork as in whip handles; not gold, nor copper, not genuine kugmea metal nor silver, not cornelian, nor lapis lazuli — let him snap off a splinter from that and hold it in his hand; let him hold it in his hand like a string of cornelian beads, a string of lapis lazuli beads. Let the lord of Kulaba bring that before me.” So say to him.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After he had spoken to him thus, the messenger went off like a young donkey, braying as it is cut off from the chariot tongue; he trotted like an onager running on dry land, he filled his mouth with wind; he ran in one track (?) like a long-woolled sheep butting other sheep in its fury. He set foot joyfully in brick-built Kulaba. He transmitted the message word for word to his master, the lord of Kulaba. Now Enki gave Enmerkar wisdom, and the lord gave instructions to his chief steward. In his house ……, the king received ……. He wrapped it up like ……, and inspected it. He pounded …… with a pestle like herbs, he poured it like oil on the …… reed. From the sunlight it emerged into the shade, and from the shade it emerged into the sunlight. After five years, 10 years had passsed, he split the …… reed with an axe. The lord looked at it, pleased, and poured on …… fine oil, fine oil of the bright mountains. The lord placed the sceptre in the hands of the messenger going to the mountains. The messenger, whose journeying to Aratta was like a pelican over the hills, like a fly over the ground, who darted through the mountains as swiftly as carp swim, reached Aratta. He set foot joyfully in the courtyard of Aratta, and put the sceptre in ……. He …… and …… it. The lord of Aratta, eying the sceptre, which was shining awesomely in the sanctuary, his holy dwelling — he, the lord, called to his šatam official:

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Aratta is indeed like a slaughtered sheep! Its roads are inded like those of the rebel lands! Since holy Inana has given the primacy of Aratta to the lord of Kulaba, now it seems that holy Inana is looking with favour on her man who has sent a messenger to make the severe message as clear as the light of Utu. So in Aratta where can one go in this crisis? How long before the yoke-rope becomes bearable? As for us, in the direst hunger, in our direst famine, are we to prostrate ourselves before the lord of Kulaba?”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Messenger! Speak to your master, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: “A champion who is not black-coloured, a champion who is not white-coloured, a champion who is not brown-coloured, a champion who is not red-coloured, a champion who is not yellow-coloured, a champion who is not multicoloured — let him give you such a champion. My champion will compete against his champion, and let the more able one prevail!” Say this to him.”
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After he had spoken to him thus, the messenger set off, ulum, alam. In brick-built Kulaba, he was speechless, like a ……. He gazed like a goat on the mountain slopes, he …… as if it were a huge mir snake coming out from the brambles. In …… he lifted his head. …… of Aratta ……. From his seat, he addressed him like a raging torrent:

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
His speech was substantial, and its contents extensive. The messenger, whose mouth was heavy, was not able to repeat it. Because the messenger, whose mouth was tired, was not able to repeat it, the lord of Kulaba patted some clay and wrote the message as if on a tablet. Formerly, the writing of messages on clay was not established. Now, under that sun and on that day, it was indeed so. The lord of Kulaba inscribed the message like a tablet. It was just like that. The messenger was like a bird, flapping its wings; he raged forth like a wolf following a kid. He traversed five mountains, six mountains, seven mountains. He lifted his eyes as he approached Aratta. He stepped joyfully into the courtyard of Aratta, he made known the authority of his king. Openly he spoke out the words in his heart. The messenger transmitted the message to the lord of Aratta:

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Your father, my master, has sent me to you; the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba, has sent me to you.” “What is it to me what your master has spoken? What is it to me what he has said?”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“This is what my master has spoken, this is what he has said. My king is like a huge meš tree, …… son of Enlil; this tree has grown high, uniting heaven and earth; its crown reaches heaven, its trunk is set upon the earth. He who is made to shine forth in lordship and kingship, Enmerkar, the son of Utu, has given me a clay tablet. O lord of Aratta, after you have examined the clay tablet, after you have learned the content of the message, say whatever you will say to me, and I shall announce that message in the shrine E-ana as glad tidings to the scion of him with the glistening beard, whom his stalwart cow gave birth to in the mountains of the shining me, who was reared on the soil of Aratta, who was given suck at the udder of the good cow, who is suited for office in Kulaba, the mountain of great me, to Enmerkar, the son of Utu; I shall repeat it in his ĝipar, fruitful as a flourishing meš tree, to my king, the lord of Kulaba.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Inana, the lady of all the lands, has not run away from the primacy of her city, Aratta, nor has she stolen it for Unug; she has not run away from her E-zagin, nor has she stolen it for the shrine E-ana; she has not run away from the mountain of the shining me, nor has she stolen it for brick-built Kulaba; she has not run away from the adorned bed, nor has she stolen it for the shining bed; she has not run away from the purification for the lord, nor has she stolen it for the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba. Inana, the lady of all the lands, has surrounded Aratta, on its right and left, for her like a rising flood. They are people whom she has separated from other people, they are people whom Dumuzid has made step forth from other people, who firmly establish the holy words of Inana. Let the clever champion and the …… of Dumuzid whirl about! Quickly, come now, ……. After the flood had swept over, Inana, the lady of all the lands, from her great love of Dumuzid, has sprinkled the water of life upon those who had stood in the face of the flood and made the Land subject to them.”

