Pherekydes of Syros, a writer of reputed Phoenician descent and whose works show the strongest Oriental influence, says;—’ Zas [Zeus] makes a veil large and beautiful, and works on it Earth and Ogen, and the palace of Ogen;’ and this veil which is identical with the starry peplos of Harmonia, the bride of Kadmos ‘ the Easterner,’ i.e., the Sun, whose marriage with stellar space completes kosmic order, the god hangs on a winged oak (^ vnoTn”tpos S/aus). M. Maury well observes on the myth, ‘C’est lk evidemment une image de la voute du firmament, souvent figuree par un voile, et auquel un arbre est donne pour support. Il y a lk une conception toute semblable k celle de l’arbre Yggdrasil de la mythologie scandinave, dont les racines s’etendent jusqu’au Niflheim et dont la tige s’eleve dans les cieux.’ At Eagnarok ‘The-Twilight-of-the-gods,’ the conclusion of the present state of things, the gigantic kosmic ashtree Yggdrasil groans, trembles, and is set on fire; but a man and woman Lifthrasir (‘ Life-raiser ‘), and Lif (‘ Life’) are preserved amid the general destruction in a sacred grove called Hoddmimir’s Holt, which M. Darmesteter calls the ‘bois Hoddmimir equivalent du frene Yggdrasil,’ a statement that is correct in a certain sense but not absolutely. Hoddmimir signifies ‘Circle-Mimir’ or ‘ Sphere” Mimir,’ that is to say, the physical Mimir or ocean like the Midhgardhsormr (Great-sea-serpent),encircles the earth, and when the latter is consumed Lifthrasir and Lif are safely conveyed across ocean to the far ocean-grove, which we find in Homer;—’ When thou hast sailed in the ship across the stream Okeanos [Hoddmimir], where are groves of Persephoneia [the Queen of the Underworld], poplars and willows.’ Stesichoros, B.C. 632—552, tells how Halios (Ee’lios, Helios), Hyperion’s son, i.e., son of the Climbing Sun of morning, like the Vedic Yama found out the way to the happy world which is in the west; and sailed in his golden boatcup, which he afterwards lent to his ‘dedoublement’ Herakles, o’er ocean to see his dear ones in the sacred laurel grove; and Mr. Euskin, following Pindar, tells us that the Greeks ‘ had sometimes a prophet to tell them of a land “where there is sun alike by day and alike by night, where they shall need no more to trouble the earth by strength of hands for daily bread, but the ocean breezes blow around the blessed islands, and golden flowers burn on their bright trees for evermore.”‘ These abodes form the western Garden of the Hesperides, where are the golden solar apples of life that resemble the fruit shown on the Conventional Tree, and were guarded in the unseen world by the ‘ monster serpent or dragon ‘ of darkness which, like the Norse Nidhoggr (‘Gnawing serpent’) coils around the roots of the Sacred Tree. These sacred trees appear rudely marked on many of the whorls found by Dr. Schliemann on the site of Troy.

ERYTHEIA THE RED ISLE OF SUNSET
Hesiod, Theogony 979 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :
“Kallirhoe, daughter of Okeanos lying in the embraces of powerful-minded Khrysaor [son of Medousa] . . . bore him a son, most powerful of all men mortal, Geryones, whom Herakles in his great strength killed over his dragfoot cattle in water-washed Erytheia.”
Hesiod, Theogony 287 ff. :
“Khrysaor, married to Kallirhoe, daughter of glorious Okeanos, was father to the triple-headed Geryon, but Geryon was killed by the great strength of Herakles at sea-circled Erytheis (the Red Isle) beside his own shambling cattle on that day when Herakles drove those broad-faced cattle toward holy Tiryns, when he crossed the stream of Okeanos and had killed Orthos and the oxherd Eurytion out in the gloomy meadow beyond fabulous Okeanos.”
Eumelus of Corinth or Arctinus of Miletus, Titanomachia Fragment 7 (from Athenaeus 11. 470B) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
“Theolytos says that he [Herakles] sailed across the sea in a cauldron [i.e. across Okeanos to reach Geryon in Erytheia]; but the first to give this story is the author of the Titanomakhia.”
Stesichorus, Geryoneis Fragment S7 (from Strabo, Geography) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (Greek lyric C7th to C6th B.C.) :
“The ancient writers seem to call the Baetis [a river in southern Spain, now called Guadalquivir] Tartessos, and Gadeira [Gades, now Cadiz] and the nearby island Erytheia. This, it is supposed, is why Stesikhoros sould say of Geryon’s herdman [Eurytion] that he was born’ almost opposite famous Erytheia . . by the limitless silver-rooted waters of the river Tartessos in the hollow of a rock.”
Stesichorus, Geryoneis Fragment S17 (from Athenaeus, Scholars at Dinner) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (Greek lyric C7th to C6th B.C.) :
“Helios (the Sun) too was conveyed to his setting in a cup Stesikhoros tells us in the following words: `And then Hyperion’s strong child [Helios] went down into the cup of solid gold, so that he might cross over Okeanos and reach the depths of holy, dark night . . . while he Zeus’ son [Herakles], who has reached Erytheia in the cup or has traveled back to the mainland in it, now retuns it to Helios went on foot into the grove, shady with its laurels.'”
Stesichorus, Geryoneis Fragment S17 (from Athenaeus, Scholars at Dinner) :
“Stesikhoros says that Helios (the Sun) sailed across Okeanos in a cup and that Herakles also crosssed over in it when travelling to get Geryon’s cattle.”
Stesichorus, Geryoneis Fragment S86 (from Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius) :
“Stesikhoros in his Geryoneis calls an island in the Atlantic sea Sarpedonian.”
[N.B. Sarpedon was the island of the Gorgones, which lay near Erytheia. Geryon himself was the grandson of the Gorgon Medousa.]
Aeschylus, Fragment 37 Heracleidae (from Scholiast on Aristeides) :
“He [Herakles] crossed Okeanos in a golden bowl [belonging to the sun-god Helios], he drave the straight-horned kine from the uttermost parts of the earth, slew the evil herdsmen [Eurytion] and their triple-bodied master [Geryon].”
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 35 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
“[The Gigante] Alkyoneus who drove away the cattle of Helios (the Sun) from Erytheia (the Red Isle).” [N.B. In the Odyssey, Helios’ cattle are herded on the island of Thrinakia, not Erytheia.]
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 106 – 109 :
“The tenth labour assigned to Herakles was to fetch the cattle of Geryon from Erytheia. Erytheia was an island, now called Gadeira, lying near Okeanos. On it lived Geryon, son of Khrysaor and Okeanos’ daughter Kallirrhoe . . . He owned crimson-colored cattle, which were herded by Eurytion and protected by Orthos, the hound with two heads . . . [Herakles] went on to Tartessos where he set up two steles opposite each other at the borders of Europe and Libya, as commemorative markers of his trip. Then, when Helios (the Sun) made him hot as he proceeded, he aimed his bow at the god and stretched it; Helios was so surprised at his daring that he gave him a golden goblet, in which he crossed Okeanos. When he reached Erytheia he camped on Mount Atlas. The dog smelled him there and went after him, but he struck it with his club, and when the cowherd Eurytion came to help the dog, he slew him as well. Menoetes, who was there tending the cattle of Haides, reported these events to Geryon, who overtook Herakles by the Athemos river as he was leading away the cattle. They fought, and Herakles slew Geryon with an arrow. He then loaded the cattle into the goblet, sailed back to Tartessos, and returned the goblet to Helios.”
Herodotus, Histories 4. 8. 1 (trans. Godley) (Greek historian C5th B.C.) :
“Herakles, driving the cattle of Geryones . . . Geryones lived west of the Pontos, settled in the island called by the Greeks Erytheia, on the shore of Okeanos near Gadeira, outside the pillars of Herakles.”
Strabo, Geography 3. 2. 11 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
“The mountain in which the river Baetis is said to rise [in southern Iberia] is called ‘Silver Mountain’ on account of the silver-mines that are in it . . . The ancients seem to have called the Baetis River [of Hispania] ‘Tartessos’; and to have called Gades and the adjoining islands ‘Erytheia’; and this is supposed to be the reason why Stesikhoros spoke as he did about [Eurytion] the neat-herd of Geryon, namely, that he was born ‘about opposite famous Erytheia, beside the unlimited, silver-rooted springs of the river Tartessos, in a cavern of a cliff.’ Since the river had two mouths, a city was planted on the intervening territory in former times, it is said,–a city which was called ‘Tartessos,’ after the name of the river . . . Further Eratosthenes says that the country adjoining Kalpe is called ‘Tartessis,’ and that Erytheia is called ‘Blest Island’ (Nesos Eudaimos).”
Strabo, Geography 3. 5. 4 :
“By ‘Erytheia,’ in which the myth-writers place the adventures of Geryon, Pherekydes seems to mean Gades [a city and island off the coast of Southern Iberia (Spain)]. Others, however, think that Erytheia is the island that lies parallel to this city [Gades] and is separated from it by a strait of a stadium in width.”
Strabo, Geography 3. 2. 13 :
“The poets who came after Homeros keep dinning into our ears similar stories [myths set in Iberia (Spain)]: the expedition of Herakles in quest of the kine of Geryon and likewise the expedition which he made in quest of the golden apples of the Hesperides.”
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 35. 7 – 8 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
“Geryon is at Gadeira, where there is, not his tomb, but a tree showing different shapes.”
Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 5. 4 (trans. Conybeare) (Greek biography C1st to C2nd A.D.) :
“The city of Gadeira [in southern Iberia] is situated at the extreme end of Europe . . . They say that the latter [Herakles of Thebes] penetrated as far as the neighbouring city of Erytheia, on which occasion he took captive Geryon and his cows; and they say that in his devotion to wisdom he traversed the whole earth to its limits.”
Oppian, Cynegetica 2. 100 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd A.D.) :
“Herakles, the mighty son of Zeus, when fulfilling his labours, drove of old from Erytheia, what time he fought with Geryoneus beside Okeanos and slew him amid the crags.”
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 4. 36 (trans. Bostock) (Roman encyclopedia C1st A.D.) :
“Towards Spain [in the Atlantic Ocean], at about 100 paces distance, is another long island, three miles wide, on which the original city of Gades stood. By Ephorus and Philistides it is called Erythia, by Timaeus and Silenus Aphrodisias, and by the natives the Isle of Juno. Timaeus says, that the larger island used to be called Cotinusa, from its olives; the Romans call it Tartessos; the Carthaginians Gadir, that word in the Punic language signifying a hedge. It was called Erythia because the Tyrians, the original ancestors of the Carthaginians, were said to have come from the Erythraen, or Red Sea. In this island Geryon is by some thought to have dwelt, whose herds were carried off by Hercules. Other persons again think, that his island is another one, opposite to Lusitania, and that it was there formerly called by that name.”
Seneca, Hercules Furens 231 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) :
“[The labours of Herakles:] Among his herds in the distant land of Hesperia the three-shaped shepherd [Geryon] of the Tartesian shore was killed and his cattle driven as spoil from the farthest west; Cithaeron has fed the herd once to Oceanus known.”
Hyperborea
Hesiod, Catalogues of Women Fragment 40a (from Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1358 fr. 2) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :
“[The Boreades pursued the Harpyiai :] Round about all these [the Boreades] sped in darting flight . . (lacuna) of the well-horsed Hyperboreans–whom Gaia (Earth) the all-nourishing bare far off by the tumbling streams of deep-flowing Eridanos . . (lacuna) of amber, feeding her wide-scattered offspring.”
Homeric Hymn 7 to Dionysos 27 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th – 4th B.C.) :
“[The captain of the Tyrrhenian pirates has captured the god Dionysos :] `As for this fellow we men will see to him: I reckon he is bound for Aigyptos (Egypt) or for Kypros or to the Hyperboreans or further still.'”
Pindar, Pindar Pythian Ode 10. 27 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :
“Of the fairest glories that mortals may attain, to him is given to sail to the furthest bound. Yet neither ship nor marching feet may find the wondrous way to the gatherings of the Hyperborean people.
Yet was it with these that Perseus the warrior chief once feasted, entering their homes, and chanced upon their sacrifices unto the god, those famous offerings of hecatombs of asses; for in their banquets and rich praise Apollon greatly delights, and laughs to see the rampant lewdness of those brutish beasts.
Nor is the Mousa (Muse) a stranger to their life, but on all sides the feet of maidens dancing, the full tones of the lyre and pealing flutes are all astir; with leaves of gleaming laurel bound upon their hair, they throng with happy hearts to join the revel. Illness and wasting old age visit not this hallowed race, but far from toil and battle they dwell secure from fate’s remorseless vengeance.
There with the breath of courage in his heart, unto that gathering of happy men, by guidance of Athene, came long ago the son of Danaë, Perseus, who slew the Gorgo.”
Pindar, Pindar, Olympian Ode 3. 12 ff :
“[The Olympic Games,] rites long years ago established by Herakles, set on his brow aloft that shining glory, wreathed upon his hair, of the green olive leaf; which once from Istros’ [the Danube’s] shady streams Amphitryon’s son brought hither, to be the fairest emblem of Olympia’s Games.
For the Hyperborean folk, Apollon’s servants, he so persuaded with fair words, when, for the all-hospitable grove of Zeus, his loyal heart begged for the tree, to make shade for all men to share, and for brave deeds of valorous spirits, a crown. For he had seen long since his father’s [Zeus’] altars sanctified, and the light of evening smiling at mid-month to the golden care of the full-orbèd moon; and of the great Games had set up the contest and sacred judgment, with the rites of the four-yearly feast, on the high banks of Alpheios’ holy river. But the land of Pelops, and the vales by Kronos’ hill nourished no lovely trees, and his eyes saw a garden spread defenceless beneath the fierce rays of the sun.
Then at length did his heart bid him be one, to journey to the land of Istria, where, long since, Leto’s daughter [Artemis], lover of horsemanship, received him. For he came from Arkadia’s high peaks and winding glens, by constraint of his father, to perform the bidding of Eurystheus, and bring back the Hind of the golden horns . . . And in that search he saw, too, the famed land that lay behind cold Boreas of bleak and frozen breath; and standing there marvelled to see the trees. And in his heart a dear resolve was born, to set them planted there, where ends the course twelve times encircled by the racing steeds.”
Aeschylus, Libation Bearers 372 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
“Your wish is better than gold. It surpasses great good fortune, even that of the Hyperboreans.”
Herodotus, Histories 4. 13. 1 (trans. Godley) (Greek historian C5th B.C.) :
“There is also a story related in a poem by Aristeas [Greek poet C7th B.C.] son of Kaüstrobios, a man of Prokonnesos. This Aristeas, possessed by Phoibos [the god Apollon], visited the Issedones; beyond these (he said) live the one-eyed Arimaspians, beyond whom are the Grypes (Griffins) that guard gold, and beyond these again the Hyperboreans, whose territory reaches to the sea. Except for the Hyperboreans, all these nations (and first the Arimaspians) are always at war with their neighbors; the Issedones were pushed from their lands by the Arimaspians, and the Skythians by the Issedones, and the Kimmerians, living by the southern sea, were hard pressed by the Skythians and left their country. Thus Aristeas’ story does not agree with the Skythian account about this country.”
Herodotus, Histories 4. 32 – 36 :
“Concerning the Hyperborean people, neither the Skythians nor any other inhabitants of these lands tell us anything, except perhaps the Issedones. And, I think, even they say nothing; for if they did, then the Skythians, too, would have told, just as they tell of the one-eyed men. But Hesiod speaks of Hyperboreans, and Homer too in his poem The Epigonoi, if that is truly the work of Homer.
But the Delians say much more about them than any others do. They say that offerings wrapped in straw are brought from the Hyperboreans to Skythia; when these have passed Skythia, each nation in turn receives them from its neighbors until they are carried to the Adriatic sea, which is the most westerly limit of their journey; from there, they are brought on to the south, the people of Dodona being the first Greeks to receive them. From Dodona they come down to the Melian gulf, and are carried across to Euboia, and one city sends them on to another until they come to Karystos; after this, Andros is left out of their journey, for Karystians carry them to Tenos, and Tenians to Delos.Thus (they say) these offerings come to Delos.
But on the first journey, the Hyperboreans sent two maidens bearing the offerings, to whom the Delians give the names Hyperokhe and Laodike, and five men of their people with them as escort for safe conduct, those who are now called Perpherees and greatly honored at Delos. But when those whom they sent never returned, they took it amiss that they should be condemned always to be sending people and not getting them back, and so they carry the offerings, wrapped in straw, to their borders, and tell their neighbors to send them on from their own country to the next; and the offerings, it is said, come by this conveyance to Delos. I can say of my own knowledge that there is a custom like these offerings; namely, that when the Thrakian and Paionian women sacrifice to the Royal Artemis, they have straw with them while they sacrifice.
I know that they do this. The Delian girls and boys cut their hair in honor of these Hyperborean maidens, who died at Delos; the girls before their marriage cut off a tress and lay it on the tomb, wound around a spindle (this tomb is at the foot of an olive-tree, on the left hand of the entrance of the temple of Artemis); the Delian boys twine some of their hair around a green stalk, and lay it on the tomb likewise.
In this way, then, these maidens are honored by the inhabitants of Delos. These same Delians relate that two virgins, Arge and Opis, came from the Hyperboreans by way of the aforesaid peoples to Delos earlier than Hyperokhe and Laodike; these latter came to bring to Eileithyia [i.e. Artemis] the tribute which they had agreed to pay for easing child-bearing; but Arge and Opis, they say, came with the gods themselves [i.e. Apollon and Artemis], and received honors of their own from the Delians. For the women collected gifts for them, calling upon their names in the hymn made for them by Olen of Lykia; it was from Delos that the islanders and Ionians learned to sing hymns to Opis and Arge, calling upon their names and collecting gifts (this Olen, after coming from Lycia, also made the other and ancient hymns that are sung at Delos). Furthermore, they say that when the thighbones are burnt in sacrifice on the altar, the ashes are all cast on the burial-place of Opis and Arge, behind the temple of Artemis, looking east, nearest the refectory of the people of Keos.
I have said this much of the Hyperboreans, and let it suffice; for I do not tell the story of that Abaris, alleged to be a Hyperborean, who carried the arrow over the whole world, fasting all the while. But if there are men beyond the north wind (Boreas), then there are others beyond the south. And I laugh to see how many have before now drawn maps of the world, not one of them reasonably; for they draw the world as round as if fashioned by compasses, encircled by the Okeanos river, and Asia and Europe of a like extent. For myself, I will in a few words indicate the extent of the two, and how each should be drawn.”
Plato, Charmides 158c (trans. Lamb) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :
“[If] you are sufficiently temperate, then you never had any need of the charms of Zalmoxis or of Abaris the Hyperborean, and might well be given at once the remedy for the head; but if you prove to be still lacking that virtue, we must apply the charm before the remedy.” [N.B. Abaris was a fabulous prophet from the far north, to whom oracles and charms were ascribed by the Greeks; cf. Herodotus. 4. 36.]
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 27 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
“Artemis shot him [the giant Orion] as he was forcing his attention on Oupis, a virgin who had come from the Hyperboreans.”
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 114 :
“[The golden apples of the Hesperides :] These apples were not, as some maintain, in Libya, but rather were with Atlas among the Hyperboreans. Ge (Earth) had given them to Zeus when he married Hera.”
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 119 :
“Prometheus advised Herakles not to go after the apples [of the Hesperides] himself, but rather to reelive Atlas of the celestial sphere and dispatch him. So when Herakles reached Atlas among the Hyperboreans, he remembered Prometheus’ advise and took over the sphere. Atlas picked three apples from the garden of the Hesperides, then returned to Herakles.” [N.B. Here Atlas holds the heavens aloft in Hyperborea, beneath the northern axis around which the stars revolve. Usually he is located in Hesperia in the west.]
Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 674 ff (trans. Seaton) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :
“And to them the son of Leto [i.e. Apollon] appeared, as he passed from Lykia far away to the countless folk of the Hyperboreans; and about his cheeks on both sides his golden locks flowed in clusters as he moved.”
Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 594 ff :
“[On their return voyage to Greece from the Black Sea the Argonauts sail through the mythical interconnecting northern rivers of Hyperborea :] Far on sped Argo under sail, and entered deep into the stream of Eridanos; where once, smitten on the breast by the blazing bolt, Phaethon half-consumed fell from the chariot of Helios into the opening of that deep lake; and even now it belcheth up heavy steam clouds from the smouldering wound. And no bird spreading its light wings can cross that water; but in mid-course it plunges into the flame, fluttering. And all around the maidens, the daughters of Helios, enclosed in tall poplars, wretchedly wail a piteous plaint; and from their eyes they shed on the ground bright drops of amber. These are dried by the sun upon the sand; but whenever the waters of the dark lake flow over the strand before the blast of the wailing wind, then they roll on in a mass into Eridanos with swelling tide. But the Keltoi (Celts) have attached this story to them, that these are the tears of Leto’s son, Apollon, that are borne along by the eddies, the countless tears that he shed aforetime when he came to the sacred race of the Hyperboreans and left shining heaven at the chiding of his father [Zeus], being in wrath concerning his son [Asklepios] whom divine Koronis bare in bright Lakereia at the mouth of Amyros. And such is the story told among these men. But no desire for food or drink seized the heroes nor were their thoughts turned to joy. But they were sorely afflicted all day, heavy and faint at heart, with the noisome stench, hard to endure, which the streams of Eridanos sent forth from Phaethon still burning; and at night they heard the piercing lament of the Heliades (daughters of Helios), wailing with shrill voice; and, as they lamented, their tears were borne on the water like drops of oil.
Thence they entered the deep stream of Rhodanos [the Rhone] which flows into Eridanos; and where they meet there is a roar of mingling waters. Now that river, rising from the ends of the earth, where are the portals and mansions of Nyx (Night), on one side bursts forth upon the beach of Okeanos, at another pours into the Ionian sea, and on the third through seven mouths sends its stream to the Sardinian sea and its limitless bay. And from Rhodanos they entered stormy lakes, which spread throughout the Keltic mainland of wondrous size; and there they would have met with an inglorious calamity; for a certain branch of the river was bearing them towards a gulf of Okeanos.”
[N.B. The Hyperborean river Eridanos flows directly from the earth-encircling, fresh-water Okean-stream.]
Callimachus, Hymn 4 to Delos 275 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :
“Thou [Delos] art famed as the most holy of islands, nurse of Apollon’s youth. On thee treads not Enyo nor Haides nor the horses of Ares; but every year tithes of first-fruits are sent to thee : to thee all cities lead up choirs, both those cities which have cast their lots toward the East and those toward the West and those in the South, and the Hyperboreans (peoples which have their homes above the northern shore), a very long-lived race. These first bring thee cornstalks and holy sheaves of corn-ears, which the Pelasgians of Dodona [i.e. the famous oracle of Zeus] . . . first receive, as these offerings enter their country from afar. Next they come to the Holy town and mountains of the Malian land; and thence they sail across to the goodly Lelantian plain of the Abantes [i.e. the island of Euboia]; and then not long is the voyage from Euboia, since thy havens are nigh thereto. The first to bring thee these offerings from the fair-haired Arimaspoi were Oupis and Loxo and happy Hekaerge, daughters of Boreas, and those who then were the best of the young men. And they returned no home again, but a happy fate was theirs, and they shall never be without their glory. Verily the girls of Delos, when the sweet-sounded marriage hymn affrights the maidens’ quarters, bring offerings of their maiden hair to the maidens, while the boys offer to the young men the first harvest of the down upon their cheeks.”
Callimachus, Fragment 187 (from Clement Protrept. 25) (trans. Trypanis) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :
“Phoibos [Apollon] visits the Hyperborean sacrifices of asses.”
Callimachus, Fragment 187 (from Scholiast on Pindar’s Pythian 10. 49) :
“Fat sacrifices of asses delight Phoibos.”
Callimachus, Fragment 215 (from Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius 4. 284) :
“They [the Hyperboreans] send [offerings to Apollon at Delos] from the Rhipaion Mountains.”
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 2. 47. 1 – 6 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :
“Since we have seen fit to make mention of the regions of Asia which lie to the north, we feel that it will not be foreign to our purpose to discuss the legendary accounts of the Hyperboreans. Of those who have written about the ancient myths, Hekataios [Greek philosopher C4th B.C.] and certain others say that in the regions beyond the land of the Keltoi there lies in Okeanos (the Ocean) an island no smaller than Sikelia (Sicily). This island, the account continues, is situated in the north and is inhabited by the Hyperboreans, who are called by that name because their home is beyond the point whence the north wind (Boreas) blows; and the island is both fertile and productive of every crop, and since it has an unusually temperate climate it produces two harvests each year.
Moreover, the following legend is told concerning it : Leto was born on this island, and for that reason Apollon is honoured among them above all other gods; and the inhabitants are looked upon as priests of Apollon, after a manner, since daily they praise this god continuously in song and honour him exceedingly. And there is also on the island both a magnificent sacred precinct of Apollon and a notable temple which is adorned with many votive offerings and is spherical in shape. Furthermore, a city is there which is sacred to this god, and the majority of its inhabitants are players on the cithara; and these continually play on this instrument in the temple and sing hymns of praise to the god, glorifying his deeds.
The Hyperboreans also have a language, we are informed, which is peculiar to them, and are most friendly disposed towards the Greeks, and especially towards the Athenians and the Delians, who have inherited this good-will from most ancient times. The myth also relates that certain Greeks visited the Hyperboreans and left behind them there costly votive offerings bearing inscriptions in Greek letters. And in the same way, Abaris, a Hyperborean, came to Greece in ancient times and renewed the goodwill and kinship of his people to the Delians.
They say also that the moon, as viewed from this island appears to be but a little distance from the earth and to have upon it prominences, like those of the earth, which are visible to the eye. The account is also given that the god visits the island every nineteen years, the period in which the return of the stars to the same place in the heavens is accomplished; and for this reason the nineteen-year period is called by the Greeks the ‘year of Meton.’ At the time of this appearance of the god he both plays on the cithara and dances continuously the night through from the vernal equinox until the rising of the Pleiades, expressing in this manner his delight in his successes. And the kings of this city are called Boreadae, since they are descendants of Boreas, and the succession to these positions is always kept in their family.”
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 3. 59. 6 :
“[In Phrygian mythology :] Apollon, they say, laid away both the lyre and the pipes as a votive offering in the cave of Dionysos, and becoming enamoured of Kybelê joined in her wanderings as far as the land of the Hyperboreans.”
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 51. 1 – 4 :
“[Medea in the kingdom of Pelias in Thessalia, disguises herself as a Hyperborean priestess of Artemis :] Medea fashioning a hollow image of Artemis secreted in it drugs of diverse natures, and as for herself, she anointed her hair with certain potent ointments and made it grey, and filled her face and body so full of wrinkles that all who looked upon her thought that she was surely an old woman. And finally, taking with her the statue of the goddess which had been so made as to strike with terror the superstitious populace and move it to fear of the gods, at daybreak she entered the city.
She acted like one inspired, and as the multitude rushed together along the streets she summoned the whole people to receive the goddess with reverence, telling them that he goddess had come to them from the Hyperboreans to bring good luck to both the whole city and the king. And while all the inhabitants were rendering obeisance to the goddess and honouring her with sacrifices, and the whole city, in a word, was, along with Medea herself, acting like people inspired, she entered the palace . . . For she declared that Artemis, riding through the air upon a chariot drawn by drakones, had flown in the air over many parts of the inhabited earth and had chosen out the realm of the most pious king in all the world for the establishment of her own worship and for honours which should be for ever and ever.”
Strabo, Geography 7. 3. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
“It is because of men’s ignorance of these regions [i.e. the land of the Thrakian Getai, now Bulgaria and Romania] that any heed has been given to those who created the mythical ‘Rhipaíon Mountains and Hyperborean’, and also to all those false statements made by Pytheas the Massalian [Greek writer C4th B.C.] regarding the country along the Okeanos, wherein he uses as a screen his scientific knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. So then, those men should be disregarded; in fact, if even Sophokles [tragedian C5th B.C.], when in his role as a tragic poet he speaks of Oreithyia, tells how she was snatched up by Boreas and carried `over the whole sea to the ends of the earth and to the sources of night and to the unfoldings of heaven and to [Hyperborea] the ancient garden of Phoibos [Apollon].'”
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 18. 5 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
“[In Athens] is built a temple of Eileithyia, who they say came from the Hyperboreans to Delos and helped Leto in her labour; and from Delos the name spread to other peoples. The Delians sacrifice to Eileithyia and sing a hymn of Olen [a legendary poet] . . . Only among the Athenians are the wooden figures of Eileithyia draped to the feet . . . the third, which is the oldest, Erysikhthon brought from Delos.
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 31. 2 :
“At Prasiai [a village near Athens] is a temple of Apollo. Hither they say are sent the first-fruits of the Hyperboreans, and the Hyperboreans are said to hand them over to the Arimaspoi, the Arimaspoi to the Issedones, from these the Skythians bring them to Sinope, thence they are carried by Greeks to Prasiai, and the Athenians take them to Delos. The first-fruits are hidden in wheat straw, and they are known of none. There is at Prasiai a monument to Erysikhthon, who died on the voyage home from Delos, after the sacred mission thither.”
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 13. 2 :
“The Lakedaimonians [of Sparta] have a temple of the Saviour Maid [i.e. Artemis]. Some say that it was made by Orpheus the Thrakian, others by Abaris when he had come from the Hyperboreans.”
Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 7. 6 – 9 :
“As for the Olympic games, the most learned antiquaries of Elis say that Kronos was the first king of heaven, and that in his honor a temple was built in Olympia by the men of that age, who were named the Golden Race. When Zeus was born, Rhea entrusted the guardianship of her son to the Daktyloi of Ida . . . They came from Kretan Ida–Herakles, Paionaios, Epimedes, Iasios and Idas. Herakles, being the eldest, matched his brothers, as a game, in a running-race, and crowned the winner with a branch of wild olive, of which they had such a copious supply that they slept on heaps of its leaves while still green. It is said to have been introduced into Greece by Herakles from the land of the Hyperboreans, men living beyond the home of the North Wind.
Olen the Lykian [semi-legendary poet], in his hymn to Akhaeia, was the first to say that from these Hyperboreans Akhaeia came to Delos. When Melanopos of Kyme composed an ode to Oupis and Hekaerge declaring that these, even before Akhaeia, came to Delos from the Hyperboreans.
And Aristeas of Prokonnesos [semi-legendary poet C7th B.C.]–for he too made mention of the Hyperboreans–may perhaps have learnt even more about them from the Issedones, to whom he says in his poem that he came.”
[N.B. In Pindar, the Herakles who fetches the sacred olive from Hyperborea is the great hero rather than the Dakyl. The two were always confounded.]
Pausanias, Description of Greece 10. 5. 7 – 9 :
“[On the founding of the Delphic Oracle :] Boeo, a native woman who composed a hymn for the Delphians, said that the oracle was established for the god [Apollon] by comers from the Hyperboreans, Olen [a semi-legendary poet] and others, and that he was the first to prophesy and the first to chant the hexameter oracles [i.e. like the Phthia]. The verses of Boeo are:–-`Here in truth a mindful oracle was built by the sons of the Hyperboreans, Pagasos and divine Agyieos.’ After enumerating others also of the Hyperboreans, at the end of the hymn she names Olen:–-`And Olen, who became the first prophet of Phoibos, and first fashioned a song of ancient verses.’ Tradition, however, reports no other man as prophet, but makes mention of prophetesses only.
They say that the most ancient temple of Apollo was made of laurel, the branches of which were brought from the laurel in Tempe. This temple must have had the form of a hut. The Delphians say that the second temple was made by bees from bees-wax and feathers, and that it was sent to the Hyperboreans by Apollon.”
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 4. 4 :
“[The Gauls invaded Greece in 279 B.C. :] Nw south of the Gates [of Thermopylai], [they] cared not at all to capture the other towns, but were very eager to sack Delphoi and the treasures of the god [Apollon]. They were opposed by the Delphians themselves and the Phokians of the cities around Parnassos; a force of Aitolians also joined the defenders, for the Aitolians at this time were pre-eminent for their vigorous activity. When the forces engaged, not only were thunderbolts and rocks broken off from Parnassos hurled against the Gauls, but terrible shapes as armed warriors haunted the foreigners. They say that two of them, Hyperokhos and Amadokos, came from the Hyperboreans, and that the third was Pyrrhos son of Akhilleus.”
[N.B. In this account of an historical battle with the Gauls near Delphoi, the mythical heroes Hyperokhos, Amadokos and Pyrrhos appear on the scene in the form of phantoms to frighten the enemy troops. Pyrrhos (better known as Neoptolemos) was a hero of the Trojan War who was buried at Delphoi, while the Hyperboreans were presumably those reputed to have founded the shrine; cf. Pausanias 10.5.7]
Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 20 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
“Apollon and Artemis had a very great affection for him [Klinis, a man of Babylon] and he frequently attended with these gods the temple of Apollon in the land of the Hyperboreoi where he saw the consecration of the sacrifices of asses to the god. Returning to Babylon, he too wanted to worship the god as among the Hyperboreans and arranged by the altar a hecatomb of asses. Apollon appeared and threatened him with death if he did not cease from this sacrifice and did not offer up to him the usual goats, sheep and cattle. For this sacrifice of asses was a source of pleasure for the god only if carried out by the Hyperboreans.”
Aelian, On Animals 4. 4 (trans. Scholfield) (Greek natural history C2nd A.D.) :
“Wolves are not easily delivered of their young, only after twelve days and twelve nights, for the people of Delos maintain that this was the length of time that it took Leto to travel from the Hyperboreans to Delos.”
Aelian, On Animals 11. 1 :
“The race of the Hyperboreans and the honours there paid to Apollon are sung of by poets and are celebrated by historians, among whom is Hekataios, not of Miletos but of Abdera [Greek philosopher C4th B.C.] . . . This god [Apollon] has as priests the sons of Boreas (North Wind) and Khione (Snow), three in number, brothers by birth, and six cubits in height. So when at the customary time they perform the established ritual of the aforesaid god there swoop down from what are called the Rhipaion mountains swans in clouds, past numbering, and after they have circled round the temple as though they were purifying it by their flight, they descend into the precinct of the temple, an area of immense size and of surpassing beauty. Now whenever the singers sing their hymns to the god and the harpers accompany the chorus with their harmonious music, thereupon the swans also with one accord join in the chant and never once do they sing a discordant note or out of tune, but as though they had been given the key by the conductor they chant in unison with the natives who are skilled in the sacred melodies. Then when the hymn is finished the aforesaid winged choristers, so to call them, after their customary service in honour of the god and after singing and celebrating his praises all through the day, depart.”
Aelian, On Animals 11. 10 :
“I have mentioned the swans from the Rhipaion Mountains in the country of the Hyperboreans on account of their daily and assiduous service of [Apollon] the son of Zeus and Leto.”
Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 1. 11 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) :
“Golden are the tears of the daughters of Helios (the Sun). The story is that they are shed for Phaëthon; for in his passion for driving this son of Helios ventured to mount his father’s chariot, but because he did not keep a firm rein he came to grief and fell into the Eridanos . . . Now the youth is thrown from the chariot and is falling headlong–for his hair is on fire and his breast smouldering with the heat; his fall will end in the river Eridanos and will furnish this stream with a mythical tale. For swans scattered about, breathing sweet notes, will hymn the youth; and flocks of swans rising aloft will sing the story to Kaÿstros and Istros [rivers of Lykia and Skythia]; nor will any place fail to hear the strange story. And they will have Zephyros, nimble god of wayside shrines, to accompany their song, for it is said that Zephyros has made a compact with the swans to join them in the music of the dirge. This agreement is even now being carried out, for look! The wind is playing on the swans as on musical instruments.” [N.B.The swans were said to spend the summer on the Kaystros river in Lydia and the winter on the Danube (Istros) among the Hyperboreans. Cf. Himerius 79. 17d (not quoted here).]
Clement, Exhortation to the Greeks 3 (trans. Butterworth) (Greek Christian rhetoric C2nd to 3rd A.D.) :
“These temples [those of the pagan Greeks] . . . are called by a fair-sounding name, but in reality they are tombs. But I appeal to you, even at this late hour forget daimon-worship, feeling ashamed to honour tombs . . . Why recount to you the Hyperborean women? They are called Hyperokhe and Laodike, and they lie in the Artemision (Temple of Artemis) at Delos; this is in the temple precincts of Delian Apollon.”
Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 15 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
“Eratosthenes [Greek writer C3rd B.C.] says about the Arrow, that with this Apollo killed the Cyclopes who forged the thunderbolt by which Aesculapius died. Apollo had buried this arrow in the Hyperborean mountain, but when Jupiter [Zeus] pardoned his son, it was borne by the wind and brought to Apollo along with the grain which at that time was growing. Many point out that for this reason it is among the constellations.”
[N.B. Presumably the “arrow in the Hyperborean mountain” is connected with the tale of Abaris, the Hyperborean arrow-riding prophet of Apollon.]
Ovid, Metamorphoses 10. 352 ff (trans. Brookes More) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
“Or if some black bitumen catches fire or yellow sulphur burns with little smoke, then surely, when the ground no longer gives such food and oily nutriment for flames . . . ‘Tis said that Hyperboreans of Pallene can cover all their bodies with light plumes by plunging nine times in Minerva’s marsh [i.e. a lake of bitumen]. But I cannot believe another tale : that Scythian women get a like result by having poison sprinkled on their limbs.”
[N.B. The bitumen marsh is presumably the mythical swamp of the Eridanos into which Phaethon fell after he was struck down from the chariot of the sun by Zeus with a thunderbolt. The swans of Hyperborea were said to rise from its waters. In Ovid’s story the Hyperborean folk themselves become swans after bathing in the waters. Cf. Ovid’s myth of the metamorphosis of Kyknos “the Swan,” a friend of Phaethon.]
Virgil, Georgics 3. 195 ff (trans. Fairclough) (Roman bucolic C1st B.C.) :
“When the gathered North Wind (Aquilo) swoops down from Hyperborean coasts, driving on Scythia’s storms and dry clouds.”
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 4. 26 (trans. Bostock) (Roman encyclopedia C1st A.D.) :
“Along the coast [of Scythia], as far as the river Tanais[ the Don], are the Maeotae, from whom the lake derives its name, and the last of all, in the rear of them, the Arimaspi. We then come to the Riphaean mountains, and the region known by the name of Pterophoros [Greek meaning ‘wing-bringers’], because of the perpetual fall of snow there, the flakes of which resemble feathers; a part of the world which has been condemned by the decree of nature to lie immersed in thick darkness; suited for nothing but the generation of cold, and to be the asylum of the chilling blasts of the northern winds.
Behind these mountains, and beyond the region of the northern winds, there dwells, if we choose to believe it, a happy race, known as the Hyperborei, a race that lives to an extreme old age, and which has been the subject of many marvellous stories. At this spot are supposed to be the hinges upon which the world revolves, and the extreme limits of the revolutions of the stars. Here we find light for six months together, given by the sun in one continuous day, who does not, however, as some ignorant persons have asserted, conceal himself from the vernal equinox to autumn. On the contrary, to these people there is but one rising of the sun for the year, and that at the summer solstice, and but one setting, at the winter solstice. This region, warmed by the rays of the sun, is of a most delightful temperature, and exempt from every noxious blast. The abodes of the natives are the woods and groves; the gods receive their worship singly and in groups, while all discord and every kind of sickness are things utterly unknown. Death comes upon them only when satiated with life; after a career of feasting, in an old age sated with every luxury, they leap from a certain rock there into the sea; and this they deem the most desirable mode of ending existence. Some writers have placed these people, not in Europe, but at the very verge of the shores of Asia, because we find there a people called the Attacori, who greatly resemble them and occupy a very similar locality. Other writers again have placed them midway between the two suns, at the spot where it sets to the Antipodes and rises to us; a thing however that cannot possibly be, in consequence of the vast tract of sea which there intervenes. Those writers who place them nowhere but under a day which lasts for six months, state that in the morning they sow, at mid-day they reap, at sunset they gather in the fruits of the trees, and during the night conceal themselves in caves.
Nor are we at liberty to entertain any doubts as to the existence of this race; so many authors are there who assert that they were in the habit of sending their first-fruits to Delos to present them to Apollo, whom in especial they worship. Virgins used to carry them, who for many years were held in high veneration, and received the rites of hospitality from the nations that lay on the route; until at last, in consequence of repeated violations of good faith, the Hyperboreans came to the determination to deposit these offerings upon the frontiers of the people who adjoined them, and they in their turn were to convey them on to their neighbours, and so from one to the other, till they should have arrived at Delos. However, this custom, even, in time fell into disuse.”
Seneca, Phaedra 930 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) :
“Traverse nations remote, unknown; though a land on the remotest confines of the world hold thee separated by Oceanus’ tracts, though thou take up thy dwelling in the world opposite our feet, though thou escape to the shuddering realms of the high north and hide deep in its farthest corner, and though, placed beyond the reach of winter (Hyperborea) and his hoar snows, thou leave behind thee the threatening rage of cold Boreas.”
Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 8. 209 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :
“No lake, no river of Scythia but mourns for her as she passes; the sight of her . . . stirred the Hyperborean snows.”
Statius, Thebaid 1. 694 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :
“The frosty wagoner of the Hyperborean Bear droops languidly, with backward slanting pole.” [N.B. The constellation known as Ursa Major or the Wain circles the heavenly pole, above the land of the Hyperboreans.]
Statius, Thebaid 5. 390 ff :
“Even so does Jupiter [Zeus] lash the green fields with Hyperboreans snow; beasts of all kinds perish on the plains, and birds are overtaken and fall dead, and the harvest is blasted with untimely frost; then is there thundering on the heights, and fury in the rivers.” [N.B. Hyperborea is here any far northern land, rather than the fabulous realm of eternal spring.]
Statius, Thebaid 12. 650 ff :
“As when Jupiter [Zeus] plants his cloudy footsteps upon the Hyperborean pole and makes the stars tremble at the oncoming of winter, Aeolia [the island home of the winds] is riven, and the storm, indignant at its long idleness, takes heart, and the North whistles with the hurricane; then roar the mountains and the waves, clouds battle in the blind gloom, and thunders and crazed lightnings revel.” [N.B. Winter rises in Hyperborea, or from the mountains beneath it.]
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 11. 132 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :
“Abaris also you have heard of, whom Phoibos [Apollon] through the air perched on his winged roving arrow.”
Suidas s.v. Abaris (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) :
“Abaris : Skythian, son of Seuthes. He wrote the so-called Skythinian Oracles and Marriage of the river Hebros and Purifications and a Theogony in prose and Arrival of Apollon among the Hyperboreans in meter. He came from Skythia to Greece.
The legendary arrow belongs to him, the one he flew on from Greece to Hyperborean Skythia. It was given to him by Apollon.
Gregory the Theologian [Christian writer C4th A.D.] mentioned this man in his Epitaphios for Basil the Great. They say that once, when there was a plague throughout the entire inhabited world, Apollon told the Greeks and barbarians who had come to consult his oracle that the Athenian people should make prayers on behalf of all of them. So, many peoples sent ambassadors to them, and Abaris, they say, came as ambassador of the Hyperboreans in the third Olympiad.”

AFTERLIFE REALM OF HEROES : ISLANDS OF THE BLESSED, THE WHITE ISLE, THE ELYSIAN FIELDS
Some of the famous heroes transferred to Elysium include :
(1) Early Heroes : Kadmos and Harmonia, king and queen of Thebes; Lykos son of Poseidon ; Rhadamanthys son of Zeus ; Alkmene mother of Herakles ; Medeia daughter of Aeetes ; Orpheus and Eurydike.
(2) Trojan War Heroes : Akhilleus, son of Peleus ; Aias (Ajax) son of Telamon ; Aias son of Oileus ; Antilokhos son of Nestor ; Diomedes son of Tydeus ; Helene daughter of Zeus ; Iphigeneia daughter of Agamemnon ; Memnon son of Eos ; Menelaus son of Atreus ; Neoptolemos son of Akhilleus ; Patroklos friend of Akhilleus ; Penelope wife of Odysseus ; Telegonus son of Odysseus ; Telemakhos son of Odysseus.
(3) Elysian Born : Euphorion son of Akhilleus.
N.B. The list is far from exhaustive, other heroes who possessed hero-cults in ancient Greece, are presumed to have been transferred to Elysion as well.
Homer, Odyssey 4. 56o ff (trans. Shewring) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
“[The prophetic sea-god Proteus addresses Menelaos :] As for yourself, King Menelaos, it is not your fate to die in Argos . . . The Deathless Ones will waft you instead to the world’s end, the Elysian fields (pedion Elysion) where yellow-haired Rhadamanthys is. There indeed men live unlaborious days. Snow and tempest and thunderstorms never enter there, but for men’s refreshment Okeanos sends out coninually the high-singing breezes of the west (aetae Zephyrioi). All this the gods have in store for you, remembering how your wife is Helene and how her father is Zeus himself.”
Homer, Odyssey 24. 12 ff :
“So did these ghosts travel on together squeaking, while easeful Hermes led them down [to the Land of the Dead] through the ways of dankness. They passed the streams of Okeanos, the White Rock (petra Leuka), the Gates of the Sun (pylai Hêlioi) and the Land of Dreams (demos oneiroi), and soon they came to the field of asphodel, where the souls (psykhai), the phantoms (eidola) of the dead have their habitation.”
Hesiod, Works and Days 156 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :
“Zeus the son of Kronos made yet another [race of men], the fourth, upon the fruitful earth, which was nobler and more righteous, a god-like race of hero-men who are called demi-gods (hemitheoi), the race before our own, throughout the boundless earth. Grim war and dread battle destroyed a part of them, some in the land of Kadmos at seven-gated Thebe when they fought for the flocks of Oidipous, and some, when it had brought them in ships over the great sea gulf to Troy for rich-haired Helene’s sake: there death’s end enshrouded a part of them. But to the others father Zeus the son of Kronos gave a living and an abode apart from men, and made them dwell at the ends of earth. And they live untouched by sorrow in the Islands of the Blessed (Nesoi Makarôn) along the shore of deep swirling Okeanos, happy heroes for whom the grain-giving earth bears honey-sweet fruit flourishing thrice a year, far from the deathless gods, and Kronos rules over them; for the father of men and gods released him from his bonds. And these last equally have honour and glory.”
Arctinus of Miletus, The Aethiopis Fragment 1 (from Proclus, CHrestomathia 2) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :
“The Akhaians [Greeks at Troy] then bury Antilokhos and lay out the body of Akhilleu, while Thetis . . . bewails her son, whom she afterwards catches away from the pyre and transports to the White Island (nesos Leuke).”
Cinaethon of Sparta or Eugammon of Cyrene, The Telegony Fragment 1 (from Proclus, Chrestomathia) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th or C6th B.C.) :
“Telegonos [son of Kirke and Odysseus], on learning his mistake [i.e. he killed his father, not realizing his identity], transports his father’s body with Penelope and Telemakhos to his mother’s island [Aiaia], where Kirke makes them immortal, and Telegonos marries Penelope, and Telemakhos Kirke.” [Cf. Apollodorus E7. 36 below, where “making them immortal” means they are transferred to Elysion.]
Pindar, Olympian Ode 2. 57 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :
“When they die, hearts that were void of mercy pay the due penalty, and of this world’s sins a judge [either Minos or Rhadamanthys] below the earth holds trial, and of dread necessity declares the word of doom.
But the good, through the nights alike, and through the days unending, beneath the sun’s bright ray, tax no the soil with the strength of their hands, nor the broad sea for a poor living, but enjoy a life that knows no toil; with men honoured of heaven, who kept their sworn word gladly, spending an age free from all tears. But the unjust endure pain that no eye can bear to see.
But those who had good courage, three times on either side of death, to keep their hearts untarnished of all wrong, these travel along the road of Zeus to Kronos’ tower. There round the Islands of the Blest (Nesoi Makaron), the winds of Okeanos play, and golden blossoms burn, some nursed upon the waters, others on land on glorious trees; and woven on their hands are wreaths enchained and flowering crowns, under the just decrees of Rhadamanthys, who has his seat at the right hand of the great father, Rhea’s husband, goddess who holds the throne highest of all. And Peleus and Kadmos are of that number, and thither, when her prayers on the heart of Zeus prevailed, his mother brought Akhilleus, he who felled Hektor, Troy’s pillar invincible, unyielding, and brought death to Kyknos, and the Aithiop [Memnon] son of Eos.”
Pindar, Dirges Fragment 133 (trans. Sandys) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :
“But, as for those from whom Persephone [queen of the underworld] shall exact the penalty of their pristine woe, in the ninth year she once more restoreth their souls to the upper sun-light; and from these come into being august monarchs, and men who are swift in strength and supreme in wisdom; and, for all future time, men call them sainted heroes.” [N.B. Pindar’s belief appears to be that after the death, the soul is judged in Haides, and, if found guiltless in life, passes to the subterranean Elysian fields. However, it must return twice again to earth, and suffer two more deaths of its body. Finally Persephone releases it and returns it to earth to inhabit the body of a king, a hero, or a sage. Now it is free from the necessity of further wanderings and passes at once to the Islands of the Blessed in the river Okeanos, the final resting place for the best of souls.]
Aeschylus, Fragment 50 Europa (from Papyrus) (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
“Rhadamanthys, he who of my [Europa’s] sons is free from death; yet, though he lives, mine eyes behold him not.” [I.e. Rhadamanthys has been transported alive to Elysion.]
Euripides, Bacchae 1346 ff (trans. Vellacott) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
“Ares shall at last deliver both you [Kadmos] and Harmonia, and grant you immortal life among the blessed gods [i.e. he transforms them into serpents and sends them to the Islands of the Blessed].”
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 39 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
“Later on, both he and Harmonia were turned into serpents, and were sent by Zeus out to the Elysian field (Pedion Elysion).”
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 110 :
“Poseidon slept with [the Pleiad] Kelaino, fathering Lykos, whom Poseidon settled in the (Nesoi Makaron).”
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca E5. 5 :
“The [Greek] army took the death of Akhilleus very hard. They buried him (on the Island of Leuke [the White Isle]) with Patroklos, mixing together the two men’s bones. It is said that after his death Akhilleus went to live with Medeia on the islands of the Blest (nesoi makaron).”
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca E6. 29 :
“And [Menelaos] having come to Sparta he regained his own kingdom, and being made immortal by Hera he went to the Elysian Fields with Helene.”
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca E7. 36 :
“When Telegonos learned from Kirke that he was Odysseus’ son, he sailed out in search of his father . . . He took the corpse [of Odysseus] and Penelope to Kirke, and there he married Penelope. Kirke dispatched them both to the Islands of the Blessed (Nesoi Makaron).”
Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 811 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :
“[Hera addresses Thetis :] When thy son [Akhilleus] shall come to the Elysian plain . . . It is fated that he be the husband of Medea, Aeetes’ daughter.”
Lycophron, Alexandra 1204 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :
“And in the Islands of the Blest (Nesoi Makaron) thou [Hektor of Troy] shalt dwell, a mighty hero, defender of the arrows of pestilence, where the sown folk of Ogygus [i.e. the Thebans], persuaded by the oracles of [Apollon] . . . [shall] bring thee [i.e. his bones] to the tower of Kalydnos [the acropolis of Thebes] and the land of the Aonians to be their saviour.” [N.B. According to the ancient commentator on this passage, the Thebans were struck by a plague and consulting the Delphic Oracle, told to fetch the bones of Hektor from Troy and ensconse them in the Makaron nesos (Island of the Blessed) of Thebes. According to Hesychius this was the Theban acropolis, so named because it contained the temples of the gods. The account is a late rationalisation of the myth that the early Theban rulers Kadmos and Harmonia, and also Hektor of Troy, were transferred to Elysium after death.]
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 81. 3 – 82. 4 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :
[In the follow extract Diodorus presents a rather implausable explanation of the myth of the Islands of the Blessed, claiming that these were actually the Greek islands of Lesbos, Khios, Samos, Kos and Rhodes, which received the appellation makaron “the blessed” from an early king named Makar.]
“Seven generations after the flood of Deukalion . . . [his descendant] Makareus came to the island [of Lesbos], and, recognizing the beauty of the land, he made his home in it . . . Moreover, Makareus, essaying to bring under his control the neighbouring islands, dispatched a colony to Khios first of all . . . and after this [Samos] . . . The third island he settled was Kos . . . and then he dispatched Leucippus, together with a large body of colonists, to Rhodes . . . The islands since they were exposed to the breezes and supplied the inhabitants with wholesome air, and since they also enjoyed good crops, were filled with greater and greater abundance, and they quickly made the inhabitants object of envy. Consequently they have been give the name Islands of the Blessed (Nesoi Makaron), the abundance they enjoy of good things constituting the reason for the epithet. But there are some who say that they were given the name Islands of the Blessed (Makarioi) after Makareus, since his sons were the rulers over them. And, speaking generally, the islands we have mentioned have enjoyed a felicity far surpassing that of their neighbours, not only in ancient times but also in our own age; for being as they are the finest all in richness of soil, excellence of location, and mildness of climate, it is with good reason that they are called, what in truth they are, ‘blessed.'”
Strabo, Geography 3. 2. 13 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
[Strabo presents a rationalised account of the Elysian fields and Islands of the Blessed, identifying these with the plains of Gades (i.e. modern Cadiz in southern Spain), and islands off the Atlantic coast.]
“The poet [Homer] informed through his inquiries of so many expeditions to the outermost parts of Iberia, and learning by hearsay about the wealth and the other good attributes of the country (for the Phoinikes [i.e. Phoenicians] were making these facts known), in fancy placed the abode of the Blest there, and also the Elysian Plain (pedion Elysion), where Proteus says Menelaos will go and make his home : `But the deathless gods will escort thee to the Elysion Plain and the ends of the earth, where is Rhadamanthys of the fair hair, where life is easiest. No snow is there, nor yet great storm, nor ever any rain; but always Okeanos sendeth forth the breezes of clear-blowing Zephyros.’ For both the pure air and the gentle breezes of Zephyros (the West Wind) properly belong to this country, since the country is not only in the west but also warm; and the phrase ‘at the ends of the earth’ properly belongs to it, where Haides has been ‘mythically placed,’ as we say. And Homer’s citing of Rhadamanthys suggests the region that is near Minos, concerning whom he says : `There it was I saw Minos, glorious son of Zeus, holding a golden scepter rendering decisions to the dead.’ Furthermore, the poets who came after Homeros keep dinning into our ears similar stories . . . even calling by name certain Islands of the Blest (Nesoi Makaron), which, as we know, are still now pointed out, not very far from the headlands of Maurousia that lie opposite to Gades [in southern Iberia].”
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 19. 11 – 13 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
[The following pseudo-historical legend identifies the mythical Island of the Blessed with a certain island sacred to Akhilleus at the mouth of the river Danube.]
“A story too I will tell which I know the people of Krotona [a Greek colony in Italy] tell about Helene. The people of Himera too agree with this account. In the Euxine [Black Sea] at the mouths of the Ister [i.e. the Danube] is an island sacred to Akhilleus. It is called White Island (nesos Leuke), and its circumference is twenty stades. It is wooded throughout and abounds in animals, wild and tame, while on it is a temple of Akhilleus with an image of him.
The first to sail thither legend says was Leonymos of Krotona [historical figure late C7th, early C6th B.C.]. For when war had arisen between the people of Krotona and the Lokroi in Italy, the Lokroi, in virtue of the relationship between them and the Opountians, called upon [the mythical Trojan war hero] Aias (Ajax) son of Oileus to help them in battle. So Leonymos the general of the people of Krotona attacked his enemy at that point where he heard that Aias was posted in the front line. Now he was wounded in the breast, and weak with his hurt came to Delphoi. When he arrived the Pythian priestess sent Leonynios to White Island, telling him that there Aias would appear to him and cure his wound.
In time he was healed and returned from White Island, where, he used to declare, he saw Akhilleus, as well as Aias the son of Oileus and Aias the son of Telamon. With them, he said, were Patroklos and Antilokhos; Helene was wedded to Akhilleus, and had bidden him sail to Stesikhoros at Himera [historical poet], and announce that the loss of his sight was caused by her wrath.”
Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 53. 5 :
“As to Rhadamanthys himself, Homer says, in the talk of Proteus with Menelaus, that Menelaus would go to the Elysian plain, but that Rhadamanthys was already arrived there.”
Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 27 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
“After the passage of time, Artemis transferred Iphigeneia [from Tauros in Skythia] to what is called the White Island (Nesos Leuke) to be with Akhilleus and changed her into an ageless immortal deity, calling her Orsilokhia (Helper of Childbirth) instead of Iphigeneia. She became the companion of Akhilleus.”
Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 33 :
“Alkmene died of old age and the Heraklidai (Sons of Herakles) performed her obsequies. They dwelled by the Elektra Gate [at Thebes] where Herakles led his public life. Zeus sent Hermes, ordering him to steal Alkmene’s body and to take her to the Isles of the Blessed (Nesoi Makaron) and give her as wife to Rhadamanthys. Obeying, Hermes stole away Alkmene leaving a stone instead of her in the coffin. When the Heraklidai were carrying the casket, they found it to be very heavy. They put it on the ground and took off the lid. They found a stone instead of Alkmene. They took this and set it up in the grove where now stands the heroon of Alkmene in Thebes.”
Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 2. 549 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) :
“He [the hero Memnon] in Haides’ mansions, or perchance amid the Blessed on the Elysian Plain, laugheth.”
Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 3. 743 ff :
“Neoptolemos, whom after death to the Elysian Plain they [his immortal horses Xanthos and Balios] were to bear, unto the Blessed Land, by Zeus’ decree.”
Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 14. 223 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) :
“[The ghost of Akhilleus visits his son Neoptolemos in a dream, then returns to the Elysian fields :] Then as a wind-breath swift he [the ghost] fleeted thence, and came to the Elysian Plain (pedion Elysion), whereto a path to heaven reacheth, for the feet ascending and descending of the Blest.”
Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 5. 3 (trans. Conybeare) (Greek biography C1st to C2nd A.D.) :
“They say that the Islands of the Blessed are bounded by the limits of Libya and emerge toward the uninhabited promontory [of the Atlantic coast of Africa].”
Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History Book 4 (summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 190) (trans. Pearse) (Greek mythographer C1st to C2nd A.D.) :
“The fourth [book of Hephaestion] recounts that . . . there was born of Helene and Akhilleus in the Islands of the Blest (Nesoi Makaron) a winged child named Euphorion after the fertility of this land.”
Virgil, Aeneid 6. 628 – 897 :
[For Virgil’s description of the subterranean Elysium see the section “Afterlife Realm of the Virtuous Dead” below.]
Ovid, Metamorphoses 12. 619 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
“He [Akhilleus] never knows the Inania Tartara (Void of Hell).” [I.e. Never knows Haides, because he was transferred to Elysium.]
Ovid, Metamorphoses 11. 61 ff :
“Forth into the winds his spirit [the bard Orpheus after his death] passed . . . The ghost (umbra) of Orpheus passed to the Underworld, and all the places that he’s seen before he recognized again and, searching through the Elysian fields, he found Eurydice and took her in his arms with leaping heart. There hand in hand they stroll, the two together; sometimes he follows as she walks in front, sometimes he goes ahead and gazes back–no danger now–at his Eurydice.”
Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 1. 648 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :
“[The helmsman of the Argo dies during the voyage of the Argonauts :] Tiphys, never henceforth doest deserve that any mother pray that thou mayest find peace in Elysium and among the spirits of the holy dead.”
Servius, On Virgil’s Eclogues 7. 61 (Roman scholia C4th A.D.) :
According to Servius, the eponymous nymph of the White Island was Leuke, a daughter of Okeanos, who was carried off by Haides. After her death she was changed into a white poplar in Elysium. The white poplar was sacred to Hades. When Herakles returned form the underworld, he was crowned with poplar leaves.
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 19. 158 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :
“If you possess the flowery court of Rhadamanthys, and pick your dainty way in the groves and meadows of Elysion.”

