(Spell for penetrating the underworld)

“O Ram great of dignity, behold, I am come to see thee. I penetrate the nether world, that I may see my Father Osiris and drive away the darkness. I am his beloved; I have come to see my Father Osiris and hack out the heart of Suty, who wronged my Father Osiris. Open to me all the roads in sky and earth, for I am a son beloved of his Father. Behold, I am swathed and blesed and equipped. O every god and every blessed one, make way for me. I am Thoth when he ascends, with none opposing or hindering him. He enters and comes forth loved”.

(Spell for giving the deceaseds’ mouth to him in the god’s domain)

“I have risen from the egg that is in the land of mysteries. My mouth has been given me, that I may speak therewith before the gods of the nether world. I shall not be kept away from the Council of the great God, for I am Osiris, the lord of Rosetau, this God who is at the top of the terrace. I have come, having accomplished my heart’s desire in the Isle of Flame. I quench any fire that has broken out”.

(Spell for giving the deceaseds’ heart to him in the God’s domain)

“I have my heart in the house of hearts; I have my breast in the houose of breasts. Mine is my heart; it is content with me, for I have not eaten cakes belonging to Osiris on yonder east side of the Bowl. A hwht-boat is bound downstream, another upstream;But I will not embark in the hwht-boat that is with thee. Mine are my mouth to speak with, my feet to walk with and my hands to overthrow my enemies”.

(Spell for bringing the ferryboat in the sky)

“Hail to Thee. thou district in the northern sky, even the great island. He who sees thee dies not;he who stands upon the dawns as a god. I have seen thee, and I have not died. I stand upon thee; I dawn as a god. I have honked as a smn-goose;I hover yonder as this falcon over the pate and fragrance of Horus. I cross the earth to the sky. While Shu stands still, I make fast the Sunlight on the sidepieces of the ladder that lets the Unweariable Stars ascend exempt from decapitation. I have brought these warders-off of evil as I passed thee on thy wooden wrt on my way to Tepen. “Whence hast thou come to Tepen?” I have come from the Isle of Fire, from the Field of Flame.”What dost thou live on in the Isle of Fire, in the Field of Flame”? I live on this august tree. “O PLanner, bring to him these ships from the hair-lake while the znbt-vase…..” I stand in the bark and rule the water; I stand in the bark and guide the god. I stand, I address the crop, when the traveler embarks. Opened for me are the gates in Letopolis; set aside for me are fields in Hermopolis. Given me are my brothers and sisters in the presence of my heir”.

(Spell for gaining access to the underworld)

“I grew great yesterday among the elders; I came into being among them that had come into being. Ye who can look upon only one eye, disclose the nature of darkness, for I am one of you. I know the Souls of Heliopolis to whom even the greatest of seers lacks free access and about the extending of the hand-but to none have I given this information. I have not told even the gods-by him who would destroy the inheritance of Heliopolis. I know why a tress is made for a male. Re was speaking to the snake who dwells in his consuming fire. Then his mouth was mutilated. That is how the diminution on new crescent day came about. And Re said to Him that dwells in his consuming fire:”Take the thirty spear, the inheritance of men.” That is how the court of the 30 originated through Him who dwells in the consuming fire. ”

 

Though nearly all Egyptologists agree about the meaning of the word being “the place of departed souls,” yet it has been translated in various ways, different scholars locating the Duat in different parts of creation. Dr. Brugsch and others place it under the earth, others have supposed it to be the space which exists between the arms of Shu and the body of Nut, but the most recent theory put forth is that it was situated neither above nor below the earth, but beyond Egypt to the north, from which it was separated by the mountain range which, as the Egyptians thought, supported the sky. The region of the Duat was a long, mountainous, narrow valley with a river running along it; starting from the east it made its way to the north, and then taking a circular direction it came back to the east.

…………………………………………

Turning to the great work of Brugsch on the ” Geographical Inscriptions of the Old-Egyptian Monuments,” we find that the Egyptians considered the farthest limit in the North to be ” the four pillars or supports of heaven.” The fact that these four supports of heaven, instead of being situated in four opposite directions from Egypt, are all in the farthest Norths is very significant. It shows that though the people might speak of heaven as supported on four pillars, it is not to be inferred there from that they conceived of the earth as flat, and of the sky as a flat Oriental roof one story above it. Brugsch himself, though writing upon the supposition that the Egyptians’ earth was flat, avoids this mistake. His inference, coming from one who had a traditional wrong theory to support, is most interesting and valuable. He says, ” Inasmuch as these ‘ four supports of heaven, the northern limit of the earth as known to the Egyptians, nowhere else occur as name of people, land, or river, it seems to me most probable that we have herein the designation of a high mountain which was perhaps characterized by four peaks, or which consisted of four ranges, from which peculiarity it received its name. Like all peoples of antiquity, — at least all those whose literature has come down to us, — the Egyptians conceived of the earth as rising toward the North, so that at last at its northernmost point it joined the sky and supported it.”

ancestral gods at edfu

shebtiw

“The first record…of the Sanctified God who came into being at the First Occasion, sets out a picture of a primaeval island (iw). This island has a principal name Island of Trampling [or Crushing] (iw titi)…the name of a region in which the creation took place, is known to us only from the first Edfu cosmogonical record…The sacred place Djeba in Wetjeset-Neter having been created, the Sanctified Ruler…appeared. He came from the underworld…as a protector, and is said to resemble the Nefer-her. [the sanctified {nefer also means beautiful} falcon- hr or Hor-Light]
Subsequently the sacred place received the name Underworld of the Soul…Then the Lord of the Wing (ndm ndb) arrived in the island…the Place-of-Uniting-of-Company. The meaning of the name…might refer to a group of divine beings who had died…[the word smd describes the arrival of gods in which a new settlement was to be founded] Wetjeset-Neter…is interpreted as…restoring the Ancestors.” Pages 12-22 “Mythical Origin of the Egyptian Temple” by E.A.E. Reymond.

“The domain of the Wetjeset-Neter is now attacked by the enemy-snake, [interpreted in Oahspe as corporeality] and Heter-Her [Hor-Or-Light] is hard pressed…When the enemy, the snake, appeared at the landing stage of that domain, a bw-titi, Place-for-crushing, was planned and protective guards of the god were formed…The Place-for-crushing resembled a ifdw [four sides] of the divine shelter (nwt) within that domain…there is an allusion to a fight on the earth in front of the shelter. Another fight took place at the same time in the sky, in which the Falcon [Hor] was believed to fight against the snake named sbty.” Pages 23,34,35 “Mythical Origin of the Egyptian Temple” by E.A.E. Reymond.

“The Edfu cosmogonical records begin with a picture of the primaeval island where the gods were believed to have lived first…which, in part, was covered with reeds…We know from the Edfu texts that the Earth-Maker created the grounds for the domains of the gods (niwt)…by virtue of the word of the Earth-Maker…He is said to be the snake who created the Primaeval Ones…who created the Earth…This quotation seems to reveal a tradition according to which the first creative power, represented eventually as a snake, was believed to be the Earth-God…the Sole Unique One without peer, who was first to fashion the Earth upon his (potters) wheel [keep in mind that a pot is round and spinning thus dispelling the myth that the ancients did not know the world to be round, MHJ] who created men, gave birth to the Gods, Lord of the Universe, Ruler of the Primaeval Ones, the First Primaeval One who came into being before the Primaeval Ones.” Pages 59-61  “Mythical Origin of the Egyptian Temple” by E.A.E. Reymond.

“This text seems to imply a belief in the existence of a group of nameless [shmw] deities who existed before the origin of the world, and who were believed to act as a single creating power…these powers are described as the Primaeval Ones…the lords of the light…The Ghosts, the Ancestors…These nameless Creators of the Earth seem to have been regarded as its original inhabitants…they are also described as the Great Ennead…the Sanctified Ones who…created their own bodily form for themselves, who fashioned themselves as their (own) work…divine beings described as…the word Company…[it] may have been the name of some divine beings who eventually formed the company of the nameless god described as Pn…The name Pn as a divine name  is known to us…as a subsidiary name of Ptah.” Pages 63,74,77,78,94,95 “Mythical Origin of the Egyptian Temple” by E.A.E. Reymond.

