Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
When in ancient days heaven was separated from earth, when in ancient days that which was fitting ……, when after the ancient harvests …… barley was eaten (?), when boundaries were laid out and borders were fixed, when boundary-stones were placed and inscribed with names, when dykes and canals were purified, when …… wells were dug straight down; when the bed of the Euphrates, the plenteous river of Unug, was opened up, when ……, when ……, when holy An removed ……, when the offices of en and king were famously exercised at Unug, when the sceptre and staff of Kulaba were held high in battle — in battle, Inana’s game; when the black-headed were blessed with long life, in their settled ways and in their ……, when they presented the mountain goats with pounding hooves and the mountain stags beautiful with their antlers to Enmerkar son of Utu —

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
— now at that time the king set his mace towards the city, Enmerkar son of Utu prepared an …… expedition against Aratta, the mountain of the holy divine powers. He was going to set off to destroy the rebel land; the lord began a mobilization of his city. The herald made the horn signal sound in all the lands. Now levied Unug took the field with the wise king, indeed levied Kulaba followed Enmerkar. Unug’s levy was a flood, Kulaba’s levy was a clouded sky. As they covered the ground like heavy fog, the dense dust whirled up by them reached up to heaven. As if to rooks on the best seed, rising up, he called to the people. Each one gave his fellow the sign.

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Lugalbanda, the eighth of them, …… was washed in water. In awed silence he went forward, …… he marched with the troops. When they had covered half the way, covered half the way, a sickness befell him there, ‘head sickness’ befell him. He jerked like a snake dragged by its head with a reed; his mouth bit the dust, like a gazelle caught in a snare. No longer could his hands return the hand grip, no longer could he lift his feet high. Neither king nor contingents could help him. In the great mountains, crowded together like a dustcloud over the ground, they said: “Let them bring him to Unug.” But they did not know how they could bring him.” Let them bring him to Kulaba.” But they did not know how they could bring him. As his teeth chattered (?) in the cold places of the mountains, they brought him to a warm place there.

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
When in ancient days heaven was separated from earth, when in ancient days that which was fitting ……, when after the ancient harvests …… barley was eaten (?), when boundaries were laid out and borders were fixed, when boundary-stones were placed and inscribed with names, when dykes and canals were purified, when …… wells were dug straight down; when the bed of the Euphrates, the plenteous river of Unug, was opened up, when ……, when ……, when holy An removed ……, when the offices of en and king were famously exercised at Unug, when the sceptre and staff of Kulaba were held high in battle — in battle, Inana’s game; when the black-headed were blessed with long life, in their settled ways and in their ……, when they presented the mountain goats with pounding hooves and the mountain stags beautiful with their antlers to Enmerkar son of Utu —

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
— now at that time the king set his mace towards the city, Enmerkar son of Utu prepared an …… expedition against Aratta, the mountain of the holy divine powers. He was going to set off to destroy the rebel land; the lord began a mobilization of his city. The herald made the horn signal sound in all the lands. Now levied Unug took the field with the wise king, indeed levied Kulaba followed Enmerkar. Unug’s levy was a flood, Kulaba’s levy was a clouded sky. As they covered the ground like heavy fog, the dense dust whirled up by them reached up to heaven. As if to rooks on the best seed, rising up, he called to the people. Each one gave his fellow the sign.

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Their king went at their head, to go at the …… of the army. Enmerkar went at their head, to go at the …… of the army. (2 lines unclear)…… gu-nida emmer-grain to grow abundantly. When the righteous one who takes counsel with Enlil (i.e. Enmerkar) took away the whole of Kulaba, like sheep they bent over at the slope of the mountains, …… at the edge of the hills they ran forward like wild bulls. He sought …… at the side — they recognised the way. He sought …….

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
At that time there were seven, there were seven — the young ones, born in Kulaba, were seven. The goddess Uraš had borne these seven, the Wild Cow had nourished them with milk. They were heroes, living in Sumer, they were princely in their prime. They had been brought up eating at the god An’s table. These seven were the overseers for those that are subordinate to overseers, were the captains for those that are subordinate to captains were the generals for those that are subordinate to generals. They were overseers of 300 men, 300 men each; they were captains of 600 men, 600 men each; they were generals of seven šar (25,200) of soldiers, 25,200 soldiers each. They stood at the service of the lord as his élite troops.

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Lugalbanda, the eighth of them, …… was washed in water. In awed silence he went forward, …… he marched with the troops. When they had covered half the way, covered half the way, a sickness befell him there, ‘head sickness’ befell him. He jerked like a snake dragged by its head with a reed; his mouth bit the dust, like a gazelle caught in a snare. No longer could his hands return the hand grip, no longer could he lift his feet high. Neither king nor contingents could help him. In the great mountains, crowded together like a dustcloud over the ground, they said: “Let them bring him to Unug.” But they did not know how they could bring him.” Let them bring him to Kulaba.” But they did not know how they could bring him. As his teeth chattered (?) in the cold places of the mountains, they brought him to a warm place there.

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
“If our brother rises like Utu from bed, then the god who has smitten him will step aside and, when he eats this food, when he drinks (?) this, will make his feet stable. May he bring him over the high places of the mountains to brick-built Kulaba.”

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
“But if Utu calls our brother to the holy place, the valued place (i.e. the hereafter), the health of his limbs will leave (?) him. Then it will be up to us, when we come back from Aratta, to bring our brother’s body to brick-built Kulaba.”

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
“Inana, if only this were my home, if only this were my city! If only this were Kulaba, the city in which my mother bore me ……! Even if it were to me as the waste land to a snake! If it were to me as a crack in the ground to a scorpion! My mighty people ……! My great ladies ……! …… to E-ana!” (2 lines unclear)”The little stones of it, the shining stones in their glory, saĝkal stones above, …… below, from its crying out in the mountain land Zabu, from its voice …… open — may my limbs not perish in the mountains of the cypresses!”

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Inana accepted his tears. With power of life she let him go to sleep just like the sleeping Utu. Inana enveloped him with heart’s joy as if with a woollen garment. Then, just as if ……, she went to brick-built Kulaba.

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Lugalbanda lies idle in the mountains, in the faraway places; he has ventured into the Zabu mountains. No mother is with him to offer advice, no father is with him to talk to him. No one is with him whom he knows, whom he values, no confidant is there to talk to him. In his heart he speaks to himself: “I shall treat the bird as befits him, I shall treat Anzud as befits him. I shall greet his wife affectionately. I shall seat Anzud’s wife and Anzud’s child at a banquet. An will fetch Ninguena for me from her mountain home — the expert woman who redounds to her mother’s credit, Ninkasi the expert who redounds to her mother’s credit. Her fermenting-vat is of green lapis lazuli, her beer cask is of refined silver and of gold. If she stands by the beer, there is joy, if she sits by the beer, there is gladness; as cupbearer she mixes the beer, never wearying as she walks back and forth, Ninkasi, the keg at her side, on her hips; may she make my beer-serving perfect. When the bird has drunk the beer and is happy, when Anzud has drunk the beer and is happy, he can help me find the place to which the troops of Unug are going, Anzud can put me on the track of my brothers.”

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
The bird presents himself before him, rejoices over him, Anzud presents himself before him, rejoices over him. Anzud says to holy Lugalbanda,” Come now, my Lugalbanda. Go like a boat full of precious metals, like a grain barge, like a boat going to deliver apples, like a boat piled up high with a cargo of cucumbers, casting a shade, like a boat loaded lavishly at the place of harvest, go back to brick-built Kulaba with head held high!” — Lugalbanda who loves the seed will not accept this.

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Holy Lugalbanda answers him: “Let the power of running be in my thighs, let me never grow tired! Let there be strength in my arms, let me stretch my arms wide, let my arms never become weak! Moving like the sunlight, like Inana, like the seven storms, those of Iškur, let me leap like a flame, blaze like lightning! Let me go wherever I look to, set foot wherever I cast my glance, reach wherever my heart desires and let me loosen my shoes in whatever place my heart has named to me! When Utu lets me reach Kulaba my city, let him who curses me have no joy thereof; let him who wishes to strive with me never say “Just let him come!” I shall have the woodcarvers fashion statues of you, and you will be breathtaking to look upon. Your name will be made famous thereby in Sumer and will redound to the credit of the temples of the great gods.”

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
So Anzud says to holy Lugalbanda: “The power of running be in your thighs! Never grow tired! Strength be in your arms! Stretch your arms wide, may your arms never become weak! Moving like the sun, like Inana, like the seven storms of Iškur, leap like a flame, blaze like lightning! Go wherever you look to, set foot wherever you cast your glance, reach wherever your heart desires, loosen your shoes in whatever place your heart has named to you! When Utu lets you reach Kulaba your city, he who curses you shall have no joy thereof; he who wishes to strive with you shall never say “Just let him come!” When you have had the woodcarvers fashion statues of me, I shall be breathtaking to look upon. My name will be made famous thereby in Sumer and will redound to the credit of the temples of the great gods. May …… shake for you …… like a sandal. …… the Euphrates …… your feet …….”

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Then the men of Unug followed them as one man; they wound their way through the hills like a snake over a grain-pile. When the city was only a double-hour distant, the armies of Unug and Kulaba encamped by the posts and ditches that surrounded Aratta. From the city it rained down javelins as if from the clouds, slingstones numerous as the raindrops falling in a whole year whizzed down loudly from Aratta’s walls. The days passed, the months became long, the year turned full circle. A yellow harvest grew beneath the sky. They looked askance at the fields. Unease came over them. Slingstones numerous as the raindrops falling in a whole year landed on the road. They were hemmed in by the barrier of mountain thornbushes thronged with dragons. No one knew how to go back to the city, no was rushing to go back to Kulaba. In their midst Enmerkar son of Utu was afraid, was troubled, was disturbed by this upset. He sought someone whom he could send back to the city, he sought someone whom he could send back to Kulaba. No one said to him “I will go to the city.” No one said to him “I will go to Kulaba.” He went out to the foreign host. No one said to him “I will go to the city.” No one said to him “I will go to Kulaba.” He stood before the élite troops. No one said to him “I will go to the city.” No one said to him “I will go to Kulaba.” A second time he went out to the foreign host. No one said to him “I will go to the city.” No one said to him “I will go to Kulaba.” He stepped out before the élite troops.

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Lugalbanda alone arose from the people and said to him,” My king, I will go to the city, but no one shall go with me. I will go alone to Kulaba. No one shall go with me.” — “If you go to the city, no one shall go with you. You shall go alone to Kulaba, no one shall go with you.” He swore by heaven and by earth: “Swear that you will not let go from your hands the great emblems of Kulaba.”

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
After he had stood before the summoned assembly, within the palace that rests on earth like a great mountain Enmerkar son of Utu berated Inana: “Once upon a time my princely sister holy Inana summoned me in her holy heart from the bright mountains, had me enter brick-built Kulaba. Where there was a marsh then in Unug, it was full of water. Where there was any dry land, Euphrates poplars grew there. Where there were reed thickets, old reeds and young reeds grew there. Divine Enki who is king in Eridu tore up for me the old reeds, drained off the water completely. For fifty years I built, for fifty years I was successful. Then the Martu peoples, who know no agriculture, arose in all Sumer and Akkad. But the wall of Unug extended out across the desert like a bird net. Yet now, here in this place, my attractiveness to her has dwindled. My troops are bound to me as a cow is bound to its calf; but like a son who, hating his mother, leaves his city, my princely sister holy Inana has run away from me back to brick-built Kulaba. If she loves her city and hates me, why does she bind the city to me? If she hates the city and yet loves me, why does she bind me to the city? If the mistress removes herself from me to her holy chamber, and abandons me like an Anzud chick, then may she at least bring me home to brick-built Kulaba: on that day my spear shall be laid aside. On that day she may shatter my shield. Speak thus to my princely sister, holy Inana.”