AFTERLIFE REALM OF THE VIRTUOUS DEAD : THE SUBTERRANEAN ELYSIUM
Pindar, Dirges Fragment 129 (trans. Sandys) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :
“For them [in Elysium] the sun shineth in his strength, in the world below, while here ‘tis night; and, in meadows red with roses, the space before their city is shaded by the incense-tree, and is laden with golden fruits. Some of them delight themselves with horses and with wrestling; others with draughts, and with lures; while beside them bloometh the fair flower of perfect bliss. And o’er that lovely land fragrance is ever shed, while they mingle all manner of incense with the far-shining fire on the altar of the gods. From the other side sluggish streams of darksome night belch forth a boundless gloom [the adjacent realm of Haides].”
Pindar, Dirges Fragment 133 (from Plato Meno) :
“But, as for those from whom Persephone [queen of the underworld] shall exact the penalty of their pristine woe, in the ninth year she once more restoreth their souls to the upper sun-light; and from these come into being august monarchs, and men who are swift in strength and supreme in wisdom; and, for all future time, men call them sainted heroes.” [N.B. Pindar’s belief appears to be that after the death, the soul is judged in Haides, and, if found guiltless in life, passes to the subterranean Elysian fields. However, it must return twice again to earth, and suffer two more deaths of its body. Finally Persephone releases it and returns it to earth to inhabit the body of a king, a hero, or a sage. Now it is free from the necessity of further wanderings and passes at once to the Islands of the Blessed in the river Okeanos, the final resting place for the best of souls. Cf. Plato Meno 81a and Plato Phaedo 113d.]
Aristophanes, Frogs 316 ff (trans. O’Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B.C.) :
“[Comedy-Play in which Dionysos encounters a chorus of Eleusinian Initiates in Haides on their way to Elysium :]
Chorus [of the shades of Eleusinian Initiates] (in the distance) : O lakkhos! O lakkhos! O Iakkhos!
Xanthias : I have it, master : ’tis those blessed Mystics [the souls of those who were initiated into the Mysteries in life], of whom he told us, sporting hereabouts. They sing the Iakkhos which Diagoras made . . .
Chorus : O Iakkhos! power excelling, here in stately temples dwelling. O Iakkhos! O lakkhos! Come to tread this verdant level, come to dance in mystic revel, come whilst round thy forehead hurtles many a wreath of fruitful myrtles, come with wild and saucy paces mingling in our joyous dance, pure and holy, which embraces all the charms of all the Kharites (Graces), when the mystic choirs advance. . . . Come, arise, from sleep awaking, come the fiery torches shaking, O Iakkhos! O Iakkhos! . . . Call we now the youthful god [Iakkhos], call him hither without delay, him who travels amongst his Chorus, dancing along on the Sacred Way. O, come with the joy of thy festival song, O, come to the goddess, O, mix with our throng untired, though the journey be never so long. O Lord of the frolic and dance, lakkhos, beside me advance! For fun, and for cheapness, our dress thou hast rent, through thee we may dance to the top of our bent, reviling, and jeering, and none will resent. O Lord of the frolic and dance, lakkhos, beside me advance! A sweet pretty girl I observed in the show, her robe had been torn in the scuffle, and lo, there peeped through the tatters a bosom of snow. O Lord of the frolic and dance, lakkhos, beside me advance!”
[N.B. Iakkhos is the Eleusinian “Dionysos” or “Hermes” who leads the souls of Eleusinian initiates through the underworld to the Elysian plains.]
Aristophanes, Frogs 449 ff (trans. O’Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B.C.) :
“[The ghosts of the Eleusinian Initiates sing :] Now haste we to the roses [of Elysium], and the meadows full of posies, now haste we to the meadows in our own old way, in choral dances blending, in dances never ending, which only for the holy the Moirai (Destinies) array.”
Plato, Apology 40e (trans. Fowler) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :
“Sokrates : If death is, as it were, a change of habitation from here to some other place, and if what we are told is true, that all the dead are there, what greater blessing could there be, judges? For if a man when he reaches the other world, after leaving behind these who claim to be judges [i.e. the Athenian judges who tried Sokrates], shall find those who are really judges who are said to sit in judgment there, Minos and Rhadamanthus, and Aiakos and Triptolemos, and all the other demigods who were just men in their lives, would the change of habitation be undesirable? Or again, what would any of you give to meet with Orpheus and Musaios and Hesiod and Homer? I am willing to die many times over, if these things are true; for I personally should find the life there wonderful, when I met Palamedes or Ajax, the son of Telamon, or any other men of old who lost their lives through an unjust judgement, and compared my experience with theirs. I think that would not be unpleasant. And the greatest pleasure would be to pass my time in examining and investigating the people there [i.e. in Elysium], as I do those here, to find out who among them is wise and who thinks he is when he is not. What price would any of you pay, judges, to examine him who led the great army against Troy, or Odysseus, or Sisyphos, or countless others, both men and women, whom I might mention? To converse and associate with them and examine them would be immeasurable happiness. At any rate, the folk there do not kill people for it; since, if what we are told is true, they are immortal for all future time, besides being happier in other respects than men are here.”
Plato, Gorgias 523a (trans. Lamb) :
“Now in the time of Kronos there was a law concerning mankind, and it holds to this very day amongst the gods, that every man who has passed a just and holy life departs after his decease to the Isles of the Blest (Nesoi Makaron), and dwells in all happiness apart from ill; but whoever has lived unjustly and impiously goes to the dungeon of requital and penance which, you know, they call Tartaros. Of these men there were judges in Kronos’ time, and still of late in the reign of Zeus–living men to judge the living upon the day when each was to breathe his last; and thus the cases were being decided amiss. So Plouton [Haides] and the overseers from the Isles of the Blest came before Zeus with the report that they found men passing over to either abode undeserving. Then spake Zeus: `Nay,’ said he, `I will put a stop to these proceedings. The cases are now indeed judged ill and it is because they who are on trial are tried in their clothing, for they are tried alive. Now many,’ said he, `who have wicked souls are clad in fair bodies and ancestry and wealth, and at their judgement appear many witnesses to testify that their lives have been just. Now, the judges are confounded not only by their evidence but at the same time by being clothed themselves while they sit in judgement, having their own soul muffled in the veil of eyes and ears and the whole body. Thus all these are a hindrance to them, their own habiliments no less than those of the judged.’
`Well, first of all,’ he said, `we must put a stop to their foreknowledge of their death; for this they at present foreknow. However, Prometheus has already been given the word to stop this in them. Next they must be stripped bare of all those things before they are tried; for they must stand their trial dead. Their judge also must be naked, dead, beholding with very soul the very soul of each immediately upon his death, bereft of all his kin and having left behind on earth all that fine array, to the end that the judgement may be just. Now I, knowing all this before you, have appointed sons of my own to be judges; two from Asia, Minos and Rhadamanthys, and one from Europe, Aiakos. These, when their life is ended, shall give judgement in the meadow at the dividing of the road, whence are the two ways leading, one to the Isles of the Blest (Nesoi Makaron), and the other to Tartaros. And those who come from Asia shall Rhadamanthys try, and those from Europe, Aiakos; and to Minos I will give the privilege of the final decision, if the other two be in any doubt; that the judgement upon this journey of mankind may be supremely just . . .
When a man’s soul is stripped bare of the body, all its natural gifts, and the experiences added to that soul as the result of his various pursuits, are manifest in it. So when they have arrived in presence of their judge, they of Asia before Rhadamanthys, these Rhadamanthys sets before him and surveys the soul of each, not knowing whose it is . . . [and perceiving a wicked soul, he sends it to Tartaros.]
Sometimes, when he discerns another soul that has lived a holy life in company with truth, a private man’s or any others . . . he is struck with admiration and sends it off to the Isles of the Blest (Nesoi Makaron). And exactly the same is the procedure of Aiakos : each of these two holds a rod in his hand as he gives judgement; but Minos sits as supervisor, distinguished by the golden scepter that he holds, as Odysseus in Homer tells how he saw him–`Holding a golden scepter, speaking dooms to the dead.'”
Plato, Meno 81a ff (trans. Lamb) :
“Sokrates : There were certain priests and priestesses who have studied so as to be able to give a reasoned account of their ministry [i.e. the priests of the Mysteries]; and Pindar also and many another poet of heavenly gifts. As to their words, they are these : mark now, if you judge them to be true. They say that the soul of man is immortal, and at one time comes to an end, which is called dying, and at another is born again, but never perishes [i.e. the soul is reincarnated]. Consequently one ought to live all one’s life in the utmost holiness. `For from whomsoever Persephone shall accept requital for ancient wrong, the souls of these she restores in the ninth year to the upper sun again; from them arise glorious kings and men of splendid might and surpassing wisdom, and for all remaining time are they called holy heroes amongst mankind.'” [N.B. “Ancient wrongs,” in Greek penthos (or “affliction”) means something like “fall” or “sin” in mystic language. These lines are probably from one of Pindar’s Dirges. The “holy heroes” are the best of souls who dwell in the Islands of the Blessed, the penultimate Elysian realm.]
Plato, Phaedo 107c (trans. Fowler) :
“Sokrates : But now, since the soul is seen to be immortal, it cannot escape from evil or be saved in any other way than by becoming as good and wise as possible. For the soul takes with it to the other world nothing but its education and nurture, and these are said to benefit or injure the departed greatly from the very beginning of his journey thither. And so it is said that after death, the tutelary genius (daimon) of each person, to whom he had been allotted in life, leads him to a place where the dead are gathered together [i.e. the daimon guide is Plato’s equivalent of Hermes, Guide of the Dead]; then they are judged [i.e. by the Judges of the Dead] and depart to the other world with the guide whose task it is to conduct thither those who come from this world; and when they have there received their due and remained through the time appointed, another guide brings them back after many long periods of time [i.e. they are reincarnated]. And the journey is . . . neither simple nor single, for if it were, there would be no need of guides, since no one could miss the way to any place if there were only one road. But really there seem to be many forks of the road and many windings; this I infer from the rites and ceremonies practiced here on earth [e.g. in the Eleusinian Mysteries]. Now the orderly and wise soul follows its guide and understands its circumstances . . . The soul which is impure and has done wrong, by committing wicked murders or other deeds akin to those . . . is carried by necessity to its fitting habitation [i.e. the prison of Tartaros]. But the soul that has passed through life in purity and righteousness, finds gods for companions and guides, and goes to dwell in its proper dwelling [i.e. the Elysian fields].”
Plato, Phaedo 113d ff :
“Now when the dead have come to the place where each is led by his genius (daimon) [i.e. by Plato’s equivalent of Hermes, Guide of the Dead], first they are judged and sentenced [i.e. by the Judges of the Dead], as they have lived well and piously, or not. And those who are found to have lived neither well nor ill, go to the Akheron and, embarking upon vessels provided for them [i.e. the equivalent of Kharon’s skiff], arrive in them at the lake; there they dwell and are purified [i.e. by the equivalent of the Erinyes], and if they have done any wrong they are absolved by paying the penalty for their wrong doings [i.e. in Tartaros], and for their good deeds they receive rewards, each according to his merits [i.e. in Elysium]. But those who appear to be incurable, on account of the greatness of their wrongdoings . . . are cast by their fitting destiny into Tartaros, whence they never emerge . . .
But those who are found to have excelled in holy living are freed from these regions within the earth and are released as from prisons; they mount upward into their pure abode and dwell upon the earth [i.e. in the Islands of the Blessed, the higher Elysium]. And of these, all who have duly purified themselves by philosophy live henceforth altogether without bodies, and pass to still more beautiful abodes which it is not easy to describe, nor have we now time enough.”
Plato, Theaetetus 176a (trans. Fowler) :
“Sokrates : Through their unrighteous acts they [men] are made like the one and unlike the other. They therefore pay the penalty for this by living a life that conforms to the pattern they resemble; and if we tell them that, unless they depart from their ‘cleverness,’ the blessed place that is pure of all things evil [i.e. Elysium] will not receive them after death, and here on earth they will always live the life like themselves–evil men associating with evil.”
Plato, Republic 468e (trans. Shorey) :
“Of those who die on campaign, if anyone’s death has been especially glorious, shall we not, to begin with, affirm that he belongs to the Golden Race (genos khryseos) . . . And shall we not believe Hesiod who tells us that when anyone of this race dies, so it is that they become `Hallowed spirits dwelling on earth, averters of evil, guardians watchful and good of articulate-speaking mortals’ . . . We will inquire of Apollon, then, how and with what distinction we are to bury men of more than human, of divine, qualities, and deal with them according to his response . . . And ever after we will bestow on their graves the tendance and worship paid to spirits divine. And we will practice the same observance when any who have been adjudged exceptionally good in the ordinary course of life die of old age or otherwise.” [N.B. Heroes, like the men of the Golden Age, are transferred to the higher Elysian realm.]
Plato, Republic 540b-c :
“[Plato’s ideal state is ruled by wise philosophers who at death are transferred to the Elysian fields as demi-gods :] Throughout the remainder of their lives, each in his turn, devoting the greater part of their time to the study of philosophy, but when the turn comes for each, toiling in the service of the state and holding office for the city’s sake, regarding the task not as a fine thing but a necessity; and so, when each generation has educated others like themselves to take their place as guardians of the state, they shall depart to the Islands of the Blest and there dwell. And the state shall establish public memorials and sacrifices for them as to divinities if the Pythian oracle approves or, if not, as to daimones and godlike men . . . And on the women too . . . for you must not suppose that my words apply to the men more than to all women who arise among them endowed with the requisite qualities.”
Virgil, Aeneid 5. 731 ff (trans. Fairclough) (Roman epic C1st B.C.) :
“[The ghost of Ankhises appears to his son Aeneas in a dream :] `Approach the nether halls of Dis [Haides], and through the depths of Avernus seek, my son, a meeting with me. For impious Tartarus, with its gloomy shades, holds me not, but I dwell in Elysium amid the sweet assemblies of the blest. Hither, with much blood of black sheep, the pure Sibylla will lead you.'”
Virgil, Aeneid 6. 530 ff :
“[The Sibylla guides Aeneas through the realms of Haides :] `Here is the place, where the road parts : there to the right, as it runs under the walls of great Dis [Haides], is our way to Elysium, but the left wreaks the punishment of the wicked, and send them on to pitiless Tartarus.'”
Virgil, Aeneid 6. 628 – 897 :
“[The Sibylla guides Aeneas through the underworld to the Elysian plains :] The aged priestess of Phoebus . . . : `But come now, hasten your step and fulfil the task in hand. Let us hasten. I descry the ramparts reared by Cyclopean forges and the gates with fronting arch, where they bid us lay the appointed gifts [i.e. these are the gates of Elysium].’ She ended, and, advancing side by side along the dusky way, they haste over the mid-space and draw near the doors. Aeneas wins the entrance, sprinkles his body with fresh water, and plants the bough full on the threshold.
This at length performed and the task of the goddess fulfilled, they came to a land of joy, the pleasant lawns and happy seats of the Blissful Groves. Here an ampler ether clothes the meads with roseate light, and they know their own sun, and stars of their own. Some disport their limbs on the grassy wrestling ground, vie in sports, and grapple on the yellow sand; some tread the rhythm of a dance and chant songs. There, too, the long-robed Thracian priest [Orpheus] matches their measures with the seven clear notes, striking the lyre now with his fingers, now with is ivory quill. Here is Teucer’s ancient line, family most fair, high-souled heroes born in happier years–Ilus and Assaracus and Dardanus, Troy’s founder. From afar he marvels at their phantom arms and chariots. Their lances stand fixed in the ground, and their unyoked steeds browse freely over the plain. The same pride in chariot and arms that was theirs in life, the same care in keeping sleek steeds, attends them now that they are hidden beneath the earth. Others he sees, to right and left, feasting on the sward, and chanting in chorus a joyous paean within a fragrant laurel grove, from where the full flood of the Eridanus rolls upward through the forest.
Here is the band of those who suffered wounds, fighting for their country; those who in lifetime were priests and pure, good bards, whose songs were meet for Phoebus; or they who ennobled life by arts discovered and they who by service have won remembrance among men–the brows of all bound with headbands white as snow. These, as they streamed round, the Sibylla thus addressed, Musaeus [a poet of the Orphic Mysteries] before all; for he is centre of that vast throng that gazes up to him, as with shoulders high he towers aloft : `Say, happy souls, and you, best of bards, what land, what place holds Anchises? For his sake are we come, and have sailed across the great rivers of Erebus.’ And to her the hero thus made brief reply : `None has a fixed home. We dwell in shady groves, and live on cushioned riverbanks and in meadows fresh with streams. But if the wish in your heart so inclines, surmount this ridge, and soon I will set you on an easy path.’ He spoke and stepped on before, and from above points out the shining fields. Then they leave the mountaintops.
But deep in a green vale father Anchises was surveying with earnest thought the imprisoned souls that were to pass to the light above and, as it chanced, was counting over the full number of his people and beloved children, their fates and fortunes, their works and ways. And as he saw Aeneas coming towards him over the sward, he eagerly stretched forth both hands, while tears streamed from his eyes and a cry fell from his lips . . . [he greets his son.]
Meanwhile, in a retired vale, Aeneas sees a sequestered grove and rustling forest thickets, and the river Lethe drifting past those peaceful homes. About it hovered peoples and tribes unnumbered; even as when, in the meadows, in cloudless summertime, bees light on many-hued blossoms and stream round lustrous lilies and all the fields murmur with the humming. Aeneas is startled by the sudden sight and, knowing not, asks the cause–what is that river yonder, and who are the men thronging the banks in such a host? Then said father Anchises : `Spirits they are, to whom second bodies are owed by Fate, and at the water of Lethe’s stream they drink the soothing draught and long forgetfulness. These in truth I have long yearned to tell and show you to your face, yea, to count this, my children’s seed, that so you may rejoice with me the more at finding Italy.’ `But, father, must we think that any souls pass aloft from here to the world above and return a second time to bodily fetters? What mad longing for life possesses their sorry hearts?’ `I will surely tell you, my son, and keep you not in doubt,” Anchises replies and reveals each truth in order.
`First, know that heaven and earth and the watery plains the moon’s bright sphere and Titan’s star, a spirit within sustains; in all the limbs mind moves the mass and mingles with the mighty frame. Thence springs the races of man and beast, the life of winged creatures, and the monsters that ocean bears beneath his marble surface. Fiery is the vigour and divine the source of those seeds of life, so far as harmful bodies clog them not, or earthly limbs and frames born but to die. Hence their fears and desires, their griefs and joys; nor do they discern the heavenly light, penned as they are in the gloom of their dark dungeon. Still more! When life’s last ray has fled, the wretches are not entirely freed from all evil and all the plagues of the body; and it needs must be that many a taint, long ingrained, should in wondrous wise become deeply rooted in their being. Therefore are they schooled with punishments, and pay penance for bygone sins. Some are hung stretched out to the empty winds; from others the stain of guilt is washed away under swirling floods or burned out by fire till length of days, when time’s cycle is complete, has removed the inbred taint and leaves unsoiled the ethereal sense and pure flame of spirit: each of us undergoes his own purgatory. Then we are sent to spacious Elysium, a few of us to possess the blissful fields. All these that you see, when they have rolled time’s wheel through a thousand years, the god summons in vast throng to Lethe’s river, so that, their memories effaced, they may once more revisit the vault above and conceive the desire of return to the body.’
Anchises paused, and drew his son and with him the Sibylla into the heart of the assembly and buzzing throng, then chose a mound whence he might scan face to face the whole of the long procession and note their faces as they came. `Now then, the glory henceforth to attend the Trojan race, what children of Italian stock are held in store by fate, glorious souls waiting to inherit our name, this shall I reveal in speech and inform you of your destiny . . . [Ankhises points out to Aeneas the souls of the great Roman kings and heroes yet to be born.]’ Thus they wander at large over the whole region in the wide airy plain, taking note of all . . .
Two gates of Sleep there are [in Elysium] , whereof the one, they say, is horn and offers a ready exit to true shades, the other shining with the sheen of polished ivory, but delusive dreams issue upward through it from the world below. Thither Anchises, discoursing thus, escorts his son and with him the Sibylla, and sends them forth by the ivory gate: Aeneas speeds his way to the ships and rejoins his comrade.”
Virgil, Georgics 1. 39 ff (trans. Fairclough) (Roman bucolic C1st B.C.) :
“Greece is enchanted by the Elysian fields, and Proserpine [Persephone] reclaimed [by Haides] cares not to follow her mother [Demeter].”
Propertius, Elegies 4. 7 (trans. Goold) (Roman elegy C1st B.C.) :
“For two abodes have been appointed along the foul river [Akheron], and the whole host rows this way or that. One passage conveys the adulterous Clytemnestra, and carries the Cretan queen [Pasiphae] whose guile contrived the wooden monstrosity of a cow. But see, the other group are hurried off in a garlanded vessel, where a happy breeze gently fans the roses of Elysium.”
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 4. 36 (trans. Bostock) (Roman encyclopedia C1st A.D.) :
“Opposite to Celtiberia are a number of islands, by the Greeks called Cassiterides, in consequence of their abounding in tin: and, facing the Promontory of the Arrotrebae, are the six Islands of the Gods, which some persons have called the Fortunate Islands.” [N.B. Pliny identifies the mythical Islands of the Blessed with actual (unidentified) islands in the Atlantic Ocean.]
Statius, Thebaid 1. 295 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :
“[The ghost] whom by the law of Erebus [Haides] profound the further bank of Lethe [i.e. Elysium] hath not yet received.”
Statius, Thebaid 3. 107 ff :
[The boy Maion killed himself in answer to an oracle that his death would avert sack of Thebes. As a reward for his piety he was sent to Elysium, a place whichthe ghosts of his dead countrymen were banned from since the land was under the curse of the Erinyes. :]
“Now far removed from Tartarean Avernus go thou [Maion] and roam the Elysian regions, where the sky admits not Ogygian souls . . . thy raiment and thy limbs [of his corpse] endure, left inviolate by gory beasts, and the forest and the birds with sorrowing awe watch o’er thee, as thou liest beneath the naked sky.”
Statius, Thebaid 4. 410 ff :
“[Teiresias invokes the spirits of the dead in the rites of necromancy :] Haste ye all together, nor let there be fore the Shades but one fashion of return to the light; do thou, daughter of Perses [Hekate], and the cloud-wrapt Arcadian [Hermes] with rod of power lead in separate throng the pious denizens of Elysium; but for those who died in crime, who in Erebus, as among the seed of Cadmus, are most in number, be thou their leader, [Erinys] Tisiphone.”
Statius, Thebaid 8. 1 ff :
“[The seer Amphiaraus was swallowed up by the earth, descending directly into Haides :] When on a sudden the prophet [Amphiaraus] fell among the pallid Manes (Shades), and burst into the homes of death and the mysteries of the deep-sunken realm, and affrighted the Manes (Ghosts) with his armed corpse . . . Not yet had the Eumenis [Erinys] met and purified him with branch of yew, not had Proserpine [Persephone] marked him on the dusky door-post as admitted to the company of the dead; nay his presence surprised the very distaff of the Fatae [Moirai, fates], and not till in terror beheld the augur did the Parcae [Moirai] break the thread. At the noise of his coming the care-free Elysian folk gazed round about them, and they whom in the remoter gulf a deeper night and a blind region of denser Shades o’erwhelms.”
Statius, Thebaid 8. 190 ff :
“Hath the lord of Avernus [Haides] in pity granted thee [the hero Amphiaraus] to watch Elysian birds in the groves of the blessed?”
Statius, Achilleid 1. 824 ff :
“Beneath the rocks of Aetna in Sicily Diana [Artemis] and bold Pallas [Athene] and [Persephone] the consort of the Elysian monarch shine forth among the Nymphae of Enna.”
Statius, Silvae 2. 1. 195 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman poetry C1st A.D.) :
“Pacing the shores of Lethe’s stream, he [Hermes, guide of souls] silently drew near him [the ghost of the dead boy] and plucked at his garment’s edge . . . [and] raised him from the ground and fastened him about his mighty shoulders, and a long while carried him rejoicing upon his arm, and offered him such gifts as kindly Elysium bears, sterile boughs and songless birds and pale flowers with bruised blossoms. Nor does he forbid him to remember thee, but fondly blends heart h with hearth, and takes part in turn in the affection of the lad.”
Statius, Silvae 3. 3. 21 ff :
“Exult, ye placid Ghosts (Manes) by the streams of Lethe, rejoice, Elysian abodes! Enwreathe the shrines, and let festal altars gladden the place groves. ‘Tis a happy shade that is coming, ay, too happy, for his son laments him. Avaunt, ye hissing Furiae [Erinyes], avaunt the threefold guardian [Kerberos]! Let the long road lie clear for the peerless spirits. Let him come, and approach the awful throne of the silent monarch [Haides] and pay his last due of gratitude and anxiously request for his son a long life.”
Statius, Silvae 3. 4. 37 ff :
“I was near snatched away to the Stygian shades, and already heard close at hand the stream of Lethe [i.e. the border of Elysium].”
Statius, Silvae 5. 3. 24 ff :
“In the secluded grassy meads of Lethe [i.e. Elysium], among gatherings of heroes and spirits of the blest.”
Statius, Silvae 5. 1. 192 ff :
“So shall I behold neither Furiae [Erinyes, furies] nor dire Tartarus, but be admitted, a blessed soul, to Elysian regions.”
Statius, Silvae 5. 1. 253 ff :
“Whenever a shade approaches that has won the praise of a loving spouse, Proserpine [Persephone] bids summon joyful torches, and the heroines of old come forth from hallowed bowers and scatter the shades of gloom in radiant light, and strew garlands and Elysian flowers before her.”
Statius, Silvae 5. 3. 24 ff :
“In the secluded grassy meads of Lethe [i.e. Elysium], among gatherings of heroes and spirits of the blest, thou dost attend the Maeonian and Ascraean sages [Homer and Hesiod], thyself no feebler shade, and makest music in thy turn and minglest thy song with theirs.”
Statius, Silvae 5. 3. 260 ff :
“[A prayer for a father who has passed away, wishing him a speedy passage to Elysium :] The gate of death was not dark for thee: gentle was thy passing . . . a tranquil unconsciousness and death that counterfeited slumber set free thy soul, and bore thee to Tartarus [Haides] under the false semblance of repose. Ah! What groans I uttered then! . . . What lamentation did I make! . . . But do ye, O monarchs of the dead and thou, Ennean Juno [Persephone], if ye approve my prayer, send far away [from the shade of my father] the Eumenides’ [Erinyes’] brands and snaky locks! Let the warder of the gate [Kerberos] make no fierce barking, let distant vales conceal the Centauri and Hydra’s multitude and Scylla’s monstrous horde [i.e. the other monstrous guardians of Haides], and scattering the throng [i.e. other ghosts],–let the ferryman of the dead [Kharon] invite to the bank the aged Shade (Mane), and lay him gently to rest amid the grasses. Go, spirits of the blest and troops of Grecian bards, shower Lethaean garlands on the illustrious soul [Lethe was the river-border of Elysium], and point him to the [Elysian] grove where no Erinys disturbs, where there is day like ours and air most like to the air of heaven. Thence mayst thou pass to where the better gate of horn o’ercomes the envious ivory, and in the semblance of a dream teach me what thou wert ever wont to teach [i.e. true dreams pass through the gate of horn in the underworld].”
Apuleius, The Golden Ass 9. 22 ff (trans. Walsh) (Roman novel C2nd A.D.) :
“By now Sol [Helios the sun] had glided down beneath Oceanus, and was giving light to the regions of the world below the earth [i.e. subterranean Elysium].”
Apuleius, The Golden Ass 11. 222 ff :
“[Isis appears in the guise of Persephone and addresses the new Initiate to her Mysteries :] You will dwell in the Elysian fields, while I, whom you now behold, shine brightly in the darkness of Acheron and reign in the inner Stygian depths.”
Suidas s.v. Makaria (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) :
“Makaria (Blessed). Death. A daughter of Haides. And a proverb : ‘Go to blessedness’, instead of go to misery and utter destruction. Or ‘Go to blessedness’ is said by euphemism. Since even the dead are called ‘blessed ones.'” [N.B. Makaria is presumably the goddess of Elysion, also known as Makaron, the Land “of the Blessed.” Cf. Leuke, in Servius above, another personification of the realm.]

THE UNDERWORLD
Underworld, the kingdom of the dead, was the realm of Hades and his queen, Persephone. Hades was very disinclined to let his subjects leave and – with very few exceptions – the only creatures who were allowed to freely go in and out were the Erinyes, also known as the Furies. The Underworld is separated from the world above by five rivers:
• Acheron – the river of woe
• Cocytus – the river of lamentation
• Phlegethon – the river of fire
• Styx – the river of unbreakable oath by which the gods swear
• Lethe – the river of forgetfulness.
According to the Iliad, written by the ancient poet Homer, the Underworld is located beneath the secret places of the earth; in the Odyssey (also written by Homer) the way down there lies over the edge of the world across Ocean. In later poems there are various entrances to it through caves and beside deep lakes.
According to Homer the Underworld is a shadowy place where nothing is real, but rather a soul’s existence there is like a miserable dream. Later poets describe it more and more vividly and it becomes a place where the evil are punished and the good rewarded. Of all the poets, the Roman Virgil tells of the geography of the underworld in greatest detail. Hermes leads the souls down the path to the underworld, to where Acheron pours into Cocytus. There the ancient boatman, Charon, ferries the souls across. Charon only ferries those who can pay for his service, with the money placed on their lips during their funeral. Those who cannot pay are trapped between two worlds and must wait a hundred years before Charon ferries them for free.
Once on the other bank the souls face Cerberus, a three-headed dog with snake and dragon heads for its tail. His job is to guard the gates to the underworld. Cerberus will allow all to go in, but none to leave. Upon its arrival, each soul is brought before three judges: Rhadamanthus, Minos and Aeacus who pass sentence and either send them to eternal torment in a part of the Underworld named after its master, Hades, or to a place of blessedness, the Elysian Fields, sometimes said to not even be located in the Underworld.
Somewhere in the Underworld lies the great palace of Hades (Pluto). Other than saying that it is many-gated and crowded with guests, no writer describes it. Around it are wide wastes, wan and cold, and meadows of asphodel, presumably strange, pallid, ghostly flowers. After death there is no annihilation in Greek Mythology. The dead are dead because they have a flavorless and unhappy existence in the Underworld. Those who are practically dead but exist and dwell in all happiness in the Isles of the Blest or Elysium, are called Immortals. So life and death are qualities of existence, not lack of it.
Oceanus and Styx.
Between the world of the living and that of the dead there are, it is said, great rivers and dread streams. First, greatest and outermost is Oceanus, which winds about the earth and the sea with nine rings, but is also a subterranean river. The river Styx (river of Hate), which is a primordial figure too (daughter of Oceanus), is a branch of Oceanus and a tenth part of his water is allotted to her. So Styx, which flows out from a rock, is the tenth ring, though some say that Styx itself corrals the souls in the Underworld with nine rings. The Oath of the Gods.
Styx, daughter of Oceanus, was the first to come to Olympus and, together with her children, supported the gods in their war against the TITANS. For this reason Zeus caused oaths to be sworn by the water of Styx. If any of the gods pours a libation of her water and is forsworn, he/she lies breathless for a year, never tastes Ambrosia and Nectar and lies down spiritless and voiceless. After spending thus one year in sickness he/she is cut off for nine years from the god’s councils and feasts and cannot return until the tenth year. Such is the oath of Styx, which could be expressed thus:
“Now let my witness be Earth, and the wide Heaven above, and the down-flowing waters of Styx, which is the greatest and most dread oath for the blessed gods, and your own sacred head, and our own bridal couch, by which I would never dare to forswear myself – that not by my will is Poseidon doing Hector and the Trojans harm and helping their enemies.” [Hera to Zeus]
“Now let Earth be my witness, with the broad Heaven above, and the down-flowing waters of Styx -the greatest and most solemn oath the blessed gods can take- that I harbor no secret plans to hurt you.” [Calypso 3 to Odysseus]
“Now hear this, Earth and wide Heaven above, and dropping water of Styx (this is the strongest and most awful oath for the blessed gods), surely Apollo shall have here his fragrant altar and precinct, and you he shall honor above all.” [Leto to Delos, the island]
“…For -be witness the oath of the gods, the relentless water of Styx- I would have made your son deathless and unaging all his days…but now he can in no way escape death…” [Demeter to Metanira] or thus:
“And may that Stygian pool whereby gods swear, but which my eyes have never seen, be witness of my promise.” [Helius to Phaethon 3]
Other Rivers.
Styx is sometimes considered to be the river the souls must cross to enter the realm of the dead, though at other times it appears that the souls may cross the river Acheron (river of Woe), or embarking here in vessels and navigating its stream, come to the Acherusian Lake. Some say that it is in this lake that the ferryman Charon takes the two obols for the fare. According to some into Acheron flow Pyriphlegethon (river of Fire) and Cocytus (river of Wailing), which is a branch of the Styx. But others say that the river Acheron, turbid with mud, pours all its sand into the stream of Cocytus and the place where all these rivers meet is known as the Stygian marsh.
Still others say that these rivers have no bottom or foundation and that they, coming in and out from Tartarus, oscillate and wave up and down from one side of the earth to the other. The river Acheron, which flows through various desert places, is said to come to the Acherusian Lake, where the souls of most of the dead remain, some for a longer time, some for a shorter, until they are reborn. The river Pyriphlegethon, which is a stream of lava rolling in its torrent clashing rocks, also builds a large lake boiling with water and mud. Pyriphlegethon comes to the edge of the Acherusian lake, but does not mingle with its water and neither does the Styx, which coming close to the Acherusian Lake, passes round in a circle and falls back into Tartarus under the name of Cocytus.
Tartarus, Cosmic Place.
Tartarus is the lowest abyss beneath the earth where all waters originate; all rivers flow into the chasm of Tartarus and flow out of it again. Tartarus is, they say, a gloomy place as far distant from earth as earth is from the sky. For, it is said, a brazen anvil falling down from heaven nine nights and days would reach the earth upon the tenth: and again, a brazen anvil falling from earth nine nights and days would reach Tartarus upon the tenth. Still others say that Tartarus yawns deep under the shades, extending down twice as far as the view upward to Heaven. Tartarus and the Underworld are the realm of Erebus, which is pure Darkness.
Tartarus, Place of Punishment.
Tartarus is also a place of punishment. Round it runs a fence of bronze, and night spreads in triple line all about it. Some say that the gates are of iron and the threshold of bronze, and others that there is a threefold wall around it. Around this triple wall flows Pyriphlegethon with its flames and its clashing rocks. The entrance, in which there is an enormous portal has pillars of solid adamant that not even the gods could break. At the top of its tower of Iron sits the Erinye Tisiphone 1, with her bloody robe, and sleepless day and night, guards the entrance.
Arrival to Hades.
As men and women die Hermes leads their souls to the Underworld, past the streams of Oceanus, past the White Rock (Leucas), past the Gates of the Sun and the Land of Dreams, until they reach the Asphodel Fields, where the spirits dwell living the flavourless existence of a shadow or phantom. This is not a place of punishment, but there is no pleasure and the mind is confused and oblivious (with the exception of Tiresias).
In the Entrance.
Before the entrance to Hades live Grief and Anxiety, along with Diseases and Old Age (Geras). Also Fear and Hunger and Death and Agony and Hypnos (Sleep), brother of Death, dwell in this place together with Guilty Joys. On an opposite threshold is War, the ERINYES and Eris (Discord). Close to the doors many other beasts dwell: CENTAURS, GORGONS, the Hydra from Lerna, the Chimera, the HARPIES, and others. In the midst of all this an Elm can be seen and False Dreams cling under every leaf.
Charon.
The dead seem to know the location of Hades less than the living, as several entrances to Hades were known from all times (one of them is in Taenarum, another in Cumae; Odysseus arrived to Hades navigating the stream of Oceanus). The souls descending to Hades carry a coin under the tongue in order to pay Charon, the ferryman who ferries them across the river. Charon may make exceptions or allowances for those visitors carrying a certain Golden Bough. Otherwise is this Charon appallingly filthy, with eyes like jets of fire, a bush of unkempt beard upon his chin, and a dirty cloak hanging from his shoulders. However, although Charon embarks now one group now another, some souls he keeps at distance. These are the unburied: none may be taken across from bank to bank if he had not
received burial.

CHARON FERRIES THE SOULS OF THE DEAD
On the other bank.
Across the river or, as some say guarding the gates of Hades, is Cerberus, the bronze-voiced hound, who eats raw flesh and has fifty heads. Others say that this hound has three heads of dogs, the tail of a dragon and on his back the heads of all sorts of snakes. Cerberus 1 was once caught by Heracles. On another occasion someone eluded his guarding instinct throwing him a cake of honey and wheat infused with sedative drugs. Then several categories of souls appear in this neutral zone or Limbo, which could be the same as the Asphodel Fields. Children are by themselves, and so are those who have been condemned to death on a false charge and those who killed themselves. Next comes the Vale of Mourning where those who were consumed by unhappy love dwell, and in the farthest fields, before the dividing road, are those who were famous in war.
The Dividing Road and the Judges of the Dead.
Some say that the soul receives judgment in the meadow (the Plain of Judgment) at the dividing of the road, whence are the two ways leading, one to the Isles of the Blest (or Elysium), and the other to Tartarus.
Those who pass judgment are Aeacus, former King of Aegina, Minos 2, former King of Crete, and Rhadamanthys, brother of Minos 2. Aeacus, who keeps the keys of Hades, judges those who come from Europe and Rhadamanthys the Asians, but Minos 2 has the privilege of the final decision. However those who suffer a punishment in the Underworld have been condemned by the gods.
Punishments for the wicked.
The most wicked and the worst criminals are cast into Tartarus, whence they never emerge. Others, who have committed great wrongs but who nevertheless are curable, are thrown into

Tartarus where they remain for some time until the waves, either of Cocytus or of Pyriphlegethon cast them out again. They then are carried by the currents to the Acherusian Lake, where they beg to those whom they have wronged to be gracious and let them come out into the lake. If they prevail and their prayers are heard by those who had been outraged by them, they may come out and their ills cease, but if not they return to Tartarus starting all over again until they prevail upon those whom they have wronged. This penalty is imposed upon them by the Judges.
Elysium (Elysian Fields).
There is then a spot where the way forks in two directions, the right-hand leading, under the Palace of Hades, to Elysium, and the left-hand taking down to Tartarus. Elysium is a happy place which has a sun and stars of its own. The souls in Elysium cannot be grasped and are like phantoms and in this they do not differ from those dwelling in the Asphodel Fields. Those who dwell in Elysium exercise upon grassy playing-fields or wrestle friendly on yellow sands; some dance and others sing or chant poems. Orpheus is here and Musaeus, who wrote songs and poems and uttered oracles. Some say several members of the Trojan Royal House dwell here. All these live in groves and make their beds on river-banks and may wander in luminous plains and green valleys.
Reincarnation from Elysium.
According to some in Elysium, which is considered to be ruled by Cronos, live also those who are not yet born. These souls swarm along the banks of the river Lethe (Oblivion).
Tartarus was spawned from the primordial chaos. It was at once both a place deep beneath even the underworld and a personification of the place. So dark and sunless was Tartarus that its gloom had its own personification – Erebus. It was said that to reach Tartarus an anvil dropped from the surface would fall for nine days. Tartarus was the ultimate place of imprisonment, it was surrounded by a bronze fence with gates of iron; the Hecatoncheires (100-handed ones) were its guards. When Gaea gave birth to several horrible monsters, including the Hecatoncheires and the Cyclopes, Uranus imprisoned them there. When Zeus and his followers defeated the Titans, Zeus also banished most of the Titans to Tartarus.

Herodotus’ Greeks of Scythia say the island called Gadira was situated in the big river called Oceanos, beyond the Columns of Hercules, close to Erythia island. Pliny says that further up from Gadira island the branches of a single tree could block the passing of the vessels. The second island, which Greek geographers called Gadira, was considered as identical with Erythia, the island renowned for its exuberant vegetation. Erythia, writes Apollodorus, is an island which today is called Gadira, In this island Geryon, Chrysaor’s son dwelt (Priscian, Stephanos Byzantinos, Eustathius, Strabo). But, according to Avienus, it was not the island Erythia, but a nearby place, and a fort situated on the top of a mountain which overlooked the strait, which had the name Gadir.

The island Cerne figures with Herodotus under the name of Cyraunis. It was situated near the Columns of Hercules. It was owned by the Carthaginese merchants. It was 200 stades long and narrow, full of olive trees and grape vines. According to Diodorus Siculus, the island Cerne was near the mountain Atlas, close to the Amazons. And according to Palaephat, Phorcys, the father of the Gorgons, of the Hesperides and the of the dragon who guarded the gold apples near Atlas mountain, was a native of the island Cerne. According to Pliny, the island Cerne was inhabited by the Ethiopians.

Homer mentions two ethnic groups of Ethiopians. Some of these dwelt in the east, while others dwelt near Oceanos potamos, the place where, according to the old traditions, the sun set. These latter Ethiopians are also called esperioi, westerners, or from the western regions (Strabonis), the most extreme people known to the Greeks, virtuous and saintly.

The western Ethiopians, or from nearby Oceanos potamos, are gods’ favourites. According to Stephanos Byzantinos they were the first to revere the gods, the first who used laws; and the founders of their civilisation had been Mithras and Phlegyas. Jove and all the gods attend their solemn banquets, when they sacrifice hundreds (hecatombs) of bulls and lambs (Homer).

With the poet Pindar, these Ethiopians appear under the name of Hyperboreans, and with Dionysius Periegetus, under the name of

Macrobii, or the long lived people. Hesiod places geographically the Ethiopians with the Ligyiens and the Ippomolgian Scythians.
According to Eschyl they dwelt near the gold rich Arimaspians, according to Dionysius Periegetus, in the beautiful valleys of Kernes (Cerne), or near Erythia, near the Atlas mountain (Avienus). According to Scylax they were the most handsome and tallest among all the known peoples. They dressed in multicoloured clothes, had beards and long hair, were skilful riders, archers and fighters.

The Phoenician merchants sold them bottles and earthenware. They ate meat, drank milk and produced a lot of wine, which the Phoenicians bought from them. But, because of the geographical confusion with the Ethiopians of Africa, the texts of the ancient authors about the Ethiopians from the Oceanos potamos are full of mistakes and interpolations.

In Homer’s Iliad, the dwellings of the great God are on a physical terrestrial height. Only the palace of Zeus is on majestic Olympos, the other gods dwell on the valleys of Olympos (Iliad, XI. 77), and on Uranos (Iliad, I. 195; VIII. 365; XX. 299; XXI. 267; Odyss. IV. 378. 439). But the assemblies of the gods take place on Olympos, where Jove convokes them especially for this purpose (Iliad, VIII. 3; XX. 4; Odyss. I. 27; Hesiod, Theog. v. 391). Achilles, addressing a prayer to Zeus (Dodonaios) Pelasgichos on Troy’s plain, calls him at the same time the Pelasgian God with the wide face and who dwells far away (Homer, Iliad, V. v. 233 – 241). This “God with the wide face” gave to king Tros of Troy, as Homer tells us, some horses of the most excellent race, called “immortal horses” by some authors (Iliad, V. v. 265-267).

During the primitive times of history, the horses most renowned for their shape, symmetry and speed, were in the north of Thrace. Pegasus, the divine winged horse, was born, according to legends, near the sources (meaning cataracts) of the river Oceanos or Istru (Hesiod, Theog.v.293)

Diodorus Siculus (lib. V. c. 41 – 46).
“In this region” – the author speaks about Arabia from the Ocean – “there are a number of villages and important towns, part of which are situated on big earth dykes (to be protected from flooding), while others are on hillocks or on plains. The largest cities have magnificent palaces, a great number of inhabitants and abundance of riches. This entire region is full of numerous flocks of various kinds. It produces a copious harvest, but it is at the same time abundant in grazing lands for sheep flocks and cattle herds. This region is traversed by a great number of rivers, which moisten in a favorable way the surface of the earth and contribute to the complete development of the fruits. This is the cause for which this part of Arabia, which by its bounty surpasses the other parts, is called Happy (eudaimon), a name which truly suits it.
At the extremities of this region, on the lower part of the Ocean, there are a number of islands, out of which three especially deserve a historical description. The first is called the sacred island (‘Iera) and in it is not permitted the burial of the deceased. Another island (the second) is removed from the first by only 7 stades and in this are transported and interred the deceased …Apart from these (two islands) there exists another big island (the third), at a distance of 30 stades from the latter … It is situated on the eastern part of the Ocean and has a length of a number of stades. From the promontory which stretches eastwards it is said that it is seen the Indic region (‘Indicha), seemingly covered in mist because of the great distance.
In Panchea (this is the name of the big island and of the neighboring region) there are a number of things deserving to be mentioned in a historical description.
The inhabitants of Panchea are partly indigenous (autochtones), and they are called Panchei, and partly have migrated here, and are called Oceanites, Indians, Cretans and Scythians. In Panchea exists a famous city called Panara which surpasses all the other cities in its prosperity. Its inhabitants are called the devotees of Jove Triphylios, and they alone among the entire population of Panchea live according to their laws (autonomoi), and without having any king …. On an open plain, at a distance of about 60 stades from this city, there is the temple of Jove Trifylius, which enjoys a great veneration for its antiquity and its magnificent construction …..This sanctuary is built of white stone, has a length of two pletra and a width matching its length. It is erected on tall and massive columns decorated with sculptures executed by famous masters. Here are also the memorable statues of the gods, sculpted with the greatest art and amazing for their size …..From the temple stretches a road paved with stone, having a length of 4 stades and a width of one pletrum. On both sides of this road are placed large copper vases (chalcheia megala) on square bases ….
Beyond this plain there is a high mountain consecrated to the gods, which is called Uranos’ Chair and Olympos Trifylios. It is said that at the time when he had reigned over the empire of the world, old Uranos enjoyed spending time in these parts, and that from the highest peak of this mountain he observed the sky and the stars. Later though, this mountain had received the name of Olympos Trifylios because the inhabitants were composed of three tribes, namely Panchei, Oceanites and Doi, who later had been ousted from here by Ammon. It is said that this Ammon, not only had ousted from here this people, but had also entirely destroyed and razed to the ground their cities Doia and Asterusa. On this mountain the priests organize each year with great religiosity a festivity ….
There are also in this island three big important cities called Hyracia, Dalis and Oceanis.
This entire region produces abundant fruit. But a lot of wine of every kind is especially made here. The men are warlike and use the old custom of chariot battles. Their entire social organization is composed of three parts. The first class is that of the priests (iereis) and in this same class are the artisans. The second class is composed of the agriculturists (georgoi), and in the third class are the soldiers (stratiotai); in this class are also the shepherds (nomeis). The leaders of everybody are the priests. These rule over the controversies and have power over everything which happens. The agriculturists work the land, but they gather the fruit of the earth and share it in common. And when it is distributed, those who had worked the land better receive the biggest part (according to the judgment of the priests) … Also the shepherds put in common willingly the sacrifices and all the other things destined for public use …. But generally it is not permitted to anybody to have anything as private property, apart from the house and garden. The priests receive all that the animals give birth to, all the produces, and they distribute later to each what each rightly deserves ….
As dress, the inhabitants use soft vestments, because their sheep have particularly fine wool. The men, as well as the women, wear gold ornaments. They wear woven chains around the neck and bracelets on the arms ….The soldiers receive wages for the ordinary services they carry out; they are divided in groups, defend the country and strengthen it with defensive works …. The priests carry out the religious service for gods mostly with hymns, praising in verse their deeds and their good turns for the people.
Their nation, as they say, comes from Crete, from where they had been brought by Jove to Panchea at the time when he lived among the people and ruled the earth. They bring as proof their way of talking, pointing out that in their language there are many words left from the Cretans. They say the kindness and hospitality that they show towards these has been inherited from their ancestors, and that this tradition had been transmitted from generation to generation.
They also show even inscriptions (anagramas), redacted according to them by Jove himself at the time when he lived with the mortals, and had put the foundation of the temple. Abundant gold, silver, copper, tin and iron mines are also in this land (chora), but nothing is permitted to be exported outside the island …. There are also in that temple a great number of holy gifts of gold and silver, consecrated in honor of the gods, preserved in large heaps, from a remote age ….The Bed or Chair of the god is 6 ells long, 4 ells wide; it is entirely made of gold and each side is worked with great art. Near the bed is the table of the god, as magnificent and sumptuous as the other objects. At the center of the bed is placed a huge gold column, written with letters, which the Egyptians call sacred. With these letters are described the deeds of Uranos and Jove, and to this inscription Mercury (Hermes) had also added the description of the deeds of Diana and Apollo” .