“The general tone of the beginning of the first record seems to convey the view that an ancient world, after having been constituted, was destroyed, and as a dead world it came to be the basis
of a new period of creation…life developed within the island; this then became the scene of various mythical events, such as, for instance, the titi. Theoretically titi can be interpreted as trampling  or aggression. It may be surmised that there was a fight in the island…the result that the divine inhabitants died. This interpretation accords with other parts of the first Edfu record which alludes  to the death of the Company…A further important fact that emerges…the allusion to the underworld…makes it clear that the underworld was believed to have existed before the world was  created…the Underworld of the Soul.” Pages 106,107,114 “Mythical Origin of the Egyptian Temple” by E.A.E. Reymond.

“The Pn-God…is to be linked with the gnn, the Weak One…believed to reside in a field of reeds, who died there and whose mortuary image was hidden in the same field of reeds…the first act of
creation…in the Island of Trampling was solely an act of recreation of a divine world which once existed…in the first place a bw-titi, Place-for-Crushing, was planned. Then appeared on the scene
a large company of divine beings…the whole company (tt) was then divided into four groups; each group was placed along one side of the bw-titi…Thereafter the snake was overthrown and the  victorious gods are said to have settled (sndm) beside him…The divine powers who were believed to have acted in this phase of creation were the deities who took part in the former process; they  were the Progeny of the Earth-God.” Pages 125,195,214 “Mythical Origin of the Egyptian Temple” by E.A.E. Reymond.

“Imitating the physical appearance of the first domain that ever came into existence…the vanished realm of the Pn-God…marks the starting-point in the creation of the new type of sacred
abode: the temple…In fact a well-known text on the inner face of the enclosure wall of the temple at Edfu tells us that the temple was built at the dictates of the Ancestors according to what was
written in this book which descended from the sky to the north of Memphis…We are of the opinion that the Edfu records preserve the memory of a predynastic religious center…on which the Egyptians looked as the homeland of the Egyptian temple…It looks as though the Egyptians believed that there was one land only in which all the orders of creation were effected…in which the  Lord of All was the Earth-God and his immediate successor the Winged One.” Pages 215,262,263,274 “Mythical Origin of the Egyptian Temple” by E.A.E. Reymond.

1. Praise be to thee, Ra, exalted Sekhem, lord of the hidden circles [of the Tuat], bringer of forms, thou restest in secret places and makest thy creations in the form of the god Tamt. 2. Praise be to thee, Ra, exalted Sekhem, thou creative force who spreadest out thy wings, who restest in the Tuat, who makest the created things which come forth from his divine limbs, 3. Praise be to thee, Ra, exalted Sekhem, Ta-thenen, begetter of his gods. Thou art he who protecteth what is in him, and thou makest thy creations as Governer of thy Circle. 4. Praise be to thee, Ra, exalted Sekhem, looker on the earth, and brightener of Amenti. Thou art he whose forms are his own creations, and thou makest thy creations in thy Great Disk. 5. Praise be to thee, Ra, exalted Sekhem, the Word-soul, that resteth on his high place. Thou art he who protecteth thy hidden spirits they have form in thee. 6. Praise be to thee, Ra, exalted Sekhem, mighty one, bold of face, the knitter together of his body. Thou art he who gathereth together thy gods when thou goest into thy hidden Circle. 7. Praise be to thee, Ra, exalted Sekhem. Thou dost call to thine Eye, and dost speak to thy head, and dost give breath to the souls in their places, and they receive it and have heir forms in him. 8. Praise be to thee, Ra, exalted Sekhem, destroyer of thy enemies ; thou art he who doth decree destruction for the 9. Praise be to thee, Ra, exalted Sekhem, the sender forth of light into his Circle ; thou art he who maketh the darkness to be in his Circle and thou coverest those who are therein.” 10. Praise be to thee, Ra, exalted Sekhem, the illuminer of bodies in the horizons ; thou art he who entereth into his Circle. 11. Praise be to thee, Ra, exalted Sekhem, support of the Circles of Ament ; thou art indeed the body of Temu 12. Praise be to thee, Ra, exalted Sekhem, the hidden support of Anpu thou art indeed the body of Khepera. 13. Praise be to thee, Ra, exalted Sekhem, whose duration of life is greater than that of her whose forms are hidden ; thou art indeed the bodies of Shu. 14. Praise be to thee, Ra, exalted Sekhem, the guide The shallows of the land of Neha-hra are 450 cubits long, and it is filled with his folds, but over one portion thereof this great god joumeyeth not when he travelleth to the hidden abode of Osiris, for he journey eth through this city under the form of the god Mehen, Neha-hra shall never drink the water of him that knoweth this, and the soul which knoweth it shall never be given over to the violence of the gods who are in this Circle ; and the crocodile Ab-she shall never eat the soul of him that knoweth it. Hidden Souls, I say open ye your circles, and set ye yourselves in your own places, for I have come to see my bodies, and to look upon the similitudes of myself which are in the Tuat, and it is you who have brought me along and have given me the opportunity of coming to them.

It can be demonstrated that the astronomical mythology of Egypt passed into Akkad and Babylonia, with the race of the Cushite “black-heads,” to become the wisdom of the “Chaldees” and the Persian magi in after ages, including such primary types as the abyss of the beginning in the lower firmament, the Great Mother as a fish or dragon in the abyss, and the fish- man born of the fish-mother from the abyss.

According to the legend related by Berosos, a divine fish-man, Oannes, or Oan, who had his dwelling in the Persian Gulf or Erythrean Sea, came forth from thence to teach the Chaldeans all they ever knew, when, as it is said in the native tradition, the people wisely “repeated his wisdom” (W. A. I., ii. 16, 37-71). In all probability the instructor as a fishman in Babylonia was represented by Ea, whose consort was Davki or Davkina, the Earth-mother corresponding to the Egyptian Great Mother, one of whose names was Tef.

Among the chief deities reverenced by the rulers of Telloh was one whose name is expressed by the ideographs of a ‘fish and an ‘enclosure,’ which served in later days to denote the name of Nina or Nineveh” (Sayce, Hib. Lectures, p. 281). The same sign, i.e., of a fish, and enclosure in the Egyptian hieroglyphics, signifies An, to appeal, to show, to teach, as did the fish-man. An in Egyptian is a name of the teacher, the scribe, the priest. An was the fish in Egypt. An, with the fish for ideograph, is an ancient throne name that was found by Lepsius among the monumental titles on a tomb near the Pyramids of Gizeh (Bunsen, Egypt’s Place, vol. ii, p. 77). This An, to show, to reveal, An, the fish of the enclosure, An, the teacher, as the fish, is the likeliest original of the Oan or Oannes who issued from the waters to show the Babylonians how to live, as the mythos was reflected in the later legend.

Horus-Sebek was the earliest fish-man known to mythology. He calls himself the fish in the form of a man. Yet he issued from the female fish as a fish, the crocodile as son from the crocodile as Apt the mother and not as a man ejected from the mouth of a fish, as the legend reads when ignorantly literalized. The fish-mother also survived in the divine lady Nina, who was represented by the ideograph of a fish enclosed in a basin of water (Sayce, Hib. L., p. 37), which has the same significance as the fish-mother in the lake at Ascalon.