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Thereupon holy Lugalbanda came forth from the palace. Although his brothers and his comrades barked at him as at a foreign dog trying to join a pack of dogs, he stepped proudly forward like a foreign wild ass trying to join a herd of wild asses.” Send someone else to Unug for the lord.” — “For Enmerkar son of Utu I shall go alone to Kulaba. No one shall go with me” — how he spoke to them!” Why will you go alone and keep company with no one on the journey? If our beneficent spirit does not stand by you there, if our good protective deity does not go with you there, you will never again stand with us where we stand, you will never again dwell with us where we dwell, you will never again set your feet on the ground where our feet are. You will not come back from the great mountains, where no one goes alone, whence no one returns to mankind!” — “Time is passing, I know. None of you is going with me over the great earth.” While the hearts of his brothers beat loudly, while the hearts of his comrades sank, Lugalbanda took in his hand such of his provisions as he had not eaten, and each of his weapons one by one. From the foot of the mountains, through the high mountains, into the flat land, from the edge of Anšan to the top of Anšan, he crossed five, six, seven mountains.

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
By midnight, but before they had brought the offering-table to holy Inana, he set foot joyfully in brick-built Kulaba. His lady, holy Inana, sat there on her cushion. He bowed and prostrated himself on the ground. With { (1 ms. adds:) joyful } eyes Inana looked at holy Lugalbanda as she would look at the shepherd Ama-ušumgal-ana. In a { (1 ms. adds:) joyful } voice, Inana spoke to holy Lugalbanda as she would speak to her son Lord Šara: “Come now, my Lugalbanda, why do you bring news from the city? How have you come here alone from Aratta?”

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Holy Lugalbanda answered her: “What Enmerkar son of Utu quoth and what he says, what your brother quoth and what he says, is: “Once upon a time my princely sister holy Inana summoned me in her holy heart from the mountains, had me enter brick-built Kulaba. Where there was a marsh then in Unug, it was full of water. Where there was any dry land, Euphrates poplars grew there. Where there were reed thickets, old reeds and young reeds grew there. Divine Enki who is king in Eridu tore up for me the old reeds, drained off the water completely. For fifty years I built, for fifty years I was successful. Then the Martu peoples, who know no agriculture, arose in all Sumer and Akkad. But the wall of Unug extended out across the desert like a bird net. Yet now, here in this place, my attractiveness to her has dwindled. My troops are bound to me as a cow is bound to its calf; but like a son who, hating his mother, leaves his city, my princely sister holy Inana has run away from me back to brick-built Kulaba. If she loves her city and hates me, why does she bind the city to me? If she hates the city and yet loves me, why does she bind me to the city? If the mistress removes herself from me to her holy chamber and abandons me like an Anzud chick, then may she at least bring me home to brick-built Kulaba: on that day my spear shall be laid aside. On that day she may shatter my shield. Speak thus to my princely sister, holy Inana.””

Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
(The fox said to Ninḫursaĝa:) “I have been to Nibru, but Enlil ……. I have been to Urim, but Nanna ……. I have been to Larsam, but Utu ……. I have been to Unug, but Inana ……. I am seeking refuge with one who is …….” (7 lines fragmentary)

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Enki spoke to the minister Isimud: “Isimud, my minister, my Sweet Name of Heaven!” “Enki, my master, I am at your service! What is your wish?” “Since she said that she would not yet depart from here for Unug Kulaba, that she would not yet depart from here to the place where Utu ……, can I still reach her?” But holy Inana had gathered up the divine powers and embarked onto the Boat of Heaven. The Boat of Heaven had already left the quay. As the effects of the beer cleared from him who had drunk beer, from him who had drunk beer, as the effects of the beer cleared from Father Enki who had drunk beer, the great lord Enki turned his attention to the …… building. The lord looked up at the abzu. King Enki turned his attention to Eridug.

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
The minister Isimud spoke to holy Inana: “My lady! Your father has sent me to you. Inana, your father has sent me to you. What your father said was very serious. What Enki spoke was very serious. His important words cannot be countermanded.” Holy Inana replied to him: “What has my father said to you, what has he spoken? Why should his important words not be countermanded?” “My master has spoken to me, Enki has said to me: “Inana may travel to Unug, but you are to get the Boat of Heaven back to Eridug for me”.”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
The minister Isimud spoke to holy Inana: “My lady! Your father has sent me to you. Inana, your father has sent me to you. What your father said was very serious. What Enki spoke was very serious. His important words cannot be countermanded.” Holy Inana replied to him: “What has my father said to you, what has he spoken? Why should his important words not be countermanded?” “My master has spoken to me, Enki has said to me: “Inana may travel to Unug, but you are to get the Boat of Heaven back to Eridug for me”.”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
The minister Isimud spoke to holy Inana: “My lady! Your father has sent me to you. Inana, your father has sent me to you. What your father said was very serious. What Enki spoke was very serious. His important words cannot be countermanded.” Holy Inana replied to him: “What has my father said to you, what has he spoken? Why should his important words not be countermanded?” “My master has spoken to me, Enki has said to me: “Inana may travel to Unug, but you are to get the Boat of Heaven back to Eridug for me”.”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
The minister Isimud spoke to holy Inana: “My lady! Your father has sent me to you. Inana, your father has sent me to you. What your father said was very serious. What Enki spoke was very serious. His important words cannot be countermanded.” Holy Inana replied to him: “What has my father said to you, what has he spoken? Why should his important words not be countermanded?” “My master has spoken to me, Enki has said to me: “Inana may travel to Unug, but you are to get the Boat of Heaven back to Eridug for me”.”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
So Inana got hold again of the divine powers which had been presented to her, and the Boat of Heaven; and then for the fifth time the prince spoke to his minister Isimud, Enki addressed the Sweet Name of Heaven: “Isimud, my minister, my Sweet Name of Heaven!” “Enki, my master, I am at your service! What is your wish?” “Where has the Boat of Heaven reached now?” “It has just now reached …….” “Go now! ……, the guardians of Unug, are to take the Boat of Heaven away from her!”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
The minister Isimud spoke to holy Inana: “My lady! Your father has sent me to you. Inana, your father has sent me to you. What your father said was very serious. What Enki spoke was very serious. His important words cannot be countermanded.” Holy Inana replied to him: “What has my father said to you, what has he spoken? Why should his important words not be countermanded?” “My master has spoken to me, Enki has said to me: “Inana may travel to Unug, but you are to get the Boat of Heaven back to Eridug for me”.”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Holy Inana spoke to the minister Isimud: “How could my father have changed what he said to me? How could he have altered his promise as far as I am concerned? How could he have discredited his important words to me? Was it falsehood that my father said to me, did he speak falsely to me? Has he sworn falsely by the name of his power and by the name of his abzu? Has he duplicitously sent you to me as a messenger?” Now as these words were still in her mouth, he got the ……, the guardians of Unug, to seize hold of the Boat of Heaven. Holy Inana adressed her minister Ninšubur: “Come, my good minister of E-ana! My fair-spoken minister! My envoy of reliable words! Water has never touched your hand, water has never touched your feet!”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
The minister Isimud spoke to holy Inana: “My lady! Your father has sent me to you. Inana, your father has sent me to you. What your father said was very serious. What Enki spoke was very serious. His important words cannot be countermanded.” Holy Inana replied to him: “What has my father said to you, what has he spoken? Why should his important words not be countermanded?” “My master has spoken to me, Enki has said to me: “Inana may travel to Unug, but you are to get the Boat of Heaven back to Eridug for me”.”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
So Inana got hold again of the divine powers which had been presented to her, and the Boat of Heaven; and then (1 line fragmentary) …… Unug …… (1 line fragmentary) …… the Boat of Heaven. Ninšubur ……, …… the Boat of Heaven. A seventh time …… (1 line fragmentary)The great princely scion, holy ……. Holy Inana …… the Boat of Heaven. Holy Inana at that time …….

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Her minister Ninšubur spoke to holy Inana: “My lady, today you have brought the Boat of Heaven to the Gate of Joy, to Unug Kulaba. Now there will be rejoicing in our city, now there will be rejoicing in our city. …… barges on our river …….”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Holy Inana replied to her: “Today I have brought the Boat of Heaven to the Gate of Joy, to Unug Kulaba. It shall pass along the street magnificently. The people shall stand in the street full of awe.” (1 line fragmentary) …… in joy. …… the old men of the city …… comfort, …… the old women …… counsel, …… the young men …… strength of arms, …… the children …… joy. …… Unug. (1 line fragmentary) (1 line missing) (3 lines fragmentary)”…… festival …… the Boat of Heaven. He shall recite great prayers. The king shall slaughter bulls, shall sacrifice sheep. He shall pour beer from a bowl. He shall have the šem and ala drums sound, and have the sweet-sounding tigi instruments play. The foreign lands shall declare my greatness. My people shall utter my praise.”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
When she had …… the Boat of Heaven to the Gate of Joy at Unug Kulaba, it passed magnificently along the street. It reached the maiden’s house, and she …… its place. …… the purified well, her principal well. Inana …… the divine powers which had been presented to her, and the Boat of Heaven, at the Ĝipar Gate. At the Agrun Chamber ……. Holy Inana …… the Boat of Heaven …….

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
(3 lines fragmentary) (A third deity speaks:) “May the …… in your name!” (4 lines fragmentary) “May there be …… a festival! May …… pass their time …… at the gate of your Ĝipar! May the citizens of your city, Inana, the citizens of Unug, live ……! And as for you, Enki — may …… your city, Eridug ……, and has indeed restored …….”

Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
Then the …… left heaven, left the earth and climbed up into the mountains. Inana left heaven, left the earth and climbed up into the mountains. She left E-ana in Unug and climbed up into the mountains. She left the giguna in Zabalam and climbed up into the mountains. As she had gone up from E-ana, …… ĝipar ……. Inana …… her cloak …… and climbed up into the mountains. — Now, what did one say to another? What further did one add to the other in detail?

Inana and Gudam: c.1.3.4
Gudam ……. Gudam ……. Inana ……. Gudam …… within Unug ……. He …… the storehouse ……. Gudam …… the beer, …… the wine, …… the bronze vessels, …… the bronze vessels ……. (unknown no. of lines missing)

Inana and Gudam: c.1.3.4
They filled the bronze vessels to the brim. He made the tilimda vessels shine like the holy barge, …… fine chickpea flour, bearded carp ……. ……, he …… fish like dates. Many followed Gudam on the streets of Unug. They sat armed before him. Her (= Inana’s) (?) singer Lugal-gabaĝal came out to ……, and looked at the troops. The singer met him with a song, …… string with his hand:

Inana and Gudam: c.1.3.4
“What you have eaten, what you have eaten — it was not bread that you have eaten, it was your flesh that you have eaten! What you have drunk, what you have drunk — it was not beer that you drank, it was your blood that you drank! Gudam, many followed you on the streets of Unug; they sat armed before you.”

