The old Egyptian word for Cronos is “Seb”, which later became called Repha This name appears in the Old Testament (Amos 5:26 and also Acts 7:43) as Rephan or Raiphan The Hebrew word for giants/titans is Repha-im In Greek myths, the Titans are the sons of Cronos In Greek myths, Zeus fought against Cronos and defeated the titans by throwing a ball of fire out of the sky It burnt the land and boiled the sea Upon Cronos defeat, Zeus imprisoned him at the bottom of the Ocean in Tartaros. Cronos had introduced law, cities and agriculture to the land Zeus was Cronos’ son and was hidden on the Island of Crete, and eventually grew up to defeat him He fought his father for ten years before being given “large bolts of lightning” that could shake the land itself and destroy whole cities.

CRONUS KING OF THE ISLANDS OF THE BLESSED According to some, Kronos, the former king of the Golden Age, was released by Zeus from Tartaros and made king of the islands of the Blessed, where the heroes were sent to dwell in paradise after death Hesiod, Works and Days 156 ff (trans Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B C ) :

“Zeus the son of Kronos made yet another, the fourth [race of men], upon the fruitful earth, which was nobler and more righteous, a god-like race of hero-men who are called demi-gods, the race before our own, throughout the boundless earth Grim war and dread battle destroyed a part of them, some in the land of Kadmos at seven-gated Thebe when they fought for the flocks of Oidipous, and some, when it had brought them in ships over the great sea gulf to Troy for rich-haired Helene’s sake :

there death’s end enshrouded a part of them But to the others father Zeus the son of Kronos gave a living and an abode apart from men, and made them dwell at the ends of earth And they live untouched by sorrow in the islands of the blessed along the shore of deep swirling Oceanus, happy heroes for whom the grain-giving earth bears honey-sweet fruit flourishing thrice a year, far from the deathless gods, and Kronos rules over them; for the father of men and gods released him from his bonds And these last equally have honour and glory ” Pindar, Olympian Ode 2 55 ff (trans Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B C ) :

“When they [men] die hearts that were void of mercy pay the due penalty, and of this world’s sins a judge below the earth holds trial, and of dread necessity declares the word of doom But the good, through the nights alike, and through the days unending, beneath the sun’s bright ray, tax no the soil with the strength of their hands, nor the broad sea for a poor living, but enjoy a life that knows no toil; with men honoured of heaven, who kept their sworn word gladly, spending an age free from all tears But the unjust endure pain that no eye can bear to see But those who had good courage, three times on either side of death, to keep their hearts untarnished of all wrong, these travel along the road of Zeus to Kronos’ tower

There round the Islands of the Blest, the winds of Oceanus play, and golden blossoms burn, some nursed upon the waters, others on land on glorious trees; and woven on their hands are wreaths enchained and flowering crowns, under the just decrees of Rhadamanthys, who has his seat at the right hand of the great father, Rhea’s husband, goddess who holds the throne highest of all And Peleus and Kadmos are of that number, and thither, when her prayers on the heart of Zeus prevailed, his mother brought Akhilleus, he who felled Hektor, Troy’s pillar invincible, unyielding, and brought death to Kyknos, and the Aithiop son of Eos ” Plato, Gorgias 525a ff (trans Lamb) (Greek historian C1st B C ) :

“His [Kronos’] kingdom was strongest in the western regions, where indeed he enjoyed his greatest honour; consequently, down even to comparatively recent times, among the Romans [called by them Saturnus] and the Carthaginians [elsewhere the author mentions the Carthaginians sacrifice of children to the god], while their city still stood, and other neighbouring peoples, notable festivals and sacrifices were celebrated in honour of this god and many places bore his name ” Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41 655 ff (trans Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A D ) :