But to reach the beginning the bottom must be plumbed in the abyss or nether parts of the firmamental Nun upon the outside of the mount by means of which the earth was imaged in the astronomical mythology. The abyss was known by various names in different versions of the mythos. It is the Phoenician baev or deep. It is the bau of the Hebrew Genesis. It is the bau or bahu as Egyptian. The word bahu is also a name for the god of the inundation called the power of the southern lakes. “I am Bahu the Great” is said four times over (in the Magic Papyrus) at the breaking forth of the water power from its southern source in the abyss of the dragon, the crocodile, or the Southern Fish {Records, vol. x. p. 149). The Egyptian also has an earlier form of the word bahu in “bab,” for the well or whirlpool as a welling source of water. Another term for this outrance from the Nun is the tepht, which signifies the abyss, the source, the outlet. The Tiamat or Thavath of Berosos is a form of the Great Mother as a type of the watery abyss which is the Egyptian tepht, the abyss, the source, the well, the hole from whence the water issues, the dwelling underground where the dragon-horse gave suck to her brood of monsters in the earth.

So was it with the bau, bahu, or bab. These names had been applied to the source of the inundation itself and localized in Egypt before they were repeated in the astronomical mythology to become a subject of Semitic legendary lore. The bau, the bahu, or bab is Egyptian. The tepht and tuat are likewise Egyptian; and these names had been (already) applied to the source of the inundation and to the facts of earth that formed the mould of the astronomical mythology.

The Tuat in the recesses of the south is likewise identified in the hymns as the secret source of the river Nile, which is thus traced to the abyss. Such was the birthplace of the beginning, the birthplace of water in the beginning from which the papyrus plants arose as the primeval food, and as the fact is registered in the Ritual. In the Magic Papyrus the abyss is comprehensively spoken of as “the water’s well.” It is the habitat of the dragon called “the horse coming out of the abyss.”

Here the two dragons can be identified together as the horse-dragon of water and the Apap-dragon of drought, that were at war from the beginning as antagonists in the abyss. The strife in the abyss was betwixt the horse of water and the fiery dragon of drought, the two dragons of good and evil, Sebek-Horus and the dragon or reptile of Apap. Both were born of the abyss; hence the Scholia on ch. 17 of the Ritual add, “The devourer comes from the lake of Puanta,” or the water of the abyss which the Egyptians traced to the “recesses” in the south.

It is also the lair of the Apap-monster, of whom it is said by Shu, “If he who is in the water opens his mouth, I will let the earth fall into the water’s well,” being the “south made north, or the earth turned upside down” {Records, vol. x.).

The great lake at the horn-point of the northern pole which the Ritual denominates the “lake of equipoise” as well as the lake of the thigh. Amongst the other signs that were configurated at the summit of the northern heaven as object-pictures of the old primeval homeland were the fields of the papyrus reed, the waters welling from unfathomable depths, the ancient mother as the water-cow of Apt, who was the living image of Apta as the birthplace in the reeds.

At a certain point, in regions of no latitude, the pole-star rests for ever on the horizon in the north, or, as the Egyptians figured it, upon the mount of earth in Apta. The heaven of the ancient legends and of the equatorial astronomers was close to the earth, because the pole-star rested on the summit of the mount like Anup on his mountain.

Apta or highest point of the northern heavens in the astronomical representation. And naturally the chief facts of the earthly paradise were repeated for a purpose in the circumpolar highland. Hence the Aarru paradise, as a field of papyrus reeds oozing with the water of life that supplied the world, from the two great lakes into which the element divided at the head of the celestial river.

The Kamites found their old lost paradise in “Uat,” the name signifying green, fresh, well-watered. Uat was literally the land of wet as water. Here then was heaven in the north, heaven as the north, heaven in the water and the breezes of the north. And on this they founded a celestial garden or enclosure, which was configurated by them in the northern heaven as the primitive paradise of edible plants and plenty of water.

The mother of water in the northern heaven was imaged as the water-cow. Another type of the birthplace was the thigh or haunch of the cow, and one of the two lakes at the head of the Milky Way in the region of the northern pole was called the “lake of the thigh.”

The Osiris (ch. 149), on attaining the divine regions of water, air, and food, or, as we say, heaven, exultingly exclaims, “I alight at ‘the thigh of the lake.’ ” This was the thigh of the cow that was constellated in heaven at least twice over, as a sign of the birthplace, when the birth was water, or Horus, the child of the inundation.

Nut or Nu, the Egyptian name for heaven, has the meaning and the sign of uplifted. And there was but one starting point at which the heaven could be said to rest upon the earth. This was in the regions of no latitude, where the pole-stars were to be seen upon the two horizons.

In various legends there is a beginning with a world all water. This is one with the Egyptian Nu or Nun. In the beginning was the Nun. Thus saith the primordial word. Not in the beginning of the heavens and earth, but in the beginning of the uranographic representation or entification in the astronomical mythology. The Nun is a name in Egyptian for the firmament when imaged in the similitude of water, the world that was all water at the intellectual starting point. There is a relic of the ancient wisdom on one of the Assyrian tablets, the gnosis of which we hold to be Egyptian, and that as such it can be unriddled and read. As it is said, “the heaven was created from the waters.” The earth was pre-existent. This is called the work of “Ansar and Kisar,” who “created the earth,” i.e., when “creation” had been rendered cosmogonically. But “the heaven was created from the waters” which were firmamental and uranographic.

The non-Semitic legend of Cutha describes the beginning with a condition of non-entity or pre-entity; there was nothing but an amorphous world of water. As it is said, “the whole of the lands were sea”; “the abyss had not been made” below, nor was there any seat of the gods above. There was no field of reeds; no tree of life had been planted in the midst of an enclosure. There flowed no stream from the abyss “within the sea” of the celestial water (Pinches, T. G., Records of the Past, 2nd Series, vol. vi. p. 107; Sayce, Assyrian Story of Creation, New Series, vol. i. pp. 133-153). This, when bottomed, means that configuration of the signs in the astronomical mythology had not as yet begun. But as space the firmamental water was extant, and dry earth itself had stood for ever in the midst thereof; earth and water were the uncreated substance which had no beginning, any more than they had in the Egyptian Nun. The monsters born of Tiamat had their home in the ground of earth. It was there she suckled them. Earth as the natural fact preceded the abyss in the astronomy.

As Professor Sayce observes, somewhat naively, “There was already an earth by the side of the deep” (H. L., p. 377). No. Earth was the ground to go upon in the deep, and this was the Mother-earth which brought forth in and from the deep that was depicted as the abyss, or as the Great Fish in “the water” of the southern heaven. It was in the extreme south that the Babylonians also placed their entrance to the under-world or the abyss. That is where the Egyptians had already localized the outrance from this mysterious region whence the inundation came. Here was the “Ununait” or place of springing up that was first applied to water in the pre-solar mythos, the water that was pictured in its rising from the fish’s mouth.

The abyss or great deep of the beginning was represented in the mysteries as the Lake of the Great Fish. It was related by Ktesias of Knidos that the sacred lake was seen at Bambyke or Hierapolis. It was also said that in this lake the life of Derketo, daughter of Aphrodite, was saved by the fish. And as the great fish of Kam was the water-horse, the likelihood is that the Lake Moeris, sacred to the crocodiles in Egypt, was also a form of the lake which represented the place of birth that was commemorated in the mysteries and told of in the legends as the abyss of the beginning, the birthplace or fontal source of water=life. A figure of the “abyss” or “deep” survives still in the “basin.” Large ewers filled with water were used for purificatory rites in the Babylonian temples. These were called apsu, for “deeps” or “abysses.” Tanks were used by the Egyptians for their baptistries. The baptismal font still images the fount of source. As a mythical or celestial locality the Gulf of Eridu is a mundane form of the abyss that was in the beginning. This was the birthplace where the Earth-mother brought forth as a dragon or great fish, the mistress in the abode of the fish. Hence it was the place from whence not only the fish-man Oannes, but the seven fish-like men or annedoti, ascended before the time of the Assyrian deluge. The source of water underground most naturally suggested the idea of a primordial deep, an unfathomable gulf, a bottomless pit. This was then applied to the point of beginning in the lower Nun or firmamental water where the abyss was figured in the uranographic representation.