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
Brickwork rising out { from the pristine mountain } { (on the edge of ms. C:) of the shining plain } — Kulaba, city which reaches from heaven to earth; Unug, whose fame like the rainbow reaches up to the sky, a multicoloured sheen, as the new moon standing in the heavens.

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
At that time the day was lord, the night was sovereign, and Utu was king. Now the name of the lord of Aratta’s minister was minister Ansiga-ria. The name of the minister of Enmerkar, the lord of Kulaba, was Namena-tuma. He with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the man born to be a god; he with a man manifest as a god, with the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba — En-suḫgir-ana, the lord of Aratta, is to make a contest with him, saying first to the messenger concerning Unug:

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
He patted it like a lump of clay, he examined it like a clay-tablet: “He may dwell with Inana in the E-zagin of Aratta, but I dwell with her …… as her earthly companion (?). He may lie with her in sweet slumber on the adorned bed, but I lie on Inana’s splendid bed strewn with pure plants. Its back is an ug lion, its front is a piriĝ lion. The ug lion chases the piriĝ lion, the piriĝ lion chases the ug lion. As the ug lion chases the piriĝ lion and the piriĝ lion chases the ug lion, the day does not dawn, the night does not pass. I accompany Inana for a journey of 15 leagues and yet Utu the sun god cannot see my holy crown, when she enters my holy ĝipar. Enlil has given (?) me the true crown and sceptre. Ninurta, the son of Enlil, held me on his lap as the frame holds the waterskin. Aruru, the sister of Enlil, extended her right breast to me, extended her left breast to me. When I go up to the great shrine, the Mistress screeches like an Anzud chick, and other times when I go there, even though she is not a duckling, she shrieks like one. She …… from the city of her birth. No city was made to be so well-built as the city of Unug (?). It is Unug where Inana dwells and as regards Aratta, what does it have to do with this? It is brick-built Kulaba where she lives, and as regards the mount of the lustrous me, what can it do about this? For five or 10 years she will definitely not go to Aratta. Since the great holy lady of the E-ana took counsel with me (?) about whether to go also to Aratta, since she { let me know } { (1 ms. has instead:) told me } about this matter, I know that she will not go to Aratta. He who has nothing shall not feed the geese with barley, but I will feed the geese with barley. I will …… the geese’s eggs in a basket and …… their goslings. The small ones into my pot, the old ones into my kettle, and the rulers { of the Land } { (some mss. has instead:) of Sumer } who submitted will consume, together with me, what remains from the geese.”

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
The messenger of Enmerkar reached En-suḫgir-ana, reached his holy ĝipar, his most holy place, the most holy place where he was sitting, its ……. En-suḫgir-ana asked for instructions, he searched for an answer. He summoned the išib priests, the lumaḫ priests, the gudug priests, and girsiga attendants who dwell in the ĝipar and took counsel with them.” What shall I say to him? What shall I say to him? What shall I say to the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba? His bull stood up to fight my bull and the bull of Unug has defeated it. His man has been struggling with my man and the man of Unug has defeated him. His warrior (?) has been struggling with my warrior (?) and the warrior (?) of Unug …… him.”

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
The convened assembly answered him straightforwardly: “It was you who first sent a boastful (?) message to Unug for Enmerkar. You cannot hold back (?) Enmerkar, you have to hold back (?) yourself. Calm down; your heart will prompt you to achieve nothing, as far as can be known (?).” “If my city becomes a ruin mound, then I will be a potsherd of it, but I will never submit to the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba.”