“Now first appeared the golden crop of men [the Golden Race of Mankind] brought forth in the image of the gods, with the roots of their stock in the earth And these dwelt in the [Phoenician] city of Beroe, that primordial seat which Kronos himself builded ” Suidas s v Sardanios gelos (trans Suda On Line) (Greek philosopher C4th B C ) : “[Plato synchronises the stories of Kronos as king of the Golden Age and Kronos, king of Elysium :] Sokrates: By Homer’s account, Zeus, Poseidon, and Plouton divided the sovereignty amongst them when they took it over from their father [Kronos] Now in the time of Kronos there was a law concerning mankind, and it holds to this very day amongst the gods, that every man who has passed a just and holy life departs after his decease to the Isles of the Blest (Nesoi Makaron), and dwells in all happiness apart from ill; but whoever has lived unjustly and impiously goes to the dungeon of requital and penance which, you know, they call Tartaros Of these men there were judges in Kronos’ time, and still of late in the reign of Zeus–living men to judge the living upon the day when each was to breathe his last; and thus the cases were being decided amiss

So Plouton [Haides] and the overseers from the Isles of the Blest came before Zeus with the report that they found men passing over to either abode undeserving Then spake Zeus : `Nay,’ said he, `I will put a stop to these proceedings Now I, knowing all this before you, have appointed sons of my own to be judges; two from Asia, Minos and Rhadamanthus, and one from Europe, Aiakos ” As to the primary origin and significance of Zeus there is happily no doubt. He is the Indo-European sky-god in its two aspects; he is the god of the Bright Sky and the shining ether, and also of the Dark Sky, the god of thunder and rain.

The Chaldeans specifically linking the third Sumerian king Enu (Enoch) to the legend of the Flood Enu’s son bore the royal title of Ia-patesi (“Priest-King of God Ia”), which Waddell believes is preserved in the name of Noah’s son, Iapeth, or Japeth The Titanes Hyperion, Iapetos, Krios and Koios probably represented the four pillars which held the sky or universe aloft Hyperion as the father of sun, moon and dawn was surely the great Pillar of the East Hyperion, as a Titan son of Heaven, was probably also viewed as the primal god who first ordered the cycles of sun, moon and dawn, establishing the regular rhythm of days and months

His brother Krios, on the other hand, presided over the ordering of the heavenly constellations and so in a complimentary manner ordered the year and the cycle of seasons He and his brothers also seem to have been viewed as the ancient gods responsible for the creation of man, and who each bestowed a quality Hyperion as his name suggests (“he who watches from above”) was clearly associated with watching and observation, just as his wife, Theia, was the goddess of sight (thea), and so theirs was surely the gift of eyes and sight

The Greeks also believed that the eyes emitted a ray of light which allowed one to see Hence the sun and moon, whose rays lit up the earth, were also connected with the gift of sight The Scythians at that time were worshippers of Mars, whom they represented as a sword, for a while leaving their ancient worship of Saturn in abeyance. They were called Umman-Manda, or “People of Saturn” in Akkadian and in the so-called Hittite literary texts. Zeys (Zeus), supreme divinity in the religion of the Pelasgians and the Greeks. In Eolian and Beotian dialect Deys and Sdeys. Etymology from deus, Rom. deu, Greek theos (TN – god). Zalmoxis (Zalmoxis), supreme divinity of the Getae. Word composed of za, art. zal (deu, god) and mox (mos, old man). Macedorom. Dumni-dza, gen. art. Dumnidzalui. Zeus himself was called ??a-Dhia Zeus’ attributes are the eagle (king of birds; Zeus’ messenger) and lightning. Homer’s Iliad calls him “Zeus who thunders on high” and “the Thunderer,” “Zeus, king, lord of Dodona, Pelasgian, you who live far off, ruling cold Dodona, around whom live the Selli, your prophets, 280 with unwashed feet, who sleep upon the ground, you heard me when I prayed to you before. You gave me honour then by striking hard at the Achaean army. So grant me now what I still desire. I intend to stay beside this group of ships, but I’m sending out my comrade and my many Myrmidons. In Greek mythology, the original Greek identification of Helios is Saturn.