“But since we have made mention of the Atlantioi (Atlantians) [i.e. their war with the Amazons, see section which follows], we believe that it will not be inappropriate in this place to recount what their myths relate about the genesis of the gods, in view of the fact that it does not differ greatly from the myths of the Greeks. Now the Atlantians, dwelling as they do in the regions on the edge of Okeanos (the Ocean) and inhabiting a fertile territory, are reputed far to excel their neighbours in reverence toward the gods and the humanity they showed in their dealings with strangers, and the gods, they say, were born among them. And their account, they maintain, is in agreement with that of the most renowned of the Greek poets [Homer, Iliad 14.200] when he represents Hera as saying : ‘For I go to see the ends of the bountiful earth, Okeanos source of the gods and Tethys divine their mother.’
This is the account given in their myth : Their first king was Ouranos (Heaven), and he gathered the human beings, who dwelt in scattered habitations, within the shelter of a walled city and caused his subjects to cease from their lawless ways and their bestial manner of living, discovering for them the uses of cultivated fruits, how to store them up, and not a few other things which are of benefit to man; and he also subdued the larger part of the inhabited earth, in particular the regions to the west and the north. And since he was a careful observer of the stars he foretold many things which would take place throughout the world; and for the common people he introduced the year on the basis of the movement of the sun and the months on that of the moon, and instructed them in the seasons which recur year after year. Consequently the masses of the people, being ignorant of the eternal arrangement of the stars and marvelling at the events which were taking place as he had predicted, conceived that the man who taught such things partook of the nature of the gods, and after he had passed from among men they accorded to him immortal honours, both because of his benefactions and because of his knowledge of the stars; and then they transferred his name to the firmament of heaven, both because they thought that he had been so intimately acquainted with the risings and the settings of the stars and with whatever else took place in the firmament, and because they would surpass his benefactions by the magnitude of the honours which they would show him, in that for all subsequent time they proclaimed him to be the king of the universe.
To Ouranos, the myth continues, were born forty-five sons from a number of wives, and, of these, eighteen, it is said, were by Titaia, each of them bearing a distinct name, but all of them as a group were called, after their mother, Titanes. Titaia, because she was prudent and had brought about many good deeds for the peoples, was deified after her death by those whom she had helped and her name was changed to Gê (Earth). To Ouranos were also born daughters, the two eldest of whom were by far the most renowned above the others and were called Basileia and Rhea, whom some also named Pandora. Of these daughters Basileia, who was the eldest and far excelled the others in both prudence and understanding, reared all her brothers, showing them collectively a mother’s kindness; consequently she was given the appellation of ‘Great Mother;’ and after her father had been translated from among men into the circle of the gods, with the approval of the masses and her brothers she succeeded to the royal dignity, though she was still a maiden and because of her exceedingly great chastity had been unwilling to unite in marriage with any man. But later, because of her desire to leave sons who should succeed to the throne, she united in marriage with Hyperion, one of her brothers, for whom she had the greatest affection. And when there were born to her two children, Helios (Sun) and Selenê (Moon), who were greatly admired for both their beauty and their chastity, the brothers of Basileia, they say, being envious of her because of her happy issue of children ad fearing that Hyperion would divert the royal power to himself, committed an utterly impious deed; for entering into a conspiracy among themselves they put Hyperion to the sword, and casting Helios, who was still in years a child, into the Eridanos river, drowned him. When this crime came to light, Selenê, who loved her brother very greatly, threw herself down from the roof, but as for his mother, while seeking his body along the river, her strength left her and falling into a swoon she beheld a vision in which she thought that Helios stood over her and urged her not to mourn the death of her children; for, he said, the Titanes would meet the punishment which they deserve, while he and his sister would be transformed, by some divine providence, into immortal natures, since that which had formerly been called ‘holy fire’ in the heavens would be called by men Helios (‘the sun’) and that addresses as ‘menê’ would be called Selenê (‘the moon’). When she was aroused from the swoon she recounted to the common crowd both the dream and the misfortunes which had befallen her, asking that they render to the dead honours like those accorded to the gods and asserting that no man should thereafter touch her body. And after this she became frenzied, and seizing such of her daughter’s playthings as could make a noise, she began to wander over the land, with her hair hanging free, inspired by the noise of the kettledrums and cymbals, so that those who saw her were struck with astonishment. And all men were filled with pity at her misfortune and some were clinging to her body, when there came a mighty storm and continuous crashes of thunder and lightning; and in the midst of this Basileia passed from sight, whereupon the crowds of people, amazed at this reversal of fortune, transferred the names and the honours of Helios and Selenê to the stars of the sky, and as for their mother, they considered her to be a goddess and erected altars to her, and imitating the incidents of her life by the pounding of the kettledrums and the clash of cymbals they rendered unto her in this way sacrifices and all other honours.”
“After the death of Hyperion, the myth relates, the kingdom was divided among the sons of Ouranos, the most renowned of whom were Atlas and Kronos. Of these sons Atlas received as his part the regions on the coast of Okeanos (the Ocean), and he not only gave the name of Atlantioi (Atlantians) to his peoples but likewise called the greatest mountain in the land Atlas. They also say that he perfected the science of astrology and was the first to publish to mankind the doctrine of the sphere; and it was for this reason that the idea was held that he entire heavens were supported upon the shoulders of Atlas, the myth darkly hinting in this way at his discovery and description of the sphere. There were born to him a number of sons, one of whom was distinguished above the others for his piety, justice to his subjects, and love of mankind, his name being Hesperos (Evening-Star). This king, having once climbed to the peak of Mount Atlas, was suddenly snatched away by mighty winds while he was making his observations of the stars, and never was seen again; and because of the virtuous life he had lived and their pity for his sad fate the multitudes accorded to him immortal honours and called the brightest of the stars of heaven after him.
Atlas, the myth goes on to relate, also had seven daughters, who as a group were called Atlantides after their father, but their individual names were Maia, Elektra, Taÿgetê, Steropê, Meropê, Halkyonê, and the last Kelaino. These daughters lay with the most renowned heroes and gods and thus became ancestors of the larger part of the race of human beings, giving birth to those who, because of their high achievements, came to be called gods and heroes; Maia the eldest, for instance, lay with Zeus and bore Hermes, who was the discoverer of many things for the use of mankind; similarly the other Atlantides also gave birth to renowned children, who became the founders in some instances of nations and in other cases of cities. Consequently, not only among certain barbarians but among the Greeks as well, the great majority of the most ancient heroes trace their descent back to the Atlantides. These daughters were also distinguished for their chastity and after their death attained to immortal honour among men, by whom they were both enthroned in the heavens and endowed with the appellation of Pleiades. The Atlantides were also called ‘nymphai’ because the natives of that land addressed their women by the common appellation of ‘nymphe.’
Kronos, the brother of Atlas, the myth continues, who was a man notorious for his impiety and greed, married his sister Rhea, by whom he begat that Zeus who was later called ‘Olympios.’ . . .
Zeus, the son of Kronos, emulated a manner of life the opposite of that led by his father, and since he showed himself honourable and friendly to all, the masses addressed him as ‘father.’ As for his succession to the kingly power, some say that his father yielded it to him of his own accord, but others state that he was chosen as king by the masses because of the hatred they bore towards his father, and that when Kronos made war against him with he aid of the Titanes, Zeus overcame him in battle, and on gaining supreme power visited all the inhabited world, conferring benefactions upon the race of men. He was pre-eminent also in bodily strength and in all the other qualities of virtue and for this reason quickly became master of the entire world. And in general he showed all zeal to punish impious and wicked men and to show kindness to the masses. In return for all this, after he had passed from among men he was given the name of Zên [from the verb ‘to live’], because he was the cause of right ‘living’ among men, and those who had received his favours showed him honour by enthroning him in the heavens, all men eagerly acclaiming him as god and lord for ever of the whole universe.
These, then, are in summary the facts regarding the teachings of the Atlantioi (Atlantians) about the gods.”

“We are told, namely, that there was once in the western parts of Libya, on the bounds of the inhabited world, a race which was ruled by women and followed a manner of life unlike that which prevails among us. For it was the custom among them that the women should practise the arts of war and be required to serve in the army for a fixed period, during which time they maintained their virginity . . .
As mythology relates, their home was on an island which, because it was in the west, was called Hespera (Evening), and it lay in the marsh Tritonis. This marsh was near Okeanos which surrounds the earth and received its name from a certain river Triton which emptied into it; and this marsh was also near Aithiopia and that mountain by the shore of Okeanos which is the highest of those in the vicinity and impinges upon Okeanos and is called by the Greeks Atlas. The island mentioned above was of great size and full of fruit-bearing trees of every kind, from which the natives secured their food . . .
The Amazones, then, the account continues, being a race superior in valour and eager for war, first of all subdued all the cities on the island except one called Menê (Moon), which was considered to be sacred and was inhabited by Aithiopian Ikhthyophagoi, and was also subject to great eruptions of fire and possessed a multitude of the precious stones which the Greeks call anthrax, sardion, and smaragdos; and after this they subdued many of the neighbouring Libyans and nomad tribes, and founded within the marsh Tritonis a great city which they named Kheronesos (Peninsular) after its shape.
Setting out from the city of Kherronesos, the account continues, the Amazones embarked upon great ventures, a longing having come over them to invade many parts of the inhabited world. The first people against whom they advanced, according to the tale, was the Atlantioi (Atlantians), the most civilized men among the inhabitants of those regions, who dwelt in a prosperous country and possessed great cities; it was among them, we are told, that mythology places the birth of the gods, in the regions which lie along the shore of Okeanos, in this respect agreeing with those among the Greeks who relate legends, and about this we shall speak in detail a little later.
Now the queen of the Amazones, Myrina, collected, it is said, an army of thirty thousand foot-soldiers and three thousand cavalry, since they favoured to an unusual degree the use of cavalry in their wars. For protective devices they used the skins of large snakes, since Libya contains such animals of incredible size, and for offensive weapons, swords and lances; they also used bows and arrows, with which they struck not only when facing the enemy but also when in flight, by shooting backwards at their pursuers with good effect. Upon entering the land of the Atlantioi (Atlantians) they defeated in a pitched battle the inhabitants of the city of Kernê, as it is called, and making their way inside the walls along with the fleeing enemy, they got the city into their hands; and desiring to strike terror into the neighbouring peoples they treated the captives savagely, put to the sword the men from the youth upward, led into slavery the children and women, and razed the city. But when the terrible fate of the inhabitants of Kernê became known among their fellow tribesmen, it is related that the Atlantioi (Atlantians), struck with terror, surrendered their cities on terms of capitulation and announced that they would do whatever should be commanded them, and that the queen Myrina, bearing herself honourably towards the Atlantioi, both established friendship with them and founded a city to bear her name [i.e. Myrina] in place of the city which had been razed; and in it she settled both the captives and any native who so desired. Whereupon the Atlantioi presented her with magnificent presents and by public decree voted to her notable honours, and she in return accepted their courtesy and in addition promised that she would show kindness to their nation. And since the natives were often being warred upon by the Gorgones, as they were named, a folk which resided upon their borders, and in general had that people lying in wait to injure them, Myrina, they say, was asked by the Atlantioi to invade the land of the afore-mentioned Gorgones. But when the Gorgones drew up their forces to resist them a mighty battle took place in which the Amazones, gaining the upper hand, slew great numbers of their opponents and took no fewer than three thousand prisoners; and since the rest had fled for refuge into a certain wooded region, Myrina undertook to set fire to the timber, being eager to destroy the race utterly, but when she found that she was unable to succeed in her attempt she retired to the borders of her country . . .
The story is also told that the marsh Tritonis disappeared from sight in the coruse of an earthquake, when those parts of it which lay towards Okeanos were torn asunder.”
[N.B. For the Libyan Amazones, Diodorus combines accounts of the mythical Hesperides and the legendary women warriors of the Makhlyes tribe of Lake Tritonis. The Gorgones are based on the monsters encountered by the hero Perseus, who is actually mentioned in the passage which follows. Here he encounters the Gorgon tribe some time after the Amazon-Atlantian-Gorgon war occurred. Herakles is mentioned in the same context visiting the Hesperides. The Atlantians are either an indigenous people dwelling about Mount Atlas in North Africa or are based on the Phoenician colonies of the region. Diodorus also refers to Plato’s story of the sinking of Atlantis in the last line of the passage quoted above. The unusual combination of myths and legends is an Hellenistic Greek attempt to rationalize a variety of stories and present them as true history.]

“[Diodorus briefly discusses sources for the ancient Greek histories of Egypt, sub-Saharan Africa, Libya and the Atlas region–the last three are all referred to as ‘Aithiopia’ :] Concerning the historians, we must distinguish among them, to the effect that many have composed works on both Egypt and Aithiopia, of whom some have given credence to false report and others have invented many tales out of their own minds for the delectation of their readers, and so may justly be distrusted.”

“If one believes Theopompus, Midas, king de the Phrygians, discussed one day with Silene (Silene was sun of a nymph, and for this reason, though it was by his birth of an order lower than the gods, as them, nevertheless, he was immortal, and extremely above the condition of the men). After having discussed various things, Silene called to Midas:
‘Europe, Asia and Libya are islands which the floods of the Ocean bathe on all sides: out of the enclosure of this world there is one continent, whose extent is immense. It produces very large animals and men of a size twice higher, which are not those of our climates: as their life it is not limited to the same space of time as ours; they live twice longer. They have several large cities, controlled according to uses which are conforming for them; their laws form a perfect contrast with ours.
Between these cities, there two of extraordinary extent, and which don’t resemble each other at all. One is called Machimos (the Warlike one), and the other Eusebia (the Pious one). The inhabitants of Eusebia spend their days in peace and abundance: the ground lavishes its fruits to them, without them needing ox nor plough; it would be superfluous to plow and sow. After a life which was constantly prone to diseases, they die merrily and laughing. With the remainder, their life is so pure, that often the gods do not scorn to visit them. To the inhabitants of Machimos, they are very quarrelsome: always armed, always in war, they unceasingly work to extend their limits. This is how their city managed to order several nations; one does not count there less than two million citizens. The examples of people who died of disease are very rare there. All die in the war, not by iron (iron cannot do anything to them), but struck by stone blows or blows of stick. They have such a great quantity of gold and money, that they make of them less case than we do make of iron. Formerly, continued Silene, they wanted to penetrate in our islands; and after having crossed the Ocean with ten million men, they arrived to the Hyperborean ones: but these people appeared in their eyes so cheap and so despicable, that having learned that they were nevertheless the happiest nation of our climates, they scorned to pass by.’
What Silene added is much more astonishing still: ‘In this country, he says, the men that one distinguishes by the name of Meropes, are Masters of several large cities: on the borders of the territory which they live in is a place called Anoste (without return), which resembles a pit, and is neither enlightened, nor dark; the air which forms its atmosphere, is mixed with an obscure red. Two rivers run in the surroundings; the river Pleasure, and the river Sorrow, thus they are named: their edges are covered with trees, the height of a large plane tree. Those which grow on the edges of the river Sorrow, produce fruits of such a quality, that whoever tastes them, pours as well tears as it becomes exhausted, and dies finally, after having spent its days in pain. The trees which shade the other river bear fruits of a very different quality: that which eats some, suddenly feels his heart freed of the passions which agitated it; if he loved, he loses the memory of it. He rejuvenates per degrees, while passing by again by all the ages of his life, which he had left behind him: from the old age he returns to the ‘age wall’, from this one to adolescence, then to puberty; he ends up becoming a child; then he dies.” Those who look at Theopompus of Chio like a writer worthy of faith, can believe this account: for me, in this history and several others, I see only one maker of tales.”

IN EUROPE there was established prosperity, as hominid hunters had been living off the grazing animals there for many ice ages, more than a half million years. By the beginning of the most recent ice age, about 118,000 years ago, Homo sapiens had probably evolved from the earlier model, Homo erectus. Brain size may have already reached the modern size by then; the main change during the last glaciation can be seen in the teeth, but only if you look very carefully.
Teeth became about ten percent smaller, seemingly a consequence of the food technologies invented during this last ice age; they dropped another five percent when agriculture came along. Cooking came first, judging from the charcoal that appears on cave floors starting about 80,000 years ago. Food preparation involving pottery improved things even more. We start to see skulls that indicate even the toothless could survive, suggesting both food preparation and a level of care of the disabled that was not seen in earlier times. Late in this glaciation, between 37,000 and 20,000 years ago, the life of the mind grew: Carved ivory and cave paintings became popular. By 11,500 years ago, these European hunters might have been starting to practice herding and agriculture (which was certainly imminent in the Middle East).
But, as the new Americans were thriving, the more established Europeans got a big surprise, and I doubt that they liked it very much. I wouldn’t be surprised if linguists someday show that the phrase, “The good old days,” dates back to 11,500 years ago.

THERE WAS A EUROPEAN GENERATION who in their youth enjoyed the warming climate. New grass was growing everywhere along the glacial margins, and the herds were gradually getting larger. It wasn’t a boom time for humans, as in the Americas, but both animals and humans were probably doing well because of the North Atlantic’s warming trend that had suddenly started 1,500 years earlier (this “Allerod event” was about 13,000 years ago).
This same generation saw things change. One year, the winter rains were scant, and it seemed colder. It wasn’t as cloudy as usual in the spring, and the summer was bone dry. The good grazing was exhausted early, and animals started exploring unlikely places in search of food. By the time that the winter snows started, both humans and animals were in poor condition; more than the usual numbers died that winter. Was it just a drought?
The next year was even colder and drier. And the next. The next twenty years saw dramatic changes, far greater than in the “Little Ice Age” of a few centuries ago. Forests died and weeds took over. It became more dusty as severe storms stirred up the dry topsoil. The herds surely dropped to a fraction of their former sizes.
And the human tribes likely did poorly in consequence. Half of all children tended to die in childhood, even in the best of times before modern sanitation and medical care, but poorly fed children succumbed even more readily to childhood diseases. If anyone had had time to notice while scratching around for food, they would have seen glaciers advancing once again. In Scotland, where glaciers had already completely melted off, they started to reform as the summers became too cold to melt much of the winter accumulation.
People didn’t live half as long as we do, back then. A forty-year-old person often looked old and worn out. Children, who had never known those warm days of plentiful food on the hoof, surely wondered what the old folks kept talking about. When the generation that had seen the transition died out, the stories may have persisted for a while, and the good old days were perhaps incorporated into the creation myths as a form of heaven on earth.
(A few decades ago, modern scientists looked at the accumulated layers of a lake bottom in Denmark. In a deep layer, they saw the sudden introduction of the pollen of an arctic plant called Dryas that had no business being in Denmark, and named this cold snap after it: the Younger Dryas climate.)
And then – it ended even more suddenly than it had begun. There was a generation about 10,720 years ago, the great-great-(repeat that 29 more times)-grandchildren of those people who were absolutely sure about the good old days, that experienced the change. They grew up in a cold and dry Europe, and then saw the warm rains suddenly come back over the course of just a few years and melt the ice. The grass prospered, and the remaining grazing animals began a population explosion. It became a boom time for those Europeans who had survived up in the land of hard winters, just as it had become a boom time for the Arctic-adapted hunters who reached the end of the North American ice-free corridor a thousand years earlier.
It was as if a switch had been turned off. And then back on again. Or perhaps faucet is the apt metaphor, since the key to what happened is the Gulf Stream’s European relative, the North Atlantic Current.

When majesty f»f this y;reat god liatli taken up
his p()sitii)ii in the secret Circles of tliosc who are in
their sand, he sendeth forth words to tliem from out of
his Boat, and the gods tow along him that is in the
holy emlnace (?) of the serpent Mehen.
Aha-an-ukt-f is the name of the gate of this City.
Tebat-neteru-set is the name of this City.
As for the secret Circle of Amextet, this great god
makcth his way over it in his I»oat, 1iy means of the
towing of the gods who are in the ‘Puat.
Whosoever shall make [a copy of] these things
according to the similitude which is in writing on the
north [wall] of the Hidden Palace in the Tuat, and
whosoever shall know them by their names, shall lie
in the condition of one wlio is fully })ro\ided witli
swathings on the earth, and he shall never ])e repulsed
at the secret gates, and he sliall have abundant offerings
in the great funeral hall regularly and unfailingly for
millions of years.

Bakhau and Ta Manu. – “The most easterly and most westerly points of the sun’s course, and the places where he rose and set.” B. of D., p. 4, note.

Pool of Maati. – Into which the setting sun sinks at night; B. of D., chap. 17 and p. 4.

Ket Seker. – The Funeral mountain or land; the land (house) of Seker, the coffined Osiris; B. of D., chap. 137, 151a, and hours 4 and 5 of the Am Tuat.

Gate of Neb-er-djer. -The secret doors in the land of Seker. B. of D., chap. 86 and hour 4 of the Am Tuat.

Akert (Akur-aet). Akeru gods. – The domain of the twin Lion gods, one of whom is at Baku and the other at Tamen. The domain of which Osiris is lord. B. of D., chap. 18, 64, and note 2, chap. 64.

Akurt. Theoi Akraioi.-The whole crest of the Caucasus, from Apscheron (Malte Brun, Okoressa, p. 51), through the middle of the range (Ptolemy, Agoritae), to the Tamen peninsula (Puny; Acrae, 4, 27; Exretice, 6, 4; Epageritae, 6, 5; and others. Pliny says the Epagerite, i. e. F-Akuritae, were of Sarmatian descent and dwelt on the range of the Caucasus). The crest was called Ur (the ship of Horus) and the inhabitants Ach-ur. The Acheru, or Akraioi, were the mountain gods (Smith, Class. Dict.). As most of the mysteries of Greece were imported from Egypt, similarity in religious names is not surprising, and indeed 40 random sample pages in Liddell and Scott’s dictionary shew 55 per cent of “Semitic” roots. But perhaps it may startle egyptologists to know, as I have been able to shew quite conclusively, that the much-discussed Egyptian term, “maa kheru,” is identical with the Greek “makeros,” i. e., “blessed” or, literally, “of the domain of the Great House,” or possibly, “of the Sun People.”

These words, maa kheru are commonly rendered `triumphant,’ but their true meaning seems to be, `he whose word is right and true’ – and as a result, whatsoever is ordered by the person who is declared in the Judgment Hall to be maa kheru is straightway performed. Thus before the person who possessed the `right word’ the doors of the underworld were opened and the beings who had power therein became his servants.” Budge, B. of D., p. lxvi.
“Makaros art thou, Simon Bar-jona – and I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of Heaven: and whatever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in Heaven.” Matthew, 17: 17-19.

The expression was I believe used by Christ in its strict technical sense. “Galilee . . . was inhabited generally . . . by Egyptians,” Strabo, 16; 2; 34. He had lived in Egypt, and in Galilee, Matthew, 2: 14, 15, 22. The Babylonian Talmud states that Christ performed the “burning of Maat,” which Plutarch, Isis and Osiris, vii, states was ritual peculiar to the priesthood. That he was acquainted with the Book of the Dead is evidenced by the
fact that the Gospels contain more than twice as many quotations from it as they do from the Old Testament. Simon Peter also lived in Galilee, Matthew, 4: 18. That He who was to be the Light to lighten the Gentiles (and now, in our time, to be the Glory of Israel) should have quoted from Gentile scriptures is only what might have been expected.

Kemur. – The sacred city (” Kem ur” means sacred city) at the entrance to Akur, where the great fish (maat) Remu was. B. of D., chap. 64, 89, Prayer of Pepi II, chap. 123.

Kimmur. – The city of the Cimmerians (“quod ante, Cerberium vocantur,” Pliny, 6, 17, and Liddell and Scott, who are mistaken however in saying that it is a different form of Cimmerium) at the entrance to the Tamen peninsula. – Strabo, 11, 2, 4, and Smith, Class. Dict.

Khemmenu. – The place where the setting sun enters into the pool of Maatis. B. of D., chap. 64.

Kamenni. – The most westerly projection of the Tamen peninsula into Lake Maeotis, and the western Pillars of Hercules, the Phoenician god of Fire and Wind (KurKal). See Phoenician dictionary, “Kaminim”; Sanchuniathon, quoted by Eusebius, p. 34c; Herodotus, 2, 44; Strabo, 3, 5, 5. For evidence that the Pillars were in the East and not far from the river Tanais (Don), see Strabo, 15, 1, 6; Diodorus Siculus, 2, 1; Steles of Shamshi Adad and Ninus, Olmstead’s Assyria, p. 156, et al. The “sea of the Setting Sun” has been mistranslated as “Urmia,” but it was really “Sebanki,” i. e., Maeotis, as we know from the Chinese trade annals. (See Hirth and Rockhill’s Chinese and Arab Trade.) One of the earliest Christian sees was that of the Pillars of Hercules (Psidach Herculi) in the north Caucasus isthmus. The archetype Pillars were the two sections of the Caucasus range, east and west of the Aragva pass (Dariel).

Gates of Seb. – The strait (B. of D., chap. 38a), which was the entrance to the land of Akur. “The gates of Akur are the gates of Seb.” Pepi I, text.

Straits of Seb-anki. – Hamilton and Falconer, in their notes to Strabo 7, 3, 18, spell this “the strait of Zabache or Ieni-Kale,” and the “Sea of Maeotis or Zabache,” but the Chinese and Arab trade records (Hirth and Rockhill, p. 153) spell it “Sevanga”; the “colony” lakes in Armenia, Bithynia, and Syria are spelled “Sevanga,” “Sabinga,” and “Sabaka.” Sabakos is a synonym for Strabo’s “Sapra,” 7, 4, 1 (see Liddell and Scott), and the Arabic geographers used the term “Sabache” or “Sabcha” for a shallow marshy lake (see Sprenger, AGArab, 133 and PRR, 66, quoted by Knox), such as Maeotis. The Book of the Dead, chap. 146, papyruses of Ani and Nu, spell the name of the door-keeper of the third pylon as “Sebanqa” and as “Sebaq” (ertat). In the papyrus of Ani (Budge, plate 17) “Saba” is the word used for “gate” and “Sebek” the word used for “door.” Khemennu, at the entrance to the straits, was the “citadel of Sebak”- (Rameses’ address to Ptah, quoted by St. Clair, Creation Records, p. 301).

Note that “Kroni” was the older name for the Pillars of Hercules (Frazer, note to Apollodorus, 2, 5, 10); and that Mt. Kroni is on the opposite side of the entrance to the strait, across from Khemennu; and that Cronus is Geb [Seb], and has same hieroglyph for name (St. Clair, Creation Records, p. 208). The name of the straits seems to have been, first, “Seb-akku,” then “Seb-angi,” then “Sebka,” and lastly, at a much later date, appears to have been changed to “Zab-ache,” possibly in a mistaken attempt to Atticize the “Sa,” misunderstood as equivalent to “dia” (see Liddell and Scott, z and za), i. e., at the other end from Bakau, analogous to Zabaikal. For Sebek in L. Maati see Budge, Egyptian Heaven and Hell, p. 61.

Holy lake of Sek-hra. – B. of D., chap. 136B. In Kem-ur, chap. 88. See also chap. 113.

Petra, Gates and Gate keeper. – Admits to the first temple, B. of D., chap. 68.

Straits of Patares. – Black Sea end of Straits of Yenikale or Kertch, Ammianus Marcellinus, 22, 8, 30. City at Black Sea entrance to straits, Patraeus, Strabo, 11, 2, 8. Patur appears to have been first the stone used for crushing, and possibly onomatopoetic, and then the “opener” or “splitter” (Pateidaon). Then the official opener, or priest (patesi), and the navigational openers or eggshaped, string suspended loadstones (with little arms and feet attached), which hung in the poops of the Phoenician vessels. The catechisms in the Book of the Dead begin with the words “Putra efer su,” which may not be accidental. See also Matthew, 16: 18.

Bata or Beta. – The city of the divine door, the wearer of the double red crown. B. of D., chap. 41, 4 and Book of Gates, Budge, Egyptian Heaven and Hell, Vol. ii, p. 248. Bata was the city of the bee. Also see Breasted’s Egypt, p. 32.

The Serakh. – The peaked-roofed chamber in which the bodies of the dead were prepared before being buried. (The name originally meant a house for drying fish.)
On opposite side of river Tsemmes from Gates of Neb-er-tscher, on way to Ket Sekur, or Burial mountains.

Naarutf and An-aaretf. – The land and the city where nothing grows, B. of D., chap. 17 and 125. North of Restau, at the head of the pool of Maati.

Restau. – The following is from the catechism of chap. 17, B. of D. Ani says that after the “Great Green Lake,” and Lake “Heh” or “Hehi,” in which Ra dwells and into which he enters at Khemmenu, chap. 64 (also called Sam-. ket and Maaat), –

“I pass over the way, I know the head of the Pool of Maauti.”

“What then is this?”

“It is Restau, that is to say, it is the underworld on the south of Na-arut-f, and it is the northern door of the tomb.”

Rostow was used in a wider sense, as the north Caucasus district and as the range itself. In the first place Ros-tau is a literal translation of E-kur or Akur, the great mountain or great house. Also Scythia was inhabited at a very early date by the Ros or Rosh tribes (Tzetzes), from whom the Thracians (Thras) and Etruscans (Ras) and Russians were possibly derived. There is a well-known idiom of the Caucasus according to which the mountain range of the Lesgi is called, e. g., “Lesgitau,” and the part of the tribe living in the mountains is called “Tau-Lesgi.” See Abercromby Trip through the Eastern Caucasus, p. 28. The range of mountains possessed by the Ros people would therefore be called “Rostau,” or “Akur,” and the people dwelling in it would be called “Tau-ros,” from which the word Taurus (which has, of course, nothing to do with a bull except incidentally) is most probably derived. Rostow, in this wide sense, would therefore be Akur, or the entire range of the Caucasus and its environs. For paths of Restau, B. of D., chap. 117. Caspian was “Shat-Alont-ach,” see Pliny, 6, 15.

Aetia (old name of Egypt).-“Egypt is said to have been called originally `Aetia’ and the Nile `Aetos’ and `Siris,”‘ Rawlinson, notes to Herodotus, 2, 15. See also Apollonius Rhodius, 4, 268, and Homer, Odyssey, 4, 1-4.

Siris, Oceanus, Aetos. – Old names for Nile, Rawlinson, Herod., 2, 15; Diod. Sic., bk. 1, chap. 2; Pliny, 5, 9; Dionysius, De Situ, 5, 23.

Siris, Aushet, Aeti-ope. – The Cyrus of the Greek geographers, modern Kur, originally Sor (Strabo, 9, 3, 2). Also its sister river (see supra), the present Kuban, whose main channel in the Tamen peninsula was formerly the Aushet (Ordnance map, B3.), i. e., Aust (Isis), and Oceanus (Diod. Sic., bk. 1, chap. 2). For Isis as Nile, as well as Osiris (Sar), see Diod. Sic., bk. 1, chap. 2, and old name of Nile, “Astopus” (Auset-ope, Isis River), Diod. Sic., bk. 1, chap. 3. For Aeti-ope see Diod. Sic., bk. 1, chap. 2, and Del. Civiliz. of Caucasus, p. 52. For a land Mitzra in S. Caucasus (Valley of Cyrus), see Isaiah, 41: 2, seq.17.

Nephthys, Isis, Osiris (Neptha, Aust, Sar). – Osiris and the two goddesses who are on each side of him, with large black plumes.

Nephthy-anaya, Otcherety-anaya, and oil wells between them. -For identification of Osiris with symbol oil, see B. of D., chap. 125. Egyptologists may note city “Bak-an” near pass of Neb-er-tchai and Mt. Seraki; “bak” is “olive tree,” and this district was famous for its olive yards, Smith, Class. Dict., art. Phanagoria, – so the initiate would “pass on by the city to the north of the olive tree” (B. of D., chap. 125).

Horizon, Pillars of Shu, Gate of Ra. – The Horizon was the path of the sun, with its 12 Arits, over which he went each day (B. of D., chap. 144), with the sound of roaring thunder clouds (chap. 39). The Pillars of Shu were the Two Horizons, or the east and west sections of the Caucasus, the horizon or mountain (Hymn to Ra, p. 16) of Baku and that of Tamen (Hymn to Ra, p. 4 and Budge’s note). The Kur-Gal of the Babylonians. The Horizon was the whole range, and the constellations, I have discovered, were named after the different tribes or nations of the Caucasus, i. e., the Ram, the Bull, etc. The Gate of Ra was the great defile, with cliffs 5,000 feet high, which divides the Caucasus range into east and west sections, formerly called the Aragva (Erebus of Greeks, Erib of Babylonians), Telfer, Crimea and Trans-Cauc., Vol. I, p. 266, and Strabo, 11, 3, 5. See also plan of Egyptian temples.

Gate of Tchesert. Set Tchesert. – The gate of the Pillars of Shu, B. of D., chap. 17, and the Holy Mountain, B. of D., chap. 1B.

Thinis mouth of Nile, Pans and Satyrs, Chemmis. – The coffin of Osiris floated down the Thinitic branch of the Nile. The Pans and Satyrs round Chemmis were the first to find it. Petrie, Personal Religion in Ancient Egypt, p. 127. Mt. Ada is nearby.

Ach-Taniz-ovski mouth of Kuban, Panaghia, Satyrus. – One branch of the Kuban flows into Lake Ach-Taniz.. Mt. Satyrus is next Panachi cape, Strabo, 11, 2, 7, and Satyrus was a common name for the kings of the Tauric Bosporus, ibid., and Smith, Class. Dict., Panaghia is the Panachea of Euhemerus.

The Kuban was formerly called Vardanus (Ptolemy), i. e., F-Aridanus, or Eridanus, which possibly accounts for the Phaethon form of the Osiris myth. Poplars and cedars grow on its banks, so amber should be found at its mouth.

Harmachis. – Lord of the Horizon, or Ra. B. of D., Hymn to Setting Sun, p. 84, and Hymn to Ra, p. 16. I. e., Lord of the Caucasus range. The double hermax, or pillars or mounds. L. and S.

Harmaktica. – Ptolemy map; Strabo, 11, 3, 5; “just opposite” to the pass of Aragva, or Gate of Ra. Pliny, Nat. Hist., bk. 6, chap. 11. Hereditary titles of the kings of Georgia were (a) David, i. e., “Ta-F-Aet,” i. e., Aeetes, Marco Polo, 1, 4; (b) Armazt (Pillars), Telfer, Crimea and Trans-Caucasia, Vol. I, p. 302. This was the Persian form of the title, ibid., and may possibly be connected with Hermes; see Liddell and Scott, Hermes: (c) The native form was “Pharnawar” (Pir-An-Awur, i. e., House of the Pole, i. e., king of Awur or Amuru, see Clay, Amurru, or of the domain of Ur or Aburia). Pharn, i. e., Pir-An, was a common title of kings in this neighbourhood, see Smith, Class. Dict., Pharnaces, Pharnabazis, Pharnaspes, Pharnuchus, etc., and suggests a connection with the Egyptian title, Pir-u, i. e., Pharaoh. It was approximately on site of present Mzcheti (Sun city).

Sekhet. Sekhet-Aaru. -The Egyptian “Elysian Fields,” or “Dvipa Sukhadara” B. of D., chap.110. It was profusely irrigated by canals, and grew luxuriant crops. Sekhet-Aaru was a city, with iron walls, i. e., wooden beams clamped by iron (B. of D., chap. 108), and was the first of fifteen sections of the Sekhet.

Sakatali. – A city in the Alizon (Elysian, Deluged Civilization, p. 55) valley, a few miles from Kemur. Sekhet means “Morning land” and “Coming-up land,” and hence “Fields,” by which it is generally translated. “Morning land” was an old name for Egypt, see Apollonius Rhodius, Argonaut, 4, 268. Aeria was another old name for Egypt, which Liddell and Scott give as equivalent to “Kemia.” So Sekhet-Aaru might be “Morning Land of the dark earth,” Kemia, i. e., dark soil, being still another name for Egypt. There are other place names containing “Sekhet” in the district, e. g., Sakatlis-serf, and the land is stillextensively irrigated and very fertile, and it is reached directly from Aragva pass, the Gates of Ra (Strabo, 11, 3, 5 and 11, 4, 5). The Egyptians made no distinction between l and r, and both ali and aari mean “walled city,” so there is some justification for taking Sakatali as Sekhetaaru. In any case we may be quite sure that this was the district.

Archeological Evidence. It appears that the reason why no archeological evidence was available at the time of the publication of the writer’s papers is that it had been universally assumed that the Caucasus tribes were the remnants of other civilizations which had taken refuge there (Kennan, Nat. Geog. Mag., Oct., 1913; Childe, The Aryans, pp. 176 seq.; Enc. Brit. art. Georgia; et al.) and so no evidence was looked for. But shortly after the evidence presented in these papers that the Caucasus tribes were the originators of the Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Greek, and Aryan civilizations, a very considerable amount of archeological support was forthcoming. Within a year of the appearance of the writer’s second publication (Monitor, March 18, 1924), Sir Flinders Petrie chewed (Ancient Egypt, Dec., 1924) that the Badarian type of pottery which he had discovered in Egypt had probably travelled down from the Caucasus. The Osiris crown found at Rostow has been referred to above. In Ancient Egypt for June, 1927, so much further evidence is given, and by one so much better qualified than the writer to discuss this feature, that nothing more need be added here. See also discussion, British Ass. Ad. Science, 1926.

Historical Evidence, Customs, Natural Features. That there were Egyptians in the Tamen. peninsula at a very early date is shewn, aside from the evidence of the Book of the Dead and of the Wars of Osiris in the Annals of the Nubian Kings, by several of the early historians, e. g., by Diodorus Siculua, bk. 1, chap. 4. See also Strabo, 15, 1, 6, and Herodotus, 2, 104, and 3, 12. It was a common subject of discussion by the early geographers. Herodotus says, of the Colchis or later Kalacha Aea section:

“There can be no doubt that the Colchians are Egyptians. Before I heard any mention of the fact from others I had remarked it myself. After the thought struck me, I made inquiries on the subject both in Colchis and in Egypt, and I found that the Colchians had a more distinct recollection of the Egyptians than the Egyptians had of them.”

Herodotus then goes on to chew the similarity or identity of the physical characteristics of the peoples; the peculiar religious rite common to both; the fact that they both wove their linen in the same way, and “that a way entirely unknown to the rest of the world,” and that “in their whole mode of life and in their language they resemble one another.” For other evidence, see Deluged Civilization, chap. 9.

That the people of the west Caucasus were Egyptian was agreed, and that they were settled there by an Egyptian king, Sesostria, was stated by the Egyptians; see Diodorus Siculus and Herodotus, ibid. The Egyptian priests, confusing him with a later Sesostris, held that he came from Egypt. He may have been a third-dynasty king, but, as Breasted points out (Egypt, p. 189), “In Greek times Sesostris had long since become a legendary figure which cannot be identified with any particular king.” We find, however, a hint in Megasthenes quoted by Strabo, supra, who says “Sesostris conducted an army from Iberia to Thrace and Pontus”; and Diodorus Siculus, supra, states that this was by way of the Tanais or Don River, i. e., he passed north over the Maeotis. Now Sesostris (Seseuthes) is a Scythian type name, and Iberia is just in front of the Gates of Tschert (sebat Tschert, B. of D., chap. 17) and a part of the Sekhet (see above, 18, 23). And we know that there were other invasions from this section to the Tamen peninsula, e. g., M the Scythians, who drove out the Cimmerians, Diod. Sic., bk. 2, chap. 3, and Herodotus, 4, 11. So the settlement of Tamen, and later of Colchis, may have been by an army of Egyptians from the old Aeria, or Alizon valley, led by a Scythian; similar to, as we now know, the settlements of the Hittites. But for our present purpose the detail is immaterial; we may be sure that no settlement was made in the Tamen peninsula, with its semi-arctic winters, by deserters from an African-Egyptian army; or that if such settlement was made, we may be sure that the settlers could never have driven out the mountain tribes of the west Caucasus and supplanted them. The settlers of Tamen must have come from the Alizon or Kur valley.

To the first men, on the hypothesis of an Arctic Eden, the zenith and the north pole of the heavens were identical. Such an aspect of the starry vault the humanity of our late historic ages has never seen. Under such an adjustment of the rotating firmament, how regular and orderly would nature appear! What profound significance would of necessity attach to that mysterious unmoving centre-point of cosmic revolution directly overhead! That polar centre must naturally have seemed to be the top of the world, the true heaven, the changeless seat of the supreme God or gods. “And if, through all the long life-time of the antediluvian world, this circumpolar sky was thus to human thought the true abode of God, the oldest postdiluvian peoples, though scattered down the sides of the globe half or two thirds the distance to the equator, could not easily forget that at the centre and true top of the firmament was the throne and the palace of its great Creator.”

The religions of all ancient nations signally confirm and satisfy this antecedent expectation. With a marvelous unanimity they associate the abode of the supreme God with the North Pole, “the centre of heaven,” or with the celestial space immediately surrounding it. No writer on Comparative Theology has ever brought out the facts which establish this assertion, but the following outline of them will suffice for our present purpose:-

First. The Hebrew Conception.-In so pure and lofty a monotheism as that of the ancient Hebrews, we must not expect to find any such strict localization of the supreme God in the circumpolar sky as we shall find among polytheistic peoples. “Do I not fill heaven and earth?” is the language of Jehovah. Nevertheless, as the Hebrews must be supposed to have shared, in some measure, the geographical and cosmological ideas of their age, it would not be strange if in their sacred writings traces of these ideas were here and there discernible. Some of these traces are quite curious, and they have attracted the attention of not a few Biblical scholars, to whom their origin and rationale are entirely unsuspected. Thus a learned writer on Hebrew geography, after blindly repeating the common assumption that “the Hebrews conceived the surface of the earth to be an immense disk, supported, like the flat roof of an Eastern house, by pillars,” yet uses such language as this: “The North appears to have been regarded as the highest part of the earth’s surface, in consequence, perhaps, of the mountain ranges which existed there.”
Another, touching upon the same subject, says, “The Hebrews regarded what lay to the North as higher, and what lay to the South as lower: hence they who traveled from South to North were said to ‘go up,’ while they who went from North to South were said to ‘go down.'”

In Psalm seventy-fifth, verse sixth, we read, “Promotion cometh not from the East, nor from the West, nor from the South.” Why this singular enumeration of three of the points of the compass, and this omission of the fourth? Simply because heaven, the proper abode of the supreme God, being conceived of by all the surrounding nations, if not by the Hebrews themselves, as in the North, in the circumpolar sky, that was the sacred quarter, and it could not reverently be said that promotion cometh not from the North It would have been as offensive as among us to say that promotion cometh not from above. Therefore, having completed his negative statements, the Psalmist immediately adds, “But God is the judge; He putteth down one, and setteth up another.”

A curious trace of the same conception appears in the book of Job, in the eighth and ninth verses of the twenty-third chapter. In Old Testament times, the Hebrews and the Arabians designated the cardinal points by the personal terms, “before” for East, “behind” for West, “left hand” for North, and “right hand” for South. Thus Job, in the passage indicated, is complaining that he can nowhere, East or West, North or South, find his divine judge.But, in speaking of one of these points, he adds this singular qualification, “where God doth work.” This is said of the left hand, or North. It seems to be inserted to render peculiarly emphatic the declaration, “I go . . . [even] to the left hand where He doth work, but I cannot behold Him.” If at first blush such an apparent localizing of the divine agency seems inconsistent with Job’s splendid descriptions of God’s omnipresence in other passages, it should be remembered that we, too, speak of the omnipresent deity as dwelling “on high,” and address Him as “Our Father which art in Heaven.”

A natural counterpart to this idea of a northern heaven would be a belief or impression that spiritual perils and evils were in a peculiar degree or manner to be apprehended from the right hand, or South, as the proper abode of demons,-the quarter to which Asmodeus fled when exorcised by the angel.We cannot positively affirm that such a belief consciously prevailed among the ancient Hebrews, but, holding the possibility in mind, we find passages of Scripture which seem to stand out in a new and striking light. Thus, in case there was such a belief, how great the force and beauty of the expression, “Because [the Lord] is at my right hand [the side exposed to danger] I shall not be moved.”With this may be compared the confident expressions of the one hundred and twenty-first Psalm: “The Lord is thy keeper: the Lord is thy shade upon thy right hand.” So also in the ninety-first it is on the right hand that destruction is anticipated: “A thousand shall fall at thy side, and [or even] ten thousand at thy right hand; but it shall not come nigh thee.” Again, in the one hundred and forty-second it is said, “I looked on my right hand, but there was no man that would know me: refuge failed me; no man cared for my soul.” Notice also the imprecation, “Let Satan stand at his right hand” (Ps. cix. 6), and the vision of Zechariah, where the great adversary makes his appearance on the right of the one whom he came to resist (Zech. iii).

But as Satan here reveals himself from beneath and from the South, so to Ezekiel the true God reveals himself from above and from the North (Eze. i). In that quarter was God’s holy mountain (Is. xiv3), the city of the Great King (Ps. xlviii), the land of gold (Job xxxvii2, marg.), the place where divine power had hung the earth upon nothing (Job xxvi. 7). Hence the priest officiating at the altar, both in the tabernacle and later in the temple, faced the North. According to the Talmud, King David had an Æolian harp in the North window of his royal bed-chamber, by means of which the North wind woke him every night at midnight for prayer and pious meditations.Probably it is not without significance that in Ezekiel’s vision of the ideal temple of the future the chamber prepared for the priests in charge of the altar was one “whose prospect was toward the North.” (Eze. xl6.)

Second. The Egyptian Conception.-The correspondence of the ancient Egyptian conception of the world and of heaven with the foregoing would be remarkable did we not know that Egypt was the cradle of the Hebrew people. The ancient inhabitants of the Nile valley had the same idea as to the direction of the true summit of the earth. To them, as to the Hebrews, it was in the North. This was the more remarkable since it was exactly contrary to all the natural indications of their own country, which continually ascended toward the South. Brugsch says, “The Egyptians conceived of the earth as rising toward the North, so that in its northernmost point it at last joined the sky.”In correspondence herewith the Egyptians located their Ta-nuter, or “land of the gods,” in the extreme North.On this account it is on the northern exterior wall of the great temple of Ammon at Karnac that the divinity promises to King Rameses II. the products of that heavenly country, “silver, gold, lapis-lazuli, and all the varieties of precious stones of the land of the gods.” Hence, also, contrary to all natural indications, the northern hemisphere was considered the realm of light, the southern the realm of darkness.

The passage out of the secret chambers of the Great Pyramid was pointed precisely at the North Pole of the heavens. All the other pyramids had their openings only on the northern side. That this arrangement had some religious significance few students of the subject have ever doubted. If our interpretation is correct, such passages from the burial chamber toward the polar heaven intimated a vital faith that from the chamber of death to the highest abode of life, imperishable and divine, the road is straight and ever open.

Third. The Conception of the Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Indians, and Iranians.-Respecting the location of Kharsak Kurra, Sad Matâti, Har-Moed, Su-Meru, and Harâ-berezaiti, no further proof is needed that all the peoples above named associated the true heaven, the abode of the highest gods, with the northern celestial pole.In each case the apex of their respective mounts of the gods pierced the sky precisely at that point. To this day the Haranite Sabæans-the most direct heirs of the religious traditions of the Tigro-Euphratean world-construct their temples with careful reference to the ancient faith. Their priests also, in the act of sacrifice, like all ancient priesthoods, face the North.

In the Rig Veda, ii., 40, I, we read of the amṛ́tasya nâ´bhim, “the Navel of the Heavens.” The same or similar expressions occur again and again in the Vedic literature. They refer to the northern celestial Pole, just as the expression nâ´bhir pṛthivyâ´s, “Navel of the Earth,” R.V. iii., 29, 4, and elsewhere, signifies the northern terrestrial Pole. To each is ascribed preëminent sanctity. The one is the holiest shrine in heaven, the other the holiest shrine on earth. That no translator has hitherto caught the true meaning of the terms seems unaccountable.

In Buddhism, the heir and conservator of so many of the ancient ideas of India, the same notion of a world ruler with his throne at the celestial Pole lived on.Very curiously, if we follow the authority of the Lalitavistara, the first actions and words ascribed to the infant Buddha on his arrival in our world unmistakably identify the North with the abode of the gods, and its nadir with the abode of the demons Even the modern relics of the non-Aryan aboriginal tribes of India, as for example the Gonds, have retained this ancient ecumenical ethnic belief.

Fourth. The Phœnician, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Conception.-That the Phœnicians shared the general Asiatic view of a mountain of the gods in the extreme North appears from Movers’ learned work upon that people.

The evidence that in ancient Hellenic thought, also, the heaven of the gods was in the northern sky is incidental, but cumulative and satisfactory. For example, heaven is upheld by Atlas, but the terrestrial station of Atlas, as we have elsewhere shown, is at the North Pole. Again, Olympos was the abode of the gods; but if the now generally current etymology of this term is correct, Olympos was simply the Atlantean pillar, pictured as a lofty mountain, and supporting the sky at its northern Pole.In fact, many writers now affirm that the Olympos of Greek mythology was originally simply the north polar “World-mountain” of the Asiatic nations.

In prayer the Greeks turned towards the North, and from Homer we know that when they addressed the “Olympian” gods they stretched out their hands “toward the starry heavens;” Greek prayers, therefore, must have been addressed toward the northern heavens. Entirely confirmatory of this is the account Plato gives of “the holy habitation of Zeus,” in which the solemn convocations of the gods were held, and which, he explains, “was placed in the Centre of the World.”

That this Centre is the northern celestial Pole is placed beyond question by a well-known passage from Servius Maurus,where it is called the “domicilium Jovis,” and where we are informed that the Etruscan and Roman augurs considered thunder and lightning in the northern sky more significant than in any other quarter, being “higher and nearer to the abode of Jove.” 3 Countries in high northern latitudes shared in this peculiar sanctity. “Toward the end of the official or state paganism,” says M. Beauvois, “the Romans regarded Great Britain as nearer heaven and more sacred than the Mediterranean countries.”Varro and other Latin writers confirm this general representation, so that all modern expounders of the old Etruscan religion unite in locating the abode of the gods of Etruria in the Centre of Heaven, the northern circumpolar sky.Niebuhr and other authorities of the highest rank assure us that the Romans shared the same faith.

The Talmudic account of “The Strength of the Hill of Sion” shows that the Palestinian mount was named after the heavenly one, and not vice versa, as commonly supposed. The true sacred name of the Holy City is, therefore, not Sion (though it is often called by the heavenly appellation also), but “Daughter of Sion.” She is simply a copy, a miniature likeness, of the true mount and city of God “in the sides of the North.”

So confident is Lenormant that Solomon and Hezekiah intentionally conformed their capital to the Paradisaic mount, and intentionally introduced in their public works features which should symbolize and commemorate peculiarities of Eden, that he uses the fact as an unanswerable argument against those imaginative critics who would place the composition of the second chapter of Genesis subsequent to the Babylonian exile. He says,-

“Another proof, and a very decisive one in my opinion, of the high antiquity of the narrative of Genesis concerning Eden, and of the knowledge of it possessed by the Hebrews long before the Captivity, is the intention-so clearly proved by Ewald-to imitate ‘the four rivers’ which predominated in the works of Solomon and Hezekiah for the distribution of the waters of Jerusalem, which, in its turn, was considered as the Umbilicus of the Earth (Ezek. v. 5), in the double sense of centre of the inhabited regions and source of the rivers. The four streams which watered the town and the foot of its ramparts-one of which was named Gihon (1 Kings i. 33, 38; 2 Chron. xxxii. 30, xxxiii. 14), like one of the Paradisaic rivers-were, as Ewald has shown, reputed to issue through subterranean communications from the spring of fresh water situated beneath the Temple, the sacred source of life and purity to which the prophets (Joel iii. 18; Ezek. xlvii. 1-12; Zech. xiii. 1, xiv. 8; cf. Apoc. xxii. 1) attach a high symbolic value.”

In this citation, in addition to a strong assertion of the symbolical character of the topography and waterworks of Jerusalem, we have the location itself included in this symbolism. The city is said to have been the Umbilicus or Navel of the Earth, for, two reasons: first, because of its relation to surrounding countries; and, second, because of its containing the source of the rivers. IAt present we will only add that the true philosophy of this symbolical centrality of Jerusalem is found in two facts: first, the Hebrews had a tradition that primeval Eden was the Centre of the Earth: 2 and, second, by styling Jerusalem the Navel of the Earth, as they did, it was symbolically all the more assimilated to the primitive Paradise which in so many other ways it sacredly commemorated.

Passing to the field of Hellenic tradition, we are told by all modern interpreters that the Greeks shared the “narrow conceit and ignorance of all ancient nations,” and supposed their own land to occupy the middle of the “flat earth-disk.” And because of certain expressions in Pindar and a passage in Pausanias, it is affirmed as a first principle in the geography of the ancient Greeks that Delphi was believed to be the exact topographical centre-point of the whole earth.

Such a representation is far from satisfactory. For while the term “Omphalos of the Earth” was undoubtedly applied in a sense to Delphi, it belonged to it only as the name Athens belongs to many a town thus designated in America. It had other and older topographical connections and associations. We find traces of the same title in connection with Olympos, with Ida, with Parnassos, with Ogygia, with Nyssa, with Mount Meros, with Delos, with Athens, with Crete, and even with Meroë. In the multiplicity of these localizations, the people seem to have lost the clue to the original significance of the conception, and to have contrived crude etymological myths of their own for the explanation of what seemed to then a remarkable designation.

The moment we make the true original Omphalos of the Earth the North Pole, and invest it with sacred traditionary recollections of Eden life, all this confusion becomes clear. The “centre-stone” of Delphi, like the Omphalium of the Cretans, becomes merely a memorial shrine, an attempted copy of the great original. And if all the Olymps and Idas and Parnassos mounts were alike convenient reproductions and localizations of the one celestial mountain of the gods at the North Pole, what wonder if we find each of them in some way designated as the Centre of the Earth.

Homer’s “Omphalos of the sea,” Calypso’s isle,has in like manner all the marks of a mythico-traditional north polar Eden. Its name, Ogygia, connects it with a far-off antediluvian antiquity. 1 It is situated in the far North, and Odysseus needs the blast of Boreas to bring him away from its shores on the homeward journey. Its queen, Calypso, is the daughter of Atlas; and Atlas’ proper station in Greek mythology, as elsewhere shown, is at the terrestrial Pole. Its beauty is Paradisaic, it being adorned with groves and “soft meadows of violets,”-so beautiful, in fact, that “on beholding it even an Immortal would be seized with wonder and delight.” 2 Finally, identifying the place beyond all question, we have the Eden “fountain,” whose waters part into “four streams, flowing each in opposite directions.”

In Mount Meros we have only the Greek form of Meru, as long ago shown by Creuzer. The one is the Navel of the Earth for the same reason that the other is. Egyptian Meroë (in some Egyptian texts Mer, in Assyrian Mirukh, or Mirukha), the seat of the famous oracle of Jupiter Ammon, was possibly named from the same “World-mountain.”

According to Hecatæus, Lêtô, the mother of Apollo and his sister Artemis, was born on an island in the Arctic Ocean, “beyond the North wind.” Moreover, on this island inhabited by the Hyperboreans, Apollo is unceasingly worshiped in a huge round temple, in a city whose inhabitants are perpetually playing upon lyres and chanting to his praise. So reports Diodorus (ii., 47); and herewith agrees the imaginary journey of Apollonius of Tyana,-a namesake of Apollo,-who tells of his journey far to the North of the Caucasus into the regions of the pious Hyperboreans, among whom he found a lofty sacred mountain, the Omphalos of the Earth.

In the Phædo we have a charming description of Plato’s terrestrial Paradise. “In this fair region,”Socrates is made to say, “all things that grow-trees and flowers and fruit-are fairer than any here; and there are hills and stones in them smoother and more transparent and fairer in color than our highly-valued emeralds and sardonyxes and jaspers and other gems, which are but minute fragments of them: for there all the stones are like our precious stones, and fairer still. The temperament of their seasons is such that the inhabitants have no disease, and live much longer than we do, and have sight and hearing and smell and all the other senses in much greater perfection. And they have temples and sacred places in which the gods really dwell, and they hear their voices, and receive their answers, and are conscious of them, and hold converse with them, and they see the sun, the moon, and the stars as they really are.”

If we ask as to the location of this divinely beautiful abode, every indication of the text agrees with our hypothesis. It is right under the eye when the world is looked at from its summit, the Northern celestial pole. 2 Viewed from the standpoint of Greece and its neighbor lands it is “above,”-it is “the upper Earth,” the dazzling top of the “round” world. In it, moreover, is the Navel of the Earth, μεσογαία, inhabited by happy men.

If anything is needed to disprove the common notion that geographical ignorance and national self-esteem first governed the ancient peoples in locating in their own countries “navels” of the earth, it is furnished by what is, in all probability, the oldest epic in the world, that of Izdhubar, fragments of which have survived in the oldest literature of Babylonia. These fragments show that the earliest inhabitants of the Tigro-Euphrates basin located “the Centre of the Earth,” not in their own midst, but in a far-off land, of sacred associations, where “the holy house of the gods” is situated,-a land “into the heart whereof man hath not penetrated;” a place underneath the “overshadowing world-tree,” and beside the “full waters.” 1 No description could more perfectly identify the spot with the Arctic Pole of ancient Asiatic mythology. Yet this testimony stands not alone; for in the fragment of another ancient text, translated by Sayce in “Records of the Past,” we are told of a “dwelling” which “the gods created for “the first human beings,”-a dwelling in which they “became great” and “increased in numbers,” and the location of which is described in words exactly corresponding to those of Iranian, Indian, Chinese, Eddaic, and Aztec literature; namely, “in the Centre of the Earth.”

In the Hindu Puranas we are told over and over that the earth is a sphere, and that Mount Meru is its Navel or Pole. 3 But the expression nâbhi, or “Navel” of the earth, is older than the Puranas, though the very meaning of Purana is “ancient.” Like the term “Navel of Heaven,” it occurs in the hymns of the earliest Veda. But where was the sacred shrine to which it was applied? It was no holy place in Bactria, or in the Punjâb. Nothing tends to locate it in India. On the other hand, the fifth verse of the one hundred and eighty-fifth hymn, mandala first, of the Rig Veda, seems most plainly to fix it at the North Pole. In this verse Night and Day are represented as twin sisters in the bosom of their parents Heaven and Earth; each bounding or limiting the other, but both kissing simultaneously the Nâbhi of the Earth. Now, everywhere upon earth, except in the polar regions, Night and Day seem ever to be pursuing and supplanting each other. They have no common ground. At the Pole-and only there-they may be said, with locked arms, to spin round and round a common point, and unitedly to kiss it from the opposite sides. 1 This plainly is the meaning of the poet; and remembering all the legendary splendors of the polar mountain around which sun and moon are ever moving, we must pronounce the figure as beautiful as it is instructive.