Inana and Gudam: c.1.3.4
He lopped off the crossbeams of E-ana as if (?) they were branches. Gudam went out into the street. Gudam crushed many on the streets of Unug, and killed many with his mace. { He hacked down the door of the city gate } { (the other ms. has instead:) …… the gate, the gate of Iškur }. He went out from …….

Dumuzid and Ĝeštin-ana: c.1.4.1.1
A small demon opened his mouth and said to the big demon,” Come on, let’s go to the lap of holy Inana.” The demons entered Unug and seized holy Inana.” Come on, Inana, go on that journey which is yours alone — descend to the underworld. Go to the place which you have coveted — descend to the nether world. Go to the dwelling of Ereškigala — descend to the underworld. Don’t put on your holy ba garment, the pala dress of ladyship — descend to the underworld. Remove the holy headdress, that splendid ornament, from your head — descend to the underworld. Don’t enhance your appearance with a wig — descend to the underworld. Don’t adorn your feet with …… — descend to the underworld. When you descend, …….”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
She abandoned the office of en, abandoned the office of lagar, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-ana in Unug, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-muš-kalama in Bad-tibira, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Giguna in Zabalam, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-šara in Adab, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Barag-dur-ĝara in Nibru, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Ḫursaĝ-kalama in Kiš, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-Ulmaš in Agade, and descended to the underworld. { (1 ms. adds 8 other lines:) She abandoned the Ibgal in Umma, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-Dilmuna in Urim, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Amaš-e-kug in Kisiga, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-ešdam-kug in Ĝirsu, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-šeg-meše-du in Isin, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Anzagar in Akšak, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Niĝin-ĝar-kug in Šuruppag, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-šag-ḫula in Kazallu, and descended to the underworld. }

Dumuzid’s dream: c.1.4.3
Those who come for the king are a motley crew, who know not food, who know not drink, who eat no sprinkled flour, who drink no poured water, who accept no pleasant gifts, who do not enjoy a wife’s embraces, who never kiss dear little children, who never chew sharp-tasting garlic, who eat no fish, who eat no leeks. There were two men of Adab who came for the king. They were thistles in dried-up waters, they were thorns in stinking waters — ‘his hand was on the table, his tongue was in the palace’ (Alludes to a proverb). Then there were two men of Akšak who came for the king, with …… carried on their shoulders. Then there were two men of Unug who came for the king. With head-smashing clubs tied to their waists, there were two men of Urim who came for the king. With { shining } { (1 ms. has instead:) clean } clothes on the quayside, there were two men of Nibru who came for the king. Crying “Man run after man!”, they came to the sheepfold and cow-pen. They caught Ĝeštin-ana at the sheepfold and cow-pen. They offered a river of water, but she wouldn’t accept it. They offered her a field of grain, but she wouldn’t accept it. The little demon spoke to the big demon, the wise demon, the lively demon, and the big demon who was between them, wise like …… destroying a ……, like …… barring a ……, they spoke:

Dumuzid’s dream: c.1.4.3
“Utu, you are my brother-in-law, I am your sister’s husband! I am he who carries food to E-ana, I am he who brought the wedding gifts to Unug, I am he who kisses the holy lips, I am he who dances on the holy knees, the knees of Inana. Please change my hands into gazelle hands, change my feet into gazelle feet, so I can evade my demons. Let me escape with my life to Ku-bireš-dildareš.”

Dumuzid’s dream: c.1.4.3
“Utu, you are my brother-in-law, I am your sister’s husband! I am he who carries food to E-ana, I am he who brought the wedding gifts to Unug, I am he who kisses the holy lips, I am he who dances on the holy knees, the knees of Inana. Please change my hands into { gazelle } { (1 ms. has instead:) snake } hands, change my feet into { gazelle } { (1 ms. has instead:) snake } feet, so I can escape to the house of Old Woman Belili.”

Dumuzid’s dream: c.1.4.3
“Utu, you are my brother-in-law, I am your sister’s husband! I am he who carries food to E-ana, I am he who brought the wedding gifts to Unug, I am he who kisses the holy lips, I am he who dances on the holy knees, the knees of Inana. Please change my hands into gazelle hands, change my feet into gazelle feet, so I can escape to the holy sheepfold, my sister’s sheepfold.”

Nanna-Suen’s journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
Unug lay ahead of the offerings, Larsam lay behind them. She brought out of the house what should not come out of the house, what should not come out of the house — holy Inana brought out of the house what should not come out of the house: “Welcome, welcome, welcome, O boat! O boat of my father welcome, welcome, O boat! { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) O boat of Suen welcome, welcome, O boat! }”

Nanna-Suen’s journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
Šuruppag lay ahead of the offerings, Unug lay behind them. She brought out of the house what should not come out of the house, what should not come out of the house — Ninunuga brought out of the house what should not come out of the house: “Welcome, welcome, welcome, O boat! O boat of Suen welcome, welcome, O boat!”

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Envoys of Aga, the son of En-me-barage-si, came from Kiš to Gilgameš in Unug. Gilgameš presented the issue before the elders of his city, carefully choosing his words: “There are wells to be finished, many wells of the Land yet to be finished; there are shallow wells of the Land yet to be finished, there are wells to deepen and hoisting gear to be completed. We should not submit to the house of Kiš! { Should we not smite it with weapons? } { (2 mss. have instead:) Let us smite it with weapons! }”

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
“The great gods created the structure of Unug, the handiwork of the gods, and of E-ana, the house lowered down from heaven. You watch over { the great rampart, the rampart which An founded } { (1 ms. has instead:) its great rampart, a cloudbank resting on the earth }, the majestic residence which An established. You are its king and warrior, an exuberant person, a prince beloved of An. When Aga comes, what terror he will experience! That army is small, and scattered at the rear. Its men will be incapable of confronting us.”

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Not five, not 10 days had passed when Aga, the son of En-me-barage-si, laid siege to Unug with his men. Unug’s reasoning became confused. Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, addressed its warriors: “{ My warriors shall have the choice. } { (2 mss. have instead:) My warriors, choose! } Let someone with courage volunteer { “I shall go to Aga” } { (1 ms. has instead:), and I will send him to Aga }.”

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Birḫar-tura went out through the city gate. As soon as Birḫar-tura went out through the city gate, they captured him at the gate’s entrance, and then beat Birḫar-tura’s entire length. He came into the presence of Aga and then spoke to Aga. Before he had finished speaking, an officer of Unug climbed up on the rampart and leaned out over the rampart. Aga saw him and then spoke to Birḫar-tura: “Slave, is that man your king?”

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
They hit him, they struck him. They beat Birḫar-tura’s entire length. Gilgameš climbed up on the rampart after the officer of Unug. His radiance overwhelmed Kulaba’s young and old. He armed Unug’s able-bodied men with battle maces and stationed them on the causeway at the city gate’s door. Only Enkidu went out through the city gate. Gilgameš leaned out over the rampart. Looking up, Aga saw him: “Slave, is that man your king?”

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
“That man is indeed my king.” It was just as he had said: Gilgameš cast down multitudes, he raised up multitudes, multitudes were smeared with dust, all the nations were overwhelmed, the land’s canal-mouths were filled with silt, the barges’ prows were broken, and he took Aga, the king of Kiš, captive in the midst of his army. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) Unug’s able-bodied men …… that army. }

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
{ (The able-bodied men acclaim Gilgameš:) “You watch over Unug, the handiwork of the gods, the great rampart, the rampart which An founded, the majestic residence which An established. You are its king and warrior, an exuberant person, a prince beloved of An.” (Gilgameš addresses Aga:) “Before Utu, your former kindness is hereby repaid to you.” } { (the other ms. has instead:) “I watch over Unug, the handiwork of the gods, its great rampart, a cloudbank resting on the earth, its majestic residence which An established. The city will repay the kindness shown to me. Before Utu, your former kindness is hereby repaid to you.” } He set Aga free to go to Kiš.

Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
He let her hold the leash; An ……. { “My child, who does it belong to?” } { (1 ms. has instead:) “My child, what use would it be?” } “It will stir up the waters, it will leave …… cowpats ……! If the great bull is let loose, …… Unug! If the great bull is let loose against Gilgameš, …… Unug! I will not give her that which bears my own name.”

Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
In masculine fashion, the maiden Inana grasped it by the lapis-lazuli tether. Holy Inana brought the Bull of Heaven { out } { (1 ms. has instead:) down }. At Unug, the Bull devoured the pasture, and drank the water of the river in great slurps. With each slurp it used up one mile of the river, but its thirst was not satisfied. It devoured the pasture and stripped the land bare. It broke up the palm trees of Unug, as it bent them to fit them into its mouth. When it was standing, the Bull submerged Unug. { The aura } { (1 ms. has instead:) the name } of the Bull of Heaven submerged Kulaba.

Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
{ His musician ……. As he looked up ……, leaning (?) …… (1 line unclear) } { (1 ms. has instead:) Then Lord Gilgameš …… his musician. } { (a second ms. has instead:) Gilgameš …… his musician Lugal-gabaĝal.” My musician, tune your strings, …… give me a drink, ……. …… bronze …… in your hand ……. His musician …….” } { (a third ms. has instead:) …… replied to Lugal-gabaĝal,” Lugal-gabaĝal, tune your strings; I wish to have a drink!” (Lugal-gabaĝal answers:) “…… drink, that is why nothing of yours is important.” …… replied to Lugal-gabaĝal. } { (instead of approx. lines 64-67, a fourth ms. has:) (3 lines unclear) …… drink, lord ……. …… drink, lord ……. (7 lines missing or unclear) …… Unug ……. }

Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
Lord Gilgameš ……. Inana …… the Bull of Heaven. At Unug, the Bull ……, and drank the water of the river in great slurps. With each slurp it used up one mile of the river, but its thirst was not satisfied. It devoured the pasture and stripped the land bare. { (1 ms. adds here:) His lady ……. Gilgameš …… said,” My mother ……, my sister ……, will …… the cattle to their tethering stakes, will …… the sheep to their tethering stakes, will …… to their tethering stakes.” Gilgameš ……,” Bull of Heaven, you, yes you, ……; you, yes you — you do not …….” Gilgameš ……. } (5 lines unclear)”They will throw your corpse in the deserted streets, and throw your intestines in the broad square. They will send your carcass to the knacker’s, and I shall share out your meat in baskets to the widows’ sons who are citizens of my city ……. I shall make flasks of your two horns for pouring fine oil to Inana in E-ana.”

Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
“Ho, magnificent one, extending your staff of office, born of noble lineage, splendour of the gods, furious bull standing ready for battle, who is respected as the great lord Gilgameš of Unug! Your mother was truly skilled in bearing children, and your nurse was truly skilled in suckling her charges! { (1 ms. adds:) Lord born of noble lineage, …… } Do not fear — the warrior without strength …… himself (?). There where the road is straight ……. …… axe …….” (4 lines unclear)

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
(3 lines fragmentary) For six days, he …… ill. …… on his skin like resin. Lord Gilgameš …… ill. …… Unug and Kulaba. …… the words spoken …….

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
Kulaba ……. As Unug rose ……, as Kulaba rose ……. Within the first month ……, it was not five or 10 days before they …… the Euphrates. …… its shells. Then, as in the bed of the Euphrates, the earth cracked dry. …… was built from stone. …… was built from stone. …… were hard diorite. …… its latches were hard stone. …… were cast in gold. …… heavy blocks of stone. …… heavy blocks of stone. …… brought in ……. …… for future days. (1 line fragmentary)…… should not find ……. …… Gilgameš …… has established in …….