As the nomads travelled towards the north, this heaven of the pole, which touched the earth in equatoria, naturally rose up from the mount, or, as mythically rendered, it was raised by Shu, who stood upon the steps of Am-Khemen to reach the height, and push the two apart with his huge staff that was the giant’s figure of the north celestial pole. There were no solstices in Apta. Time, if any, was always equinoctial there. And on this equal measure of day and dark the first division of the circle, the sep or turn-round of the sphere, was founded. When Shu upraised the sky it was equally divided between Sut and Horus, the portion of each being half of the water, half of the mount, or half of the twenty-four hours. And this was the time made permanent in Amenta, where the later register for all such simple mysteries was kept. There are twelve hours light and twelve hours dark in this nether-world, the same as in the equatorial regions. It is the equinoctial time of Shu and Maati. The earth was not an upright pillar in Apta, with the starry sphere revolving round it on a horizontal plane.

The risings and settings of the stars were vertical, and the two fixed centres of the poles were on the two horizons, or, in accordance with the Egyptian expression, on the northern and the southern sides of the mount of earth. The sky, as the celestial water, was also divided into two great lakes, one to the north and one to the south of the mount. These survive in the Ritual as the Lake of Kharu and the Lake of Ru to the south and the north of the Bakhu hill “on which heaven resteth” (chs. 108 and 109). The system of dividing the celestial water was apparently founded on the two great equatorial lakes at the head of the Nile, which were repeated in the two lakes of Amenta and in the other pictures of the double source of the great stream now figured in heaven at the head of the Milky Way as “the stream without end.”

The Egyptians also preserved traditions of Ta-nuter, the holy land that was known by the name of Punt or Puanta. Maspero spells the name Puanit. The present writer has rendered it Puanta. One meaning of anta, in Egyptian, is yellow or golden. Hence Puanta the golden. The name is applied in the Ritual (ch. 15) to the land of dawn, or anta, as the golden = the land of gold. This was the mythical or divine Anta in Amenta where the tree of golden Hathor grew. In that case, Puanta or Punt is identical with the orient in the mythos . But the land of Puanta is also geographical, and there was an Egyptian tradition that this divine country could be reached by ascending the river Nile (Maspero, Histoire Ancienne, p. 5). It was reported that in a remote region south you came to an unknown great water which bathed Puanta or the holy land, Ta-nuter. This, we suggest, was that nearest and largest of all the African lakes, now called the Victoria Nyanza, from which the river Nile debouches on its journey north. We gather from the inscriptions of Der-el-Bahari that the inhabitants of that Puanta for which the expedition of Queen Hatshepsu sailed were lake-dwellers. The houses, built on piles, were reached by means of ladders, and pile-dwellings imply that the people of Puanta were dwellers on the lake. Further, it is recorded on the monuments that two naval expeditions were made by the Egyptians to the land of Puanta. The first occurred in the reign of Sankh-Ka- Ra, the last king of the eleventh dynasty, long before the expedition to Puanta was made in the time of Queen Hatshepsu (eighteenth dynasty). The leader of this earlier expedition was a nobleman named Hannu, who describes his passage inland through the desert and the cultivated land. On his return to Egypt from the gold land, he speaks of coming back from the land of Seba, and thus far identifies the one with the other. He says: “When I returned from Seba, or Seboea, I had executed the king’s command, for I brought him back all kinds of presents which I had met with in the ports of Puanta, and I came back by the road of Uak and of Hannu” (Inscription, Rohan). In the story of the shipwrecked sailor the speaker says of his voyage: “I was going to the mines of Pharaoh, in a ship that was 150 cubits long and 40 cubits wide, with 150 of the best sailors in Egypt.”

He was shipwrecked on an island, which turned out to be in the land of Puanta. The serpent ruler of the island says to the sailor: “I am prince of the land of Puanta.” It is not said that this was the land of the mines, but he was sailing to the mines when he reached the land of Puanta (Petrie, Egyptian Tales, pp. 82, 90). An inscription found in the tomb of Iua and Thua (of the eighteenth dynasty), which tomb was rich in gold, informs us that the gold had been brought from “the lands of the south.” Also the Mazai tribes are known to have had relations with the people of Puanta. Puanta, as a geographical locality, is said to lie next to the spirit world, or the land of the shades, which is spoken of as being in the south, but as far away as sailors could go up-stream; in fact, it was where the celestial waters came from heaven at the sources of the Nile. This surely means that Puanta, the gold land, was at the summit of this world, and therefore closest to the next, where there was nothing but the firmamental water betwixt them and the islands of the blessed.

Puanta, from which the golden Hathor and the hawk of gold originally came. Horus on his pedestal or papyrus is a figure not to be mistaken, whether the bird is a hawk or a vulture, for there was also a very ancient Horus of the vulture that was the bird of Neith. The hawk or vulture on the pedestal or papyrus (Uat) was indefinitely older than the human type of Horus the child in Egypt. Horus as the hawk or vulture, standing on the column within the necklace zone or cestus, was the child of Hathor; and these two, Hathor and Horus, were the divine mother and child. The gold hawk of Horus is connected with the Egyptian mines, whilst precious metals and stones, especially the turquoise, were expressly sacred to the goddess Hathor. The Egyptian goddess Hathor, as a form of the Earth-mother, was the mistress of the mines, and of precious stones and metals, called mafkat. It was here she gave birth to the blue-eyed golden Horus as her child, her golden calf or hawk of gold.

The Kamite Amenta is “the grave of man’s lost world,” where his legendary garden of the beginning may be rediscovered. In this subterranean country will be found a copy of the primary paradise of all mythology, which can be restored from the Ritual and the imagery set in the stars of heaven, and proved to be the work of ancient Egypt’s wisdom. The most primitive imagery was sacredly preserved in Amenta, which makes the Book of the Dead an eschatological record of the beginnings in mythology that is unparalleled, and not until we have mastered the wisdom of Egypt as recorded in Amenta shall we be enabled to read it on the surface of the earth. First comes the natural fact, next the mythical representation, and lastly the eschatological application of the type, be it the mount, or tree, the Deluge, the ark, the evil serpent, or the victorious young hero. All three phases have to be studied, collated, and compared; and for this purpose the Egyptian Books of the Dead and of Amenta are worth all other sacred writings in the world. The primal paradise of universal legend was above the earth upon the summit of the mount, up which the spirits climbed to reach the region of eternal rest among the stars that never set. It was configurated round about the pole of heaven. This has yet to be depicted as the mount of glory. The later paradise was sub-terrestrial, the earthly paradise of legendary lore. The first was stellar, the last is solar, and it is this last that was founded on the subterranean path of the nocturnal sun first opened up by Ptah. The duplicating of paradise was partly a result of repeating the imagery of the stellar representation in the solar mythos. The mount of glory in the east was added to the mount of glory in the north, with the wide water of the heavens flowing round between the terrestrial and celestial paradise. Kosmas Indikopleustis (A.D. 535) tells us that beyond the ocean in every direction there exists another continent which cannot be reached by man, but of which one part was inhabited by him before the Deluge. To the east, just as in other maps of the world and in later systems, he placed the terrestrial paradise and the four rivers that watered Eden which came by subterranean channels to water the post-diluvian earth (Blake, Astronomical Myths, pp. 266-7). This can be followed by means of the upper paradise of Am-Khemen, that was raised by Shu, and the lower one now configurated by the opener Ptah, who suspended a sky overhead in Amenta.