HE’LIOS (Hêlios or Êelios), that is, the sun, or the god of the sun He is described as the son of Hyperion and Theia, and as a brother of Selene and Eos (Hom Od xii 176, 322, Hymn in Min 9, 13; Hes Theog 371, &c ) From his father, he is frequently called Hyperionides, or Hyperion, the latter of which is an abridged form of the patronymic, Hyperionion (Hom Od xii 176, Hymn in Cer 74; Hes Theog 1011; Hom Od i 24, ii 19, 398, Hymn in Apoll Pyth 191 ) In the Homeric hymn on Helios, he is called a son of Hyperion and Euryphaëssa Homer describes Helios as giving light both to gods and men: he rises in the east from Oceanus, though not from the river, but from some lake or bog (limnê) formed by Oceanus, rises up into heaven, where he reaches the highest point at noon time, and then he descends, arriving in the evening in the darkness of the west, and in Oceanus (Il vii 422, Od iii 1, &c , 335, iv 400, x 191, xi 18, xii 380 )

The Getae, as the historian Mnaseas of Patrae tells us, venerated Saturn, whom they called Zamolxis (Photius, Lex – Frag. Hist. graec. III p.153, frag. 23). This same title of Old God, Zeul Mos (“deus vetus” or “avus”) was also given to Saturn by the Dacians. The historian Mnaseas of Patrae, who lived in the 3rd century bc, tells us that the Getae venerated Saturn, whom they called Zamolxis (Photius, Fragm. Hist. Graec. III. p.153).

Similarly, Diogenis Laertius writes (VIII) that the Getae call Saturn Zamolxis, and Hesychius says Zalmoxis o Kronos. The form Zalmoxis, which appears with Herodotus( lib. IV. c. 96), Porfirius (De vita Pythagorae, c. 14) and Hesychius (Pauly, Real-Encyclopadie), as well as in various manuscripts of Plato and Suidas, is acknowledged to be the most correct. The northern sea is called in Greek literature, as well as in Roman literature, the Sea of Saturn (Dionysius, Orbis Descriptio, v.32; Pliny, H.N.Iv.27.3). Everywhere during antiquity, the entire north-west region was considered as the empire of the religion of Saturn (Diodorus Siculus, V. 66. 5; Cicero, De nat. Deor. III. 17; Theompompos, Fragm. 293; Ephorus, Fragm. 38).

Lydians had also preserved the memory of an ancient king of theirs, called Manes, son of Jove (meaning Uranos) and Gaea (Dionysius Halicarn. I. 27). But this Manes was the same as Saturn, who had ruled not only in Europe, but also over a part of western Asia, as well as in the northern lands of Africa]. With Hesiod (Theog. 459), Kronos or Saturn is called megas, and in Latin inscriptions magnus. Megas and magnus were the only titles of majesty of prehistoric antiquity.

While Saturn, as divinity of the lower world, had the name of Manus with the Romans, with the Greeks he appears in this quality with the epithet Tartaros (Pindar, Olymp. II. 77). Saturn was also venerated by the Gauls as a telluric divinity, under the name of Teutates (Lucanius, Phars. I. 444; Dionysius Halic. I. c. 38), which is the same word as the Latin tata, the Greek tata, tetta and the Lituanian tetis, tetatis. With Homer (Hymn. in Apoll. v. 335) and Hesiod (Theog. v. 851) the names of Tartaros and Kronos are identical. And with Valerius Flaccus (Argonaut. IV. 258-260), the supreme lord of the other world appears under the name of Pater Tartarus, although both these words had in the beginning the same origin and meaning, from a historical and philological point of view.

After the death of Uranos, the sovereign power over the empire passed on to his daughter Basilea (Lat. Regina), who had married her elder brother Hyperion. But, Hyperion dieing, the other sons of Uranos divided among themselves the empire of their father. Among these sons Atlas and Saturn especially distinguished themselves. Atlas received the regions near the river Oceanus (Istru), and Saturn, who had married Rhea, his second sister, ruled over Sicily, Libya, Italy, and especially over the regions from sundown, en tois pros esperan topois (III. c. 57-61, 66; V. 66. 5), understand the western parts of Atlas mountain, called by the ancients Hesperia (Ovid, Metam. IV. 618).

Homer and Hesiodus show Saturn as king of the Titans, or the ancient and powerful nobility from Oceanus potamos (Homer, Iliad, VIII. 479; XIV. 203, 279; XV, 225; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 851; Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. I. 507; Apollodorus, Bibl. I. 1. 4). Tacitus, the Germans celebrated in their historical songs, as founders of their nation, Tuisto, “deus Terra editus” (Uranos) and his son Mannus (Saturn). Hesiodus, Saturn, the youngest of the Titans, suddenly attacks his father Uranos one night and severs his genitals with a curved sword of steel, wound because of which Uranos dies Saturn was called by the Greek Pelasgians with the epithet presbites (Eschyl, Eumenides, v. 638) and polios, and by the Trojans, Jupiter avus (Virgil, Aen. VII. v. 219-220).