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
His beloved wife, his beloved children, his beloved favourite and junior wife, his beloved musician, cup-bearer and ……, his beloved barber, his beloved ……, his beloved palace retainers and servants and his beloved objects were laid down in their places as if …… in the purified (?) palace in the middle of Unug.

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
The lord imposed a levy on his city. The herald made the horn signal sound in all the lands: “Unug, arise! Open up the Euphrates! Kulaba, arise! Divert the waters of the Euphrates!” Unug’s levy was a flood, Kulaba’s levy was a clouded sky. Meanwhile not even the first month { had passed } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… }, it was not five or 10 days before they had opened up the Euphrates and diverted its high water. Utu looked at its shells with admiration. Then as soon as the water in the bed of the Euphrates had receded, his tomb was built there from stone. Its walls were built from stone. Its door leaves were installed in the sockets (?) of the entrance. Its bolt and thresholds were hard stone. Its door-pivots were hard stone. They installed its gold beams. Heavy blocks of stone were moved to ……. …… { was completely covered with a thick layer of } { (1 ms. has instead:) was completely covered (?) with } dark soil. …… for future days. (1 line fragmentary)…… who are searching for it should not find its precinct (?). He set up a solid house in the middle of Unug.

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
At that time, there was a single tree, a single ḫalub tree, a single tree, growing on the bank of the pure Euphrates, being watered by the Euphrates. The force of the south wind uprooted it and stripped its branches, and the Euphrates picked it up and carried it away. A woman, respectful of An’s words, was walking along; a woman, respectful of Enlil’s words, was walking along, and took the tree and brought it into Unug, into Inana’s luxuriant garden.

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
“At that time, there was a single tree, a single ḫalub tree, a single tree (?), growing on the bank of the pure Euphrates, being watered by the Euphrates. The force of the south wind uprooted it and stripped its branches, and the Euphrates picked it up and carried it away. I, a woman, respectful of An’s words, was walking along; I, a woman, respectful of Enlil’s words, was walking along, and took the tree and brought it into Unug, into holy Inana’s luxuriant garden.”

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
“At that time, there was a single tree, a single ḫalub tree, a single tree (?), growing on the bank of the pure Euphrates, being watered by the Euphrates. The force of the south wind uprooted it and stripped its branches, and the Euphrates picked it up and carried it away. I, a woman, respectful of An’s words, was walking along; I, a woman, respectful of Enlil’s words, was walking along, and took the tree and brought it into Unug, into Inana’s luxuriant garden.”

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
They returned to Unug, they returned to their city. He entered outfitted with tools and armaments, with an axe and a spear, and deposited them in his palace happily. Looking at the statue, the young men and women of Unug and the old men (?) and women of Kulaba rejoiced. As Utu came forth from his bedchamber, Gilgameš (?) raised his head and told them (?): “My father and my mother, drink clean water!” Midday had hardly passed when they touched the statue’s (?) crown.

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
Gilgameš threw himself down at the place of mourning, he threw himself down for nine days at the place of mourning. The young men and women of Unug and the old men (?) and women of Kulaba wept. As soon as he had said that, he repulsed the citizen of Ĝirsu.” My father and my mother, drink clean water!”
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
She of Isin has abandoned it and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. Ninisina has abandoned the shrine Egal-maḫ and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. The queen of Unug has abandoned it and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. Inana has abandoned that house Unug and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. Nanna has abandoned Urim and has let the breezes haunt his sheepfold. Suen has abandoned E-kiš-nu-ĝal and has let the breezes haunt his sheepfold. His wife Ningal has abandoned it and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. Ningal has abandoned her Agrun-kug and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. The wild bull of Eridug has abandoned it and has let the breezes haunt his sheepfold. Enki has abandoned that house Eridug and has let the breezes haunt his sheepfold.

The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
O E-tar-sirsir, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O Ma-gu-ena, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O brick-built Isin, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O shrine Egal-maḫ, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O brick-built Unug, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O brick-built Eridug, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. How long will your bitter lament grieve your lord who weeps? How long will your bitter lament grieve Nanna who weeps?

The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
Keš, built all alone on the high open country, was haunted. Adab, the settlement which stretches out along the river, { was treated as a rebellious land. } { (1 ms. has instead:) was deprived of water. } The snake of the mountains made his lair there, it became a rebellious land. The Gutians bred there, issued their seed. Nintur wept bitter tears over her creatures.” Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house,” she cried bitterly. In Zabalam the sacred Giguna was haunted. Inana abandoned Unug and went off to enemy territory. In the E-ana the enemy set eyes upon the sacred Ĝipar shrine. The sacred Ĝipar of en priesthood was defiled. Its en priest was snatched from the Ĝipar and carried off to enemy territory.” Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house,” she cried bitterly.

The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
An and Enlil have advised that Urim should be restored, founded in a pasture, its divine powers distinct from the rest! They command the prince of the city Larsam, the herald of the universe, the judge of the numerous people, to secure its foundations, to follow the proper path! They have taken a decision concerning Unug-Kulaba, the sacred city, the handiwork of the gods, and restored it. They have brought news of the removal of all foes and enemies from the region of Zabalam, the city where the mistress of heaven concentrated her forces.

The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
As its gigantic horns reached up to heaven, who trembled in his very core? As it was piled up over the mountains like a battle-net, who turned away? Who caused wailing and lamenting in those streets and ……? Unug, like a loyal citizen in terror, set up an alarm (and exclaimed) “Rise up!” Why did its hand seize Unug? Why did the benevolent eye look away? Who brought about such worry and lamenting and ……?

The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
That one drew nearer. That one settled upon the ground. Why would he withdraw? Who distorted Unug’s good sense and deranged its good counsel? Who smashed its good udug deity? Who struck its good lamma deity too? Who desecrated the fearsome radiance which crowned it? Who brought about mob panic in Unug? Who …… sickness too? Along with the city, the foreign lands ……, who …… in the temple of Unug? That one ……. (small no. of lines missing)

The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
Its good udug deities went away, its lamma deities ran off. Its lamma deity (said) “Hide in the open country” and they took foreign paths. The city’s patron god turned against it and its shepherd abandoned it. Its guardian spirit, though not an enemy, was exiled (?) to a foreign place. Thus all its most important gods evacuated Unug, they kept away from it. They hid out in the hills and wandered (?) about in the haunted plains. In the city built upon peace, food and drink were overturned like a saman vessel. In the pasture lands a tumultuous noise arose, the asses and sheep were driven away. Elderly people and babies, taking their rest, …… in front ……. They saw …… and slaughtered (?) ……. (3 lines fragmentary) (small no. of lines missing)

The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
They …… like stampeding goats, they tore apart the corpses of the population. They mutilated Sumer and Akkad, they pulverised it as with a pestle. They destroyed its settlements and habitations, they razed them to ruin mounds. The best of Sumer they scattered like dust, they heaped up ……. They massacred its populace, they finished off young and old alike. They destroyed the city of the Anuna gods, they set it aflame. They put out both Unug’s eyes, they uprooted its young shoots. They wandered all through the libation places of the Anuna gods. And even Kulaba, which is the primeval city, they turned into a place of murder.

The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
Unug! They seized your wharf and your borders and ……. At Unug shouts rang out, screams reverberated, its captured men ……. The noise reached to the south. The south was destroyed and ……. The impact forced its way to the uplands. The uplands were struck and ……. To the right and left no people moved about, no habitations were built. There was no …… and the mobilisation of troops did not ……. …… rose up to heaven. Heaven perished and its strength did not ……. …… upon the earth. The earth was scattered, and it did not ……. All the settlements were dispersed — Unug stood all alone. It was a bull, it was a champion, it was immense with pride, but it …… to the weapons. All night and even until midday battle was waged, and afterwards it did not …….

The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
Battering rams and shields were set up, they rent its walls. They breached its buttresses, they hewed the city with axes. They set fire to its stations, they …… the city’s dwellings. They destroyed it, they demolished it. Unug, the good place, was …… with dust. Like a great wild bull wounded with an arrow, ……. Like a wild cow pierced with a spear, ……. The mighty one rushed with his weapons and …… implements of war. Subir, rising up like a swelling floodwave, ……. They trampled (?) through the streets and ……. They let the blood of the people flow like that of a sacrificial cow, they tore out everything that had been built.

The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
The citizens of Unug ……. They …… and threw down ……. They …… and put an end to ……. They seized ……. They struck ……. They destroyed ……. They …… They demolished ……. They set up ……. They heaped up ……. They put an end to …… and did not leave behind ……. …… Subir entered …….

The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
In bringing forth ……, all that there are, at your E-ĝipar in Unug, as a humble man who has grasped your feet, as a reverent man who has experienced your exaltedness, he has brought a lament as offering to you and will ……. As for everything that happened to Sumer and Akkad, which he has witnessed in Unug, the aggrieved place, may the best singers perform songs there.

The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
Inana, the queen of heaven and earth, destroyed her city Unug. Fleeing from the E-ana, the house of seven corners and seven fires ……, she destroyed it but did not abandon it — at the lunches, in her great dining hall, they call her name.

A balbale (?) to Inana (Inana F): c.4.07.6
The heavens are mine and the earth is mine: I am heroic! In Unug the E-ana is mine, in Zabalam the Giguna is mine, in Nibru the Dur-an-ki is mine, in Urim the E-Dilmuna is mine, in Ĝirsu the Ešdam-kug is mine, in Adab the E-šara is mine, in Kiš the Ḫursaĝ-kalama is mine, in Kisiga the Amaš-kuga is mine, in Akšak the Anzagar is mine, in Umma the Ibgal is mine, in Agade the Ulmaš is mine. Which god compares with me?

A song of Inana and Dumuzid (Dumuzid-Inana J): c.4.08.10
“…… beloved sister of Dumuzid, beloved …… of Durtur, …… seed implanted into the womb by a good bull, my lady, born to ladyship! With her aid the cattle-pen was filled with butter and cream, with her aid the sheepfold was long provided with milk. On the high plain, my ……, you are Ĝeštin-ana. O girl, …… indeed! Your little ones …… indeed! Unug …… indeed! Kulaba …… indeed! …… you are …….”

A song of Inana and Dumuzid (Dumuzid-Inana J): c.4.08.10
The minister who was coming out of the palace answered the girl: “Those endowed with divine powers, 10 incantation priests, prostration priests, bathed priests and ablution priests will never cease coming every month, once a month, to the great shrine, for (?) your brother, who has taken possession of the en priesthood, the en priesthood of Unug ……, for (?) your brother, who has taken possession of the en priesthood.”

A song of Inana and Dumuzid (Dumuzid-Inana J): c.4.08.10
At that time there were seven, there were seven, the song performers of Unug were seven; in Zabalam the lament singers were fifty. They knew the stars of the heavens, and they knew the roads of the earth. In the broad heavens, they carried the first-fruit offerings. They raised songs, and they lowered songs; they did not declare the beginning of the song to them. They were elders not yet assigned to their positions.

Dumuzid and Enkimdu: c.4.08.33
“Why should I compete against you, shepherd, I against you, shepherd, I against you? Let your sheep eat the grass of the riverbank, let your sheep graze on my stubble. Let them eat grain in the jewelled (?) fields of Unug, let your kids and lambs drink water from my Surungal canal.”

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
11 lines: the house of Inana in Unug.

Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
He built the sheepfolds, carried out their cleaning, made the cow-pens, bestowed on them the best fat and cream, and brought luxury to the gods’ dining places. He made the plain, created for greenery, achieve prosperity. Enki placed in charge of all this the king, the good provider of E-ana, the friend of An, the beloved son-in-law of the youth Suen, the holy spouse of Inana the mistress, the lady of the great powers who allows sexual intercourse in the open squares of Kulaba — Dumuzid-ušumgal-ana, the friend of An.

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Enki spoke to the minister Isimud: “Isimud, my minister, my Sweet Name of Heaven!” “Enki, my master, I am at your service! What is your wish?” “Since she said that she would not yet depart from here for Unug Kulaba, that she would not yet depart from here to the place where Utu ……, can I still reach her?” But holy Inana had gathered up the divine powers and embarked onto the Boat of Heaven. The Boat of Heaven had already left the quay. As the effects of the beer cleared from him who had drunk beer, from him who had drunk beer, as the effects of the beer cleared from Father Enki who had drunk beer, the great lord Enki turned his attention to the …… building. The lord looked up at the abzu. King Enki turned his attention to Eridug.

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Her minister Ninšubur spoke to holy Inana: “My lady, today you have brought the Boat of Heaven to the Gate of Joy, to Unug Kulaba. Now there will be rejoicing in our city, now there will be rejoicing in our city. …… barges on our river …….”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Holy Inana replied to her: “Today I have brought the Boat of Heaven to the Gate of Joy, to Unug Kulaba. It shall pass along the street magnificently. The people shall stand in the street full of awe.” (1 line fragmentary) …… in joy. …… the old men of the city …… comfort, …… the old women …… counsel, …… the young men …… strength of arms, …… the children …… joy. …… Unug. (1 line fragmentary) (1 line missing) (3 lines fragmentary)”…… festival …… the Boat of Heaven. He shall recite great prayers. The king shall slaughter bulls, shall sacrifice sheep. He shall pour beer from a bowl. He shall have the šem and ala drums sound, and have the sweet-sounding tigi instruments play. The foreign lands shall declare my greatness. My people shall utter my praise.”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
When she had …… the Boat of Heaven to the Gate of Joy at Unug Kulaba, it passed magnificently along the street. It reached the maiden’s house, and she …… its place. …… the purified well, her principal well. Inana …… the divine powers which had been presented to her, and the Boat of Heaven, at the Ĝipar Gate. At the Agrun Chamber ……. Holy Inana …… the Boat of Heaven …….
Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Holy Inana answered the demons: “Outstanding Lulal follows me at my right and my left. How could I turn him over to you? Let us go on. Let us go on to the great apple tree in the plain of Kulaba.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
They followed her to the great apple tree in the plain of Kulaba. There was Dumuzid clothed in a magnificent garment and seated magnificently on a throne. The demons seized him there by his thighs. The seven of them poured the milk from his churns. The seven of them shook their heads like ……. They would not let the shepherd play the pipe and flute before her (?).

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, placing his trust in Inana, did not take seriously the advice of his city’s elders. Gilgameš { (1 ms. adds:), the lord of Kulaba, } presented the issue again, this time before the able-bodied men of his city, carefully choosing his words: “There are wells to be finished, many wells of the Land yet to be finished; there are shallow wells of the Land yet to be finished, there are wells to deepen and hoisting gear to be completed. { Never before have you submitted to the house of Kiš. Should you not smite it with weapons? } { (1 ms. has instead:) We should not submit to the house of Kiš. We should smite it with weapons! }”

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Then Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, rejoiced at the advice of his city’s able-bodied men and his spirit brightened. He addressed his servant Enkidu: “On this account let the weaponry and arms of battle be made ready. Let the battle mace return to your side. May they create a great terror and radiance. When he comes, my great fearsomeness will overwhelm him. His reasoning will become confused and his judgment disarrayed.”

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Not five, not 10 days had passed when Aga, the son of En-me-barage-si, laid siege to Unug with his men. Unug’s reasoning became confused. Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, addressed its warriors: “{ My warriors shall have the choice. } { (2 mss. have instead:) My warriors, choose! } Let someone with courage volunteer { “I shall go to Aga” } { (1 ms. has instead:), and I will send him to Aga }.”

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
They hit him, they struck him. They beat Birḫar-tura’s entire length. Gilgameš climbed up on the rampart after the officer of Unug. His radiance overwhelmed Kulaba’s young and old. He armed Unug’s able-bodied men with battle maces and stationed them on the causeway at the city gate’s door. Only Enkidu went out through the city gate. Gilgameš leaned out over the rampart. Looking up, Aga saw him: “Slave, is that man your king?”

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, { spoke to } { (1 ms. has instead:) approached close to } Aga: “Aga my overseer, Aga my lieutenant, { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) Aga my governor, Aga my commander, } Aga my military commander! Aga gave me breath, Aga gave me life: Aga took a fugitive into his embrace, Aga provided the fleeing bird with grain.”

Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
O Gilgameš, lord of Kulaba, praising you is sweet.

Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
In masculine fashion, the maiden Inana grasped it by the lapis-lazuli tether. Holy Inana brought the Bull of Heaven { out } { (1 ms. has instead:) down }. At Unug, the Bull devoured the pasture, and drank the water of the river in great slurps. With each slurp it used up one mile of the river, but its thirst was not satisfied. It devoured the pasture and stripped the land bare. It broke up the palm trees of Unug, as it bent them to fit them into its mouth. When it was standing, the Bull submerged Unug. { The aura } { (1 ms. has instead:) the name } of the Bull of Heaven submerged Kulaba.

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
…… hero …… has lain down and is never to rise again. …… has lain down and is never to rise again. He of well-proportioned limbs …… has lain down and is never to rise again. …… has lain down and is never to rise again. He who …… wickedness has lain down and is never to rise again. The young man …… has lain down and is never to rise again. He who was perfect in …… and feats of strength has lain down and is never to rise again. …… has lain down and is never to rise again. The lord of Kulaba has lain down and is never to rise again. He who spoke most wisely has lain down and is never to rise again. The plunderer (?) of many countries has lain down and is never to rise again. He who climbed the mountains has lain down and is never to rise again. He has lain down on his death-bed and is never to rise again. He has lain down on a couch of sighs and is never to rise again.

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
(3 lines fragmentary) For six days, he …… ill. …… on his skin like resin. Lord Gilgameš …… ill. …… Unug and Kulaba. …… the words spoken …….

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
…… Gilgameš ……. (3 lines fragmentary) …… lord of Kulaba, …… hero of the pristine mountain, …… handiwork of the gods, (1 line fragmentary) …… of Ninsumun, …… Lugalbanda, …… Lord Nudimmud, (approx. 7 lines missing)

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
Kulaba ……. As Unug rose ……, as Kulaba rose ……. Within the first month ……, it was not five or 10 days before they …… the Euphrates. …… its shells. Then, as in the bed of the Euphrates, the earth cracked dry. …… was built from stone. …… was built from stone. …… were hard diorite. …… its latches were hard stone. …… were cast in gold. …… heavy blocks of stone. …… heavy blocks of stone. …… brought in ……. …… for future days. (1 line fragmentary)…… should not find ……. …… Gilgameš …… has established in …….

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
Then the young lord, Lord Gilgameš, who never ceases to …… for the …… of Enlil — Gilgameš, the son of Ninsumun, …… offshoot ……; no king who could match him has ever been born, (1 line unclear)Gilgameš, lord of Kulaba, it is sweet to praise you!

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
The great wild bull has lain down and is never to rise again. Lord Gilgameš has lain down and is never to rise again. He who was unique in …… has lain down and is never to rise again. The hero fitted out with a shoulder-belt has lain down and is never to rise again. He who was unique in strength has lain down and is never to rise again. He who diminished wickedness has lain down and is never to rise again. He who spoke most wisely has lain down and is never to rise again. The plunderer (?) of many countries has lain down and is never to rise again. He who knew how to climb the mountains has lain down and is never to rise again. The lord of Kulaba has lain down and is never to rise again. He has lain down on his death-bed and is never to rise again. He has lain down on a couch of sighs and is never to rise again.

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
The lord imposed a levy on his city. The herald made the horn signal sound in all the lands: “Unug, arise! Open up the Euphrates! Kulaba, arise! Divert the waters of the Euphrates!” Unug’s levy was a flood, Kulaba’s levy was a clouded sky. Meanwhile not even the first month { had passed } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… }, it was not five or 10 days before they had opened up the Euphrates and diverted its high water. Utu looked at its shells with admiration. Then as soon as the water in the bed of the Euphrates had receded, his tomb was built there from stone. Its walls were built from stone. Its door leaves were installed in the sockets (?) of the entrance. Its bolt and thresholds were hard stone. Its door-pivots were hard stone. They installed its gold beams. Heavy blocks of stone were moved to ……. …… { was completely covered with a thick layer of } { (1 ms. has instead:) was completely covered (?) with } dark soil. …… for future days. (1 line fragmentary)…… who are searching for it should not find its precinct (?). He set up a solid house in the middle of Unug.

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
They returned to Unug, they returned to their city. He entered outfitted with tools and armaments, with an axe and a spear, and deposited them in his palace happily. Looking at the statue, the young men and women of Unug and the old men (?) and women of Kulaba rejoiced. As Utu came forth from his bedchamber, Gilgameš (?) raised his head and told them (?): “My father and my mother, drink clean water!” Midday had hardly passed when they touched the statue’s (?) crown.

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
Gilgameš threw himself down at the place of mourning, he threw himself down for nine days at the place of mourning. The young men and women of Unug and the old men (?) and women of Kulaba wept. As soon as he had said that, he repulsed the citizen of Ĝirsu.” My father and my mother, drink clean water!”

Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
Utu of heaven put on his lapis-lazuli diadem and came forward with head high. In his hand Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, held a holy staff before his nose: “Utu, I want to set off into the mountains! May you be my helper! I want to set off into the mountains of Cedar-felling! May you be my helper!”

Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
Gilgameš organised a levy in his city. In …… Kulaba he had the horn sounded.” Citizens! You who have a wife, go to your wife! You who have children, go to your children! Warriors, whether experienced or inexperienced, who have no wife, who have no children — let such people join me at my side as the companions of Gilgameš.”

Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
The king left the city. Gilgameš left Kulaba, to follow the route to the Mountains of Cedar-felling. He crossed the first mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the second mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the third mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the fourth mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the fifth mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the sixth mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. When he had crossed the seventh mountain range, there his intuition led him to find the cedars.

Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
“You who have gone to sleep, you who have gone to sleep! Gilgameš, young lord of Kulaba, how long will you sleep for? The mountains are becoming indistinct as the shadows fall across them; the evening twilight lies over them. Proud Utu has already gone to the bosom of his mother Ningal. Gilgameš, how long will you sleep for? The sons of your city who came with you should not have to wait at the foot of the hills. Their own mothers should not have to twine string in the square of your city.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“This is what my master has spoken, this is what he has said. My king who from his birth has been fitted { for lordship } { (1 ms. has instead:) for the crown }, the lord of Unug, the saĝkal snake living in Sumer, who pulverises { mountains } { (2 mss. have instead:) heads } like flour, the stag of the tall mountains, endowed with princely antlers, wild cow, kid pawing the holy soapwort with its hoof, whom the good cow had given birth to in the heart of the mountains, Enmerkar, the son of Utu, has sent me to you.” { (2 mss. add here:) (the lord of Aratta speaks): “What is it to me what your master has spoken? what is it to me what he has said?” } “This is what my master said: “Lest I make the people fly off from that city like a wild dove from its tree, lest I make them fly around like a bird over its well-founded nest, lest I requite (?) them as if at a current market rate, lest I make it gather dust like an utterly destroyed city, lest like a settlement cursed by Enki and utterly destroyed, I too utterly destroy Aratta; lest like the devastation which swept destructively, and in whose wake Inana arose, shrieked and yelled aloud, I too wreak a sweeping devastation there — let Aratta pack nuggets of gold in leather sacks, placing alongside it the kugmea ore; package up precious metals, and load the packs on the donkeys of the mountains; and then may the Junior Enlil of Sumer have them build for me, the lord whom Nudimmud has chosen in his sacred heart, a mountain of a shining me; have them make it luxuriant for me like a boxwood tree, have them make its shining horns colourful for me as when Utu comes forth from his chamber, have them make its doorposts gleam brightly for me. Chant to him for me the holy song, the incantation sung in its chambers — the Incantation of Nudimmud.””