In the mythology, Amenta is the subterranean country of the sun by night. The dawn and sunset were its gates of glory. It is called the beautiful Amenta, the earth of eternity. It was the passage of the sun that made the pathway of the solar circle which was completed in the eastern equinox. Hence it is said of the sun- god, “The junction of the double earth is the head of the coffin of Osiris, the beneficent soul in Sutenkhen, who hath determined the paths of eternity,” that is in completing a circle by making the passage through Amenta (Rit., ch. 17, Renouf). The road to heaven for the manes now began with a pathway through the nether earth, from the place of sunset to the gate of sunrise. Previously the way to heaven was up the mount which was a figure of the north celestial pole. There was no solar passage through the nether regions in the stellar mythos; the sun went round the mount of earth, not through it. Ptah the opener added earth to earth and heaven to heaven, the solar mythos to the stellar. The sky upraised by him is indicated by the figure of heaven reversed. It is called the firmament of Ptah. Hence it is said by the Osiris in Amenta, “Mine is the radiance in which Ptah floateth over his firmament” (Rit., ch. 64), his firmament being that of the nocturnal sun in the under-world. There was now a firmament above and one below the earth. The firmament uplifted first by Sut, Horus, and Shu was supplemented by a nether sky up-raised and suspended by the opener Ptah. The nnu, nun, or heaven is the celestial water, and this, as sky, was both above and below the earth. Now, the account of creation in the book of Genesis, with its waters above the firmament and its waters below the firmament, could not have been written until the division of these waters of heaven above the earth and of Amenta below the earth was effected when Ptah created the firmament of the nether- earth and raised another heaven in Amenta. In many places the name of Nut has the sign of heaven ^^^ in the reversed position, thus ^^. Renouf asks, is this one more proof that the Egyptians believed in a sky below the horizon? (Book of the Dead, ch. 15, note 7). This, however, does not touch bottom. The Egyptian wise men did not believe in this nether sky; they created it as a figure in sign-language. Thus in the making of Amenta there was a sky above the underworld as well as over the upper earth; this is the nether sky that was suspended overhead by Ptah and memorized in the mysteries.

When the sun- god Atum-Ra mounts into heaven from the garden of Aarru it is from the lower Aarru in the secret earth of Amenta. Hence it is said at the same time he “goeth to the field of Aarru, approaching to the land of spirits in heaven” (Rit., ch. 17, Renouf), i.e., to the upper Aarru, which was in the heaven of eternity, not in the nether-land of the double earth, called the earth of eternity. This duality has to be completely comprehended before the Ritual can be read, or its traditions followed round the world, as for example, in the Hebrew Genesis and the Assyrian legends of creation.

Paradise in Amenta is said by the deceased to be the “beautiful earth of eternity.” But the deceased does not stay in it as his place of repose. It is not the eternal dwelling. In passing through Amenta he is bound for the heaven of eternity above. This below is but the earthly paradise, and there is an upper paradise to be attained across the celestial waters by those who can secure a seat in the boat of Ra. The typical mount was doubled; a mountain east was added to the most ancient mount of the north, which sometimes makes it look as if the site of the primitive paradise had been shifted and slewed round from the north to the east. The mistake hitherto made regarding the mount is in supposing the mount of earth, or Amenta, to be identical with the mount of the north, whereas the two belong to two distinct systems of the mythos, stellar and solar. The mount of heaven was stellar in the north; the mount of earth is solar in the east. The mount of heaven had its summit at the north celestial pole; the mount of Amenta was level with the sky-line on the horizon. There is also a double judgment seat, and a twofold judgment. One great hall was in Amenta. The other was at the apex of the hill of heaven, the maat of the final judgment that was given on the last great day. When the two are sundered, we sometimes find the judgment seat is imaged at the north celestial pole; at others, the great judge is seated as the Rhat-Amenta or Rhadamanthus, in the maat of the nether-earth.

Regio Paradisi itself considered as a mundane locality. This has been sought for in many lands, and numberless attempts have been made to define and fix the site in accordance with Hebrew ‘history.’ Wherever there is a riverhead that can be made to run on all-fours, even by assuming the existence of water-channels no longer extant, the biblical Eden has been discovered—whether in Asia, Africa, Europe, or America. Some writers have come to the conclusion that its features were effaced by the deluge; others have maintained that it disappeared with some lost Lemuria, or island of Atlantis. Livingstone coupled the four heads of the four rivers with the sources of the Nile; and the traveller died in search of the old lost Paradise of the ‘Genesis.’ He found there was a local report of four mighty streams which rose in a mountain west of Tanganyika lake; and in that region he hoped to discover the fountainheads as pictured in the Hebrew book; or the ‘twin-source’ as described by Herodotus[261].

And if there be an earthly original for the heavenly Eden, it will be found in equatorial Africa, the land of seething, swarming, multitudinous, and colossal life, where the mother nature grew great with her latest race; the lair in which the lusty breeder brought forth her black, barbarian brood, and put forth for them such a warm welling bosom as cannot be paralleled elsewhere on earth. This was the world of wet and heaven of heat; the land of equal day and dark that supplied the Two Truths of uati (Eg.); the top of the world; the very nipple (kepa) of the breast of earth, in which there is one vast streaming fount of moisture quick with life. So surely as a topographical Méru, the lake and island, is found in Habesh, so surely is the earthly paradise, the original of the mythical which was carried [p.163] forth over the world by the migrations from Kam, to be found there, if at all.

In Egyptian khentu is the interior, variously applied. It is the inner land, the lake country. It is also the name of the womb, the human birthplace. The khen (Eg.) is the Semitic gan, the Arab Al-Jannat for the Garden of Eden. Khen or khentu is the garden in Egyptian, just as our southern county Kent is called the Garden of England. Khentu also means delight. Thus in khentu, according to the Egyptian language, was the garden of delight, the pleasure-place, Paradise, Eden, or celestial birthplace of the mythos. Khentu being the interior, the matrix, kheptu is the hinder-thigh, as the place of outlet to the north, where the hinder thigh still denotes the birthplace figured in heaven by the constellation Ursa Major. These are the south and north of the African motherland as named in Egyptian; the Khepta-khentu, Hapta-hendu or Sapta-sindhu of the celestial heptanomis.
if we were to find the four rivers issuing in four directions from one mountain source, the difficulty would still remain that the four [p.167] are not primary. They are but a figure of the four quarters which do not belong to the first formation. In all the oldest traditions of the human race the cradle and birthplace is the heptanomis, and not a land of the four quarters. in the Quiche account, the seven caves precede the four quarters, just as the sevenfold heaven was earlier than the Tetrapolis, and the seven races of men, whose types were the elementaries, are extant before the races of the four different-coloured quarters. The birthplace is everywhere figured as the heptanomis. Paradise was sevenfold, seven-named, the place of the seven, and of the Septentrion, in the Akkadian hymns, the seven great spirits of the bear in the Egyptian Ritual, the seven Rishis in India. This was the star-station attained by the Pro-Selenes long before time could be reckoned or space determined by the four quarters of the moon.

The waters follow the same primordial number. The seven waters preceded the four rivers. The Western Paradise of the Buddhists is the place of the seven pools. Moreover, the descent can be traced from the summit of the seven to the four of the lunar quarters.

Mount Meru is not mentioned by name in the Rig-Veda, whence it has been thought that the mythos must be later than the Vedic period. It is the Vedic system that is altogether later. The bed of the four rivers is spoken of as the work of Indra[279], and these belong to the later system; they were added to the typical mount when it was made into a figure of the four quarters, for the moon and sun, just as the pillar-cross of Ptah, is called the throne of the sun, whereas the summit was the throne of the seven superseded gods.

The source of Ganga is in the abode of the seven Rishis, and in its descent it travels seven times around the summit of Mount Meru. Then it falls into four lakes on four summits facing the four quarters which belong to the later four divisions of the moon. So in the Avesta the paradise of Airyana-Vaêjo, the sevenfold place of the seven Yazatas, was aloft on the summit, whereas the four-cornered circle, established by Yima against the deluge, was lower down the mountain.

So the Manu Vaivasvata, when he disembarked after the deluge, is described as descending the mount of the north. If we found the four rivers we should still have to look for the land of the seven streams in Africa, corresponding to all the other forms of the septenary, possibly in the seven mountain ranges about Mount Kenya, described by Ptolemy[280], from which the River Sabaki issues into the Indian Ocean—sevekh being number seven in Egyptian; subhu, seven in Arkiko; shabagh, in Hebrew. Meanwhile, whatsoever earlier African types there may have been, Egypt remains the land of the seven streams[281]; and the one water is first of all the White Nile, next the Blue and Red Rivers of Hapi-Mu, and lastly the [p.168] river of seven branches and outlets, in accordance with the typology which preceded the rivers or divisions of the four quarters.