In perfect accord herewith, we find the bard asking, in another hymn, where the Navel of the Earth is; and in doing it he associates it as closely as possible, not with some central home-shrine in his own land, but with the extreme “End of the Earth,”-an expression used again and again, in ancient languages, for the Pole and its vicinity.

Again, in another Vedic passage, the Navel of the Earth is located upon “the mountains,” and this association points us to the North. Still stronger evidence of its polar location is found in other hymns, where the supporting column of heaven-the Atlas pillar of Vedic cosmology-is described as standing in or upon the Navel of the Earth.

Finally, so unmistakable is the Vedic teaching on this subject that a recent writer, after asserting with all his teachers that the cosmography of the Vedic bards was “embryonic,” and their earth a “flat disk” overarched by a solid firmament, which was “soldered on to the edge of the disk at the horizon,” nevertheless, later, in studying one of the cosmogonical hymns of Dīrghatamas, the son of Mamata, reaches the conclusion that the singer had knowledge both of the celestial and of the terrestrial Pole, and that, in seeking to answer the question as to the birth place of humanity, he locates it precisely at the point of contact between the polar mountain and the Pole of the northern sky.
We have seen that, according to Old-Iranian tradition also, man was created in the “central” division of the earth. The primordial tree, which “kept the strength of all kinds of trees,” was “in the vicinity of the Middle of the Earth.” The primeval ox, which stood by the Paradise river when the destroyer came, was “in the Middle of the Earth.” 3 Mount Taêra (Pahl.: Têrak), the celestial Pole, and Kakâd-i-Dâîtîk, the mountain of the terrestrial Pole, are each described in similar terms: the one as “Centre of the World,” the other as “Centre of the Earth.” The expression Apâm Nepât, the “Navel of the Waters,” occurs in the Avestan writings again and again, and is always applied either to the world-fountain from which all waters proceed, or to the spirit presiding over it. But as this world-fountain, Ardvî Sûra, is located in the north polar sky, we have here also a recognition of a world-omphalos, inseparable from the ancient and sacred Paradise-mountain at the Pole.

Thus is all ancient thought full of this legendary idea of a mysterious, primeval, holy, Paradisaic Earth-centre,-a spot connected as is no other with the “Centre of Heaven,” the Paradise of God. Why it should be so no one has ever told us; but the hypothesis which places the Biblical Eden at the Pole, and makes all later earth navels commemorative of that primal one, affords a perfect explanation. In the light of it, there is no difficulty in understanding that Earth-centre in Jerusalem with which we began. The inconspicuous pillar in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre symbolizes and commemorates far more than the geographical ignorance of mediæval ages. It stands for the Japanese pillar by which the first soul born upon earth mounted to the sky. It stands for the World-column of the East-Aryans and the Chinvat Bridge of Iran. It stands for the law-proclaiming pillar of orichalcum in Atlantis, placed in the centre of the most central land. It stands for that Talmudic pillar by means of which the tenants of the terrestrial Paradise mount to the celestial, and, having spent the Sabbath, return to pass the week below.

It symbolizes Cardo, Atlas, Meru, Harâ-berezaiti, Kharsak-Kurra,-every fabulous mountain on whose top the sky pivots itself, and around which all the heavenly bodies ceaselessly revolve. It perpetuates a religious symbolism which existed in its region before ever Jerusalem had been made the Hebrew capital,-recalling to our modern world the tabbur ha-aretz of a period anterior to the days of Samuel. 1 In tradition it is said to mark the precise spot “whence the clay was taken, out of which the body of Adam was modeled.” It does so, but it does it in a language and method which were common to all the most ancient nations of the earth. It points not to the soil in which it stands, but to the holier soil of a far-away primitive Eden.

“Mythus solus, sunt mythi.”

The Greeks had sound reasons for believing the geography of their myths to be important. Primitive man was very literal minded. Nothing, it will be shown, was further from his thought than the idea of making up stories about the sun and the moon and other natural phenomena; any one doing this would have been considered feeble minded. The myth, in the modern sense of the word, is not found until a comparatively recent date. To the Greeks of time prior to this a myth was an accurate and literal statement of certain important facts; important because, as will appear, the knowledge of them might be a matter of life and death, not only to individuals but to whole communities.

There was one very practical reason. The Greeks were great traders, and colonizers for purposes of trade. It many times happened that for very long periods trade with important customer nations or colonies had to be discontinued. Other nations might rise to dominance in sea power and block the ‘ route. The particular commodities traded in might be better obtained from other places. The customer nation itself or the colony might be substantially wiped out by war or pestilence or inundations, and under such circumstances that there was no prospect of re-establishment. The only record that such trade or such place or such colony had existed would be the myth preserved in the home temples. And when, perhaps many centuries later, new places to trade or to found colonies were being sought, the myths would be consulted. One instance of this is the remarkable and unsuccessful search of the Phoenician traders for the lost Pillars of Hercules. (Strabo, II. 5.) Remarkable because, as will be shown, it was the ocean (the “Asiatic Mediterranean” of geologists, see Encycl. Brit. art. Caspian; the Ocean of Atlantis of the ancients), which had disappeared and not the pillars marking its entrance. And unsuccessful because, owing to the changed meaning of a word, the search was made west instead of east. An interesting example in Greek history is the founding of Cyrene by the Theraeans. (Herod, IV. 155.)

Every precaution was therefore taken that the myths should be transmitted accurately. The term “muthologeuo” used by Homer means “to tell word for word.” That the Greeks were convinced that the means taken had been adequate to ensure accuracy is shown by such incidents as the handing over of Salamis to the Athenians by the Spartans on the evidence of a single line of a myth.

They had much positive evidence of accuracy, evidence of extreme accuracy. Where there was error it was substantially invariably due to a change in the meaning of a word, or the word had come to be pronounced in a different way, as our “wind” and “gold” have become “wind” and “gold.” The oracle at Dodona was founded by three elders “palaiai,” but when, in time, this came to be pronounced “palaai” the reciter of the myth, who could not change the quantity of the syllable, since it was in verse, was understood as saying that the oracle was founded by three “peleiai,” i.e. pigeons. I have not been able to discover any instance of a myth having been incorrectly transmitted verbally, though in later times there were several instances of forgery.

It was therefore very disturbing to the Greeks that in some of the older myths the routes stated to have been taken on certain expeditions could not be reconciled in any reasonable way with the known geographical facts. Why did Hercules, returning to Tiryns with the oxen of Geryon, from Gades and the Pillars of Hercules, pass through the country on the north shore of the Black Sea. Why did not Mt. Atlas, in Libya, correspond with its description in the myths. How was it that the Argonauts, after entering the mouth of the Danube, passed through Egypt on their way to the Adriatic. Where were Hyperborea, the red island, Erythia, the islands of Ogygia and of the Hesperides. There were many writers on the subject but Herodotus and Strabo are perhaps the best to consult for examples of the difficulties met with and illustration of their apparently insuperable nature.

TABULATION AND COMPARISON OF MYTHS

From this tabulation it was apparent that:

a. The mythic expeditions were quite consistent and understandable as regards the first and last portions of the routes.

b. The inconsistencies with known geographical facts were consistent with each other.

c. The expeditions whose objective was in the far west, in the Atlantic Ocean, beyond the Pillars of Hercules, e.g. the expeditions for the apples of the Hesperides and for the oxen of Geryon, always first went east, into and along the shores of the Black Sea, to the Caucasus; then, with some incoherency as to route, appeared in the Atlantic Ocean, accomplished their quest, and after a second vagueness as to itinerary, returned by way of the shore of the Black Sea to Greece.

d. In a number of instances members of the same family lived, some in the far east, some in the far west; no reference to or explanation of the separation is given, and the members apparently remained in communication. E.g. Prometheus was in the Caucasus, and Echidna and Typhon in its neighborhood; but Atlas and the Hesperides (the brother and nieces of Prometheus) and Geryon (the brother of Echidna) and Orthus (son of Echidna and Typhon) were beyond the Pillars of Hercules, the exit to the Atlantic Ocean.

e. In some instances there was contradiction as to locality. E.g. Mt. Atlas was usually placed on the shore of the Atlantic, but sometimes in the Caucasus; the country of the Hyperboreans was placed sometimes far west, sometimes not far from the Black Sea.

f. There is a gap in the geography of mythology. There are many myths connected with places lying east of Sicily and west of the Caucasus, and many with places in the Atlantic Ocean, but none with the region between Sicily and the Atlantic Coast.

The results of this tabulation were collated with the following well known facts:

a. The early myth tellers, including Homer and Hesiod, had no knowledge of Spain or of the Atlantic Ocean. This did not come till several centuries after the time of Homer.

b. Not one of the places stated in the myths to have been in or on the Atlantic Ocean has ever been satisfactorily identified. E.g. the island supposed to be Erythia is not red; the supposed Gades is not well watered, on the contrary was notorious for its bad water; the mountain identified as Atlas is relatively low and is not near the shore; the Atlantic Ocean itself does not correspond with the description of the Ocean of Atlantis for it is not shoal and un-navigable opposite the Pillars of Hercules and is not entirely surrounded by land. No submerged area has been found in the Atlantic Ocean corresponding to a submerged Atlantis. It has been suggested that it might exist but have been missed between the successive soundings taken by wire, since the intervals are large. But in 1913 the writer invented the method of taking soundings and of locating icebergs by trains of sound waves (single impulses are diffracted), which gives continuous soundings by echo, and this has been used all over the North Atlantic; by the iceberg patrol in 1914 (see U. S. Hydrographic Office Bulletin, May 13th, 1914), by the United Fruit Co. in 1919 and 1920, and by the U. S. Navy, in 1922 and 1923 ; but no such submerged area has been discovered. Other discrepancies are pointed out by the authorities referred to.

c. The Caucasus is, in all the older myths, invariably placed “at the extremity of the earth, on the border of Oceanus.”

2. THE MISPLACED MYTH AREA

These data gave, so to speak, a sufficient number of equations for attack. The singular gap in the myth field, between Sicily and the Atlantic coast of Spain (Iberia), suggested that the problem was of the nature of a block puzzle, i.e. that a block of the myth map had been displaced.

Which was the misplaced block, and where did it belong. Several plausible solutions suggested themselves but on investigation had to be rejected. It was finally noted that there was a curious one-to-one correspondence between points on the eastern shore of the Black Sea and on the west shore of the Mediterranean, i.e.:

a. In the east we have a country, Iberia, stretching from the Black Sea to the Caspian. In the west we have a country, Iberia, stretching from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic.

b. The northern boundary of both Iberias is a chain of high mountains; running from sea to sea, east and west, in both of which Mt. Atlas had been placed.

c. In the east we have the Hypanis; in the west, Hispalis and Hispania, and other pairs of similar or identical names, e.g. Aragon and Aragus.

d. In the east we have the country of the Libui, about the mouth of the Danube and inland; in the west we have Libya.

Placing the Black Sea block to the west of the Atlantic block would still leave empty the space between Sicily and the Atlantic shore of Spain; the mythic expeditions would be still more difficult to explain; there was a continuity between the Black Sea and Greek blocks which could not be disturbed by removal of the Black Sea block. Obviously it was the Atlantic block which must be transferred to the eastern edge of the Black Sea block.

3. PROOF THAT THE PROPOSED LOCATION OF THE MYTH AREA IS CORRECT – THE LOST PILLARS OF HERCULES

The next step was to ascertain if the new arrangement could pass the severe tests requisite to establish its claim to be the correct solution, i.e.

a. It must be shown that, at the time at which the events related by the myths occurred, there was on the eastern edge of the Caucasus a body of water of such magnitude that it could be rightly called an ocean, and entirely surrounded by land.

b. It must be shown that at that time ships could sail from the Black Sea into that ocean.

c. It must be shown that the Pillars of Hercules were at the entrance to that ocean.

d. The place names of the former Atlantic block must be satisfactorily identified with localities in the neighborhood of the Caucasus, of the Black Sea and of that ocean (which we will call the Ocean of Atlantis, to distinguish it from the Atlantic Ocean).

e. The routes taken by the mythic expeditions must be consistent and in accord with the geographic facts.

f. There should preferably, but not necessarily, be some explanation of the misplacement of the Ocean of Atlantis block to the far west. Also some explanation of the fact that the misplacement was not discovered.

It was found that the new arrangement met the requirements, i.e.

a. There was such an ocean. It is known to geologists as the Asiatic Mediterranean. It was the original Atlantic Ocean.

The Pillars of Hercules were found; and at the entrance to the Ocean of Atlantis.

For evidence of the fact that it was known to the ancients that the Pillars of Hercules were lost; for an account of the various expeditions sent out by the Naval College of the Phoenicians at Sidon to discover them; for the reasons why the Phoenicians decided that the capes of the straits of Gibraltar were not the true Pillars of Hercules; for an explanation of their nature and use; for evidence that the true Pillars were known to two Asiatic kings in the seventh century B.C. and later mistaken for another monument by Ptolemy.

d. The identification :was complete. In addition it explained some difficult statements in the myths, e.g. the heptacyclic flow of the Styx; the origin of the name Phlegethon, of the names Hades and Tartarus; Solon’s account of Atlantis and Aelian’s of Meropia.

CAUSE OF THE MISPLACEMENT

f. The explanation of the misplacement was found to be connected with the reversal in meaning of the word Hesperus. This is derived from a root having the implication “coming up out of.” The sun and stars were supposed to come up out of the ocean and to go down into it at night. Hesperus is Venus, which is both morning and evening star.

To a primitive people it was as a morning star that it was important. Travelers on the steppes have described the jubilation and songs with which the Kirgis children, who had to watch the cattle all night, welcomed it, for it meant that day was near. Even in such comparatively late authors as Homer and Hesiod it is called “heosphoros,” the bringer of morning. Hesiod calls Hesperus the son of dawn.

All the associations of Hesperus were therefore originally with the east, and the Gardens of the Hesperides were so called because they were in the far east, on the edge of the ocean, in the eastern part of the Caucasus valley.

THE GEOGRAPHY OF GREEK AND SEMITIC MYTHOLOGY

In Pindar the Black Sea is called the Axenus, or unfriendly sea. This was because long before the time of Homer, for a period of more than a thousand years, the Black Sea had, to quote the words of Strabo, “been closed to navigation,” by something that had happened there, which appears (there is some evidence for this) to have struck an instinctive terror into the souls of even the descendants of those living in the neighborhood of the sea at the time and to have resulted in the absolute abandonment of that region by humanity until, long after, men began to filter back.

When they did return the Pillars of Hercules had been lost. They were never found but for lack of a better identification the na me was attached to the straits of Gibraltar and the myths relating to places beyond the Pillars of Hercules, Le. to the Caucasus region, were attached to the Atlantic and its seaboard.

WHY THE MISPLACEMENT WAS NOT DISCOVERED – HESPERUS THE MORNING STAR

This misplacement was clenched by a change in the meaning of the word Hesperus. It had come to mean the evening or western star. So no one thought of looking to the east for the Garden of the Hesperides. Atlas gave a good deal of trouble; there was no distinguished mountain near the straits which could by any image be considered as upholding the sky, but after a time Mt. Dyrin was accepted as being perhaps the best that could be done. Gades and Erythia also were never considered very satisfactory; in time the disagreements came to be overlooked, and there is evidence that the Homeric commentators piously, under the impression that they were correcting obvious mistakes in the text, reversed every, to their knowledge, phrase which indicated an eastern position.

It is significant that a similar confusion of meaning is found to have existed in other languages besides Greek; in all which I have examined. E.g. Genesis, 11; 2; authorized version, reads: “And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east,” but the margin says “or eastward.” Clay (Amurru, p. 108) shows that the word in Isaiah 24; 15; which has always been translated “east” should probably be translated `west,” and he refers to the Talmudic Ur and the difficulty the Jews in Babylonia experienced in trying to understand how Ur, which ordinarily means light or the east, “in this connection (urya) meant darkness or the west.” It existed in many other languages, and our own ” east” or ‘ l est” appears to have been at one time “west.”

FLOOD

The Cimmerian tradition calls for an increase in level of the Black Sea of approximately 45 feet and a period of approximately twelve hours.

The Egyptian-Phoenician tradition requires a rise of 35 feet and a period of twenty-four hours.

The Hebrew-Babylonian tradition must have a rise of 40 feet on the southwest coast of the ocean of Atlantis, and of sufficiently rapid increment to carry a large vessel up the valley of the Arax into the great expanse at the foot of Mt. Ararat, and flood this expanse over an area of approximately 50 miles square. The period would not exceed a few hours, but the time taken to drain the expanse would be measured by weeks or even months.

The Phrygian tradition is not known with sufficient definiteness to calculate its requirements. It is probably a branch of the Semitic tradition.

The Greek tradition would necessitate a rise of 125 feet, on the assumption that there has been no change in the level of the region between the Black and Aegean seas; and also on the assumption that the tradition is not derived from the Caucasus region.

e. The traditions, taken as a whole, require a tidal wave on the southwest shore of the ocean of Atlantis, of a height of approximately 40 feet, lasting for approximately 12 hours, and sufficiently rapid in its onset to produce bores up the river valleys of that shore.

The evidence that the Deluge had a tidal wave character appears to be conclusive. The traditions are in agreement, and the Babylonian tradition specifically says “Like a war engine it (the Deluge) comes upon the people.”

The ice of the fourth and last glacial age was just passing away. The date of the deluge, from the EgyptianPhoenician tradition, is about 9,500 B.C. De Geer and Liden’s date (obtained from counting the ‘varves” or annual layers of the glacier deposits, and which gives very accurate results) for the beginning of glacial recession from southern Sweden is 11,500 B.C. At 9,500 B.C. there must still have been considerable glacier ice north of the ocean at Atlantis.

From the Babylonian version of the Semitic tradition, the flood was preceded by an intense drought lasting for six or seven years. No rain fell during the entire period, and all rivers and wells were dried up.

k. According to the Semitic or Hebrew-Babylonian tradition there was warning of the advent of the Deluge, and so far in advance as to afford time for the construction of a huge vessel. Giving due weight to the fact that the rule of the head of a family was autocratic and to the announcement of a revelation, it is difficult to conceive that such a gigantic task could have been carried to completion without some outward and visible sign. Noah was living to the east of Eden (Aetan), i.e. where the Arax flowed into the ocean of Atlantis. The indication of the coming Deluge was probably a continued and fairly rapid creeping up of the ocean level.

Origin of religions. It was found that

1. The religion of the Egyptians was derived from the mother country of the Phoenicians, i.e. Colchis, the western Caucasus valley, originally Eadon.

2. The fundamental Greek religion was derived from Hypiberea; with additions from Egypt.

3. The Syrian and Babylonian religions (worship of Thammuz, Adonis, etc.), were derived from the northern slopes of the Caucasus, i.e. from the neighborhood of Mt. Tamischeira, the river and peninsula of Acheron or Apscheron and the river Udonis. Thammuzon is “land of Thammuz” and is the origin of the name Amazon. Adonis is “man of the land of Ea.” Acheron or Apseron is “land of the burning” or ” Land whence fire arises,”.

4. The religion of the Aryans was derived from the Apseron district.

5. The religion of the pre-Mosaic Ibri (Hebrews), was derived from Iberia or eastern Eadon.

6. The religion of Crete was from the same source as 1, with additions from a district just north of source 3. These additions were perhaps of a civil rather than a religious character.

IDENTITY OF GREEK AND SEMITIC MYTHS

e. Origin of myths. When the geographical misplacement referred to above was corrected, it was found that the Semitic and Greek myths of the origin of mankind referred to the same place and were in agreement at all substantial points. E.g.

1. Eadon of Greek mythology and Eden of Semitic are the same region. The word means “Land of Ea,” and the eastern part was later called the land of the Iberi or Ibri (Hebrews).

2. The Garden of the Hesperides wad the Garden of Eden were in the same place, i.e. the eastern part of Eadon or Eden.

3. The dragon guarded tree of the Apples of Hesperides and the kirubi (flying serpent) guarded tree of Life were in the same place, i.e. a garden in the eastern portion of Eadon or Eden.

4. Both Greek and Hebrew traditions place a phenomena of fire to the east of Eden; the Greek tradition flaming fields; the Hebrew tradition a sword of fire which turned every way.

The sacred fire of the early Aryan religion was there also.

5. Zeus, according to the Greek mythology (Smith, Classical Dict. art. Prometheus), “created men out of earth and water and caused the winds to breath life into them.” in Eadon.

God, according to the Semitic tradition (Genesis, chap. 2, verse 7), “formed man out of the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul,” in Eden.

6. Both the Greek and Hebrew traditions place the institution of the rite of the sacrifice of animals in Eden, and both lay stress on the fat of the offering.

7. The Greek tradition in regard to Prometheus and the Hebrew tradition in regard to Cain are similar in many respects. E.g.

Prometheus incurs the displeasure of Zeus, and Cain that of God, on account of the nature of their sacrifices.

Both are exiled to the same place, to the east of Eden.

Both are the originators of metal working and other useful arts for which fire is necessary.

CAUSE OF DELUGE

The problem having been formulated, the following solutions present themselves:

1. Abnormal and long continued rainfall. This must be rejected as a prime cause, though it may have been accessory.
If all the air above the ocean of Atlantis were saturated and then all the water fell as rain, it would only increase the level about 2 inches. Even with winds bringing in moisture laden air at a velocity of 60 miles per hour the total daily rise could not exceed 2 inches per day, or 7 feet for 40 days. Small areas may have a rainfall of several feet per day, but no large area can have a fall of more than about two inches; and no larger fall has ever been known over any considerable area. This fact is well known to meteorologists.

In addition it would not give the requisite rapidity of rise.

2. Abnormal winds. High winds will undoubtedly pile up water on the lee shore of a sea. If the sea is deep, the amount will vary with the latitude, since it is a function of the earth’s rotation, and may amount to as much as 30 feet. But the piling up is at right angles to the direction of the wind and would not supply the water fast enough.

If the sea is shallow we may also get sufficient increase in level on the lee shore, but there is the same difficulty in regard to the supply of water.

It would not give the requisite bores up the rivers.

Though insufficient in itself, it may have been an important accessory.

3. Earthquake. Only one tradition mentions an earthquake, and this probably of minor intensity.

4. Slippage of sedimentary deposits. This is one of the most common causes of tidal waves.

A seven years drought followed by heavy rainfall might well have produced slip of sufficient amount.

5. Slipping of a dam of Glacial ice holding back the Arctic from the ocean of Atlantis. This is less probable than some of the other possible causes, but certain facts entitle it to consideration.

4. The low country then was called Ur-on and its inhabitants Ur-ab or Ab-ur.

5. The mountainous district was called Al-on and its inhabitants Al-ab or Ab-al.

6. Ur means “fire” or “light.” A1 means “high” or “height.” On means “place.” Ab means “out of” or “from.”

These colonizers retained the parent name, Aburi or Haburi. The Greeks later called those of the middle valley the Iberi and those of the eastern valley the Hypiberi (Hyperborei), analogous to the term Hypachaeans. (Herodotus, 7; 91. )

9. The next, and to some extent contemporary extension was northwest along the slopes of the Caucasus and down the rivers later known as the Tiberda, Urup and Oceanus, Hypanis or Kuban, to the mouth of the Kuban at the entrance to the Sea of Azov. This was by the Uron and Alon people.
The Alon people moved into the triangle of which the Kuban and Alontas or Terek formed the south side, the line of the Manysch lakes a second, and the shore of the Azov the third. The territory was known as Alond or Alont. The final consonant was not, I believe, inflexional. It may mean “set” or “belonging together with.”

10. Those remaining in the place of origin, i.e. the land between and almost encircled by the present Terek and Sunsha were now called Ur-Al and later Ur-Ur, or Tur-Tur, a reduplication of the final consonant which became a feature of the Sumerian language. Other instances are found at the close of this period. It may have originated as a distinction between different parts of the same race, i.e. between the Ur who had moved, the Aed-ur and those who remained, the Ur-ur.

11. Those dwelling to the east of Tur-Tur or Alont, i.e. in the present peninsula of Apscheron, Ashuron, or Alazon, were called Aps-ur, Ash-ur or Al-ups. The names survived in Apscheron, Acheron, Ashirta, Ashur, Assyria, Apharsath, Hesperus, Star, Alazon, Alypes, Chalybs, Elysium, Acheruntici libri, Acheruns, Asii, Asia.

12. The word Ash originally meant “up out of,” and then “east,” as that was the place where the sun came up out of. Later it meant wood, especially a kind of white poplar which grew in the Acheron valley. Aps meant the east.

13. The word Aed or Aet was applied to the west coast and those dwelling there. We have Aedon, Aeturon, Aetalon, Haedon.
These survived in Eden, Aethurea, Atlas, Atlantic, Hades (Aidoneus), Adonis, Aethiopia (Aeti-ope), ether. The fact that Aethurea and Aetalon suggest Etruria and Italy has of course been noted, but mere philological identities do not count in work in this field; there must be positive and definite historical or other facts; the history of the words Etruria and Italy is not sufficiently known.

14. The word Aed or Aet meant the sea, but not in the same way as the word ocean. Ocean was the “river place” (oche-on; I know philologists have .given a different derivation but I think this will stand), the home of the tribe of rivers. But aed or aet meant what was there when you went into a dark cave; it was the black void; it was the sea in that sense and it carried with it the idea of darkness or blackness. The Black sea may possibly owe its name to a revival of the old name, but this is merely a surmise, I have not investigated and possibly it is too late to ascertain.

15. During the next expansion period both Al and Ur became sea faring nations. The Ur had the west end of the Caucasus valley, which Mithridates later found to be such a splendid place for ship-building, and the A1 had the east end, almost equally good.

The Ur took all of the Black sea coast except the north, and the Aegean as far as Rhodes. Incidentally the story of the Telchines (Chalybs), that they settled Rhodes because they were afraid their own country would be deluged, confirms the impression derived from the Semitic traditions that the Deluge did not come without warning; and the specific statement of the Egyptian-Phoenician traditions that there had been several previous minor inundations.

The Al took the north shore of the Black Sea and the sea of Azov and the Crimea, placing the Pillars of Hercules at the straits. Also they took the southwest and south shores of what is now the Caspian Sea, but was then very much larger, and the Ocean of Atlantis. It will be noted that while there are numerous evidences on the Caspian Sea of this extension, e.g. the river Alontas, town Asslandus, etc., there are comparatively few on the Black Sea.

During this period the Al were called Alani or Atlanti (Aloni; Aetaloni), and the Ur were called Meropes or Europes (Ur-ope).

Extension was then interrupted by the Deluge. The following survived

a. Abur. (Haburi, Iberi, Hibri.) Noah and his family, from the east Caucasus valley; after the Deluge; from the Artaxatan or Karajas plain in the mountains of Ararat. (Ararat was a district, not a mountain, see Genesis 8. 4.) Semitic tradition. This was the Kir of Amos. Also other survivors in Armenia.

b. Aetur. On south coast of Black Sea. Possibly the Phrygian tradition.

c. Aea and Aetiope. In Colchis (Chalchis, west Caucasus valley), and possibly Rhodes. The Phoenician-Egyptian tradition, and the Telchines-Meropes tradition.

d. Aetal. (Cimmerii, Ambrones.) The Crimea. The Cimmerian tradition.

e. Al, Alab, Alaps, Ur. and Apsur. In the peninsula of Apscheron and the Caucasus range.

f. Al, Alaps, Ur, Apsur. On the south and southwest shore of what is now the Caspian. The tradition will, I believe, be found when the region south of the Caspian is investigated archeologically.

So far as can be ascertained no other surviving groups greatly influenced the subsequent stages of dispersion. These appear to have been, see MAP A.

a. Of the Aetal north and west to the shores of the Baltic and Italy.

b. Of the Al east along the south shore of the ocean of Atlantis.

c. Of the Alaps, Apsur and Ur up the Araxes to the Urmia valley; thence of the Alaps and Apsur down the Little Zab to the Tigris and thence to Babylon; the-region above the junction of Little Zab and Tigris was settled later from Ashuron. The Alaps and Apsur kept together, but the Alaps were the Chaldeans, the astronomers, metal workers, etc., while the Apsur were the farmers. The Ur and Abur spread from the Urmia valley to the southeast.

d. Of the Abur of Armenia west to the Bosphorus, thence across Thrace to northern Italy, southern France and Spain.

The descendants of Noah spread down the Euphrates valley to the neighborhood of Aleppo, and there divided. One branch went south to Damascus (there is some evidence that a branch of the Euphrates once flowed past Damascus into the Jordan Valley, possibly past Palmyra) and thence to Arabia. The other branch went southeast to Babylon and there encountered those descendants of the survivors who had come from the Urmia valley. The Tower of Babel was probably built for astronomical purposes, to settle disputes connected with the time for opening the irrigating canals of the interconnecting canal systems of the Tigris and Euphrates. Such towers had been in use in the Caucasus valley.

e. The Aea and Aetiope for a long time were merely traders, though they settled some islands. They traded in the Black and Aegean seas, along the east coast of the Mediterranean, with the natives of Syria, and sailed into the Red Sea (the Nile had not then formed the Isthmus of Suez), and across thence, since Arabia was then completely or substantially an island, to the head of the Persian or Keph gulf and the island of Kephtor, where they traded with the settlers there, and founded cities in the Persian gulf, called Tyre and Sidon. They also had a settlement in the gulf of Akaba, and later went across from Leucos and settled Thebes.

When the water route across north Arabia began to dry up and the Suez straits began to silt up they moved their principal stations to the eastern Mediterranean, and founded the cities of Sidon and Tyre there.

One difficulty met with in tracing the North Caucasus race is that the Ur and Al combined politically and theologically. The two gods, Ur and Al became a twin god, Ur-Al (KhurKhal), and Tartarus was known as Ur-alu. It is possible that the Ur may have been the dark North Caucasus type, and the Al the light type, but there is not sufficient evidence to separate them into distinct races.

Two-thirds of the valley, the western and middle portions, were part of the kingdom of Ea, and were called Aedon by the Phoenicians and Eden by the Semites. The western half of Aeden was called Aethiopia by the Phoenicians and later Colchis by the Greeks. The eastern half of Aedon, the part enclosed on all four sides and into which the gate opened, was the “Paradeisos” or enclosed park of the Septuagint and the “Garden in the east of Eden” of the Semites.

The eastern third of the valley, through which portion the Alizon flowed, was called “Elysion” by the Greeks.

Aethiopia (Colchis; west Aedon) was inhabited by a negro race. The black race received its name from this district; it may have originated there or in the neighborhood. They were employed by the Phoenicians for ship building, and may have been brought there from some other region.

Iberia (eastern Aedon, Paradeisos) was inhabited by the Aburi or Haburi. This was the Greek name for the middle third of the valley.

Hypiberia (Hyperborea, Elysion) was where Aloni and Alapsoni (Alazoni) lived. Hypiberia was so named because it was beyond Iberia; compare Achaeans and Hypachaeans, Herodotus 7; 91. But the Greeks were always fond, as Strabo puts it (Strabo, 11; 11; 5) of making “deflections (paranomasia) from the native names” to give them a Greek meaning. I have referred to this in connection with the river Araxes. So they “deflected” Hypiberia into Hyperborea, i.e. “beyond the North wind” (Boreas).

THE GARDEN OF EDEN

Of the central part of the valley (Paradeisos, Aburon, Iberia, East Aedon), the part enclosed on all four sides and into which the gate opens it says (article Georgia, vols. 10 and 26)

THE RIVERS OF EDEN

Incidentally it may be noted that, as stated in Genesis 2; 10; the river which waters East Aedon, i.e. the Kur, does not rise within it, but flows into it from the west, from West Aedon, and after flowing through it “passes,” to quote Strabo, 11; 3 ; 2, ” through a narrow channel into Albania” (Hypiberia, Elysion) and there divides into a number of channels, in the Adshinour Steppe or Plain of Adshinour, near the town of Chaldan, and the left hand branch flows “in front of” Apsur, or Asshur. I have not investigated these particular coincidences for the reason that from other data I know that this alluvial district was the prototype of the plain of Shinar and Chaldea, and any attempt to trace the different passes of the Kur would be a failure, as they change number and position as the delta grows. Strabo says, 11; 4; 2: that in his time there were said to be 12 such passes. Havilah cannot be identified by the gold, because the whole valley had gold. Strabo says, 11; 2; 19: “Some say they are called Iberians from the gold mines.” (Note, he was confusing the Ghurochi or Urochi, whom the Greeks “deflected” into Georuchi, with the Iberi.) And “cush” may not have anything to do with I I black” but may be connected with Susa, i.e. Schuscha in Karabagh. A close identification of the branches of a delta after 10,000 years can hardly be considered as a scientific objective.

ETHIOPIA (AETI-OPE) (West Aedon, Colchis)

Homer says that the Aethiopians were on the banks of the river Oceanus (Iliad I; 423)

Hesiod, in a fragment, says “He saw the Aethiopians, and the Iberians and the Scythians, milkers of mares.” Euripides, in a fragment of his Phaethon, calls the Colchians the “swarthy neighbors” of the Meropes, who lived just north of the Caucasus range.

“The plain (Themiscyra) is partly washed by the sea and partly situated at the foot of a mountainous country which is well wooded and intersected with rivers which have their source among the mountains. It is therefore well watered with dews and is constantly covered with herbage and is capable of affording food to herds of cattle as well as horses. The largest crops there consist of millets; they never fail, for the supply of water” (from the dews) “more than counteracts the effect of all drought; these people therefore never on any occasion experience a famine.”

“The country at the foot of the mountains produces so large an autumnal crop of spontaneously grown wild fruits, of the vine, the pear, the apple and hazel that in all seasons o f the year persons who go out into the woods to cut timber gather them in large quantities; the fruit is found either yet hanging upon the trees or lying beneath a deep covering of leaves thickly strewn upon the ground. Wild animals of all kinds which resort here on account of the abundance of food, are frequently hunted.” (Strabo; 12; 3; 15. The small rain fall is hence an advantage, as the fruits are preserved all the year round under the covering of leaves and do not rot.)

ELYSION (ALYSION)

That part of Hypiberia which was watered by the Alizon and was nearer to the gate was the Elysion of the Greeks. The Elysian fields were the fields through which the Alizon flowed. Homer’s description is, Odyssey, 4; lines 560 et seq.

The Elysian plain and the extremity of the earth, where auburn haired Rhadamanthus is; there in truth is the most easy life for men. There is no snow or storm or even rain, but always the ocean sends out the breeze of the west to blow cool on men.”

(Note. Compare Strabo, 11; 5; 5. “Here they lay the scene of the tradition that Prometheus had been chained in Caucasus at the extremity of the earth, for the Caucasus mountains were the furthest places towards the east with which the people of those times were acquainted.” It was the extremity of the earth because it was on the shore of the great ocean of Atlantis. Note also that Rhadamanthus is given the type of hair peculiar to the Al race.)

The following lines, Homer, Iliad, 2; 734; et seq. are suggestive: I `And of them that possessed Ormenios and the fountains of Hyperia, and possessed Asterion and the white crests of Titanos, of. these was Eurypylos leader, Euaimon’s glorious son.” (Aides, Alaporus, Alapuros, Evaemon.)
Elysian Fields, Elysium (Greek)
Originally in Greek mythology, beautiful meadows or plains, or islands of the blest, located in the far west by the banks of Ocean There certain heroes of the fourth race who never experienced death were said to dwell in perfect happiness ruled by Rhadamanthus The titans after being reconciled with Zeus also lived there under the rule of Kronos Pindar holds that all who have passed blamelessly through life three times live there in bliss Later, Elysium was located in the underworld as the abode of those whom the judges of the dead found worthy The river Lethe (forgetfulness) flowed by the Elysian Fields

Those reading Homer in this connection should note that not only Homer but also other early traditions use the word Aethiopia, when applied to the Caucasus valley to indicate, not Colchis alone, but the whole valley, including Hypiberea.

The chaining and torture of Prometheus formed in antiquity the object of a significant number of poems, descriptions and explanations The fact that this memorable scene from the history of ante-Homeric civilization took place on the territory of Dacia, gives us the task to also analyze from a geographical point of view, the second legend about Prometheus’ suffering According to various Greek authors from a later time than the time of Hesiod, Prometheus was nailed on the Caucasus mountain in Scythia

So, the grammarian Apollodorus tells us: “Prometheus, after shaping men from water and earth, secretly stole fire from Jove and hid it in the plant called ferula But Jove sensing this, ordered Vulcan to nail his body on the Caucasus mountain This mountain is in Scythia, where Prometheus stayed nailed for a number of years (Bibl Lib I 7 1) We have here therefore a new question from the geography of antiquity: which is the Caucasus about which the second legend of Prometheus speaks This Caucasus of Scythia on which Prometheus was chained or nailed, was a geographical mystery even for the most distinguished authors of old

The Caucasus from Prometheus’ legends was not at all identical with the range of mountains which stretches between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea One of the most distinguished and learned men of the 12th century, the bishop Eustathius of Thessalonika, tells us the following in the Commentaries written by him on Dionysius Periegetus: “But the ancient authors affirm that that Caucasus, on which according to legends Prometheus was crucified, does not figure on the geographical tables” (v 663) So we have here a very precious staTument, made on the basis of old legends and geographical sources, that Prometheus’ Caucasus was not the Caucasus of Asia, or from the eastern parts of the Black Sea And regarding this, the epoch of Roman domination in the eastern parts of Europe elucidates it completely Once the sovereignty of the world passed into the hands of the Romans, the geographical knowledge started to make an immense progress Each Roman expedition was at the same time also a geographical reconnaissance And, in our case, as soon as the Roman legions reached the Istru, the SE region of the Carpathians appears in different historical and geographical monuments under the name of “Caucasus”

The first Roman general who reached the Danube was Marcus Livius Drus (Florus, lib III c 5; Mommsen, Rom Gesch II 173) Shortly after that, the ex-consul Piso, following the same strong policy of punishing and weakening the barbarians by making military incursions in their lands, crossed, according to the historian Florus (lib III 5), the mountains of Rhodope and of Caucasus In the historical summary of Florus, under the name Rhodope was to be understood the entire complicated system of mountains of ancient Thrace, together with the Hem or today Balkans, as seventy or eighty years later the poet Virgil similarly called Rhodope not only the mountains of Thrace, but also the mountains of Scythia from the north of Istru (Georg III v 351) And Florus meant doubtlessly under the name of Caucasus, a mountain from the territory of ancient Scythia, or the southern range of Dacia’s Carpathians

This is also confirmed by a remarkable Roman inscription (in Koln museum) from the time of the emperor Trajan, where the group of the Carpathians near the Olt river is called Caucasus The text of this inscription, of great value for the geography of Dacia in ante-Roman times is: “Matronis / Aufanib(us) / C(aius) / Jul(ius) / Mansue / tus M(iles) l(egionis) I M(inerviae) / p(iae) f(idelis) v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) fu(it) / ad Alutum / flumen secus / mont(em) Caucasi” (Henzen, nr 5939; Froehner, La Colonne Trajane, I p 28, nr 16)

Dacia’s Carpathians appear also under the name Caucasus in various other historical and geographical descriptions In the 5th century ad, the Roman geographer Julius Honorius had composed, based on older sources, a small treaty on cosmography (Cosmographia, 28), in which he mentions two mountain ranges with the name of Caucasus, one on the territory of Europe close to the Hem mountain, which corresponds to the SE Carpathians of Dacia, the other on the territory of Asia, on the eastern part of the Black Sea (Honorius mentions near the Caucasus of Europe, the mountain Hypanis We note that a mountain near Olt, towards SE of Samboteni village, is called today the Upanas Peak – Charta Romaniei meridionale, 1864) We find another precious geographical staTument with Jornandis, the historian of the Getae, who was probably born in Mesia Caucasus, writes he (De reb Get C VII), starts at the Indian Sea, goes then into Syria, where, forming a round corner, turns towards north, stretches along the lands of Scythia, descends to the Pontos, then, gathering its heights, touches also the courses of Istru, at the point where the river divides and flows in two directions Finally, the Carpathians also appear under the name Caucasus in the oldest Russian chronicle, attributed to the monk Nestor, born around 1056ad “In the northern part of Pontos”, he writes, “there are the Danube, Nistru (Dnestr), and Caucasus mountains, or the Hungarian mountains” (Schlozer, Russische Annalen II Gottingen, 1802, c II, p 22)

Prometheus’ Caucasus, or the legendary Caucasus of Scythia, is therefore from the point of view of prehistoric geography, one and the same with the southern range of the Carpathians, called by Apollodorus Atlas from the country of the Hyperboreans, and in the inscription from Koln, Caucasus by the river Olt (Alutum flumen)
[1 Hasdeu says in Istoria critica, p 285: “It is therefore a fact mentioned by seven undeniable sources, plus Ovid’s and Strabo’s, which makes them nine, that the Carpathians were named Caucasus, beginning with the most remote time, until the Middle Ages”]

W W How, J Wells, A Commentary on Herodotus
BOOK II

Commentary on Herodotus, Histories book 2, chapter 33:section 3 XXXIII Istros H is much interested in this river, which he describes again in iv 48-50 (where ‘it is the greatest of all rivers that we know’; cf also iv 99) Here he supposes it to rise in the extreme west of Europe This view was held also by Aristotle [Meteor i 13 ek de tês Purênês

THE CABEIRI AND PYTHAGORAS

The valley of the Alizon was the hidden home of a great secret society, called Kabiri (Aburi) by the Ur, and Dactyli (Achali) by the Al, which for thousands of years permeated the institutions of the ancient world and in more than one era attempted to entirely control them. The latest attempt was that with which the name of Pythagoras is associated, but of which Zamolchis was the actual head. The society originated on the north side of the Caucasus mountains but for some reason, possibly secrecy and freedom from disturbance by Scythian raids, removed to the Alizon valley, where they remained until about 600 B.C., after which they disappear. The so-called Pythagorean doctrines and most of his supposed scientific discoveries were the standardized instruction to the initiates of the society; his method of demonstrating vegetarianism by means of an athlete (Milo) who ate no meat, in which he anticipated Yale by some thousands of years, may have been original.

The Kabiri had much knowledge of numbers, of geometry, and of astronomy, but their great power was derived from their knowledge of technical secrets, the making of glass, of steel, of enamels, of reducing ores, etc. The most (so far as I know) important secret sign of the Kabiri, indicating that a brother member is prepared to render assistance, is hidden in Homer; and as we shall see later, Homer had knowledge of another initiate secret.

The society built temples and established mysteries, e.g. at Delos, Samothrace and Eleusis. One of these mysteries was a knowledge of the route by which Elysion was reached. It was this secret that Homer knew, and he describes the way right up to the gate. I feel that possibly some part of the ,great reverence in which Homer’s writings were held was due to the fact that when Solon collected them communication with Hypiberia had been cut off and that the mystery of the way by which Elysion was reached had within a few generations begun to assume a religious significance analogous to and possibly influenced by the Egyptian Book of the Dead.

The Kabiri certainly maintained records, for we have the Acherontici libri, to which class possibly the books of Numa belonged. They had observatories of some kind, the prototypes of the ziggurat of Babylon, and as they gave the longitude to Babylonia we should be able to determine the observatory site; possibly Schemacha, opposite the gap of Marasy. If they did not destroy these records is there not a possibility, in view of the dryness of the climate, above referred to, that they might be revealed by excavations conducted under proper scientific supervision, in the Alizon valley and on the slopes adjacent. If found they should go back to pre-Deluge times.

We must now go through the gate, for what we have seen so far is only half of the stage, and it is on the other half that the most poignant scene of the drama takes place.

PROMETHEUS, THE NAPHTHA BRINGER

The pass leading from this enclosed portion of East Aedon has been described, but mention should be made of Mt. Kasbek, which towers 16,400 feet high on the left, for here is the sacred cave at the foot of Mt. Kasbek, where according to the Greek tradition Prometheus, the “fire-bearer” of Aeschylus, was chained for carrying the forbidden “naphthe” from Tartarus through the pass to the Abur. The Greeks not knowing the word “naphthe” thought it must be “naptheg,” a hollow cane, and that the fire was carried in some way inside the cane; but it meant mineral oil, “naphtha.”

20. THE SHADES

On leaving the dark pass of Erebus (Arabus, Aragus) through the iron gates, the “kuanthuretra” of Aides, the way, still obscured, lies between two rapid streams, the Cocytus (Kochaiton, Black River) on the left and the Pyriphlegethon (fire-flaming) on the right. Dimly visible in the half light in front of the gates and between the streams are many groups of blinded outcasts. Homer describes them as clinging to one another like bats, and wailing. I do not care to give the historical details of this horrible practice; it was continued by the Scythians, who blinded all their slaves, and by the Medes. The wretched beings are there to get food.

21. RIVERS of HADES (AMES)

Further down, the two streams approach each other at a place where there is a great white rock, thence, separating, they both flow down into the valley of Acheron (Ashuron, Apsuron). Acheron has always been taken as a river, but Homer’s description is clear. Odyssey, g. 512. ” There Pyriphlegethon flows into Acheron, and likewise Cocytus, a branch of the Styx and thereby is a rock” (it was white) “and a meeting of the two roaring streams.”
Looking at the map, it will be seen that the Cocytus flows, as Homer states, into the Styx, and the Styx and Pyriphlegethon into the Alontas, and that into the Ocean of Atlantis.

On the eyot between the Cocytus, Styx and Pyriphlegethon was the great city of Tartarus or Atlantus. The contour maps show mounds still there which should reveal much when excavated, for this was the first city which the world ever saw.

22. THE ROUTE OF THE MYSTERIES; TO HADES AND ELYSIUM

Before describing the city I will tell of the only way by which it was reached from the outside world, the way which was revealed in the mysteries, which was revealed in part by Aeschylus, and was wholly revealed, in detail, up to the white stone at the spot where Cocytus and Pyriphlegethon came close together, by Homer.

Aeschylus was accused of revealing the mysteries and threatened with severe punishment. He was not himself an initiate but his father was a priest of Demeter (whose daughter was once queen of Tartarus). He probably became acquainted with some portion of the way without realizing the importance attached to the knowledge.

Looking at the map, the river Tiber (Hybristes, now Tiberda) will be seen, rising in the Caucasus to the west of what are now known as Mt. Elbruz and Edena Pass. At the bend to the west it flows into the River Oceanus, which flows into the Black Sea at the peninsula of Taman, at the entrance to the Sea of Azov. At the mouth of the Oceanus is the village of the Cimmerians. Strabo says of this, 11; 11; 5; “The Cimmerian village was formerly a city built upon a peninsula, the isthmus of which it enclosed with a ditch and mound.” It will be noted that a north wind is the only one which will be favorable all the way up the river.

Circe’s directions, as given by Homer, Odyssey, 1,506 et seq. are that, after Odysseus has reached “the land and the city of the Cimmerians ” and “the deep flowing Oceanus, ” he should “set up the mast and spread abroad the white sails and sit thee down; and the breeze of the North Wind shall bear thee on thy way. But when thou hast now sailed in thy ship right up the river Oceanus to its end (di ‘okeanoio pereses), where is an ominous shore and the groves of Persephone, even tall poplar trees and willows that shed their fruit before the season, there beach thy ship by deep eddying Oceanus, but go thyself to the monstrous home of Aidoneus. Thereby Pyriphlegethon flows into (the plain of) Acheron, and likewise Cocytus, a branch of the Styx, and thereby is a rock and a meeting of the two roaring streams.” When he had reached this spot, Odysseus sacrificed a ram and a black ewe, “bending their heads towards Erebus ” (the dark defile) and himself “turning aside” with his “face set towards the shore of the river.” And when be had done this “the spirits of the dead gathered from out of Erebus” and answered him, as they stood opposite the point of his outstretched sword.

The place where Odysseus beached his ship was at the bend where the Tiber joins Oceanus. The poplars referred to were a peculiar species, i.e. white poplars. The way from there was along the route of the present railroad from Newinnomysk to Wladikawkas. The Styx had to be crossed because it rises in the neighborhood of Mt. Atlas, and so could not be gone around.

The itinerary of Aeschylus is the same up to the end of Oceanus. Thence, instead of going to Tartarus, his route leads up the Tiber to its head and to the Amazons. He says, correctly, that the Chalybes were on the left as one went up the river.

After reaching the white rock, where Cocytus and Pyriphlegethon come together, if the traveller went to the left he came to Tartarus. If he went to the right he passed through the dark defile of Erebus and came out of the pass into Elysion. This knowledge was the secret of the mysteries which, like that of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, was supposed to be so valuable after death.

DEVELOPMENTS IN THEOLOGY

Even before the Deluge theology had become quite complicated. The first god was Ur or Al, the god of light. Then came Aee or Ea, the god of the sea, who was called Aem or Eam, lord of the sea, and whose name later became Tem, Tam, Tham, Jam, Jawb or Jove, and still later, in the southeastern portion of the Apscheron peninsula, Sham and Shom. There was conflict between the two religions and each god as a result took on attributes of the other, e.g. Al became also a storm god and Shom also a sun god. The Semites appear to have first worshipped Sham or Shom as a sun god, and then to have worshipped the sun under the name of Al or El; and still later, after their sojourn in Egypt where the old name Jam had been preserved, and influenced thereto by Moses, the Hebrews returned to the worship of Jam or Jah. En or An was the moon god.

For the theology subsequent to the Deluge the reader will best consult the works of those eminent orientalists who have written upon the subject, especially Clay.

The Hercules of the Greek myth is not the same as the Phoenician Hercules (see Herodotus, 2; 44). The former was an adventurer who raided the Caucasus isthmus, carried off the cattle of Geryon (Uruon, or Guruon; compare the Gerusia of Carthage) and (a similar story is told of Samson) the gates of Erebus, and was assisted by the king of the Alizonians, who gave him transport up the river Oceanus in a camera or covered boat whose top was of gold.

Hercules of the Phoenicians, Khurkhales (Ur-al), was a deity, the sun god Shom or Som, who had a spring festival, called “the awakening of Hercules,” and was the patron of sailors. Magnets were called “Heraclean stones.” The Phoenicians did not make images of deities, but put up pillars. Hercules was a twin deity, whose names were Ur and Al; hence two pillars with lights on top and the two kings. Hiram put two such pillars before Solomon’s temple, Jakin and Boaz. The idol of Ashirta was a post of white poplar.

40. THE “WAILING FOR THAMMUZ”; THE AMAZONS

One great rite which spread throughout almost the whole of the ancient world and degenerated into a religion of undescribable practices had its origin from the catastrophe of the Deluge, i.e. the “Wailing for Thammuz” or Aidoneus by Ashirta, queen of the Chalybs, who lived in Uroch. Thammuz, king of Aides, and his forces were drowned, together with the Athenian troops, by the Deluge, but many women escaped. These, as stated in Solon’s narrative, were accustomed to share in all duties and labor with the men, which, he says, is why Athene is represented as armed. The custom persisted down to classical times, “The belief of the Greeks in the Amazons may have arisen from the peculiar way in which the women of some of the Caucasian districts lived and performed the duties which in other countries devolve upon men, as well as their bravery and courage which are noticed as remarkable even by modern travelers.” Smith, Class. Diet. art. Amazons. “But chiefly when it was observed that certain characteristics of the Amazons actually existed in the women of Sarmatia.” Ency. Brit. art. Amazons. These women lived between the rivers Urup and Tiber; see Aeschylus, quoted above. The Scythians called them Oiropa, which Herodotus takes to be “Oior-pata” or man slayers, but which was really “Europa” from the river on which they lived. The women may have owed their survival to the fact that they were serving with the forces of King Aidoneus and that their regiments were stationed on the mountain.

“Theophanes, who accompanied Pompey ; in his wars and was in the country of the Albanians, says the Gelae and Legae, Scythian tribes, live between the Amazons and the Albanians, and that the river Mermadalis (Tiber) takes its course in the country lying in the middle between these people and the Amazons. But other writers, and among them Metrodorus of Scepsis and Hypsicrates, who were themselves acquainted with these places, say that the Amazons bordered upon the Gargarenses on the north, at the foot of the Caucasian mountains which are called Ceraunian,” Strabo, 11;5;1.

There is no inconsistency between the authorities quoted by Strabo, and the position is exactly that given by Aeschylus, and, as will be seen from the map, is within a few miles of the mountain Tamischiera, “which is the boundary between them and the Gargarenses, and on which they spend two months of the spring.” Strabo, ibid.

Tamischeira is not a high mountain (6,000 ft.) but it is the outermost of the northern spur of the Ceraunian mountains, and from it it is possible to see far out over the plain; it is in the country of the Chalybes, and since it was the place where the women observed the rite of the “Wailing for Thammuz.” there can be little doubt but that it was f from this point that Queen Ashirta saw her husband and his forces drowning in the Deluge.

Each year, on the anniversary of the Deluge, the women went to mount Tamischeira and for two months bewailed the death of Thammuz. Surviving men of the adjacent nation, the Gargarenses (Tartarenses) joined them in the rite. It would not have been rational, under the circumstances, if they had not intermarried. But the women were unwilling to surrender their independence and so “the female children which may be born are retained by the Amazons themselves, but the males are taken to the Gargarenses to be brought up.”
The women of the Chalybes thus became the Amazons (Thammuzons-Strabo gives the derivation as from Alizones, but though this is possible it is not probable. Homer speaks of both Amazons and Halizonians), and for many centuries maintained this strange social experiment successfully. The Phoenicians carried the rite and the customs which had become attached to it to other lands, where was no justification of circumstances and where it became merely an excuse for sensuality.

The principal rivers were the Oceanus or Auschet or Aeti Ope or Aradanus, now the Kuban. In former times the whole district north of it was a swamp, where the few inhabitants lived on the Urmanu or Arimu, i.e., hillocks. It originally ran through the Marsh of Trithonis, communicating by canals with the Alontas, but the marsh slipped down into the river, deluging the whole region and closing that passage but leaving the Manytch Lake passage. The end of the deep part of the river, after this landslide Kemmenu-Aboruri as it was known to those who wished to go southwest to Dariel Pass; or Kemmenu Jakin or Eachon, as it was known to those who wished to go northwest to the Graikus and Achelous Rivers an,-.1 to Amalthea’s Horn, or through by the Cerberus-Jakin delta mouths, the Sharisharadon and Shar Shuppi of the Egyptians and Phoenicians, at Olonchuduk, into the sea of Salentchuk, i.e., the old and original Atlantic Sea.

The Achelous was the original home of the Graiae-ach or Greeks, at the junction of the Graikus River with the Achelous. The adjoining river, the Aegi River, was originally a pass of the Achelous delta, but Herakles (not the Phoenician god, whose name was Hercules or Kur-Kai, but the Greek adventurer, Herakles) at the request of the Caledonians or Chaldi i.e. Chaldeans, dammed it, and so turned all the overflowed portion into fertile land. Am-Althea means “plain of Aletheia or Alytta.”

East of the Achelous were the Arimi and west of it the Arim-Az-Fi or western Arimi. This is why the Graiae (which name means “old women,” probably because the Graiae wore long black dresses, both men and women) were said to have one eye, for as Herodotus (4; 26) points out, “Arima spu” means “One eye” in the Scythian language. Incidentally this is proof that the Greeks who built the Greek temples and had the Greek customs and language would not have been late colonizers, but were the original Greeks, for they were there before Perseus, in his wars against the licentious practices of the Tammuz worshippers, (the Tammuzons who came from Mt. Thammuzeira, near Mt. Elbrus; the Amazons of the Greeks) left the Crimea to found, after conquering the Amazons, the Persi nation.