The Phrygians called him Zeus (s. theos) ‘Atis (Psellos, p.109. Boiss. at Tomaschek, Die alten Thraker, II. 42), the Scythians Papaios (Herodotus, l. IV. c. 59), and on the territory of Germany he was called Altvater and Grossvater (Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, p.153), all of these names having the same meaning, of “Mos” (TN – Old man).

Saturn [Cronos] had reached maturity, he decided to take revenge on his father for the injuries he had done his mother, and in this way, helped by his secretary Hermes Trismegistos (thrice great), started a war against Uranos Zalmoxe, the great philosopher and legislator of the Getae, had been, by Greek traditions, the same as Saturn (Mnaseas, in Fragm. Hist. gr. III. 153. 23). Pliny also mentions a civilizing person of the ancient world called Dokius, filius Caeli (Dacianul, the son of Uranos), who according to this genealogy cannot be other than Saturn.

According to what Diodorus Siculus says, the traditions of the inhabitants from near Atlas mountain told the following about the reign of Saturn over the ancient world: After the death of Uranos, the sovereign power over the empire passed on to his daughter Basilea (Lat. Regina), who had married her elder brother Hyperion. But, Hyperion dieing, the other sons of Uranos divided among themselves the empire of their father.

Among these sons Atlas and Saturn especially distinguished themselves. Atlas received the regions near the river Oceanus (Istru), and Saturn, who had married Rhea, his second sister, ruled over Sicily, Libya, Italy, and especially over the regions from sundown, en tois pros esperan topois (III. c. 57-61, 66; V. 66. 5), understand the western parts of Atlas mountain, called by the ancients Hesperia (Ovid, Metam. IV. 618). During the reign of Saturn, like in the times of Uranos, the political and military center of the empire was in the northern parts of the Istru, in the regions of Atlas mountain, or of ancient Dacia.

Homer and Hesiodus show Saturn as king of the Titans, or the ancient and powerful nobility from Oceanus potamos (Homer, Iliad, VIII. 479; XIV. 203, 279; XV, 225; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 851; Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. I. 507; Apollodorus, Bibl. I. 1. 4). Zalmoxe, the great philosopher and legislator of the Getae, had been, by Greek traditions, the same as Saturn (Mnaseas, in Fragm. Hist. gr. III. 153. 23). Pliny also mentions a civilizing person of the ancient world called Dokius, filius Caeli (Dacianul, the son of Uranos), who according to this genealogy cannot be other than Saturn. From a political point of view, the entire Hem peninsula belonged to the Pelasgian empire, although it was probably divided in a number of smaller states.

Saturn, as Philo writes (fragm 2 in Fragm. Hist. gr. III. 569), had given his daughter Athena the kingdom of Attica. The feast days of Saturn, called Cronia, were celebrated with special honor in the whole of Hellada, but especially in Athens (Macrobius, Sat. I. 7). Saturn’s sovereignty extended also over the Germans. According to Tacitus, the Germans celebrated in their historical songs, as founders of their nation, Tuisto, “deus Terra editus” (Uranos) and his son Mannus (Saturn). The Francs, people of German origin, venerated Saturn, as Gregorius of Tours writes (II. 29-33). The ancient Saxons also. Hengist, one of the dukes of the Saxon tribes which had landed in Britannia (cca 445ad), says the following to king Vortigern: “we venerate the deities of our parents, Saturn and the other gods who govern the world” (Galfredus Monemut, lib. VI. ed. 1587, p. 43; Grimm, D. M. 116).

The Galii and other western nations, writes Dionysius of Halikarnassus (I.38), sacrificed to Saturn human victims. The North Sea was called by the ancient geographers the Sea of Saturn, Kronios ‘Ocheanos, Kronios pontos, Mare cronium (Ptolemy, Geogr. I. 1; Pliny, lib. IV, 27, 4; 30. 3; Apollonius Rhodius, IV. 323 – according to the latter though, the Sea of Saturn was in the regions where the Istru separated in two branches, or on the plains of today Hungary).