If the human birthplace was in the equatorial region of the Lakes, the north would become the heaven of cool to the race that turned that way. In Egyptian the ‘Meh,’ is the north, the quarter of the waters, and the name of the cool wind that breathed new life. ‘Throughout the whole of the Hottentot territory,’ says Dr. Hahn, ‘the northerly breezes are called Tu-oab, or rain-wind, showing that in the remotest ages the north wind was recognized as the rain-bearer.'[282]

They had gone from the north, or north-east of Africa, but we have now to follow those who went northward from the centre, through the tropical regions into Ethiopia. This was named the north as Khepsh (Eg.), that is Habesh and Kûsh (שׁוכ), by a people who must have dwelt to the south of it to name it as their north. Khepsh (Eg.) is the north pole, and the constellation of the Great Bear, i.e., the water-cow. As they descended the Nile, the pole and the seven stars rose higher and higher. But it was not known that the earth was a revolving globe.
The mount and the mother appear together in the Magic Papyrus, where it is said to Ra: ‘In rapture is thy mother the goddess Meru, as thou dost emit the irradiation of light and encirclest the world with thy blaze till thou reachest that mountain which is in Akar,’ behind which the sun set. At this point the goddess Meru or the mount received the god[284].

[p.169]

The goddess Meru is a form of Hathor, the cow-headed genetrix. But the earlier form of the typical mount was that of the seven stars, the mount of the water-cow, the mount of the pole, around which revolved the cow or sow, tortoise, water-bird, rhinoceros, or other of her types. This was the Mount Meru of the lake; Meru, the thigh; Meru, the cow, called Mehuru, the thigh of the great water[285].

And at Meroe in Khepsh (Kush) which means the hinder- (i.e., female) thigh, as the north, we find the African topographical Meru that became typical in the Hindu mythology. Meru in Greek was not only the thigh; the word μέροπες was a sacred expression used by the Greeks to denote mankind as those who were born from Meru, the mount of the birthplace. Also, Merops was a king of the Ethiopians, that is, of Küsh, the celestial north. Küsh (Egyptian Khepsh) becomes the Greek Kôs, which was known as Merope. There was also a Merope described by Theopompus in the north or near the country of the Hyperboreans[286]. The island of Siphnos was another reputed form of Meropis. The original Khepsh will account for the names of Küsh, Kos, and Siphnos, which are all places of this mythical mount.

The one mount will be found under many names in various lands. It is the Ararat of the deluge mythos: ‘As the first mountain, O holy Zaratusht, there stood on this earth the height Haraiti:’ the mountain range; the Akkadian Urdhu, or mountain of the world; the Egyptian Arrtu, the ascent and the buttock; the Irish Art or Ard, the height; Welsh Alt, a steep glade; and English Old, as the ‘old man,’ a mountain.

In the Art we recover the Mount of the Great Bear, the British Art or Arth which was the constellation of Arthur; and this mount is still called Arthur’s Seat; the summit of Edin, Dun-edin, in Edinburgh; one of the places where the mount and circle or enclosure (the Druidic ‘barrier, the rampart of Eiden,’ the ‘Esgor of Eidin’) were localized in Britain, according to the Kamite typology.

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CVIII. The chapter of Knowing the Spirits of the West.

There is the hill of the Bat, the heaven rests on it. It is in the East of the heaven, about 370 cubits long, 140 cubits broad. Sabak, lord of the Bat [cavern], in the East, is on the hill, in his temple upon its edge. There is a snake on the brow of that hill almost 30 cubits long, 10 cubits broad; 3 cubits in front of him are of stone ? [hard]. I know the name of that snake on his hill. Eater of Fire is his name; and when the time comes that the Sun is inclined to him, he looks to the Sun. During [the time of the boat, should he look within the boat, he swallows one cubit of the great waters], standing on the boat as a great object of regard in its passage. His belly has the waters under it 7 cubits in depth, he has been made like Set in his construction, he has his spine of iron [earth] placed in his neck. He has his wound given him, he has eaten [his] lord.

CIX. The chapter of Knowing the Spirits of the East.

I Know the Eastern hill of the heaven. Its South i3 in the Pool of the Sharu, its North in the Lake of the Rubu, where the Sun is towed in it by contending1 winds. I am watching what is ordered in the divine keel, I have led it, it has never ceased to be in the boat of the Sun. I know the sycomores of copper, the Sun comes out of them, bearing Shu [?] I have been known at every gate, out of which the Sun comes. I know the Aaluna [Elysium]. Its walls [?] are of iron [?] [earth]. Its corn rises 7 cubits, the ears of 3 cubits, the stalks of 4 cubits, for [say] its Spirits, each of them 8 cubits in length; they mow where the Spirits of the East are.

The walls of the Aahenru or Elysium in the second abode of c. cl. are said to be of baa, or “brass,”

Division I. Three lakes, called Ken ben (Many Waters ;—Innumerable Waters), and the Great City of the Waters. Three mummied Gods, called ” the Gods of the Horizons.” An altar and a hawk, called Peace, the Great Lord of Heaven. Behind the Gods is ” being in peace in the fields of Kant” The deceased offering to the Soul Baieth. Three symbols of ” Lands.” The deceased In his boat ” navigating in Peace.” The deceased offering to ‘* the Great Gods:” three in number, cow-and serpent-headed wearing feathers. The deceased is followed by two others, and Thoth writing on a palette.

II. The deceased offering to Hapl or the Mile, and offering the Harvest. Three pools: Hetp, or Peace ; An mer ut her (the Salt Lake of the Sea, or Bitter Lake) ; and another, Uat ha (Lengthy reeds). The deceased treading out the corn in the thrashing-floor. ” The chapter of the river 1000 miles long, of unknown breadth ; there are no (rami) fish, no isles, and no snakes in it.” The deceased reaping the white and the red corn. The deceased sowing and ploughing.

III. Five pools : Gef, ” Corn,” User (Power), Hesemenaa (Strangler of waters), Sma (Smiter), A (Water). Two boats : one with a flight of steps, “the boat of the Sun, the Lord of the Horizons, when he goes to the fields of the Aahenru (Great food).” The throne boat. The God In It is Annefer. ” The Chambers of the Waters of Heaven,” a bifurcate branch of the river. Here are placed In the upper division a pool, ” the God in It is the Sun.” ” The Place of the Spirits, their length is 7 cubits, the ears of their corn 3 cubits, for the wise dead to mow them.” 2nd part above, a smaller branch of the river separating off the upper part; this is called “the Birthplace of the Gods, …. created things.” The …. Shu, Tefuu, and Seb seated, and throne.

First Abode.

[Vignette. — Baal-headed Demon, two Swords, and a Labyrinth.]

Hail, the head Abode of the West! He who has lived in it [has done so] off cakes of thorns catching your garments. The venerable image which belongs to you stops me. He ties my bones, he disposes my arms. I led Ahi, Lord of the Heart. He collects my bones, he places the crown of Turn. He placed the head of Nahab [a Viper; or on my neck]. The Osiris fills the balance; thou rulest among the Gods. I live justified : or, [Thou rulest] thy altars as the Gods. Khein builds the type of the Osiris and his soul.

Second Abode.

[Vignette— Cynocephalui-headed Demon holding two Swords and a Hill.]