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
The citizens of Aratta were mindful; he revealed the matter to Aratta. Consequently, in Aratta, from the hand ……. …… his hand …… to the lord of Unug.

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
City, majestic bull bearing vigour and great awesome splendour, Kulaba, ……, breast of the storm, where destiny is determined; Unug, great mountain, in the midst of ……. There the evening meal of the great abode of An was set. In those days of yore, when the destinies were determined, the great princes allowed Unug Kulaba’s E-ana to lift its head high. Plenty, and carp floods, and the rain which brings forth dappled barley were then increased in Unug Kulaba. Before the land of Dilmun yet existed, the E-ana of Unug Kulaba was well founded, and the holy ĝipar of Inana in brick-built Kulaba shone forth like the silver in the lode. Before …… carried ……, before ……, before …… carried ……, before the commerce was practised; before gold, silver, copper, tin, blocks of lapis lazuli, and mountain stones were brought down together from their mountains, before …… bathed for the festival, ……, …… time passed. (2 lines missing)

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
…… was colourfully adorned, and ……, the holy place, was …… with flawless lapis lazuli, its interior beautifully formed like a white meš tree bearing fruit. The lord of Aratta placed on his head the golden crown for Inana. But he did not please her like the lord of Kulaba. Aratta did not build for holy Inana — unlike the Shrine E-ana, the ĝipar, the holy place, unlike brick-built Kulaba.

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“My sister, let Aratta fashion gold and silver skilfully on my behalf for Unug. Let them cut the flawless lapis lazuli from the blocks, let them …… the translucence of the flawless lapis lazuli ……. …… build a holy mountain in Unug. Let Aratta build a temple brought down from heaven — your place of worship, the Shrine E-ana; let Aratta skilfully fashion the interior of the holy ĝipar, your abode; may I, the radiant youth, may I be embraced there by you. Let Aratta submit beneath the yoke for Unug on my behalf. Let the people of Aratta bring down for me the mountain stones from their mountain, build the great shrine for me, erect the great abode for me, make the great abode, the abode of the gods, famous for me, make my me prosper in Kulaba, make the abzu grow for me like a holy mountain, make Eridug gleam for me like the mountain range, cause the abzu shrine to shine forth for me like the silver in the lode. When in the abzu I utter praise, when I bring the me from Eridug, when, in lordship, I am adorned with the crown like a purified shrine, when I place on my head the holy crown in Unug Kulaba, then may the …… of the great shrine bring me into the ĝipar, and may the …… of the ĝipar bring me into the great shrine. May the people marvel admiringly, and may Utu witness it in joy.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Come, Enmerkar! I shall offer you advice: let my counsel be heeded. I shall speak words to you; let them be heard. Choose from the troops as a messenger one who is eloquent of speech and endowed with endurance. Where and to whom shall he carry the important message of wise Inana? Let him bring it up into the Zubi mountains, let him descend with it from the Zubi mountains. Let Susa and the land of Anšan humbly salute Inana like tiny mice. In the great mountain ranges, let the teeming multitudes grovel in the dust for her. Aratta shall submit beneath the yoke to Unug. The people of Aratta shall bring down the mountain stones from their mountains, and shall build the great shrine for you, and erect the great abode for you, will cause the great abode, the abode of the gods, to shine forth for you; will make your me flourish in Kulaba, will make the abzu grow for you like a holy mountain, will make Eridug shining for you like the mountain range, will cause the abzu shrine to shine forth for you like the glitter in the lode. When in the abzu you utter praise, when you bring the me from Eridug, when, in lordship, you are adorned with the crown like a purified shrine, when you place on your head the holy crown in Unug Kulaba, then may the …… of the great shrine bring you into the ĝipar, and may the …… of the ĝipar bring you into the great shrine. May the people marvel admiringly, and may Utu witness it in joy. Because …… shall carry daily, when …… in the evening cool ……, — in the place of Dumuzid where the ewes, kids and lambs are numerous, the people of Aratta shall run around for you like the mountain sheep in the akalag fields, the fields of Dumuzid. Rise like the sun over my holy breast! You are the jewel of my throat! Praise be to you, Enmerkar, the son of Utu!”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Your father, my master, has sent me to you; the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba, has sent me to you.” “What is it to me what your master has spoken? What is it to me what he has said?”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Say whatever you will say to me, and I shall announce that message in the shrine E-ana as glad tidings to the scion of him with the glistening beard, whom his stalwart cow gave birth to in the mountain of the shining me, who was reared on the soil of Aratta, who was given suck at the udder of the good cow, who is suited for office in Kulaba, the mountain of great me, to Enmerkar, the son of Utu; I shall repeat it in his ĝipar, fruitful as a flourishing meš tree, to my king, the lord of Kulaba.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
When he had spoken thus to him, (the lord of Aratta replied): “Messenger, speak to your king, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: “It is I, the lord suited to purification, I whom the huge heavenly neck-stock, the queen of heaven and earth, the goddess of the numerous me, holy Inana, has brought to Aratta, the mountain of the shining me, I whom she has let bar the entrance of the mountains as if with a great door. How then shall Aratta submit to Unug? Aratta’s submission to Unug is out of the question!” Say this to him.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
When he had spoken thus to him, the messenger replied to the lord of Aratta: “The great queen of heaven, who rides upon the awesome me, dwelling on the peaks of the bright mountains, adorning the dais of the bright mountains — my lord and master, who is her servant, has had them instal her as the divine queen of E-ana. Aratta shall bow, O lord, in absolute submission! She has spoken to him thus, in brick-built Kulaba.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Messenger! Speak to your king, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: “This great mountain range is a meš tree grown high to the sky; its roots form a net, and its branches are a snare. It may be a sparrow but it has the talons of an Anzud bird or of an eagle. The barrier of Inana is perfectly made and is impenetrable (?). Those eagle talons make the blood of the enemy run from the bright mountain. Although in Aratta there is weeping ……, water libations are offered and flour is sprinkled; on the mountain, sacrifices and prayers are offered in obeisance. With fewer than five or 10 men, how can mobilised Unug proceed against the Zubi mountains? Your king is heading in all haste against my military might, but I am equally eager for a contest. (As the proverb goes,) he who ignores a rival, does not get to eat everything up, like the bull which ignores the bull at its side. But he who acknowledges a contest can be the outright winner, like the bull which acknowledges the bull at its side — or does he reject me in this contest? Like ……, …… can match no one — or does he still reject me in this contest? Again, I have words to say to you, messenger: I have an artful proposal to make to you ……, may it get across to you ……. Repeat this to your master, to the lord of Kulaba, a lion lying on its paws in E-ana, a bull bellowing within it, within his ĝipar, fruitful as a flourishing meš tree. The mountain range is a warrior, …… high, like Utu going to his abode at twilight, like one from whose face blood drips; or like Nanna, who is majestic in the high heavens, like him whose countenance shines with radiance, who …… is like the woods in the mountains.””

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After he had spoken thus to him, the lord of Aratta made the messenger repeat the message just as he himself had said it. The messenger turned on his thigh like a wild cow; like a sand fly he went on his way in the morning calm. He set foot joyfully in brick-built Kulaba. The messenger rushed to the great courtyard, the courtyard of the throne room. He repeated it word perfect to his master, the lord of Kulaba; he even bellowed at him like a bull, and Enmerkar listened to him like an ox driver. The king had him sit …… at his right side. As he turned his left side to him, he said: “Does Aratta really understand the implications of his own stratagem?”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After day had broken and Utu had risen, the sun god of the Land lifted his head high. The king combined the Tigris with the Euphrates. He combined the Euphrates with the Tigris. Large vessels were placed in the open air, and he stood small vessels beside them, like lambs lying on the grass. …… vessels were placed in the open air adjacent to them. Then the king, Enmerkar, the son of Utu, placed wide apart the ešda vessels, which were of gold. Thereupon, the …… clay tablet, the pointed stylus of the assembly, the golden statue fashioned on a propitious day, beautiful Nanibgal, grown with a fair luxuriance, Nisaba, the lady of broad wisdom, opened for him her holy house of wisdom. He entered the palace of heaven, and became attentive. Then the lord opened his mighty storehouse, and firmly set his great lidga measure on the ground. The king removed his old barley from the other barley; he soaked the greenmalt all through with water; its lip …… the ḫirin plant. He narrowed the meshes of the carrying nets. He measured out in full (?) the barley for the granary, adding for the teeth of locusts. He had it loaded on the packasses at whose sides reserve donkeys were placed. The king, the lord of broad wisdom, the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba, despatched them directly to Aratta. He made the people go on to Aratta on their own, like ants out of crevices. Again the lord added instructions for the messenger going to the mountains, to Aratta:

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Messenger, speak to the lord of Aratta and say to him: “The base of my sceptre is the divine power of magnificence. Its crown provides a protective shade over Kulaba; under its spreading branches holy Inana refreshes herself in the shrine E-ana. Let him snap off a splinter from it and hold that in his hand; let him hold it in his hand like a string of cornelian beads, a string of lapis lazuli beads. Let the lord of Aratta bring that before me.” So say to him.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“As for us, in the direst hunger, in our direst famine, let us prostrate ourselves before the lord of Kulaba!”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“What is it to me what your master has spoken? What is it to me what he has said?” “This is what my master has spoken, this is what he has said: “The base of my sceptre is the divine power of magnificence. Its crown provides a protective shade over Kulaba; under its spreading branches holy Inana refreshes herself in the shrine E-ana.Let him snap off a splinter from it and hold that in his hand; let him hold it in his hand like a string of cornelian beads, a string of lapis lazuli beads. Let the lord of Aratta bring that before me. So say to him.””