At the foot of Mt. Thammuzeira or Tammuz Schar flowed the AramUdon down which the Amazons came in their conquering passage after defeating the nations at the foot of Mt. Elbrus (the El Baris and Huburis of the Deluge traditions) and at the junction of which with the Tammuz-Alontas they founded the city of Chersonese.

Another famous river was the Kur, whose eastern valley was known (and possibly the whole eastern district) as Metsara, the Metsara of Abraham and of Cyrus. It will be noted that the old name of the Jora was Kem-bu-su (Holy Water River; the Champsis of the Scythians) in its upper part, and as Abaran in its lower part, before joining the Kur and Alizon, and that it is near the plains-.of Ad Shinour and Chaldan, and Pirata, and was the winter home of the Urie of the Koissu or “Calling” rivers, the “Kissu” district of the Babylonians, .from one of which, the Kazikimik Koissu, came the first dynasty Egyptians; and that the Avar Koissu and the Ach-Su tribes had the city of Psiddach (Sutech or Typhon), in what was probably then Sar-Veden, where one of the great Cabiri pillars was; the other and the chambers being at Achmed on the south side of the pass. The Alizon was, as I have shown elsewhere, the Elysion of the Greeks, and Makaria the Kur-Dilumn of the Babylonians. Its inhabitants were also called Alaed or Kelti, and those to the west were called Iberi.

PENINSULA OF TAMEN

Tamen, or Ta manu meant “the domain of the god.” Compare Greek temenos. The history of how the gods came to be in the west is a long one. It is sufficient to say that the Greek mystery traditions about Uranus, (Urie) in the East, Cronus in the west and Zeus, near Amalthea’s Horn, appear to represent actual facts in history-wars and settlements of the isthmus. The small negrito race was very superstitious, troglodytic, and had many gods, but the large Scythian (Thini) race, the masters and the metal workers, worshipped the Taauti or mountain-top proclaimers or directors, the Theoi. The relation was somewhat like that formerly between the Arabs and the Negroes on the east coast of Africa. The peninsula of Anapa was the nesus of Circe, and the Circetae of that district (the Scorpion people of Gilgamesh) were the archers of Tamen. The kabardi was a long lock of hair on the left side of the head, by which the nobles used to fasten on their crests i.e. deer’s heads, wolf’s heads, etc., by twisting it round them. It is the symbol of the gods of the Sindi or Indi in India today and was used in Egypt. The story of Circe, the Kirke or sorcerer and her animals, came from this practice. Colchis, the Kalacha Aea, was originally in the Tamen Peninsula. The dead were tied up in red ox skins, called “meschet”; or silk bags, in the eastern or Baku Serach; or in earthern jars made to look like ox hides, in Susa. Hence the term Phoinix and the legend of the bird. Why all of the gods were driven out of the isthmus except Zeus and Athena; the history of the wars of Osiris, of the Mesen, etc.; of the use of the reflecting telescope in the Caucasus; of Ramman-Anthu, the eastern Caucasus god of justice; of Feni-Kale and Anyalius, and the white land of Achilles, the sun lions of Gilgamesk and Israel and Medea, and hundreds of other matters must be left till another time.

The discovery that, after repeated expeditions, the Phoenicians had pronounced the straits of Gibraltar not to be the true Pillars of Hercules; that the real pillars, the Kemmenu or Chamminim of Boaz, were at the entrance to the Sea of Azov, the Az-ubbu or Western Water Gate or Harbour; that the old Mid-Asiatic Mediterranean of. the geologist; was formerly known as the At-Alan-Tschack or Sea of the Land .

PRIMITIVE IDEAS OF THE SUN’S DAILY PATH

To primitive man the sun was a fire in the sky and all the primitive races were fire worshipers. The Ur were fire worshipers from the beginning, so far as can be ascertained. The A1 race originally worshiped Al, the storm god, but later, possibly from seeing lightning set fire to trees or some such incident’ as that described in I Kings, 18, came to worship A1 as a fire god and the Ur and Al united politically and religiously and worshiped a twin god Ur-At or Khur-Khal or Hercules, who on account of the similarity of names was sometimes confused with the Greek strong man, Herakles (see Herodotus 2: 44). The Aed or Aet race originally worshiped Ae or Aem or Thaem, the god of darkness, but they also later joined with the Ur and had with them a twin god. Aet-Ur or Neter or Petera.

The Phoenicians, or Kani, or Phoeni, who colonized Egypt, were originally of the Aed or Aet race, worshiped a golden-red eagle, aetos, but later became Aet-Ur. They originally came from a large river-island between the Terek and Sunsha, just north of the Caucasus range and opposite the northern end of the pass of Arabus. They went south through the pass to where it debouches into the Alizon valley and settled there and called it Ta Neter, now Tioneti, and Egypt was settled from there.

THE GODS OF THE HORIZON

So the Egyptians had the gods Ur and Ae or Ae-m or M-Ae (m means lord or god and ae means blackness and t or d means place or land). They took the god Ur as the god of the rising sun and because he appeared to come up out of the Caspian Sea they called him O-s-ur or Osiris (o means water; s means movement of some kind, depending on the connection; and Ur means fire or fire god). The god T-ae-m or M-ae-t they took as the god of the setting sun or of darkness, and Taein-an or Taman or Ta-Manu was his mountain and peninsula just as Baku or Bakhau (the Gate of the Coming Up) (b is gate and h is up so ach or ash is coming up), was the mountain and peninsula of Osiris.

These were the “Gods of the Horizon.” For the god as a whole or for the god of noon-day they had the name Ra. (Ra is a later word and its meaning is not known certainly; possibly it is “Space Fire” or “Sky Fire”). Some temples adopted Osiris and others Tem, and there was great rivalry between the temples. The Mountain of Sunrise and the Mountain of Sunset are seldom found in the same religious service, and they even had two routes to go to the heavenly fields, one through “the western lands” to be taken by the devotees of Osiris and the other through “the eastern lands” by the followers of Tem. The allotment of routes appears rather strange but is perhaps explicable.

THE TETS OR PILLARS OF SHU

The primitive idols were posts of wood, asher, and as Khur-Khal was a twin god there were two pillars side by side, Jakin the right hand or eastern one (see I Kings 7) . As they were fire gods, fires were kept burning on top of them. Later when glass was invented a glass protection against the wind called “the eye of Osiris” was placed round the flame and this acted as a quite efficient projection lens system. Green glass was used for one pillar light arid reddish-yellow for the other. Herodotus paid a visit about B.C. 450 to the temple of Hercules at Tyre, which had been founded about B.C. 2755 and saw “two pillars, one of pure gold and the other of emerald, shining with great brilliancy at night.” (Herodotus 2;44). A good idea of the “tet” may be obtained by knocking the bottoms out of five deep glass soup plates and stacking them together so that they do not touch all around, or have a thin gap between each stand the next above it, for ventilation, and placing a lamp opposite the middle plate. It makes a better optical system than many modern ones.

The mud flats at the mouth of the Kuban were low and the land of the Cimmerians very subject to fog, so two tets of large size were placed there at Bo-Az (Water Gate of Az, or Az-ov; later this was supposed to be connected in some way with the fact that cattle were taken across there and it became Bos-porus). These were the Pillars of Shu the sun god, i.e. Khur-Khal.

The primitive dwellers on the Caucasus isthmus, not knowing that the world was round and revolved, thought that the sun after coming up from the Caspian Sea and passing through “The Gate of the Lord of the East” and over the Mountain of Sunrise, Bakhau, and over the entire length of the Caucasus range, then passed over the Mountain of Sunset, Ta-Manu, and the Pillars of Shu, and went down into the Pool of Maati, Lake Maaitis, and that during the night the sun god stabled his horses in the north Caucasus isthmus (Greek mythology) or sailed back in his boat to the east and duly appeared from the Caspian next morning.

Kemmenu is “Holy Pillars” which were erected in pairs, with fires on top, one to Ur, the other to Al or El, and hence they were called the Pillars of Kur-Kal or Hercules. The Cocytus or Acheten Su (or Ope or Oche) was the river “from” Aeten or Eden. The Pyriphlegethon or Perival Achaeten was the “Pass river from Aeten (or Eden).

In the mountainous parts a guttural or dental is often prefixed apparently for use in shouting over long distances. Xenophon speaks of communicating in this way over distances of 12 miles, which seems incredible but I am told it is possible in the mountains. The effect on a near-by listener is described in “The Peaks of Shala.” So while we find Eden and Acheten in the older maps for the mountain districts, we find Kacheten in the Stieler’s atlas. As the prefixed guttural or dental is only found in the later place names, it may be the article “the,” as the Egyptian Ta, or a shortened form of Ki, “land.”

It will be noticed that in some cases the Greek names are not quite the same as the native Proto-Caucasian ones. This is explained by Strabo, 11;11;5. When they found a name they did not know they changed it slightly so as to have the same meaning if possible, or some meaning by which it could be identified. Strabo gives instances, and we may take for example the Perival Acheten R. This was the Terek or Ur oche, i.e. “Fire River”. So the Greeks called it the Pyri Phlegethon or Fire flaming river. Similarly they called the Kachaeten the Cocytus. The other kachaeten rivers they did not know, i.e., the Pirikets kachaeten, Kafr Aeten, Fi Acheten, but the At Aeten they changed to Eridan or Eridanus. All these rivers flow from the neighborhood of Mt. Eden or Edena Pass.

The Greek term “hekaton cheira” really is, not “hundred handed,” but “acheten cheira,” i.e., “of the tribe. of Mt. Eden.”

One Greek term must be mentioned because it has given rise to much confusion. The word “Nesos” is still translated as meaning “island” but it does not mean this at all, except perhaps in late Greek. The Peloponnesus is a peninsula. Arabia was called a “nesos” and so was Mesopotamia. It comes from the roots “an” “aea” and “s’s” and means a “sprout of the land.” It must be remembered that every word was, and had to be, originally a little poem, and many of them are very interesting; for example, “wine” would seem to be “Queen of the Dark Waters.” So “nesos” meant something that sprouted from the land like a twig or a fruit does, in the one case a promontory, in the other an island. It really means a district which is bounded by water, rivers or sea, to a considerable extent, but it does not mean an island, except in occasional instances. Ait does not quite fit, so I would propose the following definition for our English dictionaries: “Nesus. A district largely bounded by salt or fresh water.” Circe’s nesos for example was, as we shall see, a promontory with a very narrow isthmus, like the Peloponnesus.

WHAT THE BOOK OF THE DEAD WAS ORIGINALLY

The mysterious instructions of the “Book of the Dead” are the old route directions of the Phoenician sailors for reaching the Mother-Country of the Phoenicians and Egyptians, i.e. the Alizon valley.

How this came about it is impossible to tell now. It is as if something had kept the Muhammadans from going to Mecca or the Jews from going to Jerusalem for many centuries, for so long a time that the location of Mecca or Jerusalem was finally so lost that it was not known that it was a real place; and that people finally came to believe that it was a mythical place and that the direction for getting there were religious ceremonials and not real traveling directions. Whatever the reason, it is the fact that the directions in the “Book of the Dead” are directions for getting to the Alizon valley, to Ta Neter (Tioneti); which way to go; what tribes would be met; what the landmarks and beacons were.

THE WAY BY THE WESTERN LANDS

The “Book of the Two Ways,” which is inscribed on the walls of Tutankh-Amen’s tomb, gives both of the ways above referred to, i.e., the one through “the eastern lands” via Pirikan and Lake Van, and the one through “the western lands,” via the River Kuban and the Sea of Azov. The latter is perhaps the more interesting; it is given in the “Book of the Dead,” chapters 17; 18, 64, 125, 149, 150.

According to these directions one first sails through the Great Green Lake (Mediterranean) and the Black Sea and comes to the land of Restau, at the head of the Pool of Maati (Sea of Azov). But Restau is not the town of Rostow, but the whole land round Lake Maetis, for Res-tau, as is shown by other passages, was really Tau-res, i.e., the ancient Taurus. Such transpositions of syllables are common, e.g., Ur-ab and Ab-ur, and occur all through the “Book of the Dead” and all of the old tradition inscriptions.

As is stated in the “Book of the Dead,” chapter 17, Restau or Taurus was the northern door to the underworld. Later this region was called the Chersonesus Taurica.

Next, one goes through the straits of Tches-ert (now Ker-tsch) to the mouth of the Kuban where were the Pillars of Shu. “Now the Gate of Tchesert is the gate of the Pillars of Shu.” Shu was the sun god, i.e. Ur-Al, or KhurKhal. Hercules. On landing at the “city north of the olive tree,” i.e., the site where Phanagoria was built later, the departed performed a religious rite, i.e. placed a glass bowl over a lamp and buried it by the side of the Kuban. He then dug it up again. This symbolized the death and resurrection of Osiris; Osiris was the flame and the glass bowl was the “eye of Osiris,” i.e. the supposed transparent hemisphere of the firmament.

He was then put through a test by the Fenku or Phoenicians. He was asked the riddle, “Who is he who is gathered together under the flowers and sitteth in the olive tree,” and only the initiate would know the answer, “Oil, Fire or Osiris.” If he could not answer the pass words and tests he would be killed.

The “Book of the Dead” then gives the various tribes and countries he had to pass through going up the Kuban. The Watchers are the landmarks, i.e., certain mountains, etc. The word generally translated “pools” or “islands” also means river expansions.

Finally he comes to the eyot of SerSer or Ur-Ur or Tur-Tur; surrounded by the Terek and Sunsha. The city was also called Erech, in the Babylonian inscriptions telling of the exploits of Gilgamesh. The city on the eyot had very high walls of burnt brick, more than 300 feet high, Nebuchadnezzar built the walls of Babylon after seeing them. The southern walls were infested with snakes. Anyone who has seen an old wall down south on a chilly morning will recognize the origin of the Egyptian and Phoenician serpent frieze.

The departed stayed in the city for some time, studying certain books (the Acheruntici Libri ) and after a time became quite wise. Then he obtained escort to go through the pass of Arabus or Ab-tu, which was opposed by “men of hostile face.” But he was armed with a knife and finally came through into Ta .Neter .ie., “The Land of Aet-Ur.”

At the entrance of the valley was Ashmeti or the city of Eshmen, the eighth Cabiri, and Kapare-uli, or Sippara of the Sun, from whose great stele “cippus” was possibly derived. A little further down the valley was Schemochada-Scheni or the “Sun-City of the Shenit,” where the shenit or overseers were. Still further down was Sekhet-Aaru, i.e., Sekhet-Sham, now Sakat-uli (Sham and Eli both mean “sun,” the “Fields of the Sun.” Then comes Melikarkh, sometimes called Harmakis; then Achssu, then Baku, the Flaming Fields, etc. Mzchet, where King Pepi wished his estate, is up near the head of the valley, near the Sun City of the Shenit. It is very interesting to go through the valley with a Stieler’s atlas and the “Book of the Dead”; one feels quite like a tourist with his Baedeker.

“The hidden Circles of Ament which are passed through by the great god, his boat being towed along by the gods who dwell in the Tuat; let them be made according to the figures [which are depicted] on the north of the hidden palace in the Tuat. Whosoever knoweth them by their names shall be the possessor of swathings upon earth, and he shall not be repulsed at the hidden gates, and he shall have offerings in very great abundance regularly and perpetually.”

In the middle register are:–

1. The boat of the sun, in which the god stands under a canopy formed by the body of the serpent Mehen, being towed along by nine gods. His passage is thus described: “This god maketh his way into this City, being towed along by the gods of the Tuat, in his hidden form of MEHEN. This god sendeth forth a cry to the regions of every Circle of this City, and also to the gods who are therein, and it is the voice of them which this god heareth after he hath sent forth a cry to them. The figures of their bodies remain always with their dead bodies which are under their sand, and their gates open to the voice of this god each day, and then they hide themselves after he hath passed by them. Their work in the Tuat is to tow Ra along over the ways of this City, and they rise up after they have towed him along into this Hall, and they say unto him:–O thou god, come thou to thine hidden image, O our god, and to all the sepulchres of KHENTI-AMENTI, unite thyself strongly to it, and mayest thou be entreated to lighten the darkness of those who are on their sands. We beseech thee to come and to unite thyself, O Ra, to those who tow thee along.” The eight gods who tow along the boat of Ra are thus described: “These are the gods of the Tuat who tow alone, Ra in the place where the gods have their sepulchres (TEBAT-NETERU-SET), and he is [acclaimed] by those who are in this City. The images secret of TATHENEN, Of Horus (?), [and of] the gods are with them.”

2.Nine large objects somewhat in the form of the hieroglyphic shems, which has the meaning of “follower” or “servant”; unlike this sign, however, each of the nine objects is provided with a huge knife, and from the curved end of each is suspended a human head. M. Maspero is undoubtedly correct in describing these as the servants of the god. Of these gods it is said:
“and they have their swathings before them in the form in which the god himself [had them]. This our great god crieth out unto those who have their life in them, in [their] heads in their forms, and this god crieth out to them by their names. Their work is [to seize] the enemies of Ra everywhere throughout this City, and then to make their heads to pass under their swords after this god hath passed them by.”

The Grand Meridian appears to have been defined, not by its local relation to Memphis, but from its passing through the apex of the earth, beneath the Grand Arch of the universe and the apex of the celestial dome over the point of origination.

Yet, remarkable as is this primæval locality when viewed in the light of Egyptian tradition, its interest is increased tenfold when we regard it in combination with the other features of the great watershed of which it forms an essential part, and which reminds us irresistibly of the famous watershed described in our own Scriptures as forming the primæval dwelling-place of man. There are-not the full streams but-as in Genesis, the “heads” of the four rivers, which go “forth to water the whole country.”

The pole-star, the never-failing light of the depths, that pointed for the Egyptians the path to the hidden life.
Annu (or On) the secret birthplace of the gods.

Odin himself, though the descendant of ancestors who had been settled for generations upon the Euxine, bore an Egyptian name-the significant name of Destroyer; and his standard, the raven, was the Egyptian symbol of destruction. Nor was it only in his character of pirate * (itself an Egyptian word), but as teacher also, that his associations connect themselves with the same source. According to tradition, he was acquainted in some measure with the process of embalmment, and he claimed to know the secret of the sacred writing, while his followers were distinguished by the winged headdress which was borne by the sacred scribe of Egypt, as representing the dominion of east and west bestowed by Ra upon Thoth, the Lord of Wisdom. So with the funeral feasts, the elaborate ceremonies and the intercourse with the dead which had so rooted a hold in the hearts of our Scandinavian forefathers. The Asars, or holy ancestors whom they worshipped, were the very counterpart both in name and in attributes with the holy souls of Egypt who had become united with Osiris (more properly Uasar), and were themselves described

by his name. The title of Hersir, or Leader of the Host, which, as Du Chaillu has pointed out in his valuable work, was older than that of the king, bears in the hieroglyphic (Her-ser) the identical signification of Chief Organizer. The land of Kent (Khent) * was a territory of the holy dead, and its hieroglyph was a sail. Nay, there is scarcely a feature in the strange mythology of Scandinavia which does not reflect an image more or less distorted of some portion of the Egyptian Ritual. Or, to give but one more illustration of a different but equally curious character, our national shout, “Hip, Hip, Hurra!” which rises spontaneously though unmeaningly to our lips, and which is said to be the shout also of the Cossack dwellers by our ancient home upon the Black Sea, conveys in the hieroglyphic (Hep, Hep, Hura), “On, on, to plunder,” the significant cry of our pirate ancestors at the moment of accomplishment. Strangest of all it is to think that the last of the Hidden Places of the earth to be opened to civilized man should have been the traditional scene of his earliest dwelling-place; that the source of the historic river which, by its mighty Angle, traces out the lines of the first settlement of the globe, should to-day be the centre of its latest division by the world-dividing nation of Angles; and that while the vast lake which marks the ancient “apex of the earth” bears the name of the monarch of that race, the Egyptian kingdom itself should be ruled at the dictation of her ministers.

THE PRINCIPAL GEOGRAPHICAL AND MYTHOLOGICAL PLACES IN THE BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Abtu, the Abydos of the Greeks (Strabo, XVII., i., 42), the capital of the eighth nome of Upper Egypt. It was the seat of the worship of Osiris, and from this fact was called Per-Ausar or Busiris, “the house of Osiris “; the Copts gave it the name ###. Egyptian tradition made the sun to end his daily course at Abydos, and to enter into the Tuat at this place through a “gap” in the mountains called in Egyptian peq. These mountains lay near to the town; and in the XIIth dynasty it was believed that the souls of the dead made their way into the other world by the valley which led through them to the great Oasis, where some placed the Elysian Fields. Amenta or Amentet, or was originally the place where the sun set, but subsequently the name was applied to the cemeteries and tombs which were usually built or hewn in the stony plateaus and mountains on the western bank of the Nile. Some believe that Amenta was, at first, the name of a small district, without either funereal or mythological signification. The Christian Egyptians or Copts used the word Amend to translate the Greek word Hades, to which they attributed all the ideas which their heathen ancestors had associated with the Amenta of the Book of the Dead. Annu, the Heliopolis of the Greeks (Herodotus, II., 3, 7, 8, 9, 59, 93; Strabo, XVII., I, 27 ff ), and the capital of the thirteenth nome of Lower Egypt. [1. See Amélineau, la Géographie de l’Égypte, à l’Époque Copte, p. 155. 2. See Brugsch, Dict. Géog., p. 227. 3. See Maspero, Études de Mythologie, t. i., p. 345.] {p. cxxxiv} The Hebrews called it On (Genesis xli., 45, 50; xlvi., 20), Aven (Ezekiel xxx., 17), and Bêth -Shemesh (Jeremiah xliii., 13); this last name is an exact translation of the Egyptian per Ra, “house of the sun,” which was also a designation of Annu. The Copts have preserved the oldest name of the city under the form ###. A Coptic bishop of this place was present at the Council of Ephesus. The city of Annu seems to have become associated with the worship of the sun in prehistoric times. Already in the Vth dynasty its priesthood had succeeded in gaining supremacy for their religious views and beliefs throughout Egypt, and from first to last it maintained its position as the chief seat of theological learning in Egypt. The body of the Aged One, a name of Osiris, reposed in Annu, and there dwelt the Eye of Osiris. The deceased made his way to Annu, where souls were joined unto bodies in thousands, and where the blessed dead lived on celestial food for ever. An-rutf or Naarutf, is a section or door of the Tuat which lies to the north of Re-stau; the meaning of the word is “it never sprouteth.” An-tes(?) (see within, p. 323), an unknown locality where a light tower (?), was adored. Apu, the Panopolis of the Greeks ({Greek Panw^n po’lis}, Strabo, XVII., i., 41), the metropolis of the ninth nome of Upper Egypt, and the seat of the worship of the god ###, whose name is variously read Amsu, Khem, and Min. In ancient days it was famous as the centre for stone cutting and linen weaving, and the latter industry still survives among the modern Coptic population, who, following their ancestors, call their city ###, which the Arabs have rendered by Akhmîm. Aqert, a common name for the abode of the dead. Bast, more fully Pa-Bast or Per-Bast, the Bubastis of the Greek writers (Herodotus, II., 59, 137, 156, 166; Strabo, XVII., 1, 27), the metropolis of the eighteenth nome of Lower Egypt, and the seat of the worship of Bast, a goddess who was identified with the soul of Isis, ba en Auset. The city is mentioned in the Bible under the form ### (Ezekiel xxx., 17), Pi-beseth, [1. See Amélineau, op. cit., p. 287.] {p. cxxxv} which the Copts have preserved in their name for the city, ###; the Arabs call the place Tell Basta. Het-benbent, the name given to many sun-shrines in Egypt, and also to one of the places in the other world where the deceased dwelt. Het-Ptah-ka, the sacred name of the city of Memphis, the metropolis of the first nome of Lower Egypt; it means the “House of the ka of Ptah,” and was probably in use in the period of the Ist dynasty. Other names for Memphis were Aneb-het’et, “the city of the white wall”, Men-nefer and Kha-nefert. Kem-ur a name given to the district of the fourth and fifth nomes of Upper Egypt. Khemennu, i.e., the city of the eight great cosmic gods, the Hermopolis of the Greek writers
{Greek E?’rmopolitikh` fulakh`}, Strabo, XVII., I, 41), and the metropolis of the fifteenth nome of Upper Egypt. The old Egyptian name for the city is preserved in its Coptic and Arabic names, ### and Eshmûnên. Kher-aba, a very ancient city which was situated on the right bank of the Nile, a little to the south of Annu, near the site of which the “Babylon of Egypt” (the {Greek Babulw’n, frou’rion e?rumno’n} of Strabo, XVII., I, 30), was built. Manu is the name given to the region where the sun sets, which was believed to be exactly opposite to the district of Bekha, where he rose in the east; Manu is a synonym of west, just as Bekha is a synonym of east. Nekhen, the name of the shrine of the goddess Nekhebet, which is supposed to have been near to Nekheb, the capital of the third nome of Upper Egypt and the Eileithyiapolis of the Greeks. Neter-khertet, a common name for the abode of the dead; it means the “divine subterranean place.” [1. See Amélineau, op. cit., p. 75. 2 See Brugsch, Diet. Géog., pp. 199, 260; Maspero, Études de Mythologie, t. i., p. 332; and Aeg. Zeitschrift, 1864, pp. 73-76.] {p. cxxxvi} Pe, a district of the town of Per-Uatchet, the Buto of the Greeks ({Greek Bou^tos}, Strabo, XVII., i., 18), which was situated in the Delta. Punt, the tropical district which lay to the south and east of Egypt, and which included probably a part of the Arabian peninsula and the eastern coast of Africa along and south of Somali land. Re-stau, or a name given to the passages in the tomb which lead from this to the other world; originally it designated the cemetery of Abydos only, and its god was Osiris. Sa, the Saïs of the Greeks ({Greek Sa’ïs}, Strabo, XVII. i., 23), the metropolis of the fifth nome of Lower Egypt, and the seat of the worship of the goddess Neith. Sekhem, the Letopolis of the Greeks, and capital of the Letopolites nome (Strabo, XVII., i., 30); it was the seat of the worship of Heru-ur, “Horus the elder,” and one of the most important religious centres in Egypt. Sekhet-Aanru, the “Field of the Aanru plants,” was a name originally given to the islands in the Delta where the souls of the dead were supposed to live. Here was the abode of the god Osiris, who bestowed estates in it upon those who had been his followers, and here the beatified dead led a new existence and regaled themselves upon food of every kind, which was given to them in abundance. According to the vignette of the CXth Chapter of the Book of the Dead, the Sekhet-Aanru is the third division of the Sekhet-hetepu, or “Fields of Peace,” which have been compared with the Elysian Fields of the Greeks. Set Amentet, i.e., “the mountain of the underworld,” a common name of the cemetery, which was usually situated in the mountains or desert on the western bank of the Nile. Suten-henen, more correctly Henen-su, the metropolis of the twentieth nome of Upper Egypt, called by the Greeks Heracleopolis Magna (Strabo, XVI I., i., 35). The Hebrews mention the city (###, Isaiah xxx., 4) Hanes as the representative of Upper Egypt, and in Coptic times it was still of considerable size and importance; the Copts and Arabs have preserved the ancient name of the city under the forms ### and ###. Ahnas. Tanenet, a district sacred to the gods Osiris and Ptah; it was probably situated near Memphis. Ta-sert, or Ta-tchesertet, a common name for the tomb. Tep, a district of the town Per-Uatchet, the Buto of the Greeks (Strabo, XVII., i., 18), which was situated in the Delta. Tettet, a name given both to the metropolis of the ninth nome and to the chief city of the sixteenth nome of Lower Egypt. Tuat, a common name for the abode of the departed. [1. I.e., Pa-Aushr, or Per-Aushr, the Busiris of the Greeks. 2. I.e., Ba-neb-Tettet, the Mendes of the Greeks.]

THE ABODE OF THE BLESSED.
The Egyptian heaven. The gods of the Egyptians dwelt in a heaven with their ka’s, and khu’s, and shadows, and there they received the blessed dead to dwell with them. This heaven was situated in the sky, which the Egyptians believed to be like an iron ceiling, either flat or vaulted, and to correspond in extent and shape with the earth beneath it. This ceiling was rectangular, and was supported at each corner by a pillar; in this idea, we have, as M. Maspero has observed, a survival of the roof-tree of very primitive nations. At a very early date the four pillars were identified with “the four ancient khu’s who dwell in the hair of Horus,” who are also said to be “the four gods who stand by the pillar-sceptres of heaven.” These four gods are “children of Horus,” and their names are Amset, Hapi, Tuamautef, and Qebhsennuf. They were supposed to preside over the four quarters of the world, and subsequently were acknowledged to be the gods of the cardinal points. The Egyptians named the sky or heaven pet. A less primitive view made the heavens in the form of the goddess Nut who was represented as a woman with bowed body whose hands and feet rest on the earth. In this case the two arms and the two [1. ###. Recueil de Travaux, t. iv., p. 55 (l. 473); and compare ###. Ibid., t. v. p. 186 (l.
171).

2. Ibid., t. v., p. 27 (1. 233). 3. Ibid., p. 39 (l. 281). 4 Ibid., p. 10 (l. 60).] {p. cii} The Egyptian heaven. legs form the four pillars upon which the heavens are supported. Nut, the sky goddess, was the wife of Geb [Seb], the earth god, from whose embrace she was separated by Shu, the god of the air; when this separation was effected, earth, air, and sky came into being. Signor Lanzone has collected a number of illustrations of this event from papyri and other documents, wherein we have Geb [Seb] lying on the ground, and Shu uplifting Nut with his outstretched hands. The feet of the goddess rested on the east, and her hands on the west this is shown by the scene wherein Shu is accompanied by two females who have on their heads “east” and, “west” respectively. The child of the union of Geb [Seb] and Nut was the Sun, who was born in the east in the morning, and who made [1. Dizionario di Mitologia Egizia, tavv. i 150 ff. 2. Ibid., tav. 158.] {p. ciii} The Egyptian heaven. his course along his mother’s body, until he set in the west in the evening. The moon followed the sun’s course along his mother’s body, but sometimes a second female is represented bowed beneath Nut (Fig. 2), and this is believed to signify the night sky across which the moon travels. In an interesting picture which M. Jéquier has published the goddess is depicted lying flat with her arms stretched out at full length above her head; on her breast is the disk of the sun, and on her stomach the moon. Those who believed that the sky was an iron plane imagined that the stars were a numbers of lamps which were hung out therefrom, and those who pictured the sky as a goddess studded her body with stars. One scene makes the morning and evening boats of Ra to sail along the back of Nut; another depicts Shu holding up the boat of the sun wherein is the disk on the horizon. A third from the sarcophagus of Seti I. represents Nu the god of the primeval water holding up the boat of the sun, wherein we see the beetle with the solar disk facing it accompanied by Isis and Nephthys, who stand one on each side; behind Isis stand the gods Geb [Seb], Shu, Hek, Hu, and Sa, and behind Nephthys are three deities who represent the doors through which the god Tmu has made his way to the world. The Tuat, or abode of the dead. Within the two bowed female figures which represent the day and the night sky, and which have been referred to above (Fig. 2), is a third figure which is bent [1. Lanzone, op. cit., tav. 155. 2. Le Livre de ce qu’il y a dans l’Hadès, p. 3 3 Ibid., tav. 157. 4. Ibid., tav. 158. 5 Brugsch, Religion und Mythologie, p. 216.] {p. civ} The Egyptian heaven. round in a circle; the space enclosed by it represents according to Dr. Brugsch the Tuator Egyptian underworld, wherein dwelt the gods of the dead and the departed souls. This view is supported by the scene from the sarcophagus of Seti I. (Fig. 1). In the watery space above the bark is the figure of the god bent round in a circle with his toes touching his head, and upon his head stands the goddess Nut with outstretched hands receiving the disk of the sun. In the space enclosed by the body of the god is the legend, “This is Osiris; his circuit is the Tuat.” Though nearly all Egyptologists agree about the meaning of the word being “the place of departed souls,” yet it has been translated in various ways, different scholars locating the Tuat in different parts of creation. Dr. Brugsch and others place it under the earth, others have supposed it to be the space which exists between the arms of Shu and the body of Nut, but the most recent theory put forth is that it was situated neither above nor below the earth, but beyond Egypt to the north, from which it was separated by the mountain range which, as the Egyptians thought, supported the sky. The region of the Tuat was a long, mountainous, narrow valley with a river running along it; starting from the east it made its way to the north, and then taking a circular direction it came back to the east. In the Tuat lived all manner of fearful monsters and beasts, and here was the country through which the sun passed during the twelve hours of the night; according to one view he traversed this region in splendour, and according to another he died and became subject to Osiris the king, god and judge of the kingdom of the departed. The Fields of Aaru and Hetep. The souls of the dead made their way to their abode in the “other world” by a ladder, according to a very ancient view, or through a gap in the mountains of Abydos called Peka according to another; but, by whichever way they passed from earth, their destination was a region in the Taut which is called in the pyramid and later texts Sekhet-Aaru, which was situated in the Sekhet-Hetep, and was supposed to lie to the north of Egypt. Here dwell Horus and Set, for the fields of Aaru and Hetep are their dominions, and here enters the deceased with two of the children of Horus on one side of him, and two on the other, and the “two great chiefs who preside over the throne of the great god proclaim eternal life and power for him.” Here like the supreme God he is declared to be “one,” and the four children of Horus proclaim his name to Ra. Having gone to the north of the Aaru Field he makes his way to the eastern protion of the taut, where according to one legend he becomes like the morning star, near his sister Sothis. Here he lived in the form of the star Sothis, and “the great and little companies of the gods purify him in the Great Bear.” The Egyptians theologians, who conceived that a ladder was necessary to enable the soul to ascend to the next world, provided it also with an address which it was to utter when it reached the top. As given in the pyramid of Unas it reads as follows:– “Hail to thee, O daughter of Amenta, mistress of Peteru (?) of heaven, thou gift of Thoth, thou mistress of the two sides of the ladder, open a way to Unas, let Unas pass. Hail to thee, O Nau, who art [seated] upon the brink of the Lake of Kha, open thou a way to Unas, let Unas pass. Hail to thee, O thou bull of four horns, thou who hast one horn to the west, and one to the east, and one to the north, and one to the south,… let Unas pass, for he is a being from the purified Amenta, who goeth forth from the country of Baqta. Hail to thee, O Sekhat-Hetep, hail to thee, and to the fields which are in thee, the fields of Unas are in thee, for pure offerings are in thee.”
The souls of the dead could also be commended to the care of the gods above by the gods of Annu, and thus we find it said in the pyramid of Unas: “O gods of the west, O gods of the east, O gods of the south, O gods of the north, ye four [order of gods] who embrace the four holy ends of the universe, and who granted to Osiris to come forth to heaven, and to sail over the celestial waters thereof with his son Horus by his side to protect him and to make him to rise like a great god from the celestial deep, say ye to Unas, ‘Behold Horus, the son of Osiris, behold Unas, the god of the aged gods, the son of Hathor, behold the seed of Seb, for Osiris hath commanded that Unas shall ‘rise like the second Horus, and four khu’s who are in Annu have written this command to the great gods who are in the celestial waters. [1. Brugsch, op. cit., p. 211. 2. The legend reads “This is Nut, she receiveth Ra.”
3. ###.
4. Wörterbuch, p. 1622. 5. Lanzone, Domicile des Esprits, p. 1; Dizionario, p. 1292. 6. Maspero, La Mythologie Égyptienne (Études, I. ii., p. 207); Jéquier, Le Livre, p. 3 The eastern mountain peak was called Bakhatet, and the western Manu. 7. I.e., the Field of reed plants.] {p. cv} The Fields of Aaru and Hetep. Sekhet-Hetep,[l] and was supposed to lie to the north of Egypt. Here dwell Horus and Set, for the fields of Aaru and Hetep are their domains, and here enters the deceased with two of the children of Horus on one side of him, and two on the other, and the “two great chiefs who preside over the throne of the great god proclaim eternal life and power for him.” Here like the supreme God he is declared to be “one,” and the four children of Horus proclaim his name to Ra. Having gone to the north of the Aaru Field he makes his way to the eastern portion of the tuat, where according to one legend he becomes like the morning star, near his sister Sothis. Here he lived in the form of the star Sothis, and “the great and little companies of the gods purify him in the Great Bear.” The Egyptian theologians, who conceived that a ladder was necessary to enable the soul to ascend to the next world, provided it also with an address which it was to utter when it reached the top. As given in the pyramid of Unas it reads as follows’:–“Hail to thee, O daughter of Amenta, mistress of Peteru(?) of heaven, thou gift of Thoth, thou mistress of the two sides of the ladder, open a way to Unas, let Unas pass. Hail to thee, O Nau, who art [seated] upon the brink of the Lake of Kha, open thou a way to Unas, let Unas pass. Hail to thee, O thou bull of four horns, thou who hast one horn to the west, and one to the east, and one to the north, and one to the south, . . . . . . let Unas pass, for he is a being from the purified Amenta, who goeth forth from the country of Baqta. Hail to thee, O Sekhet-Hetep, hail to thee, and to the fields which are in thee, the fields of Unas are in thee, for pure offerings are in thee.” [1. I.e., the Field of Peace. 2. Recueil de Travaux, t. v., p. 191 (l. 182). 3. Ibid., p. 50 (l. 262). 4. Ibid., t. vii., p. 163 (1. 402). 5. Ibid., t. iv., p. 49. (l. 432). 6. Ibid., t. v., p. 186 (ll. 80, 170, 177). 7. Ibid., t. iv., p. 55 (l. 475). 8. Ibid., t. iv., p. 68 (l. 567). 9 Ibid., t. iv., p. 69 (l. 576 ff.).] {p. cvi} Power of the gods of Annu. The souls of the dead could also be commended to the care of the gods above by the gods of Annu, and thus we find it said in the pyramid of Unas: “O gods of the west, O gods of the east, O gods of the south, O gods of the north, ye four [orders of gods] who embrace the four holy ends of the universe, and who granted to Osiris to come forth to heaven, and to sail over the celestial waters thereof with his son Horus by his side to protect him and to make him to rise like a great god from the celestial deep, say ye to Unas, ‘Behold Horus, the son of Osiris, behold Unas, the god of the aged gods, the son of Hathor, behold the seed of Geb [Seb], for Osiris hath commanded that Unas shall rise like the second of Horus, and the four khu’s who are in Annu have written this command to the great gods who are in the celestial waters.'” And again, “When men are buried and receive their thousands of cakes and thousands of vases of ale upon the table of him that ruleth in Amenta, that being is in sore straits who hath not a written decree: now the decree of Unas is under the greatest, and not under the little seal.” The plan of the Sekhet-Hetep which we find in the Book of the Dead during the Theban period will be described below, and it is therefore sufficient to say here that the ideas of the happy life which the deceased led had their origin in the pyramid texts, as may be seen from the following passage:–“Unas hath offered incense unto the great and little companies of the gods, and his mouth is pure, and the tongue which is therein is pure. O ye judges, ye have taken Unas unto yourselves, let him eat that which ye eat, let him drink that which ye drink, let him live upon that which ye live upon, let your seat be his seat, let his power be your power, let the boat wherein he shall sail be your boat, let him net birds in Aaru, let him possess running streams in Sekhet-Hetep, and may he obtain his meat and his drink from you, O ye gods. May the water of Unas be of the wine which is of Ra, may he revolve in the sky like Ra, and may he pass over the sky like Thoth.” Of the condition of those who failed to secure a life of beatitude with the gods in the Sekhet-Aaru of the Tuat, the pyramid texts say nothing, and it seems as if the doctrine of punishment of the wicked and of the judgment which took place after death is a development characteristic of a later period. [1. Recueil de Travaux, t. iv., p. 69 (ll. 572-75). 2 Ibid., t. iv., p. 71 (l. 583). 3 Ibid., t. iii. (l. 191-95).] {p. cvii}
“The mother of beginnings, the primordial parent in the abyss of earth and the height of heaven, was also reproduced as the Great Mother in Amenta In the vignettes to the Ritual Apt is portrayed in both forms of the cow, the hippopotamus and the milch-cow, among the papyrus plants of the morass at the foot of the mount of Amenta, as the bringer to rebirth for the upper paradise (Papyrus of Ani , PI 37) The mother of life on earth was now made protector of the dead in Amenta, and she who was the kindler of the stellar sparks in heaven by night became the re-kindler of the sparks of life from the eclipse of death (Rit , ch 137, B; Papyrus of Ani, Pap Nebseni) Thus we can identify Eve, or Chavvah, as Kefa or Kep, the Great Mother, with Adam or Atum in the garden of Amenta The name of Eve in Hebrew, Chavvah, signifies life or living, whence Eve is the mother of life Life, however, is a somewhat abstract term Still the mother of life, as Egyptian, was Khep, Kep, or Kefa = Chavvah by name Kep signifies the ferment of life, the mystery of fertilisation, the enceinte mother; and Khep, Khev, or Kefa, as Egyptian, we hold to be the original of the Hebrew Chavvah Kefa appears along with the great scarab in the thirteenth domain of Amenta (Renouf, Book of the Dead, ch 149, pl 52) Moreover, the lioness Kefa, or Kheft, is a form of Sekhet the solar goddess, who ,was the beloved consort of Ptah and the mother of Atum-Ra According to the Jewish legends Adam had two wives, one named Lilith, the other Chavvah, or in the English version, Eve Atum also had two wives These at Annu are Neb-hetep and lusaas, the mother of the prince of peace, in her two characters of “lady of peace” and she who is great with lu the coming son (or su), who was the prince of peace as conqueror of the serpent and all the evil powers in earth, in heaven, and in Amenta; otherwise in drought, in darkness, and in death We can identify the wife of Adam with the old first genetrix of gods and men and mother of beginnings in at least three of her mythical characters In one she was imaged as Rerit the sow In another she is Kefa, or Kheft, the lioness Lastly, she was portrayed as the mother of life in human form, the prototype of Eve Now, as the mother of Atum was the lioness Sekhet, as the mother of “the princes of Israel” was a lioness (Ezekiel 19 : 2) who nourished young lions for her whelps, the inference is that Eve or Chavvah represents the lioness Kefa In Rabbinical tradition Lilith is known as Adam’s first wife, but only Chavvah has been brought on as Eve in the garden of the beginning ”
“The truth is that the primary records on which the Bible was based were not a product of the Palestinian Jews ” …… “To illustrate two of these phases: the land of bondage – in the book of Exodus is the Amenta of the solar drama, the lower Egypt of the double earth, the scene of the never-ceasing battles between the powers of light and darkness, the sun-god and the Sebau, Ra and the dragon, or Horus and Sut; Amenta in the mythology becomes Sheol in the Hebrew eschatology The land of bondage, then, is the place of suffering souls that seek deliverance from the desert of darkness, the prison-house of death and hell ” … “It is a captivity that never was historical, in a land of bondage which may be called Babylon, Egypt, or Sodom ”
Horus, the son of god, came into the world as shepherd of his father’s sheep, to lead them through the darkness of Amenta… Amsu-Horus, with his crook in hand, shepherded the flocks of Ra beyond the grave to the green pastures(Horus in one character is the good shepherd, but the lord, as leader in the green pastures, is the bull of the seven cows, who are the providers of plenty He is called the lord of the pastures, or fields of the bull, the green meadows of Aarru ) and still waters of the final paradise upon Mount Hetep in the heaven of eternity The “still waters , are in Hebrew the “waters of rest”; these, in the Egyptian, are the waters of Hetep = the waters of rest or peace The departed rests beside these waters in the green fields where Hetep, as the god of peace, is “putting together the oblations” for the spirits of the just made perfect the speaker in the Ritual says rejoicingly, “My soul is with me” This in Egyptian is the ka, that was ultimately attained in the garden of peace The ka is the final form of the soul restored to the departed when they are perfected in the assembly or congregation on the mount The speaker in Hetep says, “There is given to me the abundance which belongeth to the ka and to the glorified” Mount Hetep was itself the table-land of the oblations Two paths led up to it, called the “double path” These are the “paths of righteousness” The valley of the shadow of death is the Ar-en- Tet or valley of the dead in the Ritual, where those who suffer the second death are buried for ever (Rit , ch 19) by the great annihilator Geb [Seb] The deceased in the Ritual is seen ascending the mount with the supporting rod or staff in his hand The staff of Amsu was a symbol of Osiris who rose again as Horus It was buried with the deceased, and is found in the oldest coffins together with other weapons that were interred with the dead as types of a protecting power “The Osiris receiveth the Amsu staff wherewith he got round the heaven” (Rit , ch 130 ) This elsewhere is called the palm of Amsu The table likewise was prepared upon Mount Hetep, and piled with heaps of imperishable food Hence the Osiris says, “I rest at the table of my father Osiris” (Rit , ch 70) Mount Hetep was itself the table-land of the oblations The Anointed – The Lord and his anointed as father and son had been already represented at Memphis by Ptah and Iu-em-hetep, at On by Atum and Nefer-Atum, at Abydos by Osiris and Horus of the resurrection The lord’s anointed was the second Horus, Horus the adult, Horus who rose again in spirit after death to manifest the glory of the father with the holy oil upon his shining face which made him the anointed The Lord’s anointed, called the Messiah in Hebrew, the Kristos in Greek ,and Chrestus in Latin, is the Messu in Egyptian The “house of the lord” is designated by the speaker in the Ritual “the mansion where food is produced for me”, the mansion that was lifted up by Shu, the paradise of Am-Khemen
(touto d’ estin oros) rheousin ho te Istros kai ho Tartêssos: the Ister then ‘flows through the whole of Europe’] It is difficult to see how the Greeks reconciled it with their knowledge of the Rhone, but it is suggested that this was looked on as a southern offshoot of the Danube Older geographers had made the Ister rise in the Rhipaean mountains, among the Hyperboreans; H rightly ignored this mythical explanation, but his information was insufficient for an accurate account Keltoi H derives his information, indirectly at any rate, from he Phoenicians, and therefore speaks of the Celts as being ‘outside the Pillars of Hercules’, where the Phoenicians found them The ‘Pillars of Hercules’ are not found in Homer, but in Pindar (Olym iii 44) they occur, as the limit of the world; by H ‘s time they had been definitely fixed For the legends connecting Heracles with the W cf iv 8 seq The name was partly due to the identification of Heracles with the Tyrian Melcarth, partly to the tendency (Tac Germ 34) to give him ‘quidquid ubique magnificum’ Strabo (169-72) discusses the legends as to them; but Pomponius Mela (i 5 27), as befits a Spaniard, is the first to give an accurate account of them So far as they are a reality, they correspond to Calpe and Abila (i e Gibraltar and the African Ceuta)

Amenti (Egypt, Egyptian) Esoterically and literally, the dwelling of the God Amen, or Amoun, or the “hidden”, secret god Exoterically the kingdom of Osiris divided into fourteen parts, each of which was set aside for some purpose connected with the after state of the defunct Among other things, in one of these was the Hall of Judgment It was the “Land of the West”, the “Secret Dwelling”, the dark land, and the “doorless house” But it was also Ker-noter, the “abode of the gods”, and the “land of ghosts” like the ” Hades” of the Greeks (q v ) It was also the “Good Father’s House” (in which there are “many mansions”) The fourteen divisions comprised, among many others, Aanroo (q v ), the hall of the Two Truths, the Land of Bliss, Neter-xev “the funeral (or burial) place” Otamer-xev, the “Silence-loving Fields”, and also many other mystical halls and dwellings, one like the Sheol of the Hebrews, another like the Devachan of the Occultists, etc , etc Out of the fifteen gates of the abode of Osiris, there were two chief ones, the “gate of entrance” or Rustu, and the “gate of exit” (reincarnation) Amh But there was no room in Amenti to represent the orthodox Christian Hell The worst of all was the Hall of the eternal Sleep and Darkness As Lepsius has it, the defunct “sleep (therein) in incorruptible forms, they wake not to see their brethren, they recognize no longer father and mother, their hearts feel nought toward their wife and children This is the dwelling of the god All-Dead Each trembles to pray to him, for he hears not Nobody can praise him, for he regards not those who adore him Neither does he notice any offering brought to him ” This god is Karmic Decree; the land of Silence – the abode of those who die absolute disbelievers, those dead from accident before their allotted time, and finally the dead on the threshold of Avitchi, which is never in Amenti or any other subjective state, save in one case, but on this land of forced re-birth These tarried not very long even in their state of heavy sleep, of oblivion and darkness, but, were carried more or less speedily toward Amh the “exit gate”
Amenti, Amentet (Egyptian) The underworld (Tuat), the hidden place or secret region The 15th or last house (Aat) of the Tuat, called Amentet-nefert (beautiful Amenti) and described as the dwelling place of the gods, where they live upon cakes and ale — in this respect similar to the Scandinavian Valhalla, the heaven world or devachan The afterworlds were also referred to as Sekhet-hetep or -hetepet (the fields of peace), called in Greece the Elysian Fields, under the dominion of Osiris, lord of Amenti Some of the texts speak of Amenti as situated far to the north of Egypt, although it is more commonly referred to as the Silent Land of the West Other texts place it either below or above the earth, and the deceased is pictured as needing a ladder to ascend to the region The deceased, entering the domain as a khu, performs the same activities that he did on earth: plowing, reaping, sailing his boat, and making love On entering Amenti, Anubis conducts the soul to the hall of Osiris where it is judged by the 42 judges and its heart is weighed against the feather of truth If the soul passes the test, it goes to the fields of Aalu If the names of the 15 Aats, the 7 Arrets (circles), the 21 Pylons, as well as the gods and guardians of these domains are all known, the deceased is enabled to pass from one mansion to the other, and finally to enter the Night Boat of the Sun, which passes through the Tuat on its way to arise in the heavens The shades who miss this boat, the unprogressed egos, must remain in the afterworld or kama-loka, while those who enter the boat are carried to the heaven world or devachan where they wander about until they return to earth for rebirth This refers to the passing from world to world by the ego proficient in knowledge of the “names,” and thereafter entering the secret or invisible pathways to the sun The knowledge of the names indicates spiritual, intellectual, and psychic development, by which the ego of the defunct is no longer attracted to the lower spheres, but having knowledge of them correctly answers the challenges and thereafter follows the attraction upwards and onwards Writing on the symbol of the egg which is often depicted as floating above a mummy, Blavatsky says: “This is the symbol of hope and the promise of a second birth for the Osirified dead; his Soul, after due purification in the Amenti, will gestate in this egg of immortality, to be reborn from it into a new life on earth For this Egg, in the esoteric Doctrine, is the Devachan, the abode of Bliss; the winged scarabeus being alike a symbol of it” (SD 1:365) The mystical and mythologic teachings concerning Amenti were all more or less symbolic descriptions of the series of afterdeath states and adventures experienced by the excarnate entity Thus kama-loka, devachan, and the postmorTum peregrinations of the excarnate monad are all combined under the one term Amenti Aanroo, Aanre (Egyptian) More fully, Sekhet-Aanre (the fields of the reeds); more often called Aarru or Sekhet-Aarru; also Aanru, Aaru The first region of the Afterworlds (Amenti) reached by the deceased in the afterdeath state, which he enters as a khu “The second division of Amenti The celestial field of Aanroo is encircled by an iron wall The field is covered with wheat, and the ‘Defunct’ are represented gleaning it, for the ‘Master of Eternity’; some stalks being three, others five, and the highest seven cubits high Those who reached the last two numbers entered the state of bliss (which is called in Theosophy Devachan); the disembodied spirits whose harvest was but three cubits high went into lower regions (Kamaloka) Wheat was with the Egyptians the symbol of the Law of Retribution or Karma The cubits had reference to the seven, five and three human ‘principles’ ” (TG 1) Beyond Aanroo, in Amenti, are seven halls with guardians, associated with kama-loka by Blavatsky: “Those only of the dead, who know the names of the janitors of the ‘seven halls,’ will be admitted into Amenti for ever; i e , those who have passed through the seven races of each round — otherwise they will rest in the lower fields; and it represents also the seven successive Devachans, or lokas” (SD 1:674n)

Wa and Aa are referred to as the “Lords of the Island of Aggression” who “founded this place and who were the first to exist therein in the company of Re.”
“Isle of Aggression” (Egy. iu titi) and “Isle of Combat” (Egy. iu aha)
An-tes, an unknown locality where a light tower, was adored.

Praise be to thee O Ra, exalted Sekhem, Lord of the hidden circles of the Tuat…
Praise be to thee, O Ra… and thou makest thy creations as Governor of thy circle.
Praise be to thee, O Ra… Thou art he whose forms are his own creations, and thou makest thy creations in thy great disk.
Praise be to thee, O Ra… Thou art he who gathereth together thy gods when thou goest into thy hidden circle.
Praise be to thee, O Ra… the sender of light into his circle… thou art he who makest the darkness to be in his circle, and thou coverest those who are therein.
Praise be to thee, O Ra… the illuminator of bodies in the horizens… thou art he who entereth into his circle.
Praise be to thee, O Ra… thou goest in and comest out and thou comest out and goest in to thy hidden circle…

Darkness lay over Egypt, but one red gash of sunset shone through the great pass in the mountains of the Western Desert, the Gap of Abydos. Through this they sped into the First Region of the Night and saw beneath them the Mesektet Boat in which Re began his journey into the Duat with the ending of each day. Splendid was the Boat, glorious its trappings, and its colors were of amethyst and emerald, jasper and turquoise, lazuli and the deep glow of gold. A company of the gods drew the Boat along the ghostly River of Death with golden towing-ropes; the portals of the Duat were flung wide, and they entered the First Region between the six serpents who were curled on either side. And in the great Boat of Re journeyed the Kas of all those who had died that day and were on their way to the judgement Hall of Osiris.
So the Boat moved on its way through regions of night and thick darkness and came to the portal of the Second Region. Tall were the walls on either side, and upon their tops were the points of spears so that none might climb over; the great wooden doors turned on pivots, and once again snakes breathing fire and poison guarded them. But all who passed through on the Boat of Re spoke the words of power decreed for that portal, and the doors swung open.
The Second Region was the Kingdom of Re, and the gods and heroes of old who had lived on earth when he was King dwelt there in peace and happiness, guarded by the Spirits of the Corn who make the wheat and barley flourish and cause the fruits of the earth to increase.
Yet not one of the dead who voyaged in the Boat of Re might pause there or set foot on the land: for they must pass into Amenti, the Third Region of the Duat where the judgement Hall of Osiris stood waiting to receive them.
So the Boat came to the next portals, and at the word of power the great wooden doors screamed open on their pivots – yet not so loudly did they scream as the man who lay with one of the pivots turning in his eye as punishment for the evil he had done upon earth.
Into the Third Region sailed the Boat of Re, and here the dead disembarked in the outer court of the judgement Hall of Osiris. But the Boat itself continued on its way through the nine other Regions of the Night until the re-birth of Re from out of the mouth of the Dragon of the East brought dawn once more upon earth and the rising of the sun. Yet the sun would not rise unless each night Re fought and defeated the Dragon Apep, who seeks ever to devour him in the Tenth Region of the Night.