Oh Greatest of possessions in the Fields of the Aahenru [Elysium] ! Its wall is of earth. The height of its corn is seven cubits, the ears are two, its stalks are three cubits, [said] by the Spirits seven (cubits) in length. It is mowed where the Lord of the Horizon is. I knew the Gate of the Fields of the Aahenru. The Sun comes out of it from the East of the heaven. Its South is in the Pool of Kharu, its North is in the Waters of Rabu. The Sun is led in it by sailing and rowing. I am the one figured in the divine keel. I am the Rower, who has never been at rest in the boat of the Sun. I knew the Sycomore of Copper. [?] The Sun goes out of it, walking through it; Shu is transported to the Gate of the East of the heaven. The Sun comes out of it. I knew the Aahenru [Elysium] of the Sun: the height of its corn is seven cubits, are three cubits, the spikes are four [said] by the Spirits there of seven cubits, mowing where the Spirits of the East are.

Thikd Abode.

[Vignette. — Ape-headed God with two Swords before the noosed Cord.]

Oh Abode of the Spirits! There is no sailing through it. It silences the Spirits. It is of flame, of smoking fire. It is the abode of the Spirits. Your faces are under it. It is washed by you. As ye [ordered] me, so have I done to you, [Said] by the Osiris. Osiris, he says : I bind the red crown on the forehead of the Spirit, who gives life to those existing by the fire of his mouth, saving the Sun from Apophis. He lives for ever.

Fourth Abode.

[Vignette. — Three Gods sustaining the Hills and a Snake and a triple Snake-headed Goddess ]

Oh great Secret Abode! Oh the very tall hill in Hades! The heaven rests upon it. It is about 300 canes in length and 30 canes in breadth. There is a snake on it, Sati is his name. He is about 70 cubits in his coil. He lives by decapitating the condemned [?] Spirits in Hades. I stand at thy shape. I sail in the boat, or look only at thee. I am united, I am the male veiling thy head. Thou art well, I am well also, I am the viper. The Sun has given me eyes by which I see. He is crawling on his belly, following thee, after thy glory, or thy hill. I make thee go to him. Thy honour is through me. I am the one who has transported the glorified. I have come to catch Haker [the viper]. I am at peace the night I go round the heaven. Thou art the valley; ordered is thy food on earth before the Great God of Annu or Hades.

Fifth Abode.

[Vignette. — Thoth Ibis-headed holding an Ejre, standing on a Lion orer shuttle of Nit.]

Hail, Abode of the Spirits, through which there is no passage! The Spirits belonging to it are seven cubits in their thighs [long], they live as wretched shades. Oh this Abode of the Spirits! Oh ye Spirits belonging to them! open your road. I pass by your faces passing to the good West. I have ordered it, is [said] by Osiris, the Spirit, the living Lord, Osiris in his illumination. I make the months, I appoint the fifteenth of the month. I have gone round the Eye of Horus. I minister in the service of Thoth. No god comes out against me, or opposes his face to me. If any condemned [?] Spirit, male or female, sets his mouth against me, or any male or female devil comes to me on that day, he falls at the block.

Sixth Abode.

[Vignette Hawk-headed Ape holding two Swords ; over two Abodes, one in shape of a Horseshoe, out of which a Cerastes goes forth, the other in shape of a double Horse-shoe.]

Oh the Gate reserved for the Gods, and mystery to Spirits, rejecting the dead ! Overthrower of Fish is the name of the God in it. Hail, reserved Gate! I have come to see the Gods in it. Show your countenance, reach to me your head attire, stopping or welcoming. Let me see your form. I have come to behold you. Let not the Overthrower of Fishes prevail against me, nor the Pursuers come after me. I live through the welcome you give.

Seventm Abode.

[Vignette.— Ram-headed Demon with Swords, a Centipede going out of a Horse-shoe, and a Cerastes entering into one.]

Oh that Abode coming in sight! there is the glow of fire in its light [the Spirit J. There is a snake there, Ruhak is its name. He is about 7 cubits in the length of his back, living off the dead, strangling their Spirits. Go back, Ruhak, biting with the mouth to catch his fishes [prey], fuscinating or striking cold with his eyes. Draw thy teeth, weaken thy venom, or thou dost not pass by me. Do not send thy venom to me, overthrowing and prostrating me through it. Empty is thy poison in this land, at the edge or thy lips in the place, fallen in this hill or this house. Sent forth for ever, or destroying for ever, coming in turn, protecting the decapitation of his head [is said] by the Lion.

Eighth Abode.

[Vignette.— Demon, Hippopotamus Body, human Head, holding two Swords, on her’Head three Snakes, before her a Horse-shoe in which a Reptile.]

Hail, the Place of dismissing Peace, the great place of the waters! No one has withstood the water in it, the greatness of its terror, or the magnitude of its fear, or the height of its roaring. “There is a tall God in it, Dismisser of Peace is his name. He keeps at pleasure ; none escape from him. I am that crawling reptile in it. I have brought the things of the land of Turn, the time of overthrowing the ministers. Thou hast conquered those in the shrine. I have struck terror to the Lords of things. Do not take me to the block, do not strangle my soul as they wish to do to me. I am the passenger of the Northern horizon. I knew the Great God who is in it.

Ninth Abode.

[Vignette— Demon with Head formed of three Snakes holding two Swords.]

Oh the secret Place of Destruction of the Gods, which has terrified the Spirits, [not] knowing its name! There is neither going in nor out of it. That Great God who is in it, he has terrified the gods or Spirits; with his terror he has terrified the Spirits, or the condemned [?] by his roaring. It has opened with fire ; the blasts are stifling the nostril. He has made them against your followers at the desire of the Spirits who are in it. They are not able to breathe the blasts in it, except that Great God in his egg; he has made it to be in it. He has not allowed any to escape him except the great forms. Hail, oh Great God in his egg! I have come to thee. I am in thy service. I have come out, and gone from the place of destruction. I have opened its doors, I have breathed the blasts in it, I live off its food, I exist in it.

Tenth Abode.

[Vignette Tablet, human Demon with two Swords, and winged Viper on Legs.]

Hail, the Abode of the Arms, taker of Spirits by stealth, prevailing against the shade, devouring the perfect or the written, roaring at those denied through the glances of their eyes! Their -wretched shades, do not prevail against a tablet of tin {taken), say they at that region in their Abodes. Ye should come on your bellies and revel in your filth to let me pass you, who has neither been taken away by my spirit nor overcome by my shade. I am the Hawk, the God of Time. Scent has been supplied, flaming incense has been burnt around me. I have slaughtered the offering. When embalmed on earth, Isis and Nephthys were behind me. Prepare me a road for this snake. I am the Bull [male, husband] of Nuhar, [Nahab] the viper. I have come to you, oh Gods. Save me, give me my intelligence for ever.

Eleventh Abode.

[ Vignette. — A Bow, ligsag, place, Lion-headed female Demon with two Swordf, and male Cjrnocephalut God also with two Sword*.]

Oh the Abode in Hades! It is the belly prevailing against Spirits. There is neither coming out of nor going into it, on account of the greatness of the terror of passing him who is in it; through the greatness of its terrors, the Gods look at his opposition the condemned in it look at his blows, except the Gods who are in it for ever, closed for the Spirits. Oh the …. in the Hades! allow me to cross. I am the Eye of Horus, the hard urceus emanating from Set. My feet are for ever raised. I prevail as that Eye, suspending my heart after my soul reposes in heaven. I prevail on earth. I have flown as a hawk. I cackle as a goose. I tread or alight at this field of Hetp. I go to the corner where the Gods are. I stand in it, I sit on it,

crowned as a God in it. I have opened the Gate of the Hall of Truth. I have eaten of the kuphi, or sweet food, in the fields of Hetp. I have gone out of the corner of the cabin. Where the right road is crossing Bah [Turah], I have tied the weapon to the heaven, unknown to the Gods. I am one of them. My words are those of the goose [Seb] : the Gods listen to my words. Satp [Sothis] has understood them.

Twelfth Abode.

[Vignette. — Demon*, a Hippopotamus, and Axe-blade, with four Swords.]