The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In E-ana, Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer, the son of Utu, became lord and king; he ruled for { 324 } { (ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 325 } years. Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer entered the sea and disappeared. Enmerkar, the son of Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer, the king of Unug, { who built Unug } { (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have instead:) under whom Unug was built }, became king; he ruled for { 420 } { (ms. TL has instead:) 900 + X } years. { (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 745 are the years of the dynasty of Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer. } { (ms TL adds instead:) ……; he ruled for 5 + X years. } Lugalbanda, the shepherd, ruled for 1200 years. Dumuzid, the fisherman whose city was Kuara, ruled for { 100 } { (ms. TL has instead:) 110 } years. { (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) He captured En-me-barage-si single-handed. } Gilgameš, whose father was a phantom (?), the lord of Kulaba, ruled for 126 years. Ur-Nungal, the son of Gilgameš, ruled for 30 years. Udul-kalama, the son of { Ur-Nungal } { (ms. Su1 has instead:) Ur-lugal }, ruled for 15 years. Lā-ba’šum ruled for 9 years. En-nun-taraḫ-ana ruled for 8 years. Meš-ḫe, the smith, ruled for 36 years. { Melem-ana } { (ms. Su2 has instead:) Til-kug (?) …… } ruled for { 6 } { (ms. Su2 has instead:) 900 } years. Lugal-kitun (?) ruled for { 36 } { (ms. Su2 has instead:) 420 } years. 12 kings; they ruled for { 2310 } { (ms. Su2 has instead:) 3588 } years. Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.

The victory of Utu-ḫeĝal: c.2.1.6
But the king, endowed with power by Enlil, chosen by Inana with her { (1 ms. adds:) holy } heart — Utu-ḫeĝal, the mighty man, came out from Unug to face him and set up camp (?) at the temple of Iškur. He addressed a speech to the citizens of his city: “Enlil has given Gutium to me and my lady Inana will be my help! Dumuzid-ama-ušumgal-ana has declared “It is a matter for me!” and assigned Gilgameš, the son of Ninsumun, to me as a constable!” The citizens of Unug and Kulaba rejoiced and followed him with one accord. He lined up his élite troops.

The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
An and Enlil have advised that Urim should be restored, founded in a pasture, its divine powers distinct from the rest! They command the prince of the city Larsam, the herald of the universe, the judge of the numerous people, to secure its foundations, to follow the proper path! They have taken a decision concerning Unug-Kulaba, the sacred city, the handiwork of the gods, and restored it. They have brought news of the removal of all foes and enemies from the region of Zabalam, the city where the mistress of heaven concentrated her forces.

The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
They …… like stampeding goats, they tore apart the corpses of the population. They mutilated Sumer and Akkad, they pulverised it as with a pestle. They destroyed its settlements and habitations, they razed them to ruin mounds. The best of Sumer they scattered like dust, they heaped up ……. They massacred its populace, they finished off young and old alike. They destroyed the city of the Anuna gods, they set it aflame. They put out both Unug’s eyes, they uprooted its young shoots. They wandered all through the libation places of the Anuna gods. And even Kulaba, which is the primeval city, they turned into a place of murder.

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi O): c.2.4.2.15
Its prince, the hero of Enlil, a lion rising up in its strength, a furious lion (?) baring its teeth at the foreign lands, …… inspects great wild bulls, eating ……, extending ……. Shepherd Šulgi, son of Ninsumun, ornament of ……, …… in their evil words, brought the hero Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba into ……. He produced an utterance for him …… from the foreign lands, …… of his palace. …… of the foreign lands. …… he looked at him as if on split reeds.

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi O): c.2.4.2.15
On the day when the destiny of the Land was determined, when the seed of all living beings was originally brought forth, when the king appeared radiantly to his comrade — on that day, Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, conversed with Šulgi, the good shepherd of Sumer, at his shining feet. So that their praise would be sung forever, so that it be would handed down to distant days, so that it should be not forgotten in remote years, they looked (?) at each other favourably in their mighty heroism.

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi O): c.2.4.2.15
Thus he eulogised him who was born …… in Kulaba. (1 line unclear) Gilgameš, lord of Kulaba, seed of lordship, righteous hero …… (5 lines fragmentary or unclear) (approx. 4 lines missing)(Gilgameš continues speaking:) “Like ……, falsely (?) ……, you trampled underfoot ……, …… as if in a mighty clamp. You gathered its …… like swallows rising into the air. You entered with them into the presence of Enlil in the shrine of Nibru. Even those …… who escaped from the ……, wail bitterly ……. …… a copper (?) statue fashioned (?) in Urim, …… the seven gods, stationed beside, wielding battle-axes. Fearsome (?) hero ……, king of Sumer, you stand firm in your strength (?).”