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Messenger, speak to your king, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: “Let him put in his hand and contemplate a sceptre that is not of wood, nor designated as wood { — not ildag wood, nor šim-gig wood, not cedar wood, nor cypress wood, not ḫašur cypress, nor palm wood, not hardwood, nor zabalum wood } { (1 ms. has instead:) — not ildag wood, nor šim-gig wood, not ḫašur cypress, nor palm wood, not cedar wood, nor zabalum wood, not cypress wood, nor hardwood }, not poplar as in a chariot, not reedwork as in whip handles; not gold, nor copper, not genuine kugmea metal nor silver, not cornelian, nor lapis lazuli — let him snap off a splinter from that and hold it in his hand; let him hold it in his hand like a string of cornelian beads, a string of lapis lazuli beads. Let the lord of Kulaba bring that before me.” So say to him.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After he had spoken to him thus, the messenger went off like a young donkey, braying as it is cut off from the chariot tongue; he trotted like an onager running on dry land, he filled his mouth with wind; he ran in one track (?) like a long-woolled sheep butting other sheep in its fury. He set foot joyfully in brick-built Kulaba. He transmitted the message word for word to his master, the lord of Kulaba. Now Enki gave Enmerkar wisdom, and the lord gave instructions to his chief steward. In his house ……, the king received ……. He wrapped it up like ……, and inspected it. He pounded …… with a pestle like herbs, he poured it like oil on the …… reed. From the sunlight it emerged into the shade, and from the shade it emerged into the sunlight. After five years, 10 years had passsed, he split the …… reed with an axe. The lord looked at it, pleased, and poured on …… fine oil, fine oil of the bright mountains. The lord placed the sceptre in the hands of the messenger going to the mountains. The messenger, whose journeying to Aratta was like a pelican over the hills, like a fly over the ground, who darted through the mountains as swiftly as carp swim, reached Aratta. He set foot joyfully in the courtyard of Aratta, and put the sceptre in ……. He …… and …… it. The lord of Aratta, eying the sceptre, which was shining awesomely in the sanctuary, his holy dwelling — he, the lord, called to his šatam official:

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Aratta is indeed like a slaughtered sheep! Its roads are inded like those of the rebel lands! Since holy Inana has given the primacy of Aratta to the lord of Kulaba, now it seems that holy Inana is looking with favour on her man who has sent a messenger to make the severe message as clear as the light of Utu. So in Aratta where can one go in this crisis? How long before the yoke-rope becomes bearable? As for us, in the direst hunger, in our direst famine, are we to prostrate ourselves before the lord of Kulaba?”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Messenger! Speak to your master, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: “A champion who is not black-coloured, a champion who is not white-coloured, a champion who is not brown-coloured, a champion who is not red-coloured, a champion who is not yellow-coloured, a champion who is not multicoloured — let him give you such a champion. My champion will compete against his champion, and let the more able one prevail!” Say this to him.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After he had spoken to him thus, the messenger set off, ulum, alam. In brick-built Kulaba, he was speechless, like a ……. He gazed like a goat on the mountain slopes, he …… as if it were a huge mir snake coming out from the brambles. In …… he lifted his head. …… of Aratta ……. From his seat, he addressed him like a raging torrent:

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
His speech was substantial, and its contents extensive. The messenger, whose mouth was heavy, was not able to repeat it. Because the messenger, whose mouth was tired, was not able to repeat it, the lord of Kulaba patted some clay and wrote the message as if on a tablet. Formerly, the writing of messages on clay was not established. Now, under that sun and on that day, it was indeed so. The lord of Kulaba inscribed the message like a tablet. It was just like that. The messenger was like a bird, flapping its wings; he raged forth like a wolf following a kid. He traversed five mountains, six mountains, seven mountains. He lifted his eyes as he approached Aratta. He stepped joyfully into the courtyard of Aratta, he made known the authority of his king. Openly he spoke out the words in his heart. The messenger transmitted the message to the lord of Aratta:

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Your father, my master, has sent me to you; the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba, has sent me to you.” “What is it to me what your master has spoken? What is it to me what he has said?”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“This is what my master has spoken, this is what he has said. My king is like a huge meš tree, …… son of Enlil; this tree has grown high, uniting heaven and earth; its crown reaches heaven, its trunk is set upon the earth. He who is made to shine forth in lordship and kingship, Enmerkar, the son of Utu, has given me a clay tablet. O lord of Aratta, after you have examined the clay tablet, after you have learned the content of the message, say whatever you will say to me, and I shall announce that message in the shrine E-ana as glad tidings to the scion of him with the glistening beard, whom his stalwart cow gave birth to in the mountains of the shining me, who was reared on the soil of Aratta, who was given suck at the udder of the good cow, who is suited for office in Kulaba, the mountain of great me, to Enmerkar, the son of Utu; I shall repeat it in his ĝipar, fruitful as a flourishing meš tree, to my king, the lord of Kulaba.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Inana, the lady of all the lands, has not run away from the primacy of her city, Aratta, nor has she stolen it for Unug; she has not run away from her E-zagin, nor has she stolen it for the shrine E-ana; she has not run away from the mountain of the shining me, nor has she stolen it for brick-built Kulaba; she has not run away from the adorned bed, nor has she stolen it for the shining bed; she has not run away from the purification for the lord, nor has she stolen it for the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba. Inana, the lady of all the lands, has surrounded Aratta, on its right and left, for her like a rising flood. They are people whom she has separated from other people, they are people whom Dumuzid has made step forth from other people, who firmly establish the holy words of Inana. Let the clever champion and the …… of Dumuzid whirl about! Quickly, come now, ……. After the flood had swept over, Inana, the lady of all the lands, from her great love of Dumuzid, has sprinkled the water of life upon those who had stood in the face of the flood and made the Land subject to them.”

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
Brickwork rising out { from the pristine mountain } { (on the edge of ms. C:) of the shining plain } — Kulaba, city which reaches from heaven to earth; Unug, whose fame like the rainbow reaches up to the sky, a multicoloured sheen, as the new moon standing in the heavens.

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
Built in magnificence with all the great powers, lustrous mount founded on a favourable day, like moonlight coming up over the land, like bright sunlight radiating over the land, the rear cow and …… cow coming forth in abundance: all this is Unug, the glory of which reaches the highland and its radiance, genuine refined silver, covers Aratta like a garment, is spread over it like linen.

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
At that time the day was lord, the night was sovereign, and Utu was king. Now the name of the lord of Aratta’s minister was minister Ansiga-ria. The name of the minister of Enmerkar, the lord of Kulaba, was Namena-tuma. He with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the man born to be a god; he with a man manifest as a god, with the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba — En-suḫgir-ana, the lord of Aratta, is to make a contest with him, saying first to the messenger concerning Unug:

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
The lord of Unug …… he is their ……, he is their rudder. …… he is the neck-stock which clamps down upon them, …… to the place of its foundation. He is their falcon which flies in the sky, he is their bird-net. The brickwork of the great temple of Aratta ……. …… in Aratta …… great ……. …… bring (?) …….

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
He patted it like a lump of clay, he examined it like a clay-tablet: “He may dwell with Inana in the E-zagin of Aratta, but I dwell with her …… as her earthly companion (?). He may lie with her in sweet slumber on the adorned bed, but I lie on Inana’s splendid bed strewn with pure plants. Its back is an ug lion, its front is a piriĝ lion. The ug lion chases the piriĝ lion, the piriĝ lion chases the ug lion. As the ug lion chases the piriĝ lion and the piriĝ lion chases the ug lion, the day does not dawn, the night does not pass. I accompany Inana for a journey of 15 leagues and yet Utu the sun god cannot see my holy crown, when she enters my holy ĝipar. Enlil has given (?) me the true crown and sceptre. Ninurta, the son of Enlil, held me on his lap as the frame holds the waterskin. Aruru, the sister of Enlil, extended her right breast to me, extended her left breast to me. When I go up to the great shrine, the Mistress screeches like an Anzud chick, and other times when I go there, even though she is not a duckling, she shrieks like one. She …… from the city of her birth. No city was made to be so well-built as the city of Unug (?). It is Unug where Inana dwells and as regards Aratta, what does it have to do with this? It is brick-built Kulaba where she lives, and as regards the mount of the lustrous me, what can it do about this? For five or 10 years she will definitely not go to Aratta. Since the great holy lady of the E-ana took counsel with me (?) about whether to go also to Aratta, since she { let me know } { (1 ms. has instead:) told me } about this matter, I know that she will not go to Aratta. He who has nothing shall not feed the geese with barley, but I will feed the geese with barley. I will …… the geese’s eggs in a basket and …… their goslings. The small ones into my pot, the old ones into my kettle, and the rulers { of the Land } { (some mss. has instead:) of Sumer } who submitted will consume, together with me, what remains from the geese.”

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
The messenger of Enmerkar reached En-suḫgir-ana, reached his holy ĝipar, his most holy place, the most holy place where he was sitting, its ……. En-suḫgir-ana asked for instructions, he searched for an answer. He summoned the išib priests, the lumaḫ priests, the gudug priests, and girsiga attendants who dwell in the ĝipar and took counsel with them.” What shall I say to him? What shall I say to him? What shall I say to the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba? His bull stood up to fight my bull and the bull of Unug has defeated it. His man has been struggling with my man and the man of Unug has defeated him. His warrior (?) has been struggling with my warrior (?) and the warrior (?) of Unug …… him.”

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
The convened assembly answered him straightforwardly: “It was you who first sent a boastful (?) message to Unug for Enmerkar. You cannot hold back (?) Enmerkar, you have to hold back (?) yourself. Calm down; your heart will prompt you to achieve nothing, as far as can be known (?).” “If my city becomes a ruin mound, then I will be a potsherd of it, but I will never submit to the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba.”

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
A sorcerer whose skill was that of a man of Ḫamazu, Ur-ĝiri-nuna, whose skill was that of a man of Ḫamazu, who came over to Aratta after Ḫamazu had been destroyed, practised (?) sorcery in the inner chamber at the E-ĝipar. He said to minister Ansiga-ria: “My lord, why is it that the great fathers of the city, the founders in earlier times (?), do not ……, do not give advice. I will make Unug dig canals. I will make Unug submit to the shrine of Aratta. After the word of Unug ……, I will make the territories from below to above, from the sea to the cedar mountain, from above to the mountain of the aromatic cedars, submit to my great army. Let Unug bring its own goods by boat, let it tie up boats as a transport flotilla towards the E-zagin of Aratta.” The minister Ansiga-ria rose up in his city, he …….

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
…… Ansiga-ria ……, if only …….” My lord, why is it that the great fathers of the city, the founders in earlier times (?), do not ……, do not give advice. I will make Unug dig canals. I will make Unug submit to the shrine of Aratta. After the word of Unug ……, I will make the territories from below to above, from the sea to the cedar mountain, from above to the mountain of the aromatic cedars, submit to my great army. Let Unug bring its own goods by boat, let it tie up boats as a transport flotilla towards the E-zagin of Aratta.”

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
Brickwork rising out { from the pristine mountain } { (on the edge of ms. C:) of the shining plain } — Kulaba, city which reaches from heaven to earth; Unug, whose fame like the rainbow reaches up to the sky, a multicoloured sheen, as the new moon standing in the heavens.