Hail, Abode of the Hour! hail, Abode of the Hour in the Rusta, glowing with flame ! the Gods do not touch it, the Spirits do not assemble [repose] in it. There are ursei in it about to strangle their souls. Oh Abode of the Hour! there is a hawk in it. I am as the greatest of those who belong to the Spirits. I am as those never destroyed, never destroyed in it. My name does not perish. Oh Scents of the Gods in the Abode of the Hour! I am with you, I live with you, ye have wished me to be at your Gods.

Thdjteenth Abode.

(Vignette. — Demons: a Hare-headed God with Bow and Arrows, a Scarabaeus, and Tahur.]

Oh the Place of Waters! none of the dead can stand in it. Its water is of fire, its flow is of fire, it glows with smoking fire — if wished, there is no drinking it. The thirst of those who are in it is inextinguishable. Through the greatness of its terror, and the magnitude of its fear, the Gods, the damned, and the Spirits look at its waters from a distance. Their thirst is inextinguishable, they have no peace; if they wish, they cannot escape it. Reeds fill its river like the foul flux emanating from Osiris. I prevail and I drink its waters like the God who is in that Abode of the Waters, who is guarding it; the Gods fear to drink of its waters in all their burning directions. Oh God in the Abode of the Waters! I have come to thee. Let me prevail against these waters, I drink of the waters which thou hast made for a God. I am as that Great God. The Nile, who created grass and has planted all green things has gone to him. Give ye to the Gods the food which comes from him. Do nothing to me. Let the Nile go to me. I prevail in the grassy meads. I am the Soul of the body.

Fourteenth Abode.

[Vignette— Demon*, Crocodile drinking out of a Vase, a Hawk and human-headed Sphinx Anubil, a SJkes or tie, God adoring, Hawk, bli&ced Demon with Swords, Nit and liorus.]

Oh the Abode of Kal, turning the Nile from Tattu! let the Nile go measured with a rule [?] at his passage to every feeding mouth, giving the food of the Gods, the meals of Spirits. There is that snake in it in his house of Abu [Elephantine], at the door of the Gate of the Nile; he has come with its waters, he stands at the foot of Kalau, the ministers on the water eating the grain, the food, and the kuphi; the God is conducted, magnified, typified in Ealu. I am at peace, I suffocate with the stench which emanates from Osiris, the accusers fall in it.

CLI.

[Vignettes of Sixteen Abodes.]

CLII.

[Vignette—Jackal on Gateway and two Mummies, twice revealed : in the middle Ills and Nephthjrs lomeulilig the Osiris on bis Bier.]

Oh the Osiris! Raise up thy head, oh Osiris! He who is over the hill, he for a moment detains thy head if thou art stopped a moment. I am guarding the Osiris; detain thou the Sun over the Osiris. [Isis and Nephthys lamenting Osiris.]

Isis says: I have come as the winds to be thy protection, to give as breath to thy nostril, the North wind which comes from Turn, oh Osiris!

Nephthys says: The Osiris has been awakened.

Anup, who dwells in the Place, says: I have given justification. I have placed my arms over thee, oh the Osiris! for the sake of reviving thee.

Said by the Thresher of Food : The Hidden Retributor detaining the hand, detaining it to … in thy coffin I have come along, I protect the Osiris, I have found the road.

CLIII. The chapter of Building a House on Earth.

[Vignette. — Deceased receiring Food and Drink from a Female.]

Seb rejoices. He liberates Osiris from all his sins, letting the children know their fathers. They pray to see them. Thou hast placed Shu to the abominable one. [?] Anup addresses the Osiris, he is building his house on earth, it is founded in Annu [Heliopolis], it is girdled by Karu. He who dwells in Skhem [Horus] planned it, and he has given to it what belongs to it, leading men to it, supplying food to it through their labours. [?] Osiris says to the Gods who are in his service: Come ye, behold the building of this house of this prepared Spirit. He has come like the Sun, the same as ye have. May ye give him his speech that he may glorify you as ordered by me. Look ye to what I myself do. That Great God says ; he has come like the Sun, recognised by you; [is said] by Osiris, he has brought beasts; [is said] by the Gate of the South winds, he has brought corn ; barley . . . daily in the mouth of Osiris, [is said] by the North, he has whirled it on.his right hand, and placed it on his left. I have seen men and Gods, Spirits and the dead, they waste away in adoring what has been ordered them there.

The Osiris says: Great One who journeys to the Production of Colours, ye are at the nostril [pool which] I, the Osiris, drink. I drop the water.

The Sycomore Lady of the food of Osiris, says: I have come, I have brought thee food. The reply is, oh Sycomore of Nuhar, refresher of the dweller in the West, placing thy arms to his arms, place him away from the heat, giving refreshing waters to the Osiris under the boughs, give the North wind to the Meekhearted in his place for ever !

CLIV. The chapter of Escaping from the Net.

[ Vignette. [Pap. MOO.] — Deceased walking away from a Net.]

On! seeing with his face, the prevailers, chief of the born that is, fathers or their fathers, catching the birds flying on the waters! Do not catch your equals or fellows with your nets, [nor] catch me in them, walking away from earth. They reach to heaven, they stretch to earth. The Osiris comes forth and breaks them [when they are stretched]. I have come forth from Tattu, the Osiris there; the hawk laments my name. Make ye the poles, [?] placed to net. He says to the God Ameni, [Hidden] or I have made men to fly with wings. Ameni says to him, I know the …. the chief belonging to thee, or I tie him belonging to the South, the chief, to thee. [?] It is the stick which is in the hand of Isis, cutting that which is in it; it is the knife [?] of Osiris — or the name of their catcher is Harana kaf shat, [over the pursuit of blows]. The blows are where the bodies of Horus are. I knew the name of the box—Utensu is the name, or . . . offerings — the foot and the sole of the foot of the Lion-Gods. I know the [name of the] rope of the fowlers; which is in it — the work of Turn. I knew the name of their fishers —over the vipers or the hands of its monster stopping the . . . . of . . . am. I knew the names of your arms. The arms are those of Bent-arm, those of the Great God listening to words in Annu [Heliopolis] the night of the Festival of the 15th of the month.

Said over the figure of that Spirit, placed in the boat. Then make to thee a cabin on its left hand, and a forecastle on its right; offer to them food and drink, and all good things, the day of the birth of Osiris. When thou hast done so, thy Soul lives for ever, and never dies again.

OF MINERVA.

This heathen deity was greatly honoured by the Greeks and Romans, and is said to have been a great favourite with Osiris, whose natural daughter she probably was. She was called Tritonia, it is said, from the lake Tritonis in Libya, the place of her birth.

Mr Bryant has shewn her to be also the famous Medusa of heathen mythology. The poets and priests made no scruple of thus making two characters out of one personage, or compounding two or three individuals into one deity when it suited their purpose. The name Medusa (MecWtra) was no doubt given to her as the goddess of wisdom; some of her other names or titles, Myrhina, Minerva and Pallas, have not been explained. We may suppose her, which is most probable, to be called Athene, from her being principally worshipped at Athens’. But it may have been that she on the contrary gave her own name to that city, which had been before called Cecropia, from its first founder, but was remodelled by Theseus under her patronage. It appears that she and some of her Amazons spent much of their time at Athens, during Osiris’s residence in Greece; some of the Amazons being buried in that city.

From all that we read of her, it appears that she must have been a woman of most extraordinary talents and attainments; she was chief of the troop of female warriors which attended Osiris in his expedition; and she was killed and beheaded by Perseus in his last terrible attack on the Egyptians, in their retreat or flight from Greece. She was first married or otherwise connected with Python, the brother of Osiris, by whom she had a son named Atlas Chrysaor; she was afterwards married to Thoas or Hephaistos, by whom she had Erichthonius, who governed Athens for some time3, and was said to be the first Greek that ever used a chariot4. She had also a daughter named Hypsipyle, who succeeded her father in his little kingdom of Lemnos. Cicero says, that she had also by Hephaistos, a son named Apollo, who was greatly honoured at Athens.

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