According to the Theban doctrine of Egypt’s New Kingdom, the Netherworld, that is the Daut, consisted of a great valley enclosed by mountains. Through this valley ran a river on the banks of which lived a multitude of monstrous beasts and devils. These were evil spirits who were supposed to be hostile to the souls of the dead.
Theban priesthood who thought of the Duat as a river in a valley through which the soul must pass, a clue as to its real nature comes to us from its description as having been divided into regions each of which, among other things, was called qerert-an Egyptian word that means “circle.” That the Duat was a circular enclosure is further evidenced by a representation found on the sarcophagus of Seti I in which “the Tuat is likened to the body of Osiris, which is bent round like a hoop in such a way that his toes touch the back of the head.” Moreover, as Budge informs us, the text accompanying this representation itself states that “it is Osiris himself who forms the encircling border of the Tuat_”
Ra was also an abider in the Duat. And that here, again, the Duat was represented as a circle is evidenced by some of the Seventy Five Praises of Ra that are found inscribed on the walls of some tombs from the 19th and 20th Dynasties in Thebes in which the deity is lauded as “Lord of the Circles” and “he who entereth [or liveth] in the Circle,” in which Budge makes it clear that the Circles being alluded to are the Circles of the Duat.
“Praise be to thee, O Ra_lord of the hidden circles_ “Praise be to thee, O Ra_ who resteth in the Tuat_ “Praise be to thee, O Ra_Governor of thy Circle_ “Praise be to thee, O Ra_the sender forth of light into his Circle_ “Praise be to thee, O Ra_thou art he who entereth into his circle_ “Praise be to thee, O Ra_of the Circles of Ament_”
Besides being called qerert, each division of the Duat was also referred to as arret, that is a hall. What is of interest here is that, according to the “Papyrus of Nu,” these halls of the Duat were seven in number which, among other things, explains the plurality of circles associated with Ra’s habitation.
The hieroglyphic determinative of the name “Duat” itself which is simply depicted as a star surrounded by a circle.
And, in fact, as Faulkner informs us, when the Pyramid Texts state that “Sothis is swallowed up by the Netherworld,” that is by the Duat, the term “swallowed up” literally means “encircled.”

Budge’s “Gods of the Egyptians”, Vol I, page
339 – 348:
1 Praise be to thee O Ra, exalted Sekhem, Lord of the hidden circles of the Tuat… 3 Praise be to thee, O Ra… and thou makest thy creations as Governor of thy circle.
4 Praise be to thee, O Ra… Thou art he whose forms are his own creations, and thou makest thy creations in thy great disk. 6. Praise be to thee, O Ra… Thou art he who gathereth together thy gods when thou goest into thy hidden circle. 9. Praise be to thee, O Ra… the sender of light into his circle… thou art he who makest the darkness to be in his circle, and thou coverest those who are therein.
10. Praise be to thee, O Ra… the illuminator of bodies in the horizens… thou art he who entereth into his circle. 23 Praise be to thee, O Ra… thou goest in and comest out and thou comest out and goest in to thy hidden circle…
The story of creation related in the Pyramid Text explains that Re, as Atum, rose in the beginning of creation as a benben stone, an obelisk-like pillar, in the Temple of the Benu-Phoenix in Heliopolis. He then spit forth Shu and Tefnut, who became the first godly couple, and who respectively, symbolized air and moisture. To them, Geb [Seb] and Nut, were born, symbolizing the earth and sky. Geb [Seb] and Nut, in turn, begot two divine couples consisting of Osiris – Isis and Seth – Nephthys. Called the Ennead of gods, the combined attributes of this divine group were needed in order for the world to function. Darkness lay over Egypt, but one red gash of sunset shone through the great pass in the mountains of the Western Desert, the Gap of Abydos. Through this they sped into the First Region of the Night and saw beneath them the Mesektet Boat in which Re began his journey into the Duat with the ending of each day. Splendid was the Boat, glorious its trappings, and its colors were of amethyst and emerald, jasper and turquoise, lazuli and the deep glow of gold. A company of the gods drew the Boat along the ghostly River of Death with golden towing-ropes; the portals of the Duat were flung wide, and they entered the First Region between the six serpents who were curled on either side. And in the great Boat of Re journeyed the Kas of all those who had died that day and were on their way to the judgement Hall of Osiris. So the Boat moved on its way through regions of night and thick darkness and came to the portal of the Second Region. Tall were the walls on either side, and upon their tops were the points of spears so that none might climb over; the great wooden doors turned on pivots, and once again snakes breathing fire and poison guarded them. But all who passed through on the Boat of Re spoke the words of power decreed for that portal, and the doors swung open. The Second Region was the Kingdom of Re, and the gods and heroes of old who had lived on earth when he was King dwelt there in peace and happiness, guarded by the Spirits of the Corn who make the wheat and barley flourish and cause the fruits of the earth to increase. Yet not one of the dead who voyaged in the Boat of Re might pause there or set foot on the land: for they must pass into Amenti, the Third Region of the Duat where the judgement Hall of Osiris stood waiting to receive them. So the Boat came to the next portals, and at the word of power the great wooden doors screamed open on their pivots – yet not so loudly did they scream as the man who lay with one of the pivots turning in his eye as punishment for the evil he had done upon earth. Into the Third Region sailed the Boat of Re, and here the dead disembarked in the outer court of the judgement Hall of Osiris. But the Boat itself continued on its way through the nine other Regions of the Night until the re-birth of Re from out of the mouth of the Dragon of the East brought dawn once more upon earth and the rising of the sun. Yet the sun would not rise unless each night Re fought and defeated the Dragon Apep, who seeks ever to devour him in the Tenth Region of the Night. According to the Theban doctrine of Egypt’s New Kingdom, the Netherworld, that is the Daut, consisted of a great valley enclosed by mountains. Through this valley ran a river on the banks of which lived a multitude of monstrous beasts and devils. These were evil spirits who were supposed to be hostile to the souls of the dead. Budge, however, also informs us that: “_ it must be distinctly understood that the Egyptian word does not imply that it was situated under our world, and that this rendering is only adopted because the exact significance of the name Tuat [the same as Duat] is unknown. The word is a very old one, and expresses a conception which was originated by the primitive Egyptians, and was probably known to their later descendants, who used the word without troubling to define its exact meaning _ In the XIXth Dynasty we know that the Tuat was believed to be situated not below our earth, but away beyond the earth, probably in the sky _” Thus, leaving aside the beliefs of the much later Theban priesthood who thought of the Duat as a river in a valley through which the soul must pass, a clue as to its real nature comes to us from its description as having been divided into regions each of which, among other things, was called qerert-an Egyptian word that means “circle.” That the Duat was a circular enclosure is further evidenced by a representation found on the sarcophagus of Seti I in which “the Tuat is likened to the body of Osiris, which is bent round like a hoop in such a way that his toes touch the back of the head.” Moreover, as Budge informs us, the text accompanying this representation itself states that “it is Osiris himself who forms the encircling border of the Tuat_” Ra was also an abider in the Duat. And that here, again, the Duat was represented as a circle is evidenced by some of the Seventy Five Praises of Ra that are found inscribed on the walls of some tombs from the 19th and 20th Dynasties in Thebes in which the deity is lauded as “Lord of the Circles” and “he who entereth [or liveth] in the Circle,” in which Budge makes it clear that the Circles being alluded to are the Circles of the Duat. “Praise be to thee, O Ra_lord of the hidden circles_ “Praise be to thee, O Ra_ who resteth in the Tuat_ “Praise be to thee, O Ra_Governor of thy Circle_ “Praise be to thee, O Ra_the sender forth of light into his Circle_ “Praise be to thee, O Ra_thou art he who entereth into his circle_ “Praise be to thee, O Ra_of the Circles of Ament_” To those who are familiar with the Cronosian scenario, the implication is clear: The Duat seems to have been nothing more than the celestial band which once encircled the Cronosian orb in the north celestial sphere. This interpretation is further evidenced by the fact that, besides being called qerert, each division of the Duat was also referred to as arret, that is a hall. What is of interest here is that, according to the “Papyrus of Nu,” these halls of the Duat were seven in number which, among other things, explains the plurality of circles associated with Ra’s habitation. The most convincing evidence concerning the interpretation of the Duat as the Cronosian circle of light, however, comes from the hieroglyphic determinative of the name “Duat” itself which is simply depicted as a star surrounded by a circle. And, in fact, as Faulkner informs us, when the Pyramid Texts state that “Sothis is swallowed up by the Netherworld,” that is by the Duat, the term “swallowed up” literally means “encircled.” Thus when Horus the Morning Star is referred to as Horus of the Duat, the reference is to Horus of the Cronosian band. In our enfolding scenario, this translates as Mars within the Cronosian ring, the place the planet occupied when it was seen to drop from the Cronosian center, it having then been encompassed within the congealing band that the trailing part of Venus wound around the Cronosian orb. Even so, why Morning Star? What did the morning, or the dawn, have to do with the Duat? That the Egyptian term “Morning Star” had nothing to do with heliacal risings is evidenced when Horus of the Dawn, that is Horus the Morning Star, is lauded as “chief of the imperishable stars,” the “imperishable stars” being the usual Egyptian designation for the circumpolar stars. And, to be sure, the same idea continued to be echoed down into the centuries A.D. where, in Christian liturgy, the Morning Star was hailed as the star which never sets. Now, as already noted, the word “duat,” in its many variants, meant both “dawn” and “Netherworld,” which latter has here been identified as the Cronosian band. The implication one derives from this is that it was that very Cronosian band that was inter alia referred to as “dawn”. This receives further indication from the Hebrew language, which has preserved so much of these primitive connotations, in which we find that tsephirah, one of the words used to denote the morning and/or the dawn, actually means “a crown (as encircling the head)” and/or “diadem.” In Greek mythology, the goddess of the dawn is called Eos but, as Guirand informs us, the goddess was originally “represented as accompanying her brother Helios during his whole journey.” That the dawn should have accompanied the Sun throughout its entire course across the sky is not logical. But, keeping to the original Greek identification of Helios as Cronos, we can see how, because of terrestrial spin, its encircling band would have continued to rotate around the planetary orb throughout its entire daily sequence of brightening and diminishing. In keeping with this we find that, in Hebrew, the word for “dawning” is panah, a term which, in actuality, means “to turn.” Thus, Horus of the Duat, Horus of the Underworld, Horus of the Dawn, all mean one and the same thing, the reference being to the planet Mars in its position close to the inside periphery of the band encircling the Cronosian sun. But why was this band thought of as having been the dawn?
Deities of the Gates In the matured, ancient Egyptian concept of the netherworld there were many gates, portals or pylon which had to be passed by the sun god on his nightly journey and by the deceased king who was a member of the sun god’s entourage (or fused with him) in his quest reach the place of afterlife existence. In later periods, Egyptian religion was democratized so that others could also make this journey. There were different versions and accounts of the netherworld gates in various funerary texts, where over 1,000 deities are depicted, but in each case the barriers themselves were guarded by minor gods who would only allow those who knew their secret names, and thus having power over them, to pass. A Knife Wielding demon seated before gates of the netherworldA Knife Wielding demon seated before gates of the netherworld Knife Wielding demons seated before gates of the netherworld In the Valley of the Kings, twelve pylons or gates were commonly a part of the theme of funerary text, such as the Book of Gates, inscribed upon the walls of royal tombs of the New Kingdom. Though depicted as architectural features, each of these gates was named as a goddess and protected by a fire-spitting serpent as well as its own guardian deity. For example, the fifth gate was called “she of duration” and its serpent was named “flame-eyed”. Its resident deity was “true of heart”. These funerary texts were most stable for royal burials, but for nobles and others there was more variation. For example, in Chapter 144 of the Book of the Dead, seven gates are mentioned, each with its own god, a doorkeeper and a herald. Hence, the last gate was watched over by a god aptly named, “sharpest of them all”. The doorkeeper was called “strident of voice” and the herald’s was known as “rejector of rebels”. However, there could be as many as 21 gates, known as the “secret portals of the mansion of Osiris in the field of reeds”, in some texts. Still, they were provided with a number of names or epithets and guarded by a zoo-anthropomorphic deity who was usually depicted seated and holding a large knife. Here, the gates were of a mixed nature, being at times fearsome, such as “mistress of anger, dancing on blood” as Gate 14 was known, or “mistress of the altar”, as was named Gate 3. However, the guardians themselves were almost always given terrifying or repulsive names such as “swallower of sinners” or “existing on maggots”, for they were to be feared in all events. However, there were a few of these that were never named in the funerary texts at all. The following are the twelve gates as represented in various royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings: Gate Representative Deities Features of the Gate Area 1 The gods in the entrance and the four weary ones four cardinal points 2 Apophis and two enneads Lake of fire 3 Goddesses of the hours, Osiris and Horus Lake of life, lake of uraei 4 Gods of space and time and Osiris Throne of Osiris 5 Osiris, Apophis and twelve restraining gods Circular lake of fire 6 Osiris, the blessed and punished dead Stakes of Geb [Seb] 7 Lords of provision in the West Fields of provisions 8 Fire-breathing serpent, the sons of Horus and ba souls Waters of the drowned 9 Deities with nets and Apophis Area leading to “emergence” 10 Apophis, face of Re and goddesses of the hours Area of restraint of Apophis 11 Gods who carry the blazing light and baboons of sunrise Area directly before dawn 12 Isis, Nephthys, Nut, Nun and the reborn sun The primeval waters from which the sun emerges Deities of the Caverns From a fairly early point in Egyptian history, the concept of caverns in the netherworld became a motif of afterlife theology. Within these caverns, various deities, who were enumerated in the so-called “Spell of the Twelve Caves”, stood ready to punish the wicked. The “Spell of the Twelve Caves was a composition known from a papyrus of the time of Amenhotep II and from the walls of the southern chamber of the Osireion at Aybdos. Since the New Kingdom’s 18th Dynasty, a section of this book was also made a part of the Book of the Dead (Chapter 168). From the Book of Caverns showing a number of caves From the Book of Caverns showing a number of caves For the enemies of Re, the caverns became a hell, where they were punished and executed, usually by beheading. However, these cavern deities could also supply aid to the blessed dead, giving light, food and protection or allowing them to move about freely. With the first seven caverns were alternating groups of three mummiform and three anthropomorphic deities, two being male and one female in each group. In the eighth through the twelfth caverns, there existed a varying number of deities. For example, in the eighth cavern there were seven individuals and groups and in the ninth, there were as many as twenty. The deities of the tenth cavern consisted, specifically of: * Those who belong to the sunshine – giving light * Those who take hold – grant that the deceased be acclaimed * The nine gods who guard those in the cavern – give the breath of life * The nine gods whose arms are hidden – grant that the deceased be a worthy spirit * The hidden goddess – grants that the deceased’s soul be strong and his corpse intact * The souls of the gods who become members of Osiris – grant that the deceased have peace * Those who worship Re – grant the deceased not be turned back from any gate of the underworld * Those whose faces are warlike – grant that the deceased be cool in the place of heat Beneath the depiction of these deities, their name and number were usually inscribed, together with the offerings prescribed for them and the possible good deeds they could perform.

A Knife Wielding demon seated before gates of the netherworld
In the Valley of the Kings, twelve pylons or gates were commonly a part of the theme of funerary text, such as the Book of Gates, inscribed upon the walls of royal tombs of the New Kingdom. Though depicted as architectural features, each of these gates was named as a goddess and protected by a fire-spitting serpent as well as its own guardian deity. For example, the fifth gate was called “she of duration” and its serpent was named “flame-eyed”. Its resident deity was “true of heart”.
These funerary texts were most stable for royal burials, but for nobles and others there was more variation. For example, in Chapter 144 of the Book of the Dead, seven gates are mentioned, each with its own god, a doorkeeper and a herald. Hence, the last gate was watched over by a god aptly named, “sharpest of them all”. The doorkeeper was called “strident of voice” and the herald’s was known as “rejector of rebels”. However, there could be as many as 21 gates, known as the “secret portals of the mansion of Osiris in the field of reeds”, in some texts. Still, they were provided with a number of names or epithets and guarded by a zoo-anthropomorphic deity who was usually depicted seated and holding a large knife. Here, the gates were of a mixed nature, being at times fearsome, such as “mistress of anger, dancing on blood” as Gate 14 was known, or “mistress of the altar”, as was named Gate 3. However, the guardians themselves were almost always given terrifying or repulsive names such as “swallower of sinners” or “existing on maggots”, for they were to be feared in all events. However, there were a few of these that were never named in the funerary texts at all.
The following are the twelve gates as represented in various royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings: Gate Representative Deities Features of the Gate Area 1 The gods in the entrance and the four weary ones four cardinal points 2 Apophis and two enneads Lake of fire 3 Goddesses of the hours, Osiris and Horus Lake of life, lake of uraei 4 Gods of space and time and Osiris Throne of Osiris 5 Osiris, Apophis and twelve restraining gods Circular lake of fire 6 Osiris, the blessed and punished dead Stakes of Geb [Seb] 7 Lords of provision in the West Fields of provisions 8 Fire-breathing serpent, the sons of Horus and ba souls Waters of the drowned 9 Deities with nets and Apophis Area leading to “emergence” 10 Apophis, face of Re and goddesses of the hours Area of restraint of Apophis 11 Gods who carry the blazing light and baboons of sunrise Area directly before dawn 12 Isis, Nephthys, Nut, Nun and the reborn sun The primeval waters from which the sun emerges

Deities of the Caverns
From a fairly early point in Egyptian history, the concept of caverns in the netherworld became a motif of afterlife theology. Within these caverns, various deities, who were enumerated in the so-called “Spell of the Twelve Caves”, stood ready to punish the wicked. The “Spell of the Twelve Caves was a composition known from a papyrus of the time of Amenhotep II and from the walls of the southern chamber of the Osireion at Aybdos. Since the New Kingdom’s 18th Dynasty, a section of this book was also made a part of the Book of the Dead (Chapter 168).
From the Book of Caverns showing a number of caves From the Book of Caverns showing a number of caves
For the enemies of Re, the caverns became a hell, where they were punished and executed, usually by beheading. However, these cavern deities could also supply aid to the blessed dead, giving light, food and protection or allowing them to move about freely.
With the first seven caverns were alternating groups of three mummiform and three anthropomorphic deities, two being male and one female in each group. In the eighth through the twelfth caverns, there existed a varying number of deities. For example, in the eighth cavern there were seven individuals and groups and in the ninth, there were as many as twenty. The deities of the tenth cavern consisted, specifically of:
* Those who belong to the sunshine – giving light * Those who take hold – grant that the deceased be acclaimed * The nine gods who guard those in the cavern – give the breath of life * The nine gods whose arms are hidden – grant that the deceased be a worthy spirit * The hidden goddess – grants that the deceased’s soul be strong and his corpse intact * The souls of the gods who become members of Osiris – grant that the deceased have peace * Those who worship Re – grant the deceased not be turned back from any gate of the underworld * Those whose faces are warlike – grant that the deceased be cool in the place of heat
Beneath the depiction of these deities, their name and number were usually inscribed, together with the offerings prescribed for them and the possible good deeds they could perform.

The Fields of Aaru and Hetep. The souls of the dead made their way to their abode in the “other world” by a ladder, according to a very ancient view, or through a gap in the mountains of Abydos called Peka according to another; but, by whichever way they passed from earth, their destination was a region in the Tuat which is called in the pyramid and later texts Sekhet-Aaru, which was situated in the Sekhet-Hetep,and was supposed to lie to the north of Egypt. Here dwell Horus and Set, for the fields of Aaru and Hetep are their domains, and here enters the deceased with two of the children of Horus on one side of him, and two on the other, and the “two great chiefs who preside over the throne of the great god proclaim eternal life and power for him.”
Horus between the mountains of Bekhatet and Manu, the most easterly and westerly points of the sun’s course, and the places where he rose and set.
Lake of Khemta the boat of the Eye of Khnemu
Sekhet-Aanru, the “Field of the Aanru plants,” was a name originally given to the islands in the Delta where the souls of the dead were supposed to live. Here was the abode of the god Osiris, who bestowed estates in it upon those who had been his followers, and here the beatified dead led a new existence and regaled themselves upon food of every kind, which was given to them in abundance. According to the vignette of the CXth Chapter of the Book of the Dead, the Sekhet-Aanru is the third division of the Sekhet-hetepu, or “Fields of Peace,” which have been compared with the Elysian Fields of the Greeks.
Set Amentet, i.e., “the mountain of the underworld,” a common name of the cemetery, which was usually situated in the mountains or desert on the western bank of the Nile.
Tanenet, a district sacred to the gods Osiris and Ptah
Tuat, a common name for the abode of the departed.
Neter-khertet, a common name for the abode of the dead; it means the “divine subterranean place.”
Manu is the name given to the region where the sun sets, which was believed to be exactly opposite to the district of Bekha, where he rose in the east; Manu is a synonym of west, just as Bekha is a synonym of east.
Amenta or Amentet, or was originally the place where the sun set, but subsequently the name was applied to the cemeteries and tombs which were usually built or hewn in the stony plateaus and mountains on the western bank of the Nile. Some believe that Amenta was, at first, the name of a small district, without either funereal or mythological signification. The Christian Egyptians or Copts used the word Amend to translate the Greek word Hades, to which they attributed all the ideas which their heathen ancestors had associated with the Amenta of the Book of the Dead.
Hail, thou Runner, Lord, Only One, thou maker of the things that are, thou hast fashioned the tongue of the Company of the Gods, thou hast produced whatsoever cometh forth from the waters, thou springest up out of them above the submerged land of the Lake of Horus. Let me breathe the air which cometh forth from thy nostrils, and the north wind which cometh forth from thy mother Nut.
Homage to thee, O An in Antes, Heru-khuti, who dost with long strides march across the heavens,
O Ra, the dweller in thy Shrine. Thou swallowest the winds, thou drawest into thyself the north wind
Isis saith:- I have come to be a protector unto thee. I waft unto thee air for thy nostrils, and the north wind which cometh forth from the god Tum unto thy nose
Hail, thou who bringest the Ferry- Boat of Ra, thou holdest thy course firmly and directly in the north wind as thou sailest up the river towards the Island of Fire which is in Khert-Neter.
“I am purified in my great double nest which is in Hensu on the day of the offerings of the followers of the Great God who dwelleth therein.”
What is the “great double nest”
“The name of one nest is ‘Millions of years,’ and ‘Great Green’ is the name of the other, that is to say ‘Lake of Natron’ and ‘Lake of Salt.’
“Others, however, say the name of the one is ‘Guide of Millions of Years,’ and that ‘Great Green Lake’ is name of the other. Yet others say that ‘Begetter of Millions of Years’ is the name of one, and ‘Great Green Lake’ is the name of the other. Now, as concerning the Great God who dwelleth therein, it is Ra himself.
“I pass over the way, I know the head of the Island of Maati.”
“It is Ra-stau, that is to say, it is the gate to the South of Nerutef, and it is the Northern Gate of the Domain (Tomb of the god).
“Now, as concerning the Island of Maati, it is Abtu.
“Others, however, say that it is the way by which Father Tum travelleth when he goeth forth to Sekhet-Aaru, [the place] which produceth the food and sustenance of the gods who are [in] their shrines.

An in Antes, Heru-khuti, who dost with long strides march across the heavens, who art the god Khepera
“Deliver thou the scribe Nebseni, whose word is truth, from the Watchers, who carry murderous knives, who possess cruel fingers, and who would slay those who are in the following of Osiris.”
May these Watchers never gain the mastery over me, and may I never fall under their knives!
Who are these Watchers
“They are Anubis and Horus, [the latter being] in the form of Horus the sightless. Others, however, say that they are the Tchatcha (sovereign princes of Osiris), who bring to nought the operations of their knives; and others say that they are the chiefs of the Sheniu chamber.

Herodotus tells us that the pillars or columns of Sesostris (the same with Osiris) still existed in the lands of Scythia even during his times (lib. II. 103). And the poet Ovid also mentions the triumphal roads of Bachus or Liber Pater, through Scythia (Fast. III. 714 seqq).
According to the old Greek geographical traditions, the legendary column of the sky was located in the extreme parts, or northern, of the known world, on the high and vast mountain called Atlas, in the country of the Hyperboreans.

This column was considered in the southern legends as the miraculous column of the earth, which supported the starry vault of the sky, or the northern pole of the universe.

The name alkebulan (alkabulan) has been widely promoted in Afrocentric/Afrikan-centered circles as the only true indigenous name for the continent of Afuraka/Afuraitkait. The term is in reality an arabic-influenced term used by Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut who had been arabized through the practice of the pseudo-religion of islam.

The prefix al is the definite article found in arabic, aramaic and which also passed into spanish after the Moorish invasion. The prefix can be found in such terms as al-kitab, meaning: the (al) book (kitab); al-nur meaning: the (al) light (nur). Al becomes El in spanish. Thus, el-presidente meaning: the (el) president (presidente); el-torro meaning the (el) bull (torro).

Al is a title in ancient Kanana (Canaan; ancient Black Civilization of Palestine) of the Creator while Alat is the title of the Creatress. The root of this prefix is found in ancient Kamit as Ur and Urt. Ur means: great or the great. Urt is the feminine. Various Ntorou and Ntorotu carry this title: Heru Ur (Heru the Great); Amen Ur (Amen the Great) Ra Ur (Ra the Great One); Urt Hekau (the Great Goddess of Divine Words).

In ancient Black Arabia (before the incursion of the white arabs) the Creator and Creatress were called Lah and Laht. The same as Al and Alat in Kanana and Ra and Rat in Kamit. Because the rolling ‘r’ is translated as ‘l’ in some languages which incorporated or co-opted Kamau terms into their own, Ra Ur or Ur Ra became Ul-Lah and Al-Lah. Urt Rat became Ul-Lat and Al-Laht. Note that Ra and Rait are the Creator and Creatress, while Amen and Amenet are the Supreme Being. Ra and Rait serve Amen and Amenet.

The white arabs corrupted Al-Lah into allah and ilah and reduced Al-Laht into allat, a daughter of allah, so that female would be inferior to male. They then added this corrupt title to a make-believe entity (god/allah) and foolishly claimed that this entity was the supreme being. In reality, whenever the white arabs speak of allah, they are speaking of their own perverse desires masquerading in the personage of a make-believe “creator”. Ra and Rait have never and will never communicate with the whites and their offspring (including white arabs). The arabs simply manufactured a fake god and decided to name it with a label that was similar to what Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut were already familiar with.
The root, kebu, of the name alkebulan is key to our discussion. Kebu or Qebui is actually the name of the Ntoro of the north wind in Kamit.

These facts are the basis for the nomenclature, alkebulan, being used by arabized Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut a few centuries ago to refer to the northern part of the continent of Afuraka/Afuraitkait. They were simply repeating a corrupt form of the title as passed on via a roman idea representing the continent as the land of the (al) north wind Deity (kebu/qebu). Moreover, the name alkebulan as an arabic corruption, repeated by Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut centuries ago, does not encapsulate at all the definition of Afuraka/Afuraitkait. Our people in Afuraka/Afuraitkait did not refer to our continent as the “land of the north wind Deity” nor to themselves, as a people, as the “people of the land of the north wind Deity.”

It is critical to understand the direct connection between the roman corruption africa, initially denoting the northern part of the continent in their minds, the roman term africus, denoting the North Afurakani/Afuraitkaitnit (North African) winds and Qebui, the Ntoro of the North winds. This will preclude some Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut from rationalizing the continued use of alkebulan by saying that kebu represents gebu or Geb [Seb] (earth). We have shown that the romans referred to the northern part of the continent with the same corrupted name that they eventually used to refer to the whole continent. The association of Geb [Seb] with guptos was learned by the romans from the greeks as no more than a title of the country of Kamit. The arabs used the term qubt to refer to Kamit as well. Thus, the greeks, romans and arabs used the corruption of Geb [Seb] or Gbtu (ai-guptos, aegyptus, qubt) when referring to Kamit alone. The romans used the corruption africa when referring to the continent. The arabized Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut (African moors) used the arabic corruption of the name of the Ntoro Qebui or Qeb, or the (al) Qeb (kebu) to refer to the entire continent as an extension of the corrupted name of the northern part of the continent dominated by the northern wind Ntoro, Qebui.

Qebui, Al-Qebui and Al-Gebul (El-Gabal)

The term gabal (gebel; gebal; hebrew gevul, arabic gebel or jebel) means mountain in the language of Kanana (Canaan). The people of Kanana were Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut who had originally emigrated from Keneset and Kamit thousands of years ago and established a civilization north of Kamit. Thousands of years later the whites and their offspring invaded this civilization which existed in the area which today is erroneously called palestine/israel, syria and lebanon. In the language of Kananu (also called Phoenicians, Canaanites), the form of the Deity Al (El) called El-Gabal was called the Great Father/Old Man/Elder/Great One (Al, El) of the Mountain (gabal/gebel). He was associated with the Aten (Sun), because of the rising and setting of the Aten between the mountains back in Kamit, where the people of Kanana migrated from in ancient times. The Aten rises above the eastern mountain called Bakhau in Kamit and sets below the western mountain called Manu in Kamit. Ra (Al/El) operating through the Aten has an important relationship with these mountains when the Aten is rising and setting. The mountain reference is also a reference to the original mountain/raised land, Ka/Kait, upon which Ra/Rait first descended to create the first landmass of Asaase (Earth).

The wife of El-Gabal in Kanana was called Baalat Gebal. The great temple of Baalat in the city of Gebal was called the Baalat Gebalat. [She was associated by the Kananu with Het-Heru in Kamit. In Kamit the Ntorot Het-Heru was called Herit and also the “Lady of the Red Mountain”.]

The ancient Kanani civilization had a major city called Gebal (also Gubla), which was later called byblos by the greeks. This Kanani name gebal became gebalene as used by the romans. The term gebalene also exists in arabic as gebelein meaning two mountains as in, “between two mountains”. Khart Hadast (Carthage), an important colony of the Kanani civilization which exists in the region of today’s Tunisia, North Afuraka/Afuraitkait is connected to the mountain range now called the “atlas” mountains.

When the whites and their offspring invaded the ancient Near East, they co-opted information about our Nanasom and corrupted it. In syria, after the white invasion and takeover of certain areas the Kanani Deity, El-Gabal (Elder/Great One of the Mountain), became known by the white syrians as simply “the sun-god”— just as the white greeks and romans promoted the false idea that Ra is simply “the sun god” and nothing more. During the severan dynasty of the roman empire the emperor who was eventually called elgabalus was a dissexual/homosexual who came from syria. He brought the corrupted (white) form of pseudo-worship of El-Gabal from syria to rome. This emperor was named elgabalus because he falsely claimed to have “inherited” the title of the high priest of El-Gabal. El-Gabal, the Deity, was called elgabalus by the romans and heliogabalus by the greeks. (helios is the greek corruption of the God Ra. helios means “sun”). The shrine established by emperor elgabalus for the Deity El-Gabal, was called the El-Gabalium. El-Gabal was eventually called the deus sol invictus, “god, the undefeated sun”, whose birthday was December 25th. (sol is the roman word for “sun”)

There is an intricate relationship between the arabized Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut known as moors’ usage of the term Al-kebulan (alkabulan) and El-Gebelein, El-Gebal and (Al) Qebu.

One of the forms of Ra is that of a flat-horned ram-headed Ntoro. There are other Ntorou as well which have the head of a ram, including a form of Amen. The Aten (Sun) rises above the eastern mountain called Bakhau in Kamit and sets below the western mountain called Manu in Kamit. (Recall the arabic term: gebelein meaning ‘two mountains’). As the Aten sets in the west descending below the western mountain, Manu, the temperature begins to go down. The cool north winds directed/sent by the Ntoro Atem (Atum) are then felt. In the Pert em Heru (misnomered Book of the Dead) it is stated:

“…. I am a follower of Tehuti, rejoicing in all that He has done. He brought the sweet air for your nose, life and vigor to gladden your face, and the North Wind [Qebu] that comes from Atem for your nostrils….”

Atem is seen in certain forms as the Ntoro operating through the setting Aten (Sun).

When Atem [Temu] operates through the setting Aten (as the Aten sets upon and then below the western mountain) Atem sends Qebu, the North Wind Ntoro, to cool, to refresh us. (note that the general term qebh in Kamit means cool, refreshing).

The whites confused and deliberately confounded the manifestation of the flat-horned ram-headed form of Ra (Afu Ra) with the flat-horned ram-headed deity Qebu because of Their close association cosmologically and pictorially.

Ra Qebu

In their effort to manufacture the foolish doctrine/philosophy of monotheism, the foolish idea that there is only “one god”, the whites and their offspring sought to fuse various Deities into one, while eliminating others totally. Another example of this kind of fusion is with the Ntorou, Khepera, Ra and Atem. In the text of Ra and Auset, Ra tells Auset that:

“I am Khepera in rising, Ra at Noon and Atem in setting”

Many whites have attempted to promote the false idea that Khepera, Ra and Atem are all one in the same Ntoro. This of course is inaccurate. Atem is an Ntoro. Khepera is a different Ntoro and Ra is distinct from both of Them, yet They all work harmoniously together just as your various organs work together to comprise and maintain your body.

The God (Al) Qebu (Gebul) is the North Wind, whose spirit is sent by Atem after Atem sets (through the Aten) in the gebelein (mountains). It is via the corrupt process of fusion that El-Gebal or Al-Gebul, became simply “the sun god” and was then fused with Qebu.

To the romans, El-Gebal and Qebu or Al-Qebu were now one and the same Ntoro (God).

The Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut who became arabized adopted this false fusion of Deities and thus the “land of the God of the North Wind”, Al-Gebalat, Al-Qebu, El-Gebelein, became Al-kebulan.

It is important to know that in the metutu, the city of Gebal or Gubla is written Kbn or Kepuna. Kepuna (Qebuna) is written in this fashion because there is no ‘l’ in the language of Kamit. As stated previously, any loan-word or loan-name that includes an ‘l’ is translated into the language of Kamit by using the metut for the letter ‘r’. However, in the language of Kamit, just as in Twi, the rolling ‘r’ is sometimes indistinguishable from the ‘n’ sound, because both require that the tongue tap the roof of the mouth once. This is why if one says Kepuna and Gebura (Gebula) out loud, they sound identical at regular conversation speed–when the ‘r’ in Gebura is “rolled” once. [A similar result can be found in the name of the Akan ethnic group, the Bono, whose name is also written Bron or Brong. Bono and Bron pronounced with the rolling ‘r’ sounds virtually identical.]

Once again, the arabized Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut who became known as moors adopted the roman corrupt fusion of Gebul (El-Gebal/Ra) and Qebu into one Deity in contradistinction to the reality that Ra (El/Al) directs Atem to complete the day through facilitating the sunset (Atem or Tem also means “to complete” or “the complete One” in Kamit). Once Atem completes the day by causing the Aten to set in the mountains (gebelein) two things take place. 1) Ra becomes Afu Ra, and thus Ram-headed. 2) Atem sends the ram-headed Ntoro Qebu, the north winds. The cosmological function of Al-Gebal was misinterpreted by the whites as well as that of Qebu via the corrupt fusing of El-Gebul and Qebu. This corruption was repeated by the arabized Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut when referring to the northern part of the continent. See below:

Gebal, Gebel, Gebul, Gubla, Gebalene, Gebalein, El-Gebelein, Al-kebulan.

Gebal, Gebul, Qebu, Kbn, Kebun, Kepuna, Gebura, Gebula, Baalat Gebalat (Kebalan).

All of the above names and titles refer to that which is north from the perspective of Kamit. Gebal (byblos/Kanana, country north of Kamit). Qebu (North Wind). Kepuna(n) (Gebal; byblos; Kanana). gebalene (roman corruption of Gebal; region north of Kamit). The moors brought the pseudo-religion of islam/mohammedanism to North Afuraka/Afuraitkait initially. This is why these North Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut utilized the roman/arabic corruptions of our language and cosmology to identify the northern part of the continent alkebulan (al-gebelein; Al-kepuna(n)), eventually misnaming the continent itself.

My ear caught at once the voice of the white-robed priests who were chanting in the presence of the sacred element a hymn of praise sung by Zoroaster of old. It was a glorification of Verethraghna, the Angel of Victory, in the Bahram Yasht, and I felt a thrill as I heard the Avestan verses -verethraghnem ahuradhatem yazamaide, “we worship the Angel of Victory, created by Ahura’

Zartuaht or Zarduaht

Sing to Apam Napat, to Savitar, for favor;’ is invoked in two other verses with him; 38 and achieves cosmogonic significance in a hymn to him: ‘Where the (now-) established ocean gushed forth, of that Savitar knows, Apam Napat! From there the earth, from there the spaces arose; from there Heaven and Earth spread out’ (RV.X.149.2).

King Yima rules over the golden age which ends when he sins. The khvaranah, or Divine Glory, flees his side in the direction of the mythical lake Vourukasa, and Aplm Napat, the keeper of the lake, seizes the khvaranah and deposits it in the midst of the waters. Ahura Mazda urges men to try and claim the khvaranah, promising the victor numerous earthly and heavenly rewards. The first attempt is made by the Turanian, Frafirasyan, a foreigner, who dives three times into the lake, but who fails because only the airya are entitled to the khvaranah. In each attempt, the khvaranah escapes from Franrasyan whose wild pursuits cause great overflows from the lake. In this way various rivers come into being, and one, the Haetu- mant which still contains the escaped khvardnah, is Lake Vourukasa’s most eulogized tributary.

Eranvej

Hara or Haraiti, from whose peak Hukairya the heavenly river descends into the lake Vourukasa, seems to correspond to the celestial “mountain “, ndka, of the Veda, beside or upon which the poets locate the realm of Yama, with its abounding streams of water and its fountain of Soma. Yast VIII. ? 32, which speaks of a ” mountain beyond India ” (or perhaps “north of India “), ushandavat paiti garoit, as lying in the midst of Vourukasa, suggests that popular imagination assigned to it a southerly location; but originally both lake and mountain were probably mythical.

Airyanem Vaejah The Airyanem Vaejah (Aryan Expanse) was the legendary home of the Indo-Iranian people It is believed that between ca 5000 B C and 2000 B C , Indian and Iranian tribes lived together in one place and spoke mutually intelligible languages Sometime in the third millennium B C , the two groups separated, reaching Iran and India via much-debated routes Not surprisingly, the Avesta and the Rig Veda, the literary monuments of the Iranians and Indians respectively (second millennium B C ) have similarities which extend beyond linguistics, to the very gods themselves, and the themes of parts of the narratives

Regrettably, the Iranian epic material in the Avesta was purged, sanitized or recast by the zeal of Zoroaster and his followers in the 7th century B C and later Complicating matters is the fact that only a tiny percentage of the historically known Avesta has survived It is only in oblique, presumably pre-Zoroastrian passages or in much later epic material (supposedly deriving from the earliest Iranian myths) that one encounters anything comparable to the passions and jealousies of the Greek or Indian deities Airyanem Vaejah, whose location is disputed, contained the first mountain created on earth, Hara Berezaiti or High Hara The Vedas, which do not mention Airyanem Vaejah directly, nonetheless are familiar with this premier mountain Close to the mountain was a sea, called Vourukasha in the Avesta, where the “Tree of All Seeds” grew Coursing down the mountain, or near it, was a mighty river Yast V. ? 25 f. relates that he sacrificed to the goddess Arodvi Stira Anahita on Hukairya,2 the peak of the mountain Hara or Haraiti from which the waters sent by her flow down into the lake Vourukasa, whence they fertilise the whole earth (cf. Yast XII. ? 24), and that he prayed that he might become sovereign lord over all countries, over daevas and men, sorcerers (yatu) and witches (pairikd), rulers, kavis, and karapans, and that he might take from the daevas wealth and welfare, riches and flocks, comfort and fame; and the goddess granted his request (cf. Yast XIX. ? 31 f.).

The Rigveda of the old Indians speaks of
the cuckoo in such a way that we see at once it must have been a god to earlier inhabitants. The kokila, as he is called in Sanskrit, is there said to be a bird who knows all things, not only what has happened, but what shall happen. To the inhabitants of India, as well as to Europeans, is he a prophetic bird.

“After Ahura Mazda has warned Yima that destruction in the form of winter, frost, and floods, subsequent to the melting of the snow, are threatening the sinful world, he proceeds to instruct him to build a vara, ‘fortress or estate,’ in which specimens of small and large cattle, human beings, dogs, birds, red flaming fires, plants and foodstuffs will have to be deposited in pairs.” [Kramer, p. 344] “Beneath this earth there is water everywhere.” [Kramer, p. 339]

The Aryans divided the universe into seven regions or keshvars: 1) Arzah or Arzahe; 2) Shabah, Sava-Cavahe; 3) Fradadafsh, Fradadhfsha; 4) Vidadafsh, Vidadahfshu; 5) Vorubarst, Vourubaresti; 6) Vorugarst, Vourujaresti, Vouruzaresti; and 7) Khvanuras, Ganiratha, Hvaniratha. The seventh land is situated in the middle of the other six. According to the introduction of Abu-Mansouri’s Shah-Nameh (the older Shah-Nameh), the seventh land, which the kings named Iran-Shahr (Airya-Vaeja) is also in the middle of the other six.

Airyanem Vaejo is the primeval land of innocence and bliss of the Vendidad, similar to the Sveta-dvipa (white island) of Puranic literature or to Mount Meru. In this “beautiful land,” by the river Daitya, “the stars, the moon, and the sun are only once (a year) seen to rise and set” (Vendidad). Blavatsky equates it with the cradleland of physical humanity, and locates it in Central Asia. It is identical to Sambhala and to Arghya Varsha from which the Kalki avatara is expected (SD 2:416; BCW 4:526-7).

In Persian legend, the serpent appeared in Airyanem Vaejo and by his venom transformed the beautiful, eternal spring into winter, generating disease and death. Interpreting this geologically and astronomically, “every occultist knows that the Serpent alluded to is the north pole, as also the pole of the heavens. The latter produces the seasons according to the angle at which it penetrates the centre of this earth.

The two axes were no more parallel; hence the eternal spring of Airyana-Vaego by the good river Daitya had disappeared, and ‘the Aryan magi had to emigrate to Sagdiani’ — say exoteric accounts. But the esoteric teaching states that the pole had passed through the equator, and that the ‘land of bliss’ of the Fourth Race, its inheritance from the Third, had now become the region of desolation and woe. This alone ought to be an incontrovertible proof of the great antiquity of the Zoroastrian Scriptures” (SD 2:356).

Ahura Mazdah summoned the gods, and Yima summoned the best of mankind in Airyana Vaejah. Ahura warned Yima that cold deadly winters were about to come, so he must make a Close, vara, and put into it the best specimens of mankind, beasts, fires, plants, etc., with houses and streets. It was to be sealed with the golden suwrd, and was to have a door and window. The sun, moon, and stars were not to shine in it: it was to have its own light.2 And Yima did so, and they dwelt in the Close; thither the religion of Ahura was brought by the bird Karsiptar, and there they still dwell, under the rule of Urvatat- nara and Zara0ustra. But Yima, according to other legends, was expelled from it.

Yast XIX. ? 28 f., relates that the divine kingly glory (hvaranah) which had belonged to his brother Taxma Urupa passed away from the latter, who was killed and devoured by the Evil Spirit, Anra Mainyu, and descended upon Yima, who reigned blessedly (his reign is described in terms almost identical with Yast V. ? 25 f.) until he began to delight in evil and untrue words, draoyam vacim alahaieim, and then the glory departed from him thrice, in the form of a bird, and was seized successively by Mi6ra, 9raetaona, and Karosaspa. Then the Good Spirit and the Evil Spirit contended for it, and the Evil Spirit sent messengers to claim it, among them being the dragon Azi Dahaka and Spityura, Yima’s brother, who cut Yima in twain (Yim6-karantam).2 A more specific charge was laid against him: it was said that he supported the Daevas and gave men the flesh of kine to eat (Yasna XXXII. ? 8; cf. Windischmann, Zor. Stud. p. 27). Through sin he lost his immortality (SBE. IV, p. 262). Elsewhere we read that after preserving the world for many years from age and death he at last died (SBE. IV, pp. 263 f., 384) As the Avesta knows of Yima, son of Vivanghvant, so the Veda speaks of Yama, son of Vivasvant. As Yima is the chief of a remote kingdom, a marvellous realm where there is neither cold nor suffering, so Yama is the ruler of the fathers, the departed souls, with whom he revels in a huge tree. Just as Yima’s vara is concealed either on a mountain or in some recess where sun and moon are not seen, Yama’s dwelling is in the remote part of the sky. While Yima calls a gathering of men to assemble them in his vara, Yama collects the people and gives the dead a resting-place. Yima has opened the earth for mankind; Yama is “lord of the settlers” (vispati) and “father.” Yima has found new countries, following a road toward the sun; Yama has a path for the dead to lead them to their abode, being the first to die and having discovered “a way for many.” A bird brings messages into Yima’s vara; Yama has the owl or the pigeon as his envoy.

In spite of these points in common, there is an important discrepancy. Yama is the first mortal being and is clearly associated with death and with a kingdom of the departed, whereas Yima is simply a monarch of ancient times, his reign is a golden age for mankind, and his enclosure has no clear location.

The Vendidad, as claimed by tradition, is the only one of the twenty-one Nosks (works) that has escaped the auto-da-fé at the hands of the drunken Iskander the Rumi, he whom posterity calls Alexander the Great – though the epithet is justifiable only when applied to the brutality, vices and cruelty of this conqueror. It is through the vandalism of this Greek that literature and knowledge have lost much priceless lore in the Nosks burnt by him.

The Vendidad is a corruption of the compound-word “Vidaevo-datern”, meaning “the anti- demoniac law “, and is full of teachings how to avoid sin and defilement by purification, moral and physical – each of which teachings is based on Occult laws. It is a pre-eminently occult treatise, full of symbolism and often of meaning quite the reverse of that which is expressed in its dead-letter text.
In the second chapter of the Vedidad, a very succinct description of the vara is given. It has three concentric circles with nine passages through the outer ring, six through the middle and 4 to the inner.

In the Avesta a winter depopulates the earth except in the Vara (“enclosure”) of the blessed Yima In each case the earth is peopled anew with the best two of every kind, and is afterward divided into three realms The three sons of Yima’s successor Thraetaona, named Erij (Avesta, “Airya”), Selm (Avesta, “Sairima”), and Tur (Avesta, “Tura”), are the inheritors in the Persian account; Shem, Ham, and Japheth

Vala (valá-), meaning “enclosure” in Vedic Sanskrit, is an Asura of the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda, the brother of Vrtra.

Historically, it has the same origin as the Vrtra myth, being derived from the same root, and from the same root also as Varuna, *val-/var- (PIE *wel-) “to cover, to enclose” (perhaps cognate to veil).

Parallel to Vrtra “the blocker”, a stone serpent slain by Indra to liberate the rivers, Vala is a stone cave, split by Indra (intoxicated and strengthened by Soma, identified with Brhaspati in 4.50 and 10.68 or Trita in 1.52, aided by the Angirasas in 2.11) , to liberate the cows and Ushas, hidden there by the Panis.

Indra descends from an Indo-Iranian god known as *vrtra-g’han- (virtually PIE *wltro-gwhen-) “slayer of the blocker”. Triptolemos is analysed by Janda (1998) as a Greek continuation of a variant of the epithet, *trigw-t-welumos, a “terpsimbrotos” compound “cracker of the enclosure”, Greek (w)elumos referring to the casings of grain in Greek being descended from the same root *wel-. On such grounds, a rock or mountain *welos or *welumos split by a heroic deity, liberating Dawn or the Sun is reconstructed for Proto-Indo-European mythology (the “Sun in the rock” myth, sometime also speculated to be connected with the making of fire from flintstone).

Already in 2.24, the myth is given a mystical interpretation, with warlike Indra replaced by Brahmanaspati, the lord of prayer, who split Vala with prayer (brahman) rather than with the thunderbolt.

” uranos – yima
” cronos – el
” zeus – hadad, baal
” posiedon – Yamm, thraetoana, Yam-Nahar
” hades – Mot
” hercules – keresaspa

The source of the waters in the Iranian system is the maiden Ardvisfira Anahita (lit. ‘the great stream, the unblemished’), the personification of a mythical fountain, through which flow all terrestrial waters from the summit of Mount Hukairya down to the sea Vourukasa (Varkas), pouring out over the seven quarters of the earth. Ardvt, who in her cult-aspect is the goddess of fecundity, like Ea, represents the life-giving springs and river-sources which are forced up from the subterranean zrayah vourukasa, ‘the sea with far-(extended) bays’ (Bartholomae, Wort., col. 1429), the analogue of the apsu, by the pressure of the returning floods from above, which empty around its circumference, causing the center to boil up (cf. Yast 5, 4, and Yasna 65, etc.). The celestial waters are sent up through special channels to the top of Mount Hukairya, whence they are carried over the earth by the rain clouds.

The Avestic Gandarowa is simply a demon dwelling beneath the waters of Vourukasa, ” sole lord of the depths,” who was slain by Korosaspa (Yast V. ? 38, XV. ? 28; cf. Windischmann, Zor. Stud., p. 40 f.) when he sought to destroy the ” bodied beings of Righteousness ” (XIX. ? 41). Yima, as a Pahlavi text (SBE. XVIII. p. 419; cf. Windischmann, Zor. Stud., p. 31) represents him as son of Yima by a witch. On the other hand, Yast XV. ? 28 calls him the son of Ahura, and the litany in Yast XIII worships the fravasi of Gandarowa’s son the holy Parsanta, two facts which look like survivals from an earlier time, before he had become a devil.

Churning the entire universe, a mass of energy was found. That energy is gold. It is for this reason that the Devas and Gandharvas and Uragas and Rakshasas and humans and Pisachas hold it with care. All these beings shine in splendour, with the aid of gold, after converting it into crowns and armlets and diverse kinds of ornaments. (13,83)

West of Babylonia is found the Hebrew conception of a quadrifurcate river of Paradise which flowed forth in opposite directions to water the four quarters of the pristine earth.

In the Indo-Aryan as in the Babylonian system the lowest hells are antipodal to the highest heavens; hence the statement in the Vishnu Purana (Wilson, p. 209): “The gods in heaven are beheld by the inhabitants of hell as they move with their heads inverted.” In the Jain Satras also persons in hell are represented as moving about with their “heads downwards.” (SBE. xlv. p. 279.) Even in Plutarch the same ancient idea survives.

In both systems the diurnal movement of the sun is in a horizontal instead of a vertical plane, and night’s darkness is caused simply by the passage of the sun around the farther side of the Weltberg. According to Maspero, the same apparent paradox as to the sun’s motion was held and taught by the most ancient Egyptians as well as by the most ancient Chaldaeans. (Dawn of Civilization, Eng. ed., p. 544.)

In both systems a cross-section of the cosmos in the plane of the equator would show seven solid horizontal world-rings, one within another, and all of them inclosing their common center.

X. x. 4 definitely states that Yama’s parents were the Gandharva in the Waters and the Water-Lady (gandharvo apsv apyd ca yosa s n no nbhih paramdm jami tan nau).

Yama in RV. is chiefly worshipped as the king of the blessed dead, who led the souls of the Fathers into Paradise (for details see Macdonell, V.M., pp. 167, 171), where he reigns in bliss among them, together with Varuna (of whom we shall speak later), Agni, and other gods, the company including Vivasvant. This paradise of Yama is the third and highest heaven, a place of unfading light and unfailing waters (I. xxxv. 6, IX. cxiii. 7-9, X. xiv. 8, etc.), which seems to be identical with the third abode of Visnu ” where godly men revel, for there, akin (bandhu) to the Wide-Strider, is a spring of honey [the celestial Soma] in Visnu’s highest realm ” (I. cliv. 5; cf. X. xv. 3).1 This localisation, however, is not primitive: originally Yama’s realm lay outside heaven, though not very far,

The royal glory passes into the keeping of Mithra ; thereafter, fleeing from the monster Azi Dahaka, it is saved by Fire, and escapes to the mythical sea Vourukasa where ity is seized by Apam Napat.

The wandering Iranians called great mountains near which they lived Hara, and broad lakes VourukaSa is deference to the mythological homeland of therir far distant ancestors.

Every year Tistrya and Apaosa meet on the shores of Vourukasa in the form of horses and fight. At first Tistrya is driven back from the shore but eventually strengthened by the prayers of man, rushes the waves.

“He goes to all the bays of the sea VourukaSa, the mighty, beautiful, deep, and to all the beautiful tributaries and all the beautiful outlets, in the shape of a … horse. Then the waters flow out from Vourukasa. The waters are often personified as a horse driven by Apam Napat. “Then Tistrya rises again from Vourukasa and the wind and rain visits the seven regions.”

The Tree of All Seeds on which the Saena nests grows in the middle of the sea VourukaSa (Yi.12.17) ; and round it swims the vigilante and deadly Kara fish.

The yellow healed Gandarva troubled the waters of the sea VourukaSa

An incantation that links light and the waters, high Hara and the sea VourukaSa. The name of this sea means “having many inlets” ; and occupied one third of the earth on the south skirts of Harburz. On its shores Trita battles the serpent and it is fed by the river Harahvaiti which is as big as all the rivers on the earth combined. This river flowed down from the mountain Hara to Vourukasa. Thus all the water that flows or falls in the world comes from the sea Vourukasa

Indeed the fact that VourukaSa is said to lie to the south of Hara fits with the theory that its original may have been the Black Sea or Caspian.
In addition to the mythical VourukaSa, itself of sweet water, three large salt seas were recognized, the Pudig [Puitica], Kamrod and Syawbum. Of these the biggest was the Pudig, whose name comes from the base pu “cleanse”. This sea was tidal, and was held to be directly connected to VourukaSa. The Pudig [Puitica] was thought to be the Persian Gulf, the Kamrod to be the Caspian Sea and Syawbum the Black Sea.
Each single well or stream was regarded as being linked with the cosmic water, since it had its ultimate source in the sea Vourukasa.