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
At that time the day was lord, the night was sovereign, and Utu was king. Now the name of the lord of Aratta’s minister was minister Ansiga-ria. The name of the minister of Enmerkar, the lord of Kulaba, was Namena-tuma. He with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the man born to be a god; he with a man manifest as a god, with the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba — En-suḫgir-ana, the lord of Aratta, is to make a contest with him, saying first to the messenger concerning Unug:

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
He patted it like a lump of clay, he examined it like a clay-tablet: “He may dwell with Inana in the E-zagin of Aratta, but I dwell with her …… as her earthly companion (?). He may lie with her in sweet slumber on the adorned bed, but I lie on Inana’s splendid bed strewn with pure plants. Its back is an ug lion, its front is a piriĝ lion. The ug lion chases the piriĝ lion, the piriĝ lion chases the ug lion. As the ug lion chases the piriĝ lion and the piriĝ lion chases the ug lion, the day does not dawn, the night does not pass. I accompany Inana for a journey of 15 leagues and yet Utu the sun god cannot see my holy crown, when she enters my holy ĝipar. Enlil has given (?) me the true crown and sceptre. Ninurta, the son of Enlil, held me on his lap as the frame holds the waterskin. Aruru, the sister of Enlil, extended her right breast to me, extended her left breast to me. When I go up to the great shrine, the Mistress screeches like an Anzud chick, and other times when I go there, even though she is not a duckling, she shrieks like one. She …… from the city of her birth. No city was made to be so well-built as the city of Unug (?). It is Unug where Inana dwells and as regards Aratta, what does it have to do with this? It is brick-built Kulaba where she lives, and as regards the mount of the lustrous me, what can it do about this? For five or 10 years she will definitely not go to Aratta. Since the great holy lady of the E-ana took counsel with me (?) about whether to go also to Aratta, since she { let me know } { (1 ms. has instead:) told me } about this matter, I know that she will not go to Aratta. He who has nothing shall not feed the geese with barley, but I will feed the geese with barley. I will …… the geese’s eggs in a basket and …… their goslings. The small ones into my pot, the old ones into my kettle, and the rulers { of the Land } { (some mss. has instead:) of Sumer } who submitted will consume, together with me, what remains from the geese.”

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
The messenger of Enmerkar reached En-suḫgir-ana, reached his holy ĝipar, his most holy place, the most holy place where he was sitting, its ……. En-suḫgir-ana asked for instructions, he searched for an answer. He summoned the išib priests, the lumaḫ priests, the gudug priests, and girsiga attendants who dwell in the ĝipar and took counsel with them.” What shall I say to him? What shall I say to him? What shall I say to the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba? His bull stood up to fight my bull and the bull of Unug has defeated it. His man has been struggling with my man and the man of Unug has defeated him. His warrior (?) has been struggling with my warrior (?) and the warrior (?) of Unug …… him.”

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
The convened assembly answered him straightforwardly: “It was you who first sent a boastful (?) message to Unug for Enmerkar. You cannot hold back (?) Enmerkar, you have to hold back (?) yourself. Calm down; your heart will prompt you to achieve nothing, as far as can be known (?).” “If my city becomes a ruin mound, then I will be a potsherd of it, but I will never submit to the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba.”

The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In E-ana, Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer, the son of Utu, became lord and king; he ruled for { 324 } { (ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 325 } years. Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer entered the sea and disappeared. Enmerkar, the son of Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer, the king of Unug, { who built Unug } { (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have instead:) under whom Unug was built }, became king; he ruled for { 420 } { (ms. TL has instead:) 900 + X } years. { (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 745 are the years of the dynasty of Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer. } { (ms TL adds instead:) ……; he ruled for 5 + X years. } Lugalbanda, the shepherd, ruled for 1200 years. Dumuzid, the fisherman whose city was Kuara, ruled for { 100 } { (ms. TL has instead:) 110 } years. { (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) He captured En-me-barage-si single-handed. } Gilgameš, whose father was a phantom (?), the lord of Kulaba, ruled for 126 years. Ur-Nungal, the son of Gilgameš, ruled for 30 years. Udul-kalama, the son of { Ur-Nungal } { (ms. Su1 has instead:) Ur-lugal }, ruled for 15 years. Lā-ba’šum ruled for 9 years. En-nun-taraḫ-ana ruled for 8 years. Meš-ḫe, the smith, ruled for 36 years. { Melem-ana } { (ms. Su2 has instead:) Til-kug (?) …… } ruled for { 6 } { (ms. Su2 has instead:) 900 } years. Lugal-kitun (?) ruled for { 36 } { (ms. Su2 has instead:) 420 } years. 12 kings; they ruled for { 2310 } { (ms. Su2 has instead:) 3588 } years. Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.

The victory of Utu-ḫeĝal: c.2.1.6
But the king, endowed with power by Enlil, chosen by Inana with her { (1 ms. adds:) holy } heart — Utu-ḫeĝal, the mighty man, came out from Unug to face him and set up camp (?) at the temple of Iškur. He addressed a speech to the citizens of his city: “Enlil has given Gutium to me and my lady Inana will be my help! Dumuzid-ama-ušumgal-ana has declared “It is a matter for me!” and assigned Gilgameš, the son of Ninsumun, to me as a constable!” The citizens of Unug and Kulaba rejoiced and followed him with one accord. He lined up his élite troops.

The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
An and Enlil have advised that Urim should be restored, founded in a pasture, its divine powers distinct from the rest! They command the prince of the city Larsam, the herald of the universe, the judge of the numerous people, to secure its foundations, to follow the proper path! They have taken a decision concerning Unug-Kulaba, the sacred city, the handiwork of the gods, and restored it. They have brought news of the removal of all foes and enemies from the region of Zabalam, the city where the mistress of heaven concentrated her forces.

The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
They …… like stampeding goats, they tore apart the corpses of the population. They mutilated Sumer and Akkad, they pulverised it as with a pestle. They destroyed its settlements and habitations, they razed them to ruin mounds. The best of Sumer they scattered like dust, they heaped up ……. They massacred its populace, they finished off young and old alike. They destroyed the city of the Anuna gods, they set it aflame. They put out both Unug’s eyes, they uprooted its young shoots. They wandered all through the libation places of the Anuna gods. And even Kulaba, which is the primeval city, they turned into a place of murder.

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi O): c.2.4.2.15
Its prince, the hero of Enlil, a lion rising up in its strength, a furious lion (?) baring its teeth at the foreign lands, …… inspects great wild bulls, eating ……, extending ……. Shepherd Šulgi, son of Ninsumun, ornament of ……, …… in their evil words, brought the hero Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba into ……. He produced an utterance for him …… from the foreign lands, …… of his palace. …… of the foreign lands. …… he looked at him as if on split reeds.

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi O): c.2.4.2.15
On the day when the destiny of the Land was determined, when the seed of all living beings was originally brought forth, when the king appeared radiantly to his comrade — on that day, Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, conversed with Šulgi, the good shepherd of Sumer, at his shining feet. So that their praise would be sung forever, so that it be would handed down to distant days, so that it should be not forgotten in remote years, they looked (?) at each other favourably in their mighty heroism.

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi O): c.2.4.2.15
Thus he eulogised him who was born …… in Kulaba. (1 line unclear) Gilgameš, lord of Kulaba, seed of lordship, righteous hero …… (5 lines fragmentary or unclear) (approx. 4 lines missing)(Gilgameš continues speaking:) “Like ……, falsely (?) ……, you trampled underfoot ……, …… as if in a mighty clamp. You gathered its …… like swallows rising into the air. You entered with them into the presence of Enlil in the shrine of Nibru. Even those …… who escaped from the ……, wail bitterly ……. …… a copper (?) statue fashioned (?) in Urim, …… the seven gods, stationed beside, wielding battle-axes. Fearsome (?) hero ……, king of Sumer, you stand firm in your strength (?).”

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi X): c.2.4.2.24
The king sailed to Unug towards the princely divine powers. Sumer and Akkad marvelled at him as he moored the boat at the quay of Kulaba. With a large wild bull of the mountains with uplifted horns, and with a sheep led by the hand of an en priest at his right side, with a dappled kid and a bearded kid clasped to his breast, he entered before Inana in the shrine of E-ana.

A song of Šulgi: c.2.4.2.a
My king went to Kulaba. Ninirigal, rejoice! Šulgi went to Kulaba. Ninirigal, rejoice!

An adab to Suen for Ibbi-Suen (Ibbi-Suen C): c.2.4.5.3
An …… favourable day …… holy ……. He has a righteous crown, long-lasting divine powers and a royal sceptre. Enlil has decreed lordship for his beloved one, as his destiny, and has created with magnificent grandeur the qualities of a warrior. Enki, renewing abundance and days of splendour, …… the Tigris and Euphrates in their wide flooding. Nintur, who causes human seed to propagate and brings living beings into existence, …… cities and crowded places, all the numerous people together. Nanna, the …… light, confirming the divine plans, new moon of eternal fame, light which goes towards the earth, has given authority (?) to my Ibbi-Suen, foremost among princes, over the south and the uplands as far as the outer limits of heaven and earth. Utu has produced justice and propriety for Ibbi-Suen the augustly powerful, strong among warriors, unsurpassed in his youthfulness, overthrowing the enemy lands, finding the right decisions and giving advice to the people. The good lady Ninirigal, mother of Kulaba, …… prayer and supplication ……, …… lady with an august name ……. …… long life.

A tigi to Nanaya for Išbi-Erra (Išbi-Erra C): c.2.5.1.3
Great lady, worthy source of inspiration, counselled (?) by the Mistress: luxurious divine powers have been generously given to you by the Mistress. Nanaya, great lady, worthy source of inspiration, counselled (?) by the Mistress! Išbi-Erra, you are the king and shepherd of the people! Nanaya, by the command of An you are the queen of all the countries. In the shrine, in Kulaba, …… he declares it, and the people turn their hearts towards you as you address them. Nanaya, good woman, you are the favourable (?) name of the black-headed! O youth chosen in beauty by the Mistress, son of Enlil, your wise word is brightly made good for the goddess Inana! O Nanaya, the goddess has created your holy powers …… for you. You have …… turned the favourable eye of life onto the bedchamber, and Išbi-Erra is the youth chosen for his beauty.

A praise poem of Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan A + V): c.2.5.4.01
Inana, the lady of heaven and earth ……, chose me as her beloved spouse. She put attractiveness in my waist-belt (?), looking at me with her life-giving look, as she lifted her radiant forehead to me, to make me step onto the flowery bed. She has uttered her unalterable holy word for me to spend long, long days in the ĝipar, combining the priestly office of en with the kingship and caring unceasingly for E-ana, and for my neck to become thick like a wild bull’s in Unug as my splendour covers Kulaba.

A song of Inana and Dumuzid (Dumuzid-Inana J): c.4.08.10
“…… beloved sister of Dumuzid, beloved …… of Durtur, …… seed implanted into the womb by a good bull, my lady, born to ladyship! With her aid the cattle-pen was filled with butter and cream, with her aid the sheepfold was long provided with milk. On the high plain, my ……, you are Ĝeštin-ana. O girl, …… indeed! Your little ones …… indeed! Unug …… indeed! Kulaba …… indeed! …… you are …….”

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O house which comes forth from heaven, resplendent in Kulaba, shrine E-babbar (Shining house), shining bull, lift your neck to Utu who …… in the sky! Your shining horns are aggressive, holy and lustrous. Bearing a beard of shining lapis lazuli, ……, your prince, the mighty sunlight, the lord who …… the true word, who lightens the horizon, who lightens the sky’s …… vault, Utu, the sovereign of E-babbar, has erected a house in your precinct, O house Larsam, and taken his seat upon your dais.

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O house with the great divine powers of Kulaba, ……, its platform has made the great shrine flourish. Green fresh fruit, marvellous, filled with ripeness, descending from the centre of heaven, shrine built for the bull, E-ana (House of heaven), house with seven corners, with seven fires lifted at night-time, surveying seven pleasures (?), your princess is on the pure horizon.

Proverbs: collection 2 + 6: c.6.1.02
The fox said to his wife: “Come! Let us crush Unug between our teeth like a leek; let us strap Kulaba on our feet like sandals!” Before they had yet come within a distance of 600 uš from the city, the dogs began to howl from the city. — “Geme-Tummal! Geme-Tummal! Come with me to your place! Wicked things are howling at us from the city!”

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