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi X): c.2.4.2.24
The king sailed to Unug towards the princely divine powers. Sumer and Akkad marvelled at him as he moored the boat at the quay of Kulaba. With a large wild bull of the mountains with uplifted horns, and with a sheep led by the hand of an en priest at his right side, with a dappled kid and a bearded kid clasped to his breast, he entered before Inana in the shrine of E-ana.
A song of Šulgi: c.2.4.2.a
My king went to Kulaba. Ninirigal, rejoice! Šulgi went to Kulaba. Ninirigal, rejoice!

An adab to Suen for Ibbi-Suen (Ibbi-Suen C): c.2.4.5.3
An …… favourable day …… holy ……. He has a righteous crown, long-lasting divine powers and a royal sceptre. Enlil has decreed lordship for his beloved one, as his destiny, and has created with magnificent grandeur the qualities of a warrior. Enki, renewing abundance and days of splendour, …… the Tigris and Euphrates in their wide flooding. Nintur, who causes human seed to propagate and brings living beings into existence, …… cities and crowded places, all the numerous people together. Nanna, the …… light, confirming the divine plans, new moon of eternal fame, light which goes towards the earth, has given authority (?) to my Ibbi-Suen, foremost among princes, over the south and the uplands as far as the outer limits of heaven and earth. Utu has produced justice and propriety for Ibbi-Suen the augustly powerful, strong among warriors, unsurpassed in his youthfulness, overthrowing the enemy lands, finding the right decisions and giving advice to the people. The good lady Ninirigal, mother of Kulaba, …… prayer and supplication ……, …… lady with an august name ……. …… long life.

A tigi to Nanaya for Išbi-Erra (Išbi-Erra C): c.2.5.1.3
Great lady, worthy source of inspiration, counselled (?) by the Mistress: luxurious divine powers have been generously given to you by the Mistress. Nanaya, great lady, worthy source of inspiration, counselled (?) by the Mistress! Išbi-Erra, you are the king and shepherd of the people! Nanaya, by the command of An you are the queen of all the countries. In the shrine, in Kulaba, …… he declares it, and the people turn their hearts towards you as you address them. Nanaya, good woman, you are the favourable (?) name of the black-headed! O youth chosen in beauty by the Mistress, son of Enlil, your wise word is brightly made good for the goddess Inana! O Nanaya, the goddess has created your holy powers …… for you. You have …… turned the favourable eye of life onto the bedchamber, and Išbi-Erra is the youth chosen for his beauty.

A praise poem of Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan A + V): c.2.5.4.01
Inana, the lady of heaven and earth ……, chose me as her beloved spouse. She put attractiveness in my waist-belt (?), looking at me with her life-giving look, as she lifted her radiant forehead to me, to make me step onto the flowery bed. She has uttered her unalterable holy word for me to spend long, long days in the ĝipar, combining the priestly office of en with the kingship and caring unceasingly for E-ana, and for my neck to become thick like a wild bull’s in Unug as my splendour covers Kulaba.

A song of Inana and Dumuzid (Dumuzid-Inana J): c.4.08.10
“…… beloved sister of Dumuzid, beloved …… of Durtur, …… seed implanted into the womb by a good bull, my lady, born to ladyship! With her aid the cattle-pen was filled with butter and cream, with her aid the sheepfold was long provided with milk. On the high plain, my ……, you are Ĝeštin-ana. O girl, …… indeed! Your little ones …… indeed! Unug …… indeed! Kulaba …… indeed! …… you are …….”

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O house which comes forth from heaven, resplendent in Kulaba, shrine E-babbar (Shining house), shining bull, lift your neck to Utu who …… in the sky! Your shining horns are aggressive, holy and lustrous. Bearing a beard of shining lapis lazuli, ……, your prince, the mighty sunlight, the lord who …… the true word, who lightens the horizon, who lightens the sky’s …… vault, Utu, the sovereign of E-babbar, has erected a house in your precinct, O house Larsam, and taken his seat upon your dais.

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O house with the great divine powers of Kulaba, ……, its platform has made the great shrine flourish. Green fresh fruit, marvellous, filled with ripeness, descending from the centre of heaven, shrine built for the bull, E-ana (House of heaven), house with seven corners, with seven fires lifted at night-time, surveying seven pleasures (?), your princess is on the pure horizon.

Proverbs: collection 2 + 6: c.6.1.02
The fox said to his wife: “Come! Let us crush Unug between our teeth like a leek; let us strap Kulaba on our feet like sandals!” Before they had yet come within a distance of 600 uš from the city, the dogs began to howl from the city. — “Geme-Tummal! Geme-Tummal! Come with me to your place! Wicked things are howling at us from the city!”

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