The Chinvat bridge of Zoroastrian mythology, over which the souls of the dead had to pass was on or near High Hara The motif of birds dwelling near the summit is shared by Iranian and Indian accounts, as is the theme of the theft of the intoxicating plant haoma/soma from the mountain’s summit by a magical bird (Syena/Garuda/Simurgh); and the slaying of a multi-headed, multi-eyed dragon nearby In the Indian tradition, Agni, the rock-born god of fire with tawny hair and iron teeth is connected with the sacred mountain In the Iranian tradition, High Hara is also associated with metallurgy Fire and metals were introduced to humanity after the hero Hoshang(Haoshyangha) sacrificed on the mountain High Hara was also the locale of many of the most memorable contests in Iranian mythology

The Avesta and the Vedas do not contain sufficiently precise geographical information to locate Airyanem Vaejah Despite this, for more than a century scholars have attempted to locate this legendary “original homeland” based on various interpretations of details Thus, unbelievably, references to the severity of the winter storms in the mountains and certain poetic statements led to a “polar hypothesis” The fact that the Avesta has survived only in an eastern Iranian language, the statement that the prophet Zoroaster’s initial visions and early teaching occurred here, and the belief that cattle raising developed exclusively on the steppes of eastern Iran, led to the selection of eastern Iran as the most likely site, by some In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a number of scholars suggested that Airyanem Vaejah should be sought in the Caucasus or adjacent areas
This view, which was developed most thoroughly by A V W Jackson, was shared by James Darmesteter, an early translator of the Avesta and A J Carnoy, author of the article on Iranian mythology in Mythology of all Races (vol 6), among others According to these hypotheses, the sacred mountain (High Hara) and the magical sea (Vourukasha) would correspond to either Mt Rewanduz and Lake Urmiah; Mt Ararat or Mt Aragats and Lake Sevan; Mt Suphan or Mt Nemrut and Lake Van; or Mt Savalan or Mt Demavend and the Caspian Sea This last is the favorite of later Iranian tradition Jackson suggested that Azerbaijan was the most likely site for Airyanem Vaejah, and that the later Zoroaster also hailed from this land of mountains, rivers, and prized pasturage The Arax River Two place names mentioned in the Avesta and the Vedas have been associated with the Arax river: the great semi-mythical river Raha which had its source in the High Hara; and a place repeatedly styled “the goodly Daitya”, located somewhere in Airyanem Vaejah

It was there that Ahura Mazda convened his assembly of spiritual Yazatas and where the first kings addressed their people It was at the goodly Daitya that Ahura Mazda told of the coming destruction of humanity and the need to build a refuge Some have associated Daitya with the valley of the Arax river, though numerous other sites have been suggested for Daitya and Raha, stretching across Iran and northern India Legend identifies the banks of the Arax river with the birthplace of the god Mithra, god of contracts The Iranist G Widengren writes: According to the “legend” of the mysteries Mithras was born from a rock, petra genetrix giving life to him He is therefore de petra natus We also know that Mithra was born on the shore of the river Araxes, Ps Plutarch, De fluviis 23 par 4 (where, however, a confusion is found in so far as this story is attributed to a son of Mithras), that his father hated women and therefore threw his sperm on a rock which afterwards was pregnant These details are not as the great pioneer in Mithraic studies [Franz Cumont]assumed “de pure fantaisie”, on the contrary they are part of a birth myth attested among the Ossetians in Caucasus and have already in the Hurrian “Epic of Kumarbi” an unmistakable association

The localization of this scene of Mithra’s birth to the shore of the Araxes in Armenia confirms our presumption that north-western Iran and Armenia was the homeland of Mithraic mysteries Also the shepherds who are seen on Mithraic reliefs in connection with the birth-scene possess their correspondence in Ossetic tales and Iranian salvation legends, and indicate likewise a north-western origin of the stories about Mithra’s birth It was by the banks of the Arax, too, apparently, that Mithra killed the primeval Ox, seizing it by the nostrils with one hand and plunging his hunting knife into its flank with the other From the limbs and blood of the Ox, all useful species of animals and plants sprang forth The “Soul of the Ox” flew into the firmament, reminiscent of the ram sacrificed by Phrixus in Aia Even though there is insufficient evidence to locate the legendary Airyanem Vaejah, it is clear that certain symbols are associated with it Among these are mountains, metallurgy, the entrance to the other world, and the deities Anahit and Mithra, dwelling on the sacred mountain Scholars who place Airyanem Vaejah and the locale of the early Indo-Iranian myths in eastern Iran suggest that the myths received a Middle Eastern coloration at a later period in western Iran, Azerbaijan, and Media where they were written down and commented on

Conclusions Eastern Asia Minor and the Caucasus were familiar in varying degrees to the Greeks, Mesopotamians, and Indo-Iranians The Greeks were familiar with the southeastern corner of the Black Sea and the area to the west of Lake Van; the Mesopotamians with the Diarbekir-Van-Urmia region and perhaps with the Ararat area to the north; the Indo-Iranians with the valley of the Arax river, and the areas around Urmia and south of the Caspian Not only is there familiarity with these areas, but the images defined by them have striking similarities All three traditions associate the area with metals and metallurgy, the entrance to the underworld or other world, and hybrid monsters It was a place of origin and/or salvation of humanity; a place where the Mother Goddess had special sway; where certain non-patriarchal forms of social organization and inheritance obtained; and a place associated with magic potions, medicines, and people knowledgeable in their preparation Concomitant with the association with metallurgy is an association with its finished products: mechanical marvels and magically forged weapons An association with horse and chariot appears in the details of all three traditions

Areas south of the Armenian highlands also associate the area with timber, precious stones, and craftsmen, all of which, historically, were obtained from there In addition to the similarity of images, there is a deeper similarity which is thematic Prometheus (son of Iapetus), Noah (father of Japheth), and Hoshang are all civilizing culture-heroes who bring the blessings (or secrets) of the gods down to humanity in this special area The theme of the almost successful destruction of humanity by the gods and its rebirth here is shared by Greek, Mesopotamian, and Iranian mythology Odysseus, Heracles, and Gilgamesh, adventurers turned seekers-after-immortality, all visit here Such similarities have led some to suggest that we are not dealing with independent traditions but with certain great or memorable events in the early history of humanity–interpreted differently– some of which entered sacred tradition while others remained part of classical mythology There is sufficient evidence to suggest that in addition to reflecting foreign images of eastern Asia Minor and the Caucasus, some of the myths reviewed above actually derive from the area The one-eyed cyclops of Greek mythology, and the demon Humbaba of Mesopotamian mythology may descend from the one-eyed T’ork, whose worship was known from areas to the west and southwest of Lake Van Another deity and his gestes, the culture-hero Prometheus may derive from the Vahakn-Ardavazd-Amiram figures known from Armenian and Georgian mythology Tales of dragons and rock-born gods are also known from eastern Asia Minor and the Caucasus It is reasonable to suppose that along with the natural resources and finished products that were exported from this area, the stories themselves travelled This is even more likely if the merchants, traders, and warriors were migrants from the area If so, then these myths, which currently are the earliest literary monuments of humanity, simultaneously become reflections of the earliest native traditions, valuable for the study of eastern Asia Minor and the Caucasus, and extending references to this area back to the dawn of writing

Airyana Vaejah Vanguhi Daitya originated in the sea called the Vourukasha. While Alborz or Mount Hara was the source for both light and water, the Vourukasha Sea is described in the Avesta as the gathering point of water This important sea occupied ‘one third of the earth, to the south, on the skirts of the Harburz’ [Vendidad 3 21, 66], and was fed by a huge river, the Harahvaiti Forming the boundaries of the inhabited world were two great rivers, which flowed out from the sea to the east and the west The rivers were cleansed as they passed around the earth and, when they returned to the Vourukasha, their clean water was taken back up to the Peak of Hara In the middle of the Vourukasha grew the very first tree, the source of all plants, described in the Avesta (Yasht 12, 17) as the Saena Tree, Tree of All Remedies or Tree of All Seeds This tree held the nest of Saena (Senmurv in Pahlavi, Simurgh in Persian), the legendary bird Growing nearby was another important plant, the ‘mighty Gaokerena’, which had healing properties when eaten and gave immortality to the resurrected bodies of the dead The first animal in the world was the ‘bull’ It was white and as bright as the moon According to Zoroastrian tradition Angra Mainyu, the Evil Spirit, killed it, and its seed was carried up to the moon From this seed, once thoroughly purified, came many species of animals It also sprouted into plants when part of it fell to the ground The home of the bull was on the bank of the River Veh Daiti (Veh Rod), which flowed to the east from the Vourukasha Sea On the opposite bank lived Gayomartan (Gayomard in Pahlavi, Kiyumars in the Shahnameh) In Yasht 13, 87 he is described as the first man, as wide as he was tall and as ‘bright as the sun’ Gayomartan was slain by Angra Mainyu Eraj came from Eran Vej which came from Airyanem Vaejah, the “original Iran” Salm, representing the Sairimas (Sarmatians) was in the “west” Tur, representing the Tuiryas or the Turas (the Turanians) represented the eastern hordes Since we know that the Sarmatians had a wide distribution, from the Caucasus to the region north of the Caspian and Aral Seas, we can see how Airyanem Vaejah could fit just below the Aral Sea region, where the Sarmatians would be the northwest According to legend, the Turas (Turanians) possessed Sogdiana, hence we can see how they were “east” of Airyanem Vaejah Jewish Viewpoint Information The religion of ancient Persia as founded by Zoroaster; one of the world’s great faiths that bears the closest resemblance to Judaism and Christianity

In the Bible a deluge destroys all people except a single righteous individual and his family; in the Avesta a winter depopulates the earth except in the Vara (“enclosure”) of the blessed Yima In each case the earth is peopled anew with the best two of every kind, and is afterward divided into three realms The three sons of Yima’s successor Thraetaona, named Erij (Avesta, “Airya”), Selm (Avesta, “Sairima”), and Tur (Avesta, “Tura”), are the inheritors in the Persian account; Shem, Ham, and Japheth, in the Semiticstory Likenesses in minor matters, in certain details of ceremony and ritual, ideas of uncleanness, and the like, are to be noted, as well as parallels between Zoroaster and Moses as sacred lawgivers; and many of these resemblances are treated in the works referred to at the end of this article Causes of Analogies Uncertain It is difficult to account for these analogies It is known, of course, as a historic fact that the Jews and the Persians came in contact with each other at an early period in antiquity and remained in more or less close relation throughout their history/

Happy Fields
The name given by the Assyrio-Chaldeans to their Elysian Fields, which were intermingled with their Hades was the realm of the god Hea, and the Hades of the Assyrian legends was placed in the underworld, and was ruled over by a goddess, Nin-Kigal, or ‘the Lady of the Great Land’ She is also called Allat ” A translated inscription states: – “After the gifts of these present days, in the feasts of the land of the silver sky, the resplendent courts, the abode of blessedness, and in the light of the Happy Fields, may he dwell in life eternal, holy, in the presence of the gods who inhabit Assyria” This is worthy of a Christian tumulary inscription Ishtar, the beautiful goddess, descended into Hades after her beloved Tammuz, and found that this dark place of the shades had seven spheres and seven gates, at each of which she had to leave something belonging to her
Apsu (Babylonian) Abzu (Sumerian) Also Ab Soo The primordial deep; the waters of space in the Babylonian epic of creation Enuma Elish (when on high) From Apsu and Tiamat were born all the gods, man being fashioned from the clay of Apsu in a Sumerian version, and from the blood of Kingu, son and second consort of Tiamat, in Enuma Elish The deep is the abode of Ea (wisdom) who saves humanity from destruction by Apsu, Apsu being transformed into still or stagnant subterranean waters The Babylonian hero-creator is Marduk, whose prowess against the monstrous forces of Tiamat (matter) caused the gods to endow him with the power to overcome them and to complete the creation of heaven and earth
Tiamat (Chaldean) Chaldean serpent, slain by Bel, the chief deity The tale is repeated in the later Babylonian account, with the exception that Marduk or Merodach (producer of the world) replaces Bel The mythologic serpent, described as the imbodiment of evil both physical and moral, was enormous (300 miles long), it moved in undulations 6 miles in height When Marduk finally slew Tiamat he split the monster into two halves, using one as a covering of the heavens, so that the upper waters would not come down Tiamat is cognate with the Babylonian tiamtu, tamtu, “the ocean,” rendered Thalatth by Berosus in his Chaldean cosmogony There is here likewise the reference to the waters of wisdom, the divine wisdom and the lower wisdom of manifestation Blavatsky explains that the serpent Tiamat is the great mother, “the living principle of chaos” (TG 334) “The struggle of Bel and then of Merodach, the Sun-god, with Tiamat, the Sea and its Dragon, a ‘war’ which ended in the defeat of the latter, has a purely cosmic and geological meaning, as well as an historical one It is a page torn out of the History of the Secret and Sacred Sciences, their evolution, growth and death — for the profane masses It relates (a) to the systematic and gradual drying up of immense territories by the fierce Sun at a certain pre-historic period; one of the terrible droughts which ended by a gradual transformation of once fertile lands abundantly watered into the sandy deserts which they are now; and (b) to the as systematic persecution of the Prophets of the Right Path by those of the Left” (SD 2:503)

Irkalla (also Ir-Kalla, Irkalia) is the hell-like underworld from which there is no return. It is also called Arali, Kigal, Gizal
KUR, as a word, can also refer to a variety of other things. Cuneiform KUR historically means “mountain” but came to refer to “land” in general and as a determiner is placed before the name of a state or kingdom (also URU). The Assyrian pronunciation is mât.

Irkalla (also Ir-Kalla, Irkalia) is the hell-like underworld from which there is no return. It is also called Arali, Kigal, Gizal In Sumerian mythology, Kur was a monstrous dragon with scaly body and massive wings. Kur personifying the home of the dead, Hell, the “river of the dead” (see also Styx), and the void space between the primeval sea (Abzu) and the earth (Ma). Possibly an Anunnaki, brother of Ereshkigal, Enki, and Enlil. Ereshkigal spoke to Kur when she found him isolated in the Underworld. ” I am not afraid of you. Of any of you’ she said out loud, and she meant it. ‘ You are my half brother, Kur, and so are the dark little ones. And somehow I feel there is beauty within you all, even if you and others don’t have eyes to see. But I have. Dive into your Essence, brother, search for the seed that brought you, me and all into being. I also came from that seed. There you will find what unite us, what make us One of a Kind with the One who is All Kinds.

” KUR, as a word, can also refer to a variety of other things. Cuneiform KUR historically means “mountain” but came to refer to “land” in general and as a determiner is placed before the name of a state or kingdom (see also URU). The Assyrian pronunciation is mât. Inanna dresses elaborately for the visit, with a turban, a wig, a lapis lazuli necklace, beads upon her breast, the ‘pala dress’ (the ladyship garment), mascara, pectoral, a golden ring on her hand, and she held a lapis lazuli measuring rod. Perhaps Inanna’s garments, unsuitable for a funeral, along with Inanna’s haughty behaviour make Ereshkigal suspicious. Following Ereshkigal’s instructions, the gatekeeper tells Inanna she may enter the first gate of the underworld, but she must hand over her lapis lazuli measuring rod. She asks why and is told ‘It is just the ways of the Underworld’. She obliges and passes through. Inanna passes through a total of seven gates, each removing a piece of clothing or jewelry she had been wearing at the start of her journey. In Sumerian mythology some forms of burials included burying the deceased with gifts for the gatekeepers and judges of the Underworld to win their favor. ITums could also be used as an amulet or protective device so stripping Inanna of each iTum would leave her more vulnerable to any type of attack. Akkadian priestess Enheduanna says that Inanna is “mightiest among the great gods,” because she “makes their verdicts final”(Enheduanna, 4-9) According to the Tanakh, Cuthah was one of the five Syrian and Mesopotamian cities from which Sargon II, King of Assyria, brought settlers to take the places of the exiled Israelites (II Kings xvii. 24, 30). II Kings relates that these settlers were attacked by lions, and interpreting this to mean that their worship was not acceptable to the deity of the land, they asked Sargon to send some one to teach them, which he did. The result was a mixture of religions and peoples, the latter being known in Hebrew as “Cuthim” and to the Greeks as “Samaritans”.. In the Assyrian inscriptions “Cutha” occurs on the Shalmaneser obelisk, line 82, in connection with Babylon. Dungi, King of Ur, built the Temple of Nergal at Cuthah, which fell into ruins, so that Nebuchadnezzar had to rebuild the “Temple of the gods, and placed them in safety in the Temple”. This agrees with the Biblical staTument that the men of Cuthah served Nergal. Cuthah has been identified with the ruins of Tell Ibrahim, northeast of Babylon, uncovered by Hormuzd Rassam. The site of the Nergal Temple can still be pointed out. Josephus places Cuthah, which for him is the name of a river and of a district, in Persia, and Neubauer says that it is the name of a country near Kurdistan. The so-called “Legend of the King of Cuthah”, a fragmentary inscription of the Akkadian literary genre called narû, written as if it were transcribed from a royal stele, is in fact part of the “Legend of Naram-Sin”, not to be read as history, found in the cuneiform library at Sultantepe, north of Harran. Ne-uru-gal (lord of the great dwelling) — expresses his position at the head of the nether-world pantheon.Nergal’s chief Temple at Cuthah bore the name Meslam, from which the god receives the designation of Meslamtaeda or Meslamtaea, “the one that rises up from Meslam”. The name Meslamtaeda/Meslamtaea indeed is found as early as the list of gods from Fara while the name Nergal only begins to appear in the Akkadian period. Amongst the Hurrians and later Hittites her was known as Aplu, a name derived from the Akkadian Aplu Enlil, meaning “the son of Enlil”. As God of the plague, he was invoked during the “plague years” during the reign of Suppiluliuma, when this disease spread from Egypt. Shamash was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god and god of justice in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu.The name simply means “sun”. Both in early and in late inscriptions Sha-mash is designated as the “offspring of Nannar,” i.e. of the moon-god, and since, in an enumeration of the pantheon, Sin generally takes precedence of Shamash Together with Sin and Ishtar, Shamash forms a second triad by the side of Anu, Enlil and Ea. The three powers, Sin, Shamash and Ishtar, symbolized the three great forces of nature, the sun, the moon and the life-giving force of the earth. At times, instead of Ishtar, we find Adad, the storm-god, associated with Sin and Shamash, and it may be that these two sets of triads represent the doctrines of two different schools of theological thought in Babylonia which were subsequently harmonized by the recognition of a group consisting of all four deities. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun; truth and prophecy; archery; medicine and healing; music, poetry, and the arts; and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress ArTumis. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu. It has also been suggested that Apollo comes from the Hurrian and Hittite divinity, Aplu, who was widely evoked during the “plague years”. Aplu, it is suggested, comes from the Akkadian Aplu Enlil, meaning “the son of Enlil”, a title that was given to the god Nergal, who was linked to Shamash, Babylonian god of the sun. Appaliunas, an Anatolian god whose name possibly means “father lion” or “father light”

mystical places
The ‘Chaldaei’ (Xaldαι̃oi) is dialectal variety of ethnonyme the ‘Halizones’. The Chaldaei was already famous in Urartian inscriptions in VIII century B. C. in the same places (Haldiriulhi). The ‘Chalybes’ (CάlubeV) is the name for the Halizones of Asia Minor. This name was apparently formed from the name of the country, which was known to Homer (‘Alύbh or Calύbh) and the Chittites in XIV century B. C. (Haliua). According to Ovid (Metam. II 258, 323, 369) the fall of Phaethon causes both the Po and the Rhone to dry up.
“The Great Bear is the most notable constellation near the celestial pole, the center and axis of the heavens; thus it is analogous to Nippur, the old summit and center and perhaps navel of Sumer. – Burrows in S. H. Hooke, The Labyrinth
“The victories of Hercules are but exhibitions of Solar power which have ever to be repeated. It was in the far North, among the Hyperboreans, that, divested of his Lion’s skin, he lay down to sleep, and for a time lost the horses of his chariot. Henceforth that Northern region of gloom, called the ‘place of the death and revival of Adonis’, that Caucasus whose summit was so lofty, that, like the Indian Meru, it seemed to be both the goal and commencement of the Sun’s career, became to the Greek imaginations the final bourne of all things, the abode of Winter and desolation, the pinnacle of the arch connecting the upper and lower world, and consequently the appropriate place for the banishment of Prometheus.” – General Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma
“You said in your heart, ‘I will ascent to heaven; above the stars of God I will set my throne on high; I will sit on the mount of assembly in the far north.'” – Isaiah 14:13 (denouncing the king of Babylon)
“Psalm 48, verse 2, has the astounding phrase ‘Mount Zion in the far north’….Ezekiel, himself in Babylonia, was a vision of the Lord’s chariot careering towards him. It did not come from the direction of the Palestinian Zion, where the Lord supposedly had his home. It came from the north on a storm-wind.” – Geoffrey Ashe, The Ancient Wisdom
“The daughters of Israel, weeping for Tammuz, mentioned by Ezekiel, sat looking to the North, and waiting for his return from that region.” – General Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma
“Opposite to the coast of Celtic Gaul there is an island in the ocean, not smaller than Sicily, lying to the north – which is inhabited by the Hyperboreans, who are so named because they dwell beyond the North Wind….tradition says that Leto [the mother of Apollo and ArTumis] was born there, and for that reason, the inhabitants venerate Apollo more than any other god.” “In this island, there is a magnificent precinct of Apollo, and a remarkable Temple, of a round form adorned with many consecrated gifts. There is also a city, sacred o the same god, most of the inhabitants of which are harpers…” “It is also said that in this island the moon appears very near to the earth, that certain eminences of a terrestrial form are plainly seen in it, that Apollo visits the island once in a course of nineteen years, in which period the stars complete their revolutions, and that for this reason the Greeks distinguish the cycle of nineteen years by the name of ‘the great year’. During the season of his appearance the god plays upon the harp and dances every night…” – Hecataeus of Abdera (4th century BC)
Plato, Phaedo 112e ff (trans. Fowler) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) : “[The] streams are many and great and of all sorts, but among the many are four streams, the greatest and outermost of which is that called Oceanus, which flows round in a circle, and opposite this, flowing in the opposite direction, is Akheron, which flows through various desert places and, passing under the earth, comes to the Akherousian lake . . . The third river [the Pyriphlegethon] flows out between these two, and near the place whence it issues it falls into a vast region burning with a great fire and makes a lake larger than our Mediterranean sea, boiling with water and mud. Thence it flows in a circle, turbid and muddy, and comes in its winding course, among other places, to the edge of the Akherousian lake, but does not mingle with its water. Then, after winding about many times underground, it flows into Tartaros at a lower level. This is the river which is called Pyriphlegethon, and the streams of lava which spout up at various places on earth are offshoots from it. Opposite this the fourth river issues [the Styx] . . . it passes under the earth and, circling round in the direction opposed to that of Pyriphlegethon, it meets it coming from the other way in the Akherousian lake. And the water of this river also mingles with no other water, but this also passes round in a circle and falls into Tartaros opposite Pyriphlegethon. And the name of this river, as the Poets say, is Kokytos. Such is the nature of these things. Now when the dead have come to the place where each is led by his genius (daimon), first they are judged and sentenced . . . Those who are curable, but are found to have committed great sin . . . these must needs be thrown into Tartaros, and when they have been there a year the wave casts them out, the homicides by way of Kokytos, those who have outraged their parents by way of Pyriphlegethon. And when they have been brought by the current to the Akherousian lake, they shout and cry out, calling to those whom they have slain or outraged, begging and beseeching them to be gracious and to let them come out into the lake; and if they prevail they come out and cease from their ills, but if not, they are borne away again to Tartaros and thence back into the rivers, and this goes on until they prevail upon those whom they have wronged; for this is the penalty imposed upon them by the judges.”
In the Odyssey Haides is described in even greater detail. It is now located at the end of the earth, on the far western shore of the earth-encircling river Oceanus, beyond the gates of the sun, and the land of dreams. It is bordered by the Akherousian lake and three named rivers–the Styx, Kokytos and Pyriphlegethon. A judge named Minos receives the dead from Hermes Psykhogogos (Leader of the Souls), and sentences the most wicked to eternal torment. ACHERU′SIA (Acherousia limnê or Acherousis), a name given by the ancients to several lakes or swamps, which, like the various rivers of the name of Acheron, were at some time believed to be connected with the lower world, until at last the Acherusia came to be considered to be in the lower world itself.
As the old historical sources used by Diodorus Siculus said (lib. III. 57. 60), Atlas was Cronos’s brother and both were the sons of Uranus and Gaea. The titan Atlas especially was a powerful and wealthy king who ruled over the people of the Atlantes, who were part of the big family of the Hyperboreans.

It was said about this Atlas that he had flocks of fine sheep, of a reddish golden color (Ibid,lib.IV.27). And the poet Ovid presents this shepherd king from the times of the theogony with the following words: “Thousands of flocks and cattle herds wander on his plains. His country is not pressed on either side by his neighbors’ boundaries. On his trees leaves grow glowing with gold, the branches of the trees are of gold and of gold also are the fruit that covers them” (Metam. lib. IV. v. 634 seqq).

Panchea
Panachaea XVI iv 2 From Heroöpolis [modern Abu-Keyschid, near modern Suez City], situated in that recess of the Arabian Gulf which is on the side of the Nile, to Babylon, towards Petra of the Nabataei, are 5600 stadia The whole tract lies in the direction of the summer solstice (i e , east and west), and passes through the adjacent Arabian tribes, namely Nabataei, Chaulotaei, and Agraei [in the modern An-Nafud desert, along on the borders of present Jordan, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia] Above these people is Arabia Felix, stretching out 12,000 stadia towards the south to the Atlantic Sea

Evhemerus about the Gold Column dedicated to Uranos, etc Another monument of a capital historical importance had been the great Gold Column, erected in honor of Uranos, Cronos and Jove, about which speaks the historic Evhemerus of Mesena, a man of vast erudition, who according to Pliny (H N lib XXXVI 17 2), had lived in the epoch following Herodotus, and according to others around 316bc This Evhemerus, a disciple of the Cyrenaic philosophical school, had written a sacred history based on the documents and inscriptions collected in his various travels Evhemerus’ book had enjoyed a long life in the antique literature and, as Varro tells us, the poet Ennius had translated it (De agricultura, I 43) Unfortunately though, we are left with only few extracts from this important sacred history of Evhemerus, and even these have been transformed and interpolated by those who have used them, either because they did not know the regions about which Evhemerus talked, or because they were not familiarized enough with the obscure geographical names used by this philosopher In this writing of his, Evhemerus talked about a gold column dedicated to Uranos, Cronos, Jove, Apollo and Diana, in a region called by him “Arabia from the Ocean”, or “Arabia felix”, inhabited by Doi, Scythians, Oceanites and Panchei (Peucini) Here firstly a part of Evhemerus’ text, as we find it extracted and intercalated in the history of Diodorus Siculus (lib V c 41 – 46) “In this region” – the author speaks about Arabia from the Ocean – “there are a number of villages and important towns, part of which are situated on big earth dykes (to be protected from flooding), while others are on hillocks or on plains The largest cities have magnificent palaces, a great number of inhabitants and abundance of riches This entire region is full of numerous flocks of various kinds It produces a copious harvest, but it is at the same time abundant in grazing lands for sheep flocks and cattle herds This region is traversed by a great number of rivers, which moisten in a favorable way the surface of the earth and contribute to the complete development of the fruits This is the cause for which this part of Arabia, which by its bounty surpasses the other parts, is called Happy (eudaimon), a name which truly suits it At the extremities of this region, on the lower part of the Ocean, there are a number of islands, out of which three especially deserve a historical description The first is called the sacred island (‘Iera) and in it is not permitted the burial of the deceased Another island (the second) is removed from the first by only 7 stades (1 47km) and in this are transported and interred the deceased …Apart from these (two islands) there exists another big island (the third), at a distance of 30 stades (6 3km) from the latter … It is situated on the eastern part of the Ocean and has a length of a number of stades From the promontory which stretches eastwards it is said that it is seen the Indic region (‘Indicha), seemingly covered in mist because of the great distance In Panchea (this is the name of the big island and of the neighboring region) there are a number of things deserving to be mentioned in a historical description The inhabitants of Panchea are partly indigenous (autochtones), and they are called Panchei, and partly have migrated here, and are called Oceanites, Indians, Cretans and Scythians In Panchea exists a famous city called Panara which surpasses all the other cities in its prosperity Its inhabitants are called the devotees of Jove Triphylios, and they alone among the entire population of Panchea live according to their laws (autonomoi), and without having any king … On an open plain, at a distance of about 60 stades (12 6km) from this city, there is the Temple of Jove Trifylius, which enjoys a great veneration for its antiquity and its magnificent construction … This sanctuary is built of white stone, has a length of two pletra (70m) and a width matching its length It is erected on tall and massive columns decorated with sculptures executed by famous masters Here are also the memorable statues of the gods, sculpted with the greatest art and amazing for their size … From the Temple stretches a road paved with stone, having a length of 4 stades (840m) and a width of one pletrum (35m) On both sides of this road are placed large copper vases (chalcheia megala) on square bases … Beyond this plain there is a high mountain consecrated to the gods, which is called Uranos’ Chair and Olympos Trifylios It is said that at the time when he had reigned over the empire of the world, old Uranos enjoyed spending time in these parts, and that from the highest peak of this mountain he observed the sky and the stars Later though, this mountain had received the name of Olympos Trifylios because the inhabitants were composed of three tribes, namely Panchei, Oceanites and Doi, who later had been ousted from here by Ammon It is said that this Ammon, not only had ousted from here this people, but had also entirely destroyed and razed to the ground their cities Doia and Asterusa On this mountain the priests organize each year with great religiosity a festivity … There are also in this island three big important cities called Hyracia, Dalis and Oceanis This entire region produces abundant fruit But a lot of wine of every kind is especially made here The men are warlike and use the old custom of chariot battles Their entire social organization is composed of three parts The first class is that of the priests (iereis) and in this same class are the artisans The second class is composed of the agriculturists (georgoi), and in the third class are the soldiers (stratiotai); in this class are also the shepherds (nomeis) The leaders of everybody are the priests These rule over the controversies and have power over everything which happens The agriculturists work the land, but they gather the fruit of the earth and share it in common And when it is distributed, those who had worked the land better receive the biggest part (according to the judgment of the priests) … Also the shepherds put in common willingly the sacrifices and all the other things destined for public use … But generally it is not permitted to anybody to have anything as private property, apart from the house and garden The priests receive all that the animals give birth to, all the produces, and they distribute later to each what each rightly deserves … As dress, the inhabitants use soft vestments, because their sheep have particularly fine wool The men, as well as the women, wear gold ornaments They wear woven chains around the neck and bracelets on the arms … The soldiers receive wages for the ordinary services they carry out; they are divided in groups, defend the country and strengthen it with defensive works … The priests carry out the religious service for gods mostly with hymns, praising in verse their deeds and their good turns for the people Their nation, as they say, comes from Crete, from where they had been brought by Jove to Panchea at the time when he lived among the people and ruled the earth They bring as proof their way of talking, pointing out that in their language there are many words left from the Cretans They say the kindness and hospitality that they show towards these has been inherited from their ancestors, and that this tradition had been transmitted from generation to generation They also show even inscriptions (anagramas), redacted according to them by Jove himself at the time when he lived with the mortals, and had put the foundation of the Temple Abundant gold, silver, copper, tin and iron mines are also in this land (chora), but nothing is permitted to be exported outside the island … There are also in that Temple a great number of holy gifts of gold and silver, consecrated in honor of the gods, preserved in large heaps, from a remote age … The Bed or Chair of the god is 6 ells long, 4 ells wide; it is entirely made of gold and each side is worked with great art Near the bed is the table of the god, as magnificent and sumptuous as the other objects At the center of the bed is placed a huge gold column, written with letters, which the Egyptians call sacred With these letters are described the deeds of Uranos and Jove, and to this inscription Mercury (Hermes) had also added the description of the deeds of Diana and Apollo” [1 Diodorus Siculus resumes in another place Evhemerus’ description about happy Arabia, about the island Panchea and the Column of Uranos, with the following words: “The ancients have left their successors two different concepts about gods, namely that some are eternal and will never perish, like the sun, moon and the other stars of the sky, also the winds and others of the same nature, because each of these has an eternal origin and life And they tell us that the other gods are people from earth, who had earned for themselves a cult and divine honors, for the benefices they brought to mankind, like Hercules, Bachus, Aristeus and others similar to them … Evhemerus, the friend of king Cassandrus (of Macedonia), who had to carry out some missions, and travel far away in the interest of this king, says that, after boarding ship from happy Arabia, had sailed for a number of days on the Ocean, and that finally he had arrived to some islands surrounded by big waters, out of which one was more important and it was called Panchea There he saw the inhabitants called Panchei, who excel in their piety and venerate the gods with magnificent preparations and sacrifices, as well as with the finest gifts of gold and silver This island is sacred to the gods and has many things deserving admiration, for their age as well as for the excellence of their art, things which we have particularly described in our preceding book Namely, there is in this island a high hill, and on its top there is the Temple of Jove Trifylius, built by himself at the time when he lived among people, and reigned over the world empire In that Temple is seen a gold column, which contains a brief description in Panchean letters of the illustrious deeds of Uranos, Cronos and Jove Evhemerus also adds that Uranos was the first to reign, being a man with high feelings of justice, with great goodwill and very learned in the course of the stars He was the first to venerate the divinities of the sky with victims, and because of this he had been called Ouranos, Sky” (Diodorus Siculus, Ed Didot, lib VI c 2) By comparing these two extracts made by Diodorus, one in book V and the other in book VI of his history, we have in front of us a small example of the confusion introduced in the original text of Evhemerus even by Diodorus Siculus himself In the first extract, the Sacred island is not Panchea, in the second they are identical In the first extract the column of Uranos was written with letters called sacred by the Egyptians, in the second with national Panchean letters In book V Diodorus says that the Temple of Jove Trifylius was on a plain, in book VI on a hill, confusing in this way the magnificent sanctuary with the mountain dedicated to the gods or Olympos Trifylius] These are the principal geographical and ethnographical data left from Evhemerus, regarding “Arabia felix” from near Oceanus, and the region or island called Panchea The sacred history of Evhemerus had in antiquity many enemies, because of the tendency of this Cyrenaic philosopher to explain the mythology through history, and especially to prove that some of the great gods of the ancient religion had been simple mortals, who had earned divine honors for their merits and power These antagonists of the system introduced by Evhemerus in the sacred history of antiquity, declared as a lie the entire description made by him of the region called Panchea and of the happy and pious people who dwelt in those extremities of the ancient world (Polybius, lib XXXIV 5 9; Strabo, lib II 4 2; Plutarc, D’Isis et d’Osiris, 1784, Tome XI, p 309) Their reasoning had some convincing appearances These enemies of the Cyrenaic doctrines brought as proof the fact that in the Arabian Ocean, where they looked for this happy land of Evhemerus, had never existed either the peoples, or the cities, institutions and islands about which this atheist philosopher spoke, who in fact wanted no more nor less than to overthrow the ancient Greek religion We shall examine here this important narrative of Evhemerus, from a historic and geographic point of view, in order to understand the true existence and situation of this memorable region
The country of Uranos in the region of Atlas Mountains Evhemerus’ Arabia felix near the river Oceanus (Istru) According to Evhemerus, the old king Uranus, while he ruled the world empire, often spent time in the region named Panchea, which formed a part of Arabia felix Which was though Uranus’ country It is the first question which presents itself here, in order to orient ourselves about the geographical situation of “Arabia felix” According to Diodorus Siculus, the inhabitants near the Atlas Mountain (Oltului), the masters of the “blessed country”, who excelled by their special piety and their hospitality towards all their neighbors, boasted that the gods of the ancient world were born there Thus they said that the first king of theirs was Uranos, the Sky, Ceriul, in the later meaning of the word, in reality “Muntean” (N T – of the mountain), as this name derives from ouros, in Ionic form, mountain They said that this Uranos had first gathered together the people who lived on their own, and made them assemble in communes; that he gave them laws and stopped them live lawlessly, or by the manner of the wild beasts; he taught them to cultivate the good fruit and conserve them; he subjected the most of the world, especially the lands towards west and north; that he, especially devoted to the study of the courses of the stars, could predict many things which could happen in the universe; that he established the rules of the year, by the motion of the sun and made them known to men; he divided the year in months by the motion of the moon…His name was then applied to the sky, not only because he had known in depth about the rising and setting of the stars and other sky phenomena, but at the same time in order to make known his merits to the entire world Uranos’ rule in the northern parts of Istru appears not only in the tradition of the Hyperboreans from near Mount Atlas, which Diodorus communicates, but it forms at the same time the foundation of the oldest Pelasgian legends, written about in the poems of Homer and Hesiodus The origin of all the gods, tells us Homer, was at Oceanus potamos The “Arabia felix” of Evhemer, crossed by a great number of rivers, a country which was characterized by its abundant crops, rich in flocks, gold and silver mines, copper and tin, with its pious people and its patriarchal organization, is one and the same with the “blessed country”, or the happy region of the inhabitants from near Mount Atlas, where it was the country and residence of Uranos, the first founder of the great Pelasgian empire As a geographical region, Arabia from the Istru, or the Euxine Pontus, is often mentioned by the authors of the antiquity Even in the most ancient Greek legends the Istru (‘Istros) appears as a son of Egypt and Arabia (Apollodorus, Bibl lib II 1 5 4) So there was an Arabia near Istru even in mythological times On another hand, the poet Eschyl tells us (Prom vinct v 420) that the numerous warlike people from near Caucas Mountain, where Prometheus had suffered, and where the river Oceanus flew, was called “the martial flower of Arabia” Similarly, the Latin poet Plautus, who lived in the 3rd century b c , mentions an Arabia near the Euxine Pontus, a country, says he, where grows in abundance the absinth (Comoediae, Trinumus, Act III) The Pontic Arabia of Plautus stretched from the Hem Mountain, along the shores of the Black Sea up towards the river Borysthene or Dnieper (TN – Nipru), a region about which the poet Ovid writes that “it makes him shiver, its deserted plains covered only with the sad absinth, bitter harvest, worthy of the earth which produced it” (Ep Ex Ponto III 1 23-24) In the 17th century we find described by Paul of Aleppo the same European Arabia of Plautus “In Moldova” says he, “in the Romanian country, and as far as Moscow, the absinth, among all grasses, covers the plains” (Hasdeu, Arch ist I 2 79) Apart from the mythological genealogy of Istru, son of Arabia, and apart from the geographical notes transmitted by Eschyl and Plautus, we also find some obscure memories about Arabia on the north-western parts of the Black Sea with some other authors The geographer Ptolemy says (Geogr lib III c 10 7), that the shore of the Black Sea, starting from the northern arm of the Danube, to the mouths of the river Borysthene and bordered at west by the river Hierasus or Siret, was inhabited by a population called Arpii, while Ammianus Marcellinus calls the same land Arabia (lib XXXI C 3) Finally, the erudite archaeologist Bessonov of Russia writes the following: “all that was called from the antiquity onwards, but in an historical epoch, Kara-Vlachu, in the largest meaning of the word, bears the name Arab in the popular poetry of the Bulgars, while the popular poetry of the Serbs is even more explicit” For example, in a ballad, the famous Marcu, the favorite hero of the Bulgaro-Serb epos, and bitter enemy of great Mircea (TN – early Romanian Domn), is described as stealing from the Arabs all the cities, right to the Pontus (Hasdeu, Ist crit Vol I p 98) To all these ancient geographical sources about Arabia from near the Istru we shall add here another characteristic fact, namely that during the Middle Ages, on the heraldic coats of arms of the Romanian country were shown three African heads, meaning Arab, and two on those of Moldova (Homer calls the pious Hyperboreans from near Oceanus, Ethiopians – Iliad, I 22; Aeschyl, Prom vinct v 808) As we see, the name Arabia had been applied from very obscure times to the region between the Carpathians, Istru and the Euxine Pontus The principal part of this Pontic (or Oceanic or Istrian) Arabia, namely that from near the Atlas mountain, appears with Evhemerus as “Arabia felix (blessed)” The co-name of “blessed” had been attributed to this region, blessed by the gods, from very remote times (Homer, Odyss IV 563 seqq; Ibid IX v 109 seqq; Eschyl, Cheph V 373-374) To this name refers Pliny (lib IV 26 11), when writing “gens felix, si credimus, quos Hyperboreos appellavere” and when the emperor Aurelianus had minted coins with the inscription DACIA FELIX (Eckhel, Doctr Numm VII 481), he had also remembered this same title consecrated by ancient traditions Only the confusion made by the Greek authors of the epoch of decadence of geography, is responsible for the fact that the name “Arabia felix” has been attributed to a part of Asian Arabia Pliny the Old himself stated (lib XII C 41) that this co-name was false Asian Arabia, covered by vast deserts, with a burning climate, with rocky and barren mountains, with a little productive soil, even along the sea, lacking in pastures, where is no river with a continuous flow of water, but only when it rains, lacking in noble metals, a country which is the poorest region of Asia in everything, except for Eastern Iran, a country, which the Romans themselves had no ambition to conquer, and which even today is in some measure a land unknown, could have never acquired the name of Arabia “felix” `
The island called Panchea in Evhemerus’ sacred history Near the region, called by Evhemerus “Arabia felix”, he also mentions a territory with important cities, with mountains and expansive plains, called Panchea (Pagchaia), which was on the eastern part of the water Oceanus The text of Evhemerus regarding this part of blessed Arabia is not clear enough Panchea figures either as a continental region (chora), or as an island (nasos) This is evidence that his Panchea formed in fact only a geographical continuity of blessed Arabia, and was not situated in the open waters of the big sea The ancients, although in possession at that time of the whole text of this historian-philosopher, were themselves not entirely oriented regarding the geographic character of this region With Polybius, Evhemerus’ Panchea is called region (Hist lib XXXIV 5 9), with Strabo (Geogr lib II c 4 2; Ibid lib VII 3 6), it is called tera (TN – country), and with Diodorus Siculus it appears as region and island (chora and nasos) Evhemerus’ Panchea was definitely an island, but not a sea island The Danube Delta appears in Greek geographical literature, even beginning with the 3rd century b c , under the name of Peuce (Peuche), a name which Eratosthenes derives from the species of trees peuche (fir tree), which grew in this island (Stephanus, Thesaurus gr L v Peuche) But in reality Peuche was only the Greek form of an indigenous name In the epic poem about the Argonauts attributed to Orpheus, are mentioned near the mouths of the river Oceanus or Istru, the inhabitants called Pacti (v 1070-1073), who were no other than Evhemerus’ Panchei Various similar topographical names exist to these days in the lower parts of the Danube We mention here the following: Pangalia, one of the most important cities of Dobrogea in the Middle Ages, situated south of Constanta, on the ruins of ancient Calatis (Jirecek, Gesch D Bulg 1876, p 400); Panga, a valley to the north of Daieni village; Pancesci, town in Roman district; three villages called Pancesci in the districts of Putna, Bacau, Roman; Panciu, a city in Roman district; Pancea, a hill in Prahova district We can therefore establish with total historical conviction, that the name Peuce, which the Greek geographers from later times of antiquity had attributed to the island formed by the arms of the Danube, is the same geographical name of Evhemerus’ Panchea But the Cyrenaic philosopher extends this name also to a significant part of little Scythia, or Dobrogea [1 In a very remote antiquity, the principal mouth of the Danube was located a lot more towards south So, Herodotus (II 34), who apparently had before him some much older geographical sources, tells us that the Istru flowed into the sea in front of the city Sinope of Asia Minor – Cf Aristotle, Meteor D I 13 and De generat Anim VIII 28)] We have also another geographical circumstance which we can not ignore According to Evhemerus, the region, or the island, called Panchea, was situated close to another smaller island, but considered sacred, which can not be other than Leuce island, which had the epithets sacred, divine and bright (Scylax, Periplus, c 68; see Ch V 6) attributed to it until late antiquity The region, or island, Panchea, situated close to the sea, between the Scythians and the Getes, appears to have been even in Evhemerus’ times a blessed corner of the earth, where the economic and commercial interests compelled different groups of inhabitants of the neighboring lands, and of the islands of the Aegean Sea, to meet and settle there Panchea’s population, Evhemerus tells us, apart from the native inhabitants, who called themselves Panchei, was composed from the following tribes, which had migrated there in later times, namely Scythians, Oceanites (or inhabitants from the upper parts of the Ocean, the Istru), Cretans, Indians and finally Doi These Doi, about whom Evhemerus tells us that had once dwelt in Panchea in considerable numbers, but had been later expelled, are Strabo’s Daii (lib VII 3 12), a name under which the ancients understood the Daci(ans), or the pastoral tribes from the Carpathians Theirs were the cities Doia and Dalis, of which the first appears to be identical with Ptolemy’s Dausdava, situated between the arms of the Danube (Geogr III 10 6), while the second was probably the important shepherd village from Dobrogea, today called Daieni As regards the immigrant Cretans of Panchea, they were only the pre-historical avant-garde of the Milesian commercial colonies from the Lower Danube Miletus itself, this flowering and powerful city from the shores of Asia Minor, had been in the beginning only a Cretan colony Finally, Evhemerus, in describing Panchea, mentions also a group of immigrants, whom he calls Indi According to Apollonius Rhodius, on the vast and deserted plain which stretched from the mouths of the Istru upwards, dwelt in older times the so-called Sindi (lib IV v 322) [2 According to the historian Timonax, the plain of the Sindi stretched as far as the point where the Istru separated in two beds, or to the cataracts, as we shall see later (Fragm Hist graec IV 522 1) Another group of Sindi dwelt according to Scylax (72) near the Meotic lake To these refers Evhemerus when writing that, as it was said, from Panchea could be seen Indica shrouded in fog] The Indi of Evhemerus, immigrated in the island of Panchea, and the Sindi of Apollonius Rhodius, from upwards of the mouths of the Danube, appear the same people of Pelasgian race As Pliny tells us (lib VI 23 1), the big river of Asia, Indus, was called by the indigenous inhabitants Sindus This explains why the old geographers identified the name Sindi with Indi About the inhabitants called Indi from the Istru we also have a geographical tradition In an old Serbian ballad, the actual territory of the Romanian country is called India (Hasdeu, Etymologicum mgnum Romaniae Tom IV p CXXXV) Evhemerus mentions also the cities Hyracia, Oceanis and Panara among the more important centers of the population of Panchea, apart from Doia and Dalis Hyracia seems to be the old city encircled by walls Heraclea, which had once existed close to the mouths of the Istru, but had disappeared in the times of Pliny (lib IV 18 5) [3 This Heraclea seems to have been situated near the southern arm of the Istru, today called of St George, and by Ptolemy (III 10 2) Inariacion stoma, where king Filip II of Macedonia had wanted to erect o statue of Hercules (Justinis lib IX 2) Connect also the note of Arrianis about the sacrifice made by Alexander the Great near the Danube Delta to Jove Soteros, to Hercules and to the Istru (De exp Alex I 4 5) We also must note here that one of the mouths of the Nile was also consecrated to Hercules and had the name of stoma Heracleoticon (Tacit, Ann II 60; Strabo, II 1 35; Diodorus, I 3 37)] In regard to the political and social organization of the inhabitants of Panchea, it presents all the characteristics of the traditional institutions of the Hyperboreans and of the Dacians In all the cities of Panchea, according to Evhemerus, the priests were the dominant class They were not only the ministers of the altars, but the rulers of the people at the same time Apart from their sacerdotal functions the priests of Panchea had concentrated in their hands all the political and juridical powers We find the same form of government with the Hyperboreans As Hecateus tells us, the descendants of king Boreas had not only the political reign over the sacred island of the Hyperboreans, but were at the same time the administrators of Apollo’s great Temple (Diodorus Siculus, lib II 47) The Dacians too had the same theocratic national institutions (Strabo, lib VII 3 11; Ibid, XvI 2 39; Jornandis, De Get Orig c 5 We find a similar constitution with the Pelasgian tribes of Cappadocia – Strabo, lib XII 2 3) Finally, the sharing of possessions, which we find with the agricultural and pastoral tribes of Panchea, has in everything the character of the ancient Pelasgo-Getic institutions We know the following verses of Horatius (Od Lib III 24): Much better live the rigid people of the Getae, whose fields without boundaries give crops for all Here nobody cultivates the land more than one year; and after one has finished his work, another comes while he is resting, and takes his place doing the same work And Criton, who had lived in the time of Trajan and had written a history of the Getae, tells us in a fragment which had been preserved by Suidas, that part of the Getae had to work in agriculture, while the military, who followed the king in wars, looked after the castles The origin of having all the goods in common, which was characteristic to the Pelasgian people, went back to the blessed times of Cronos Trog Pompeius writes about this: that Cronos had been a king with such high standards of justice, that during the time when he reigned, nobody served another and nobody had private wealth, but everything was kept in common and not distributed, as a unique patrimony of everybody (Justinis, Hist ex Trogo Pompeio, lib XLIII 1)
Olympus Triphylius in Panchea island In Panchea island, as Evhemerus tells us, there was a mountain consecrated to the gods, which in the beginning had been called the Chair of Uranos, and later Olympus Triphylius This holy mountain of Panchea had the co-name Triphylios because, according to Evhemerus, the inhabitants of this memorable island were of three tribes, tris and phyle, tribe This is a vicious etymology Triphylius of Panchea island could have been only a Trimontius or Triphyllon, from tris and phyllon, leaf, in this case peak, as in the times of Pliny a mountain of Campania was called Trifolium (H N lib XIV 8 9), and a mountain with the name Trifoiu exists in the district of Prahova (Romania), towards NE of the hamlet Scurtesci (A town with the name Triphoulon is mentioned by Ptolemy – III 8 – in Dacia, in the upper region of Prut river) From the most obscure antiquity, folk beliefs had attributed a mystical power to the combined number three The trinity is an ancient religious dogma which we find expressed in symbolic form in rites and on various monuments of the Pelasgian epoch The great god of Panchea had been called Triphylios, or more correctly Triphyllios, not from the number of the tribes of Panchea, but from the three heights of the holy mountain, exactly as Jove had the co-name of ‘Olympios with the Greeks, Idaeus with the Trojans, and Capitolinus with the Romans, after the mountains which had been consecrated as a proper residence on earth to this divinity We also find even today in these parts of Lower Istru some important traces of the ancient cult of Zeus Triphyllios The folk traditions from the territory of Dobrogea, as well as the neighboring districts of Braila and Covurlui, attribute a particular religious importance to a saint called Trif or Triful, whose characteristics are nevertheless entirely ante-Christian This saint Trif or Triful, is according to Romanian folk beliefs, the divinity who makes the earth germinate He makes the tilled earth, the gardens, trees and vineyards to yield crops; protects them from destruction from pests and wild animals; he rules over flocks and cattle, favors the fruit yield of the orchards, he is everywhere the protector of the entire rural and pastoral economy As we see, the cult of Trif or Triful surpasses that of all the other Christian saints He is a sort of ruler of nature Even today he still has part of the attributes of the supreme divinity, Zeus euruopa, who, according to Hesiodus, makes the earth produce what’s needed by mankind, makes the acorn grow on oaks, multiplies the bees, makes the sheep be laden with wool, and enables the fields to produce abundant crops (Opera et Dies, v 230 seqq) By his name, as well as by the characteristics of his cult, Trif or Triful is identical with the great divinity called by Evhemerus Zeus Triphylios It is without any doubt that this gold pillar mentioned by the Romanian agrarian carols was not a poetical fiction, but a real historical column which had a special significance, erected in prehistoric times near some Temple The agriculturists of Panchea, Evhemerus tells us, tilled the earth and placed the harvest in common, which afterwards the priests distributed among the workers, according to the merits and activity of each But if this gold pillar of Romanian traditions is identical with the gold column about which Evhemerus speaks, we cannot know We only state here the fact that in the Romanian countries still exists to this day the reminiscence of a famous gold pillar of the archaic times, sung about in the carols of the plowmen [1 In some of the Romanian carols, in which is sung the magnificence of the White Monastery, from the island near the mouths of the Danube, is mentioned a “gold written high chair”, in which God sits, and in others are mentioned “gold written high chairs” in which sit Good God and Mos Craciun (TN – Old Christmas) In Babylon, as Herodotus tells us (I 183), there also existed a great gold simulacrum, which represented Jove sitting Near the god were placed a big gold table, a little foot chair and a throne, all of gold] The inscription from the memorable gold column, from near the river Oceanus or Istru, consecrated to the great Pelasgian divinities Uranos, Cronos, Jove, Apollo and Diana, contained, according to Evhemerus, a brief description of the great political and religious events which had taken place during the times of that divinized dynasty In other words, this inscription spoke about the history of the founding of the great Pelasgian empire, about which we shall speak later; this was a monument of extreme importance for the ancient European civilization, which has very probably disappeared for ever
Diodorus Siculus (lib V c 41 – 46) “In this region” – the author speaks about Arabia from the Ocean – “there are a number of villages and important towns, part of which are situated on big earth dykes (to be protected from flooding), while others are on hillocks or on plains The largest cities have magnificent palaces, a great number of inhabitants and abundance of riches This entire region is full of numerous flocks of various kinds It produces a copious harvest, but it is at the same time abundant in grazing lands for sheep flocks and cattle herds This region is traversed by a great number of rivers, which moisten in a favorable way the surface of the earth and contribute to the complete development of the fruits This is the cause for which this part of Arabia, which by its bounty surpasses the other parts, is called Happy (eudaimon), a name which truly suits it At the extremities of this region, on the lower part of the Ocean, there are a number of islands, out of which three especially deserve a historical description The first is called the sacred island (‘Iera) and in it is not permitted the burial of the deceased Another island (the second) is removed from the first by only 7 stades and in this are transported and interred the deceased …Apart from these (two islands) there exists another big island (the third), at a distance of 30 stades from the latter … It is situated on the eastern part of the Ocean and has a length of a number of stades From the promontory which stretches eastwards it is said that it is seen the Indic region (‘Indicha), seemingly covered in mist because of the great distance In Panchea (this is the name of the big island and of the neighboring region) there are a number of things deserving to be mentioned in a historical description The inhabitants of Panchea are partly indigenous (autochtones), and they are called Panchei, and partly have migrated here, and are called Oceanites, Indians, Cretans and Scythians In Panchea exists a famous city called Panara which surpasses all the other cities in its prosperity Its inhabitants are called the devotees of Jove Triphylios, and they alone among the entire population of Panchea live according to their laws (autonomoi), and without having any king … On an open plain, at a distance of about 60 stades from this city, there is the Temple of Jove Trifylius, which enjoys a great veneration for its antiquity and its magnificent construction … This sanctuary is built of white stone, has a length of two pletra and a width matching its length It is erected on tall and massive columns decorated with sculptures executed by famous masters Here are also the memorable statues of the gods, sculpted with the greatest art and amazing for their size … From the Temple stretches a road paved with stone, having a length of 4 stades and a width of one pletrum On both sides of this road are placed large copper vases (chalcheia megala) on square bases … Beyond this plain there is a high mountain consecrated to the gods, which is called Uranos’ Chair and Olympos Trifylios It is said that at the time when he had reigned over the empire of the world, old Uranos enjoyed spending time in these parts, and that from the highest peak of this mountain he observed the sky and the stars Later though, this mountain had received the name of Olympos Trifylios because the inhabitants were composed of three tribes, namely Panchei, Oceanites and Doi, who later had been ousted from here by Ammon It is said that this Ammon, not only had ousted from here this people, but had also entirely destroyed and razed to the ground their cities Doia and Asterusa On this mountain the priests organize each year with great religiosity a festivity … There are also in this island three big important cities called Hyracia, Dalis and Oceanis This entire region produces abundant fruit But a lot of wine of every kind is especially made here The men are warlike and use the old custom of chariot battles Their entire social organization is composed of three parts The first class is that of the priests (iereis) and in this same class are the artisans The second class is composed of the agriculturists (georgoi), and in the third class are the soldiers (stratiotai); in this class are also the shepherds (nomeis) The leaders of everybody are the priests These rule over the controversies and have power over everything which happens The agriculturists work the land, but they gather the fruit of the earth and share it in common And when it is distributed, those who had worked the land better receive the biggest part (according to the judgment of the priests) … Also the shepherds put in common willingly the sacrifices and all the other things destined for public use … But generally it is not permitted to anybody to have anything as private property, apart from the house and garden The priests receive all that the animals give birth to, all the produces, and they distribute later to each what each rightly deserves … As dress, the inhabitants use soft vestments, because their sheep have particularly fine wool The men, as well as the women, wear gold ornaments They wear woven chains around the neck and bracelets on the arms … The soldiers receive wages for the ordinary services they carry out; they are divided in groups, defend the country and strengthen it with defensive works … The priests carry out the religious service for gods mostly with hymns, praising in verse their deeds and their good turns for the people Their nation, as they say, comes from Crete, from where they had been brought by Jove to Panchea at the time when he lived among the people and ruled the earth They bring as proof their way of talking, pointing out that in their language there are many words left from the Cretans They say the kindness and hospitality that they show towards these has been inherited from their ancestors, and that this tradition had been transmitted from generation to generation They also show even inscriptions (anagramas), redacted according to them by Jove himself at the time when he lived with the mortals, and had put the foundation of the Temple Abundant gold, silver, copper, tin and iron mines are also in this land (chora), but nothing is permitted to be exported outside the island … There are also in that Temple a great number of holy gifts of gold and silver, consecrated in honor of the gods, preserved in large heaps, from a remote age … The Bed or Chair of the god is 6 ells long, 4 ells wide; it is entirely made of gold and each side is worked with great art Near the bed is the table of the god, as magnificent and sumptuous as the other objects At the center of the bed is placed a huge gold column, written with letters, which the Egyptians call sacred With these letters are described the deeds of Uranos and Jove, and to this inscription Mercury (Hermes) had also added the description of the deeds of Diana and Apollo” “But since we have made mention of the Atlantioi (Atlantians) [i e their war with the Amazons, see section which follows], we believe that it will not be inappropriate in this place to recount what their myths relate about the genesis of the gods, in view of the fact that it does not differ greatly from the myths of the Greeks Now the Atlantians, dwelling as they do in the regions on the edge of Oceanus (the Ocean) and inhabiting a fertile territory, are reputed far to excel their neighbours in reverence toward the gods and the humanity they showed in their dealings with strangers, and the gods, they say, were born among them And their account, they maintain, is in agreement with that of the most renowned of the Greek poets [Homer, Iliad 14 200] when he represents Hera as saying : ‘For I go to see the ends of the bountiful earth, Oceanus source of the gods and Tethys divine their mother ‘ This is the account given in their myth : Their first king was Ouranos (Heaven), and he gathered the human beings, who dwelt in scattered habitations, within the shelter of a walled city and caused his subjects to cease from their lawless ways and their bestial manner of living, discovering for them the uses of cultivated fruits, how to store them up, and not a few other things which are of benefit to man; and he also subdued the larger part of the inhabited earth, in particular the regions to the west and the north And since he was a careful observer of the stars he foretold many things which would take place throughout the world; and for the common people he introduced the year on the basis of the movement of the sun and the months on that of the moon, and instructed them in the seasons which recur year after year Consequently the masses of the people, being ignorant of the eternal arrangement of the stars and marvelling at the events which were taking place as he had predicted, conceived that the man who taught such things partook of the nature of the gods, and after he had passed from among men they accorded to him immortal honours, both because of his benefactions and because of his knowledge of the stars; and then they transferred his name to the firmament of heaven, both because they thought that he had been so intimately acquainted with the risings and the settings of the stars and with whatever else took place in the firmament, and because they would surpass his benefactions by the magnitude of the honours which they would show him, in that for all subsequent time they proclaimed him to be the king of the universe To Ouranos, the myth continues, were born forty-five sons from a number of wives, and, of these, eighteen, it is said, were by Titaia, each of them bearing a distinct name, but all of them as a group were called, after their mother, Titanes Titaia, because she was prudent and had brought about many good deeds for the peoples, was deified after her death by those whom she had helped and her name was changed to Gê (Earth) To Ouranos were also born daughters, the two eldest of whom were by far the most renowned above the others and were called Basileia and Rhea, whom some also named Pandora Of these daughters Basileia, who was the eldest and far excelled the others in both prudence and understanding, reared all her brothers, showing them collectively a mother’s kindness; consequently she was given the appellation of ‘Great Mother;’ and after her father had been translated from among men into the circle of the gods, with the approval of the masses and her brothers she succeeded to the royal dignity, though she was still a maiden and because of her exceedingly great chastity had been unwilling to unite in marriage with any man But later, because of her desire to leave sons who should succeed to the throne, she united in marriage with Hyperion, one of her brothers, for whom she had the greatest affection And when there were born to her two children, Helios (Sun) and Selenê (Moon), who were greatly admired for both their beauty and their chastity, the brothers of Basileia, they say, being envious of her because of her happy issue of children ad fearing that Hyperion would divert the royal power to himself, committed an utterly impious deed; for entering into a conspiracy among themselves they put Hyperion to the sword, and casting Helios, who was still in years a child, into the Eridanos river, drowned him When this crime came to light, Selenê, who loved her brother very greatly, threw herself down from the roof, but as for his mother, while seeking his body along the river, her strength left her and falling into a swoon she beheld a vision in which she thought that Helios stood over her and urged her not to mourn the death of her children; for, he said, the Titanes would meet the punishment which they deserve, while he and his sister would be transformed, by some divine providence, into immortal natures, since that which had formerly been called ‘holy fire’ in the heavens would be called by men Helios (‘the sun’) and that addresses as ‘menê’ would be called Selenê (‘the moon’) When she was aroused from the swoon she recounted to the common crowd both the dream and the misfortunes which had befallen her, asking that they render to the dead honours like those accorded to the gods and asserting that no man should thereafter touch her body And after this she became frenzied, and seizing such of her daughter’s playthings as could make a noise, she began to wander over the land, with her hair hanging free, inspired by the noise of the kettledrums and cymbals, so that those who saw her were struck with astonishment And all men were filled with pity at her misfortune and some were clinging to her body, when there came a mighty storm and continuous crashes of thunder and lightning; and in the midst of this Basileia passed from sight, whereupon the crowds of people, amazed at this reversal of fortune, transferred the names and the honours of Helios and Selenê to the stars of the sky, and as for their mother, they considered her to be a goddess and erected altars to her, and imitating the incidents of her life by the pounding of the kettledrums and the clash of cymbals they rendered unto her in this way sacrifices and all other honours ” “After the death of Hyperion, the myth relates, the kingdom was divided among the sons of Ouranos, the most renowned of whom were Atlas and Kronos Of these sons Atlas received as his part the regions on the coast of Oceanus (the Ocean), and he not only gave the name of Atlantioi (Atlantians) to his peoples but likewise called the greatest mountain in the land Atlas They also say that he perfected the science of astrology and was the first to publish to mankind the doctrine of the sphere; and it was for this reason that the idea was held that he entire heavens were supported upon the shoulders of Atlas, the myth darkly hinting in this way at his discovery and description of the sphere There were born to him a number of sons, one of whom was distinguished above the others for his piety, justice to his subjects, and love of mankind, his name being Hesperos (Evening-Star) This king, having once climbed to the peak of Mount Atlas, was suddenly snatched away by mighty winds while he was making his observations of the stars, and never was seen again; and because of the virtuous life he had lived and their pity for his sad fate the multitudes accorded to him immortal honours and called the brightest of the stars of heaven after him Atlas, the myth goes on to relate, also had seven daughters, who as a group were called Atlantides after their father, but their individual names were Maia, Elektra, Taÿgetê, Steropê, Meropê, Halkyonê, and the last Kelaino These daughters lay with the most renowned heroes and gods and thus became ancestors of the larger part of the race of human beings, giving birth to those who, because of their high achievements, came to be called gods and heroes; Maia the eldest, for instance, lay with Zeus and bore Hermes, who was the discoverer of many things for the use of mankind; similarly the other Atlantides also gave birth to renowned children, who became the founders in some instances of nations and in other cases of cities Consequently, not only among certain barbarians but among the Greeks as well, the great majority of the most ancient heroes trace their descent back to the Atlantides These daughters were also distinguished for their chastity and after their death attained to immortal honour among men, by whom they were both enthroned in the heavens and endowed with the appellation of Pleiades The Atlantides were also called ‘nymphai’ because the natives of that land addressed their women by the common appellation of ‘nymphe ‘ Kronos, the brother of Atlas, the myth continues, who was a man notorious for his impiety and greed, married his sister Rhea, by whom he begat that Zeus who was later called ‘Olympios ‘ Zeus, the son of Kronos, emulated a manner of life the opposite of that led by his father, and since he showed himself honourable and friendly to all, the masses addressed him as ‘father ‘ As for his succession to the kingly power, some say that his father yielded it to him of his own accord, but others state that he was chosen as king by the masses because of the hatred they bore towards his father, and that when Kronos made war against him with he aid of the Titanes, Zeus overcame him in battle, and on gaining supreme power visited all the inhabited world, conferring benefactions upon the race of men He was pre-eminent also in bodily strength and in all the other qualities of virtue and for this reason quickly became master of the entire world And in general he showed all zeal to punish impious and wicked men and to show kindness to the masses In return for all this, after he had passed from among men he was given the name of Zên [from the verb ‘to live’], because he was the cause of right ‘living’ among men, and those who had received his favours showed him honour by enthroning him in the heavens, all men eagerly acclaiming him as god and lord for ever of the whole universe These, then, are in summary the facts regarding the teachings of the Atlantioi (Atlantians) about the gods ” “We are told, namely, that there was once in the western parts of Libya, on the bounds of the inhabited world, a race which was ruled by women and followed a manner of life unlike that which prevails among us For it was the custom among them that the women should practise the arts of war and be required to serve in the army for a fixed period, during which time they maintained their virginity
As mythology relates, their home was on an island which, because it was in the west, was called Hespera (Evening), and it lay in the marsh Tritonis This marsh was near Oceanus which surrounds the earth and received its name from a certain river Triton which emptied into it; and this marsh was also near Aithiopia and that mountain by the shore of Oceanus which is the highest of those in the vicinity and impinges upon Oceanus and is called by the Greeks Atlas The island mentioned above was of great size and full of fruit-bearing trees of every kind, from which the natives secured their food The Amazones, then, the account continues, being a race superior in valour and eager for war, first of all subdued all the cities on the island except one called Menê (Moon), which was considered to be sacred and was inhabited by Aithiopian Ikhthyophagoi, and was also subject to great eruptions of fire and possessed a multitude of the precious stones which the Greeks call anthrax, sardion, and smaragdos; and after this they subdued many of the neighbouring Libyans and nomad tribes, and founded within the marsh Tritonis a great city which they named Kheronesos (Peninsular) after its shape Setting out from the city of Kherronesos, the account continues, the Amazones embarked upon great ventures, a longing having come over them to invade many parts of the inhabited world The first people against whom they advanced, according to the tale, was the Atlantioi (Atlantians), the most civilized men among the inhabitants of those regions, who dwelt in a prosperous country and possessed great cities; it was among them, we are told, that mythology places the birth of the gods, in the regions which lie along the shore of Oceanus, in this respect agreeing with those among the Greeks who relate legends, and about this we shall speak in detail a little later Now the queen of the Amazones, Myrina, collected, it is said, an army of thirty thousand foot-soldiers and three thousand cavalry, since they favoured to an unusual degree the use of cavalry in their wars For protective devices they used the skins of large snakes, since Libya contains such animals of incredible size, and for offensive weapons, swords and lances; they also used bows and arrows, with which they struck not only when facing the enemy but also when in flight, by shooting backwards at their pursuers with good effect Upon entering the land of the Atlantioi (Atlantians) they defeated in a pitched battle the inhabitants of the city of Kernê, as it is called, and making their way inside the walls along with the fleeing enemy, they got the city into their hands; and desiring to strike terror into the neighbouring peoples they treated the captives savagely, put to the sword the men from the youth upward, led into slavery the children and women, and razed the city But when the terrible fate of the inhabitants of Kernê became known among their fellow tribesmen, it is related that the Atlantioi (Atlantians), struck with terror, surrendered their cities on terms of capitulation and announced that they would do whatever should be commanded them, and that the queen Myrina, bearing herself honourably towards the Atlantioi, both established friendship with them and founded a city to bear her name [i e Myrina] in place of the city which had been razed; and in it she settled both the captives and any native who so desired Whereupon the Atlantioi presented her with magnificent presents and by public decree voted to her notable honours, and she in return accepted their courtesy and in addition promised that she would show kindness to their nation And since the natives were often being warred upon by the Gorgones, as they were named, a folk which resided upon their borders, and in general had that people lying in wait to injure them, Myrina, they say, was asked by the Atlantioi to invade the land of the afore-mentioned Gorgones But when the Gorgones drew up their forces to resist them a mighty battle took place in which the Amazones, gaining the upper hand, slew great numbers of their opponents and took no fewer than three thousand prisoners; and since the rest had fled for refuge into a certain wooded region, Myrina undertook to set fire to the timber, being eager to destroy the race utterly, but when she found that she was unable to succeed in her attempt she retired to the borders of her country The story is also told that the marsh Tritonis disappeared from sight in the coruse of an earthquake, when those parts of it which lay towards Oceanus were torn asunder ”

Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 41. 4 – 5. 64. 7 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : [Diodorus is believed to have drawn the following account of Pankhaia from the writer Euhemerus of Messene, who composed a work on the subject known as the Sacred History around 300 B.C.] “On the farthest bounds of Arabia the Blest, where Oceanus washes it, there lie opposite it a number of islands, of which there are three which merit a mention in history, one of them bearing the name of Hiera, or Sacred, on which it is not allowed to bury the dead, and another lying near it, seven stades distant, to which they take the bodies of the dead whom they see fit to inter. Now Hiera has no share in any other fruit, but it produces frankincense in such abundance as to suffice for the honours paid to the gods throughout the entire inhabited world; and it possesses also exceptional quantity of myrrh an every variety of all the other kinds of incense of highly fragrant odour. The nature of frankincense and the preparing of it is like this: In size it is a small tree, and in appearance it resembles the white Egyptian Acacia, its leaves are like those of the willow, as it is called, the bloom it bears is in colour like gold, and the frankincense which comes from it oozes forth in drops like tears. But the myrrh-tree is like the mastich-tree, although its leaves are more slender and grow thicker. It oozes myrrh when the earth is dug away from the roots, and if it is planted in fertile soil this take place twice a year, in spring and in summer; the myrrh of the spring is red, because of the dew, but that of the summer is white. They also gather the fruit of the Christ’s thorn, which they use both for meat and for drink and as a drug for the cure of dysentery. The land of Hiera is divided among its inhabitants, and the king takes for himself the best land and likewise a tithe of the fruits which the island produces. The width of the island is reputed to be about two hundred stades. And the inhabitants of the island are known as Pankhaioi (Panchaeans), and these men take the frankincense and myrrh across to the mainland and sell it to Arab merchants, from whom others in turn purchase wares of this kind and convey them to Phoinike (Phoenicia) and Coele-Syria and Egypt, and in the end merchants convey them from these countries throughout all the inhabited world. And there is yet another large island, thirty stades distant from the one we have mentioned, lying out in the ocean to the east and many stades in length; for men say that from its promontory which extends toward the east one can descry India, misty because of its great distance. As for Pankhaia itself, the island possesses many things which are deserving to be recorded by history. It is inhabited by men who were sprung from the soil itself, called Pankhaioi (Panchaeans), and the foreigners there are Okeanites (Oceanites) and Indoi (Indians) and Skythai (Scythians) and Kretes (Cretans). There is also a notable city on the island, called Panara, which enjoys unusual felicity; its citizens are called ‘suppliants of Zeus Triphylios,’ [Triphylios means ‘Of the Three Tribes’] and they are the only inhabitants of the land of Panchaea who live under laws of their own making and have no king over them. Each year they elect three chief magistrates; these men have no authority over capital crimes, but render judgment in all other matters; and the weightiest affairs they refer of their own accord to the priests. Some sixty stades distant from the city of Panara is the Temple of Zeus Triphylios, which lies out on a level plain and is especially admired for its antiquity, the costliness of its construction, and its favourable situation. Thus, the plain lying around the Temple is thickly covered with trees of every kind, not only such as bear fruit, but those also which possess the power of pleasing the eye; for the plain abounds with cypresses of enormous size and plane-trees and sweet-bay and myrtle, sine the region is full of springs of water. Indeed, close to the sacred precinct there bursts forth from the earth a spring of sweet water of such size that it gives rise to a river on which boats may sail. And since the water is led off from the river to many parts of the plain and irrigates them, throughout the entire area of the plain there grow continuous forests of lofty trees, wherein a multitude of men pass their time in the summer season and a multitude of birds make their nests, birds of every kind and of various hues, which greatly delight the ear by their song; therein also is every kind of garden and many meadows with varied plants and flowers, so that there is a divine majesty in the prospect which makes the place appear worthy of the gods of the country. And there were palm trees there with mighty trunks, conspicuous for the fruits they bore, and many varieties of nut-bearing trees, which provide the natives of the place with the most abundant subsistence. And in addition to what we have mentioned, grape-vines were found there in great number and of every variety, which were trained to climb high and were variously intertwined so that they presented a pleasing sight and provided an enjoyment of the season without further ado. The Temple was a striking structure of white marble, two plethora in length and the width proportionate to the length; it was supported by large and thick columns and decorated at intervals with reliefs of ingenious design; and there were also remarkable statues of the gods, exceptional in skill of execution and admired by men for their massiveness. Around about the Temple the priests who served the gods had their dwellings, and the management of everything pertaining to the sacred precinct was in their hands. Leading from the Temple an avenue had been constructed, four stades in length and a plethrum in width. On each side of the avenue are great bronze vessels which rest upon square bases, and at the end of the avenue the river we mentioned above has its sources, which pour forth in a turbulent stream. The water of the stream is exceedingly clear and sweet and the use of it is most conductive to the health of the body; and the river bears the name ‘Water of the Sun.’ The entire spring is surrounded by an expensive stone quay, which extends along each side of it four stades, and no man except the priests may set foot upon the place up to the edge of the quay. The plain lying below the Temple has been made sacred to the gods, for a distance of two hundred stades, and the revenues which are derived from it are used to support the sacrifices. Beyond the above-mentioned plain there is a lofty mountain which has been made sacred to the gods and is called the ‘Throne of Ouranos” (i.e. Throne of Heaven) and also ‘Triphylian Olympos.’ For the myth relates that in ancient times, when Ouranos was king of the inhabited earth, he took pleasure in tarrying in that place and in surveying from its lofty top both the heavens and the stars therein, and that at a later time it came to be called Triphylian (Of Three Tribes) Olympos because the men who dwelt about it were composed of three peoples; these namely, were known as Pankhaioi (Panchaeans), Okeanites, and Doians, who were expelled at a later time by Ammon [i.e. a Libyan god described by the Greeks as the African Zeus.] For Ammon, men say, not only drove this nation into exile but also totally destroyed their cities, razing to the ground both Doia and Asterusia. And once year, we are told, the priests hold a sacrifice in this mountain with great solemnity. Beyond this mountain and throughout the rest of the land of Pankhaiitis, the account continues, there is found a multitude of beasts of every description; for the land possesses many elephants and lions and leopards and gazelles and an unusual number of other wild animals which differ in their aspect and are of marvellous ferocity. This island also contains three notable cities, Hyrakia, Dalis, and Okeanis. The whole country, moreover, is fruitful and possesses in particular a multitude of vines of every variety. The men are warlike and use chariots in battle after the ancient manner. The entire body politic of the Panchaeans is divided into three castes: The first caste among them is that of the priests, to whom are assigned the artisans, the second consists of the farmers, and the third is that of the soldiers, to whom are added the herdsmen. The priests served as the leaders in all things, rendering the decisions in legal disputes and possessing the final authority in all other affairs which concerned the community; and the farmers, who are engaged in the tilling of the soil, bring the fruits into the common store, and the man among them who is thought to have practised the best farming receives a special reward when the fruits are portioned out, the priests deciding who has been first, who second, and so in order to the tenth, this being done in order to spur on the rest. In the same manner the herdsmen also turn both the sacrificial animals and all others into the treasury of the state with all precision, some by number and some by weight. For, speaking generally, there is not a thing except a home and a garden which a man may possess for his own, but all the products and the revenues are taken over by the priests, who portion out with justice to each man his share, and to the priests alone is given two-fold. The clothing of the Pankhaioi (Panchaeans) is soft, because the wool of the sheep of the land is distinguished above all other for its softness; and they wear ornaments of gold, not only the women but the men as well, with collars of twisted gold about their necks, bracelets on their wrists, and rings hanging from their ears after the manner of the Persians. The same kind of shoes are worn by both sexes,36 and they re worked in more varied colours than is usual. The soldiers receive a pay which is apportioned to them and in return protect the land by means of forts and posts fixed at intervals; for there is one section of the country which is infested with robber bands, composed of bold and lawless men who lie in wait for the farmers and war upon them. And as for the priests, they far excel the rest in luxury and in every other refinement and elegance of their manner of life; so, for instance, their robes are of linen and exceptionally sheer and soft, and at times they wear garments woven of the softest wool; furthermore, their headdress is interwoven with gold, their foot-gear consists of sandals which are of varied colours and ingeniously worked, and they wear the same gold ornaments as do the women, with the exception of the earrings. The first duties of the priests are concerned with the services paid to the gods and with the hymns and praises which are accorded them, and in them they recite in song the achievements of the gods one after another and the benefactions they have bestowed upon mankind. According to the myth which the priests give, the gods had their origin in Krete, and were led by Zeus to Pankhaia at the time when he sojourned among men and was king of the inhabited earth. In proof of this they cite their language, pointing out that most of the things they have about them still retain their Kretan names; and they add that the kinship which they have with the Kretans and the kindly regard they feel towards them are traditions they received from their ancestors, since this report is ever handed down from one generation to another. And it has been their practice, in corroboration of these claims, to point to inscriptions which, they said, were made by Zeus during the time he still sojourned among men and founded the Temple. The land possesses rich mines of gold, silver, copper, tin, and iron, but none of these metals is allowed to be taken from the island; nor may the priests for any reason whatsoever set foot outside the hallowed land, and if one of them does so, whoever meets him is authorized to slay him. There are many great dedications of gold and of silver which have been made to the gods, since time has amassed the multitude of such offerings. The doorways of the Temples are objects of wonder in their construction, being worked in silver and gold and ivory and citrus-wood. And there is the couch of the god, which is six cubits long and four wide and is entirely of gold and skilfully constructed in every detail of its workmanship. Similar to it both in size and in costliness in general is the table of the god which stands near the couch. And on the centre of the couch stands a large gold stele which carries letters which the Egyptians call sacred [i.e. hieroglyphs], and the inscription recounts the deeds both of Ouranos and of Zeus; and to them there were added by Hermes the deeds also of ArTumis and of Apollon. As regards the islands, then, which lie in the ocean opposite Arabia, we shall rest content with what has been said.”
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 6 . 1. 1 – 11 (from Eusebeius, Praeparatio evangelica, 2. 2. 59B – 61A) : [Book 6 of Diodorus Siculus is no longer extant. However the Christian writer Eusebius quotes part of the first few chapters. Here Diodorus continues with his discussion of Pankhaia, going on to describe the mythology of the island as it was presented in the works of Euhemerus of Messene. :] “The foregoing is told by Diodorus in the Third Book of his History. And the same writer, in the sixth Book as well, confirms the same view regarding the gods, drawing from the writing of Euhemerus of Messenê, and using the following words : ‘As regards the gods, then, men of ancient times have handed down to later generations two different conceptions: Certain of the gods, they say, are eternal and imperishable, such as the sun and the moon and the other stars of the heavens, and the winds as well and whatever else possesses a nature similar to theirs; for of each of these the genesis and duration are from everlasting to everlasting. But the other gods, we are told, were terrestrial beings who attained to immortal honour and fame because of their benefactions to mankind, such as Herakles, Dionysos, Aristaios, and the others who were like them. ‘Regarding these terrestrial gods many and varying accounts have been handed down by the writers of history and of mythology; of the historians, Euhemeros, who composed the Sacred History, has written a special treatise about them, while, of the writers of myths, Homer and Hesiod and Orpheus and the others of their kind have invented rather monstrous stories about the gods. But for our part, we shall endeavour to run over briefly the accounts which both groups of writers have given, aiming at due proportion in our exposition. ‘Now Euhemeros, who was a friend of King Cassander [a successor of Alexander the Great] and was required by him to perform certain affairs of state and to make great journeys abroad, says that he travelled southward as far as the ocean; for setting sail from Arabia the Blest he voyaged through the ocean for a considerable number of days and was carried to the shore of some islands in the sea, one of which bore the name of Pankhaia. On this island he saw the Pankhaioi (Panchaeans) who dwell there, who excel in piety and honour the gods with the most magnificent sacrifices and with remarkable votive offerings of silver and god. The island is sacred to the gods, and there are a number of other objects on it which are admired both for their antiquity and for the great skill of their workmanship, regarding which severally we have written in the preceding Books. ‘There is also on the island, situated upon an exceedingly high hill, a sanctuary of Zeus Triphylios, which was established by him during the time when he was king of all the inhabited world and was still in the company of men. And in this Temple there is a stele of gold on which is inscribed in summary, in the writing employed by the Pankhaioi, the deeds of Ouranos and Kronos and Zeus. ‘Euhemeros goes on to say that Ouranos was the first to be king, that he was an honourable man and beneficent, who was versed in the movement of the stars, and that he was also the first to honour the gods of the heavens with sacrifices, whence he was called Uranus or ‘Heaven.’ There were born to him by his wife Hestia two sons, Titan and Kronos, and two daughters, Rhea and Demeter. Kronos became king after Ouranos, and marrying Rhea he begat Zeus and Hera and Poseidon. And Zeus on succeeding to the kingship, married Hera and Demeter and Themis, and by them he had children, the Kouretes by the first named, Persephonê by the second, and Athena by the third. ‘And going to Babylon he was entertained by Belos [king of Phoenicia], and after that he went to the island of Pankhaia, which lies in the ocean, and here he set up an altar to Ouranos, the founder of his family. From there he passed through Syria and came to Kasios, who was ruler of Syria at that time, and who gave his name to Mt. Kasios. And coming to Kilikia (Cilicia) he conquered in battle Kilix, the governor of the region, and he visited very many other nations, all of which paid honour to him and publicly proclaimed him a god.’ After recounting what I have given and more to the same effect about the gods, as if about mortal men, Diodoros goes on to say : `Now regarding Euhemeros, who composed the Sacred History, we shall rest content with what has been said, and shall endeavour to run over briefly the myths which the Greeks recount concerning the gods, as they are given by Hesiod and Homer and Orpheus.’ Thereupon Diodoros goes on to add the myths as the poets give them.”
Ovid, Metamorphoses 10. 308 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “Across the countryside she [Myrrha of Phoenicia, the mother of Adonis] wandered till she left the palm-fringed lands of Arabae and rich Panchaea’s fields.”
Claudian, The Rape of Proserpine 2. 78 ff (trans. Platnauer) (Roman poet C4th A.D.) : “All the sweet airs of Panchaea’s incense-bearing woods, all the honied odours of Hydaspes’ distant [Indian] stream, all the spices which from the furthest fields the long-lived Phoenix gathers, seeking new birth from wished for death.”

Nesoi Makarioi (Islands of the Blest)

Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 627 ff (trans. Seaton) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : “The deep stream of Rhodanos [the Rhone] which flows into Eridanos [mythical northern river of Hyperborea]; and where they meet there is a roar of mingling waters. Now that river, rising from the ends of the earth, where are the portals and mansions of Nyx (Night), on one side bursts forth upon the beach of Oceanus, at another pours into the Ionian sea, and on the third through seven mouths sends its stream to the Sardinian sea and its limitless bay.

And from Rhodanos they entered stormy lakes, which spread throughout the Keltic mainland of wondrous size; and there they would have met with an inglorious calamity; for a certain branch of the river was bearing them towards a gulf of Oceanus.”

When Hades carried off Persephone from the upper world, he rode in a golden chariot drawn by four black immortal horses. (Orph. Argon. 1192, Hymn. 17. 14; Ov. Met. v. 404; Hom. Hymn. in Cer. 19; Claudian, Rapt. Proserp. i. in fin.) Besides these horses he was also believed to have herds of oxen in the lower world and in the island of Erytheia, which were attended to by Menoetius. (Apollod. ii. 5. §§ 10, 12.). Being the king of the lower world, Pluton is the giver of all the blessings that come from the earth: he is the possessor and giver of all the metals contained in the earth.

Statius, Thebaid 11. 444 ff : “The Warden of the Larvae (Shades) [lord Haides] and the third heir of the world, after the lot’s unkind apportioning, leapt down from his chariot and grew pale, for he was come to Tartarus and heaven was lost for ever.”

It seems that only the Etruscans depicted the underworld god Hades, whom they called Aita, as a god or demon with a wolf’s head, as seen on one of the ash urns below, or with a wolfskin cap, as seen above, with his snake-crowned queen Phersipnei (Persephone) on a famous wall painting from the tomb of Orcus in Volterra, Chiusi, Italy. Between their heads you can clearly read his name, AITA, even in “backward”-reading Etruscan.

The tomb, and its painting, must have been discovered by the 16th century, for there is a famous drawing of a similar wolf-capped and bearded man’s head, formerly attributed to Michelangelo, but now to someone in his “circle.” This is either an uncanny coincidence, or the unkown artist himself saw, or was told about, the head before you. Even more uncanny is the statue Michelangelo made for his Etruscanesque Medici Tombs that portrays Lorenzo as “Il Penseroso,” brooding beneath a lion’s-head helmet.

Nowhere in Homer, or in Greek art, was Hades depicted this way. The old Oxford Companion to Classical Literature says “‘The wolf’s cap of Hades’ worn by Athena In the Iliad” (Book 5, lines 544-5) and by Aita/Hades in Etruscan art, makes its wearers invisible….” But this is badly put. Though Athena dons the “helmet of Hades” to make her invisible, Homer does not call it a “wolf’s cap.” Nor do we know whether the Etruscans thought it made Hades invisible.

Perhaps the Etruscans identified the Greek god with an ancient wolf or wolf-man that they worshipped?

On this ash urn from the same period we again see a humanized Aita, bearded and fur-capped, about to lead away into the Underworld the man whose ashes were inside the box, and whose spirit is seen on the outside passing through the portal to the world beyond. He wears a funny-looking pointed metal cap, like the funnel on the Tin Woodman in the Wizard of Oz, to show he was a haruspex, a wizard and seer who could fortell the future by reading patterns in the guts of animals or blasts of thunder and bolts of lightning. Now he takes his last farewell from his pretty young wife and baby.

Above them are two bare-breasted, torch-bearing female demons or “vanths” with snakes in their hair like Phersnipnei in the tomb painting. Beside the door is a short-skirted female who could be Culsu, or Vanth herself, guarding the door. One of the overhead vanths points her torch down toward the mother and child. Are they being threatened with death, or just driven off, back to the realm of the living?

Meanwhile, Aita, Lord of the Dead, strides toward the dead man to take him into the Underworld. He wears a beard and a fur cap, probably a wolfskin cap like that worn by Aita in the tomb painting above. On the right, the death demon Charun, wearing an animal hide, waits with his hammer and a paddle to deal the dead man the coup de grace, while above him a dog-headed demon waits to devour him. Like Cerberus, the dog with three heads that guarded the Greek Hades, wild dogs would scavenge ancient graves and tombs to dig up and gnaw the flesh and bones of the dead.

Even more puzzling is this scene on an Etruscan ash urn from the same period, now in a museum in Perugia.

What in Hades is going on here?

It seems the Wolf Man from Hell is being conjured up by force by a group of Etruscan soldiers. But why? What is it they want from him?

Of no help in answering this question is the Etruscan writing across the top edge of the urn, which reads “backwards,” from right to left. This is merely the name of the person whose ashes it held.

Hardly more helpful is this blurb from the Superintendent of the Archeological Institute of Umbria: “A man with a wolf’s head who comes out of a well, creating utter confusion among a group of warriors, in the presence of a female demon….”

“We need no ghost come from the grave to tell us this, Horatio.” (Hamlet) So let us venture out on our own:

The “female demon” is Vanth, the Etruscan angel of death (or a “vanth,” one of her look-alikes), who is present when someone is about to die or be killed so that she can lead him or her into the Underworld.

Here’s a rough translation from the German of Oscar Vacano’s description (with our comments in square brackets):

“Relief-decorated stone urns of the third and second century BC from Volterra, Chiusi and Perugia show the well-like verge of such an underworld pit, from which rises the torso of a wolf-headed monster. A bearded man with drawn sword stands behind him. He empties out the offering dish [called a “patera”; but we do not see it; perhaps it was lost?] over the monster that struck down with a powerful paw one of the armed young men, who try to hold him in check. [The stricken soldier is not, we think, the one on the ground at right, who is still trying to ward off a blow, but the one bent over the pit or well on the left. Is he peering down into it through a small opening? Or is he dying and emptying his soul into it?] Another soldier [standing, and about to hit Aita with a club or sword,] strains to haul the monster up from the depths with a heavy leash [the upper half of which has been broken off], which is hooked around the monster’s neck. The winged Vanth in the background points to mischief and calamity.” (Die Etrusker. Werden und Geistige Welt. Stuttgart, W. Kohlhammer, 1951.)

According to an old legend the underworld monster Oita (also called Volta) rose up from the earth around the city of Volsinii and threatened to destroy it, until Lars Porsenna, king of Chiusi, called down a thunderbolt upon him. (Pliny, Natural History, XI, 140.) Apparently King Porsenna was also a haruspex, or acting on the advice of one.

Is it possible that the wolf-headed monster Oita was the ancient name and form of Aita, the Etruscan Lord of Hades?

The conjuring of underworld and celestial powers was taught by the Disciplina Etrusca – the bible and handbook of the haruspices. And the technical term for what seems to be taking place on this urn is “necromancy,” the magical conjuring up of the spirits of the dead. The most famous case of necromancy is the biblical story of the so-called “Witch” of Endor, who conjured up the spirit of the prophet Samuel from the kingdom of the dead (Sheol). That sort of magic was punishable by death: As King James’ translators put it, “Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.” If what we see on the urn is an even more dangerous and violent form of necromancy, dragging up from Hades one of its monsters, perhaps even the Lord of Hades, no wonder the soldiers are dying left and right.

If there are other interpretations of what is happening on this ash urn, let them come forth.

Finally, Is the urn trying to telll us that Death can’t be toyed with – that Death cannot be defeated?

R.I.P. “Requiescat in Pace,” or “Rest in Peace,” we read on stone after stone in our graveyards. And the urn reminds us that the real reason this prayer is engraved on our tombtsones is not so much to benefit the dead, as ourselves, the living. For we are terrified that the dead will not stay dead, that they will come back to haunt us. Which, of course, they do. They are always with us.

Hades (from Greek ?d??, Hades, originally ??d??, Haides or ??d??, Aides, probably from Indo-European *n?-wid- ‘unseen'[1]) refers to the ancient Greek underworld, the abode of Hades, and to Hades in Homer referred just to the god; ?d??, Haidou its genitive, was an elision of “the house of Hades.” Eventually, the nominative, too, came to designate the abode of the dead.

In Greek mythology, Hades and his brothers Zeus and Poseidon defeated the Titans and claimed rulership over the universe ruling the underworld, sky, and sea, respectively. Because of his association with the underworld, Hades is often interpreted as a grim figure.

Hades was also called Pluto (from Greek ????t?? Plouton), and by this name known as “the unseen one”, or “the rich one”. In Roman mythology, Hades/Pluto was called Dis Pater and Orcus. The corresponding Etruscan god was Aita. The symbols associated with him are the bident and the three-headed dog, Cerberus.

In Christian theology, the term hades refers to the abode of the dead, where the dead await Judgement Day either at peace or in torment

In older Greek myths, Hades is the misty and gloomy[2] abode of the dead, where all mortals go. There is no reward or special punishment in this Hades, akin to the Hebrew sheol. In later Greek philosophy appeared the idea that all mortals are judged after death and are either rewarded or cursed.

There were several sections of Hades, including the Elysian Fields (contrast the Christian Paradise or Heaven), and Tartarus, (compare the Christian Hell). Greek mythographers were not perfectly consistent about the geography of the afterlife. A contrasting myth of the afterlife concerns the Garden of the Hesperides, often identified with the Isles of the Blessed, where the blest heroes may dwell.

In Roman mythology, an entrance to the underworld located at Avernus, a crater near Cumae, was the route Aeneas used to descend to the Underworld. By synecdoche, “Avernus” could be substituted for the underworld as a whole. The Inferi Dii were the Roman gods of the underworld.

The deceased entered the underworld by crossing the Acheron, ferried across by Charon (kair’-on), who charged an obolus, a small coin for passage, placed under the tongue of the deceased by pious relatives. Paupers and the friendless gathered for a hundred years on the near shore. Greeks offered propitiatory libations to prevent the deceased from returning to the upper world to “haunt” those who had not given them a proper burial. The far side of the river was guarded by Cerberus, the three-headed dog defeated by Heracles (Roman Hercules). Passing beyond Cerberus, the shades of the departed entered the land of the dead to be judged.

Since Hades was the ruler of the Underworld, it makes sense to note one of the key features of this region – its myriad rivers. These rivers had names and symbolic meanings: the five rivers of Hades are Acheron (the river of sorrow), Cocytus (lamentation), Phlegethon (fire), Lethe (forgetfulness) and Styx (hate). The Styx forms the boundary between upper and lower worlds.

The first region of Hades comprises the Fields of Asphodel, described in Odyssey xi, where the shades of heroes wander despondently among lesser spirits, who twitter around them like bats. Only libations of blood offered to them in the world of the living can reawaken in them for a time the sensations of humanity.

Beyond lay Erebus, which could be taken for a euphonym of Hades, whose own name was dread. There were two pools, that of Lethe, where the common souls flocked to erase all memory, and the pool of Mnemosyne (“memory”), where the initiates of the Mysteries drank instead. In the forecourt of the palace of Hades and Persephone sit the three judges of the Underworld: Minos, Rhadamanthys and Aeacus. There at the trivium sacred to Hecate, where three roads meets, souls are judged, returned to the Fields of Asphodel if they are neither virtuous nor evil or bsent by the road to Tartarus if they are impious or evil, or sent to Elysium (Islands of the Blest) with the heroic or blessed.

In the Sibylline Oracles, a curious hodgepodge of Greco-Roman and Judaeo-Christian elements, Hades again appears as the abode of the dead, and by way of folk etymology, it even derives Hades from the name Adam (the first man), saying it is because he was the first to enter there.[3]

In Greek mythology, Hades (the “unseen”), the god of the underworld, was a son of the Titans, Cronus and Rhea. He had three younger sisters, Hestia, Demeter, and Hera, as well as two brothers , Poseidon his older brother and Zeus his younger brother: the six of them were Olympian gods.

Upon reaching adulthood, Zeus managed to force his father to disgorge his siblings. After their release the six younger gods, along with allies they managed to gather, challenged the elder gods for power in the Titanomachy, a divine war. Zeus, Poseidon and Hades received weapons from the three Cyclopes to help in the war. Zeus the thunderbolt; Hades the Helm of Darkness; and Poseidon the trident. During the night before the first battle Hades put on his helmet and, being invisible, slipped over to the Titans’ camp and destroyed their weapons. The war lasted for ten years and ended with the victory of the younger gods. Following their victory, according to a single famous passage in the Iliad (xv.187-93), Hades and his two brothers, Poseidon and Zeus, drew lots for realms to rule. Zeus got the sky, Poseidon got the seas, and Hades received the underworld,[8] the unseen realm to which the dead go upon leaving the world as well as any and all things beneath the earth.

Hades obtained his eventual consort and queen, Persephone, through trickery, a story that connected the ancient Eleusinian Mysteries with the Olympian pantheon. Helios told the grieving Demeter that Hades was not unworthy as a consort for Persephone:

“Aidoneus, the Ruler of Many, is no unfitting husband among the deathless gods for your child, being your own brother and born of the same stock: also, for honor, he has that third share which he received when division was made at the first, and is appointed lord of those among whom he dwells.”

Despite modern connotations of death as “evil,” Hades was actually more altruistically inclined in mythology. Hades was often portrayed as passive rather than evil; his role was often maintaining relative balance.

Hades ruled the dead, assisted by others over whom he had complete authority. He strictly forbade his subjects to leave his domain and would become quite enraged when anyone tried to leave, or if someone tried to steal the souls from his realm. His wrath was equally terrible for anyone who tried to cheat death or otherwise crossed him, as Sisyphus and Pirithous found out to their sorrow.

Besides Heracles, the only other living people who ventured to the Underworld were all heroes: Odysseus, Aeneas (accompanied by the Sibyl), Orpheus, Theseus, Pirithoüs, and Psyche. None of them was especially pleased with what they witnessed in the realm of the dead. In particular, the Greek war hero Achilles, whom Odysseus met in Hades (although some believe that Achilles dwells in the Isles of the Blest), said:

“Do not speak soothingly to me of death, glorious Odysseus. I should choose to serve as the hireling of another, rather than to be lord over the dead that have perished.”
-Achilles’ soul to Odysseus. Homer, Odyssey 11.488

Hades, labelled as “Plouton”, “The Rich One”, bears a cornucopia on an Attic red-figure amphora, ca 470 BC.Hades, god of the dead, was a fearsome figure to those still living; in no hurry to meet him, they were reticent to swear oaths in his name, and averted their faces when sacrificing to him. To many, simply to say the word “Hades” was frightening. So, euphemisms were pressed into use. Since precious minerals come from under the earth (i.e., the “underworld” ruled by Hades), he was considered to have control of these as well, and was referred to as ????t?? (Plouton, related to the word for “wealth”), hence the Roman name Pluto. Sophocles explained referring to Hades as “the rich one” with these words: “the gloomy Hades enriches himself with our sighs and our tears.” In addition, he was called Clymenus (“notorious”), Eubuleus (“well-guessing”), and Polydegmon (“who receives many”), all of them euphemisms for a name it was unsafe to pronounce, which evolved into epithets.

Although he was an Olympian, he spent most of the time in his dark realm. Formidable in battle, he proved his ferocity in the famous Titanomachy, the battle of the Olympians versus the Titans, which established the rule of Zeus.

Because of his dark and morbid personality, he was not especially liked by either the gods nor the mortals. Feared and loathed, Hades embodied the inexorable finality of death: “Why do we loathe Hades more than any god, if not because he is so adamantine and unyielding?” The rhetorical question is Agamemnon’s (Iliad ix). He was not, however, an evil god, for although he was stern, cruel, and unpitying, he was still just. Hades ruled the Underworld and therefore most often associated with death and was feared by men, but he was not Death itself – the actual embodiments of Death were Thanatos (violent death) and Hypnos (peacefull or natural death).

When the Greeks propitiated Hades, they banged their hands on the ground to be sure he would hear them[citation needed]. Black animals, such as sheep, were sacrificed to him, and the very vehemence of the rejection of human sacrifice expressed in myth[9] suggests an unspoken memory of some distant past. The blood from all chthonic sacrifices including those to propitiate Hades dripped into a pit or cleft in the ground. The person who offered the sacrifice had to avert his face.[10] Every hundred years festivals were held in his honor, called the Secular Games.

Hades’ weapon was a two-pronged fork, which he used to shatter anything that was in his way or not to his liking, much as Poseidon did with his trident. This ensign of his power was a staff with which he drove the shades of the dead into the lower world.

His identifying possessions included a famed helmet of darkness, given to him by the Cyclopes, which made anyone who wore it invisible. Hades was known to sometimes loan his helmet of invisibility to both gods and men (such as Perseus). His dark chariot, drawn by four coal-black horses, always made for a fearsome and impressive sight. His other ordinary attributes were the Narcissus and Cypress plants, the Key of Hades and Cerberus, the three-headed dog. He sat on an ebony throne.

In the Greek version of an obscure Judaeo-Christian work known as 3 Baruch (never considered canonical by any known group), Hades is said to be a dark, serpent-like monster or dragon who drinks a cubit of water from the sea every day, and is 200 plethra (20,200 English feet, or nearly four miles) in length.

The Greek underworld is a general term used to describe the various realms of Greek mythology which were believed to lie beneath the earth or beyond the horizon.

These include:

The great pit of Tartarus, which was originally the exclusive prison of the old Titan gods, but which later came to mean the dungeon home of the damned souls
The land of the dead ruled by the god Hades, which is variously called the house or domain of Hades (domos Aidaou), Hades, Erebus, the Asphodel Fields, Stygia and Acheron ;
The Islands of the Blessed or Elysian Islands ruled by Cronus (According to Pindar – other accounts differ), where the great heroes of myth resided after death ;
The Elysian Fields ruled by Rhadamanthys, where the virtuous dead and initiates in the ancient Mysteries were sent to dwell.
The five rivers of Hades are Acheron (the river of sorrow), Cocytus (lamentation), Phlegethon (fire), Lethe (forgetfulness) and Styx (hate), which forms the boundary between upper and lower worlds.

The ancient Greek concept of the underworld evolved considerably over time.
The oldest descriptions of the underworld can be found in Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey. The other poets of old epic such as Hesiod describe it similarly. In the Odyssey the Underworld is located beyond the Western horizon. Odysseus reaches it by ship from Circe’s island, and later on, the ghosts of the suitors are herded there by Hermes Psychopompus (the guide of the dead). He herds them through the hollows of the earth, beyond the earth-encircling river Oceanus and the gates of the (setting) Sun to their final resting place in Hades.

The Homeric Hymns and lyric poet Pindar introduce the paradise-like realm of Elysium where the virtuous dead were sent after death. This blessed afterlife was also promised in cult to the initiates of the ancient Mysteries.

Philosophers such as Plato and the mystic Orphics and Pythagoreans include the concept of the judgement of the dead. Spirits were assigned to one of three realms: Elysium for the blessed, Tartarus for the damned, and Hades for the rest. Further they believed in reincarnation and the transmigration of souls.

The most elaborate description of the underworld appears in Virgil’s Aeneid, where the various sections of the land of the dead are described as a whole.

Many local cults in Greece claimed to possess entrances to the underworld, and had special religious rites associated with these. Ancient travel writers and geographers such as Pausanias and Strabo describe these.

The deceased entered the underworld by crossing the river Acheron ferried across by Charon (kair’-on), who charged an obolus, a small coin, as a fee. This coin was placed under the tongue of the deceased by relatives. Paupers and the friendless gathered forever on the near shore. The far side of the river was guarded by Cerberus, the three-headed guard dog of Hades.

The twelfth and last task of Hercules was to retrieve Cerberus, the three-headed guard dog of Hades, from his post and show him to his cousin, for whom he was working as punishment from killing his wife and sons. He was successful, and was rewarded freedom from bondage after unintentional infanticide, which he did because Hera made him insane. Later, however, Hera made him insane again and he killed Iphitus,the son of the prince of Oechalia Eurytus. As punishment, he was forced to be a slave of Queen Omphale of Lydia, for three years.

The Argonaut Orpheus, a wonderful musician, lost his soon to be wife, Euridice, after she was bitten by a snake. He descended to the Underworld and managed to pass Cerberus and Charon by charming them with his kithara (a musical instrument similar to a lyre) to plead Hades and Persephone. Persephone felt sorry for him, so he was allowed to have her back, if he reached the normal world again without looking over his shoulder. At the last minute, because he was unable to hear his wife’s footsteps, he turned back and in doing so he caught his last glimpse of his wife’s ghost as he lost her forever.

Theseus, a great abductor of women, and his bosom companion, Pirithous, since they were sons of Zeus and Poseidon, pledged themselves to marry daughters of Zeus.[4] Theseus, in an old tradition,[5] chose Helen, and together they kidnapped her, intending to keep her until she was old enough to marry. Pirithous chose Persephone. They left Helen with Theseus’s mother, Aethra at Aphidna, whence she was rescued by the Dioscuri.

On Pirithous’ behalf they travelled to the underworld, domain of Persephone and her husband, Hades. Hades pretended to offer them hospitality and laid out a feast, but as soon as the two visitors sat down, snakes coiled around their feet and held them fast. In some versions, the stone itself grew and attached itself to their thighs.

When Heracles came into Hades for his twelfth task, he freed Theseus but the earth shook when he attempted to liberate Pirithous, and Pirithous had to remain in Hades for eternity. When Heracles had pulled Theseus from the chair where he was trapped, some of his thigh stuck to it; this explains the supposedly lean thighs of Athenians. When Theseus returned to Athens, he found that the Dioscuri had taken Helen and Aethra back to Sparta.

Etruscans made Aita’s cap or helmet from a wolf’s head, which would be unknown to the Greeks. Yet the Greeks depicted Hades’ headgear in a similar way.

For Hades, too, had a helmet, the proverbial “Aidos kune” or “Hades’ helmet,” that was created for him by the Cyclops during the war of the Olympian gods against the Titans. This helmet made the wearer invisible (“aidou”, hence the name Aides or Hades, “The Invisible” or “Unseen One”). Not even the gods could see its wearer. Athena wore it, says Homer, during the Trojan war to make her invisible, even to Ares. Hermes borrowed it and lent it to Perseus, to make him invisible in his fight with the terrible Gorgons.

The Greek word for “helmet” (kune) means “dog’s hair,” “dog’s hide,” or “dog’s skin.” “Hades’ helmet” was thus a dog-skin cap. And this the Etruscans turned into the wolf-skin cap or helmet of Aita.

It seems that only the Etruscans depicted the underworld god Hades, whom they called Aita, as a god or demon with a wolf’s head, or with a wolfskin cap, with his snake-crowned queen Phersipnei (Persephone) on a famous wall painting from the tomb of Orcus in Volterra, Chiusi, Italy. Between their heads you can clearly read his name, AITA, even in “backward”-reading Etruscan.

The tomb, and its painting, must have been discovered by the 16th century, for there is a famous drawing of a similar wolf-capped and bearded man’s head, formerly attributed to Michelangelo, but now to someone in his “circle.” This is either an uncanny coincidence, or the unkown artist himself saw, or was told about, the head before you. Even more uncanny is the statue Michelangelo made for his Etruscanesque Medici Tombs that portrays Lorenzo as “Il Penseroso,” brooding beneath a lion’s-head helmet.

Nowhere in Homer, or in Greek art, was Hades depicted this way. The old Oxford Companion to Classical Literature says “‘The wolf’s cap of Hades’ worn by Athena In the Iliad” (Book 5, lines 544-5) and by Aita/Hades in Etruscan art, makes its wearers invisible….” But this is badly put. Though Athena dons the “helmet of Hades” to make her invisible, Homer does not call it a “wolf’s cap.” Nor do we know whether the Etruscans thought it made Hades invisible.

Perhaps the Etruscans identified the Greek god with an ancient wolf or wolf-man that they worshipped?

On this ash urn from the same period we again see a humanized Aita, bearded and fur-capped, about to lead away into the Underworld the man whose ashes were inside the box, and whose spirit is seen on the outside passing through the portal to the world beyond. He wears a funny-looking pointed metal cap, like the funnel on the Tin Woodman in the Wizard of Oz, to show he was a haruspex, a wizard and seer who could fortell the future by reading patterns in the guts of animals or blasts of thunder and bolts of lightning. Now he takes his last farewell from his pretty young wife and baby.

Above them are two bare-breasted, torch-bearing female demons or “vanths” with snakes in their hair like Phersnipnei in the tomb painting. Beside the door is a short-skirted female who could be Culsu, or Vanth herself, guarding the door. One of the overhead vanths points her torch down toward the mother and child. Are they being threatened with death, or just driven off, back to the realm of the living?

Meanwhile, Aita, Lord of the Dead, strides toward the dead man to take him into the Underworld. He wears a beard and a fur cap, probably a wolfskin cap like that worn by Aita . On the right, the death demon Charun, wearing an animal hide, waits with his hammer and a paddle to deal the dead man the coup de grace, while above him a dog-headed demon waits to devour him. Like Cerberus, the dog with three heads that guarded the Greek Hades, wild dogs would scavenge ancient graves and tombs to dig up and gnaw the flesh and bones of the dead.

Even more puzzling is this scene on an Etruscan ash urn from the same period, now in a museum in Perugia.

What in Hades is going on here?

It seems the Wolf Man from Hell is being conjured up by force by a group of Etruscan soldiers. But why? What is it they want from him?

Of no help in answering this question is the Etruscan writing across the top edge of the urn, which reads “backwards,” from right to left. This is merely the name of the person whose ashes it held.

Hardly more helpful is this blurb from the Superintendent of the Archeological Institute of Umbria: “A man with a wolf’s head who comes out of a well, creating utter confusion among a group of warriors, in the presence of a female demon….”

“We need no ghost come from the grave to tell us this, Horatio.” (Hamlet) So let us venture out on our own:

The “female demon” is Vanth, the Etruscan angel of death (or a “vanth,” one of her look-alikes), who is present when someone is about to die or be killed so that she can lead him or her into the Underworld.

Here’s a rough translation from the German of Oscar Vacano’s description (with our comments in square brackets):

“Relief-decorated stone urns of the third and second century BC from Volterra, Chiusi and Perugia show the well-like verge of such an underworld pit, from which rises the torso of a wolf-headed monster. A bearded man with drawn sword stands behind him. He empties out the offering dish [called a “patera”; but we do not see it; perhaps it was lost?] over the monster that struck down with a powerful paw one of the armed young men, who try to hold him in check. [The stricken soldier is not, we think, the one on the ground at right, who is still trying to ward off a blow, but the one bent over the pit or well on the left. Is he peering down into it through a small opening? Or is he dying and emptying his soul into it?] Another soldier [standing, and about to hit Aita with a club or sword,] strains to haul the monster up from the depths with a heavy leash [the upper half of which has been broken off], which is hooked around the monster’s neck. The winged Vanth in the background points to mischief and calamity.” (Die Etrusker. Werden und Geistige Welt. Stuttgart, W. Kohlhammer, 1951.)

According to an old legend the underworld monster Oita (also called Volta) rose up from the earth around the city of Volsinii and threatened to destroy it, until Lars Porsenna, king of Chiusi, called down a thunderbolt upon him. (Pliny, Natural History, XI, 140.) Apparently King Porsenna was also a haruspex, or acting on the advice of one.

Is it possible that the wolf-headed monster Oita was the ancient name and form of Aita, the Etruscan Lord of Hades?

The conjuring of underworld and celestial powers was taught by the Disciplina Etrusca – the bible and handbook of the haruspices. And the technical term for what seems to be taking place on this urn is “necromancy,” the magical conjuring up of the spirits of the dead. The most famous case of necromancy is the biblical story of the so-called “Witch” of Endor, who conjured up the spirit of the prophet Samuel from the kingdom of the dead (Sheol). That sort of magic was punishable by death: As King James’ translators put it, “Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.” If what we see on the urn is an even more dangerous and violent form of necromancy, dragging up from Hades one of its monsters, perhaps even the Lord of Hades, no wonder the soldiers are dying left and right.

“The Double-Axe sign for the God Zeus in Crete also occurs as a sign for the god ZAG [1] in Sumerian. It is found in the inscription of Manis-Tusu’s grandfather; and it is obviously a fuller form of the diagrammatic axe-sign in Sumerian, which has the phonetic value of ZAG or SAG, and is defined as ‘axe, sceptre, two-edged sword.’ And significantly this axe-sign is a title in Sumerian of ‘The GREAT LORD’ (NAR-GAL) [Ner-Gal from his fatal smiting still later became the God of the Underworld.], a martial reflex of the Father-God ZAGG, SAKH, or SAX [2], i.e., Zeus, who became latterly the ‘God of War’ in Babylonia; and Manis’ father SARGON worshipped the weapon of the God ZAGG as we have seen.” Ramman, God of the Axe of the Chaldeans.
At the Nippur Temple “Sargon-the-Great” claims that: “Unto King Gin, king of the Land, Lord Sakh gave no foe from the Upper Sea unto the Lower Sea, Lord Sakh … subjected the lands to him.”
Omen version states: “King Gin who marched against the Land of the West, and conquered the Land of the West, his hand subdued the Four Quarters of the World.”
Waddell’s revised Omen Chronicle copy reads: “King Gin, king of Agudu City, through the Weapon of Lord Sakhar Tar was exalted. And he possessed no foe or rival. His glory over the world poured out. The Sea in the East he crossed. And in the eleventh year the Land of the West in full his hand subdued. He united them under one rule. He set up his images in the West. Their booty he brought over as arranged.”
The above boundaries refer to his:
1. “conquest of the land of the Muru.” Amorites always singular as in Gen. 10:16 descendants of Canaan. * The Mari tablets show that Amraphel of Shinar (Gen. 14:1) was one of their kings. * They dwelt in Hazazon-tamar the ancient name of a town on the west coast of the Dead Sea, occupied by the Amorites, but conquered by four great kings of the East.
2. “the Tin-land country which lies beyond the Upper Sea.”
3. “Egypt or Mishir or Mizir” was one of his frontiers. Preceding the historical or dynastic period are a number of prehistoric cultures that are known in general outline. Egypt (Mizraim, Heb. mitsrayim, Gr. Aigyptos), a term of which the form and derivation are unknown. The Egyptians themselves had a number of names they used for their country; usually it was called “the Two Lands,” which has reference to the origin of the nation in the 3100 B.C. union of Upper and Lower Egypt, other names were Kemet, “the Black Land,” the rich alluvial soil of the valley, as opposed to Desheret, “the Red Land,” the barren waste of the desert.
This battle-axe protective character of this X “Cross” of Indara (or Andrew) is also well seen in the Hitto-Sumerian seals, in which it is placed protectively above the sacred Goats of Indara returning to the door of Indara’s shrine or “Inn,” [W5] … wherein we shall discover that the “Goat” is a rebus representation of “Goth,” the chosen people of Indara or IA, Yahveh, or Jove, who himself is described in the Sumerian hymns as a Goat, [W6] the animal especially sacred to Indra, [W7] and to Thor in the Eddas.

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