Saturn’s war with Osyris.

After becoming master over most of the ancient world, Saturn had to wage two long and arduous wars, one against Osyris, who had proclaimed himself king of Egypt, and the other with his son Jove, wars which had fatal consequences for the fate of the Pelasgian empire. Osyris, also called Dionysos by the Greeks (Herodouts, lib. II. 144; Diodorus Siculus, lib. I. 11), was an African from Ethiopia by origin. His father, as he asserted, had been Ammon (Uranos), the king of Libya and Egypt (Diodorus Siculus, lib. I. 15. 6; III. 68, 70).

According to some traditions, Osyris had been reared at Nysa in Arabia, and according to other authors, at Nysa near the river Triton in Libya, where he had received instruction in all the branches of ancient sciences. We find with Diodorus the following notes about the war of Saturn with Dionysos-Osyris: After occupying the kingdom of Ammon, Saturn led his troupes against Dionysos-Osyris, who had proclaimed himself at Nysa as legitimate son of Ammon (lib. I. III. 71-72), and where he had gathered a numerous army, composed especially of African elements. After a fierce battle on both sides, Saturn being wounded and defeated, retreated with the troupes of the Titans to the places where Ammon had previously ruled. Dionysos-Osyris, taking with him the Titans which he had taken prisoners, returned to Nysa. There, he proclaimed himself “god” (king over Egypt); he asked the captive Titans to swear to faithfully fight for him, in order to accomplish what he had started, and then he led again his troupes against Saturn and his other allied Titans, who were in the city of Ammon, polis ‘Amonion, or Theba.

Saturn with the troupes of the Titans met Dionysos-Osyris in front of the walls of the citadel, but was again defeated. Saturn tried to put fire to the city overnight and then fled. But Osyris caught Saturn and Rhea, and freed them only after they adopted him as a son, with the right of inheriting the empire (Pierret, Le livre d. morts, p. 116, 213, 397).

Saturn’s war with Jove (Titanomachia).

Saturn grew old (Saturnus senex) and weary because of his many expeditions to far away countries (Philo, Phoen. Hist. fr. 2. 24; Tertullianus, adv. Gentes, c. 10), made with the purpose of founding a single monarchy over the entire ancient world, a single government, the same laws and the same religion, and to introduce everywhere in the empire the benefits of agriculture, but he still had to sustain a 10 years long and fierce war with his son Jove, war which ended with his dethronement and the total annihilation of the ancient Pelasgian nobility, the Titans.

The causes of this war were, according to Greek traditions, on the one hand the troubles existing between Saturn and his wife Rhea, and on the other hand the harshness shown by Saturn to the powerful class of the Titans, with the help of whom he had dethroned Uranos, but whom he had again thrown in subterranean prisons, because these Titans were always conspiring, always wanted to be masters. Saturn, as the ancients tell us, being forewarned by the oracle that one of his sons will oust him (Hesiodus, Theog. v. 463 seqq; Apollodorus, Bibl. I. 1. 5; Diodorus, I. V. 70), had tried many times to kill the children born by his wife Rhea. But notwithstanding his precautions, the decisions of his destiny were fulfilled.

Rhea, being pregnant for the sixth time, ran to the island of Crete in order to escape Saturn’s anger, and gave birth in secret, in the cave called Dicte, to Jove. She entrusted him to the nymphs, or the mountain women from there, to rear him, and to the Curetes to guard him. Upon reaching maturity, Jove decided to take revenge on his father for persecuting the Titans and his own sons. So, he called to his help the Centimanii (leaders of the armies) and the Cyclops, masters of all sorts of mechanical works, who manufactured for him the thunderbolts, and freed from prisons the Titans discontented by Saturn’s reign.

It is probable though that the biggest part of his troupes was composed of elements gathered from the southern countries, where he had been educated and where he had a lot of support. In the first war Saturn was defeated and forced to withdraw to Ianus, in Italy, a kingdom which was dependent on the Pelasgian empire. The most ancient Italic traditions speak about Saturn with a particular respect. He is shown as the civilizing factor of that country. He taught the inhabitants of Italy to recognize the benefits of agriculture and introduced there the first laws of divine origin (Virgil, Aen. VIII. 319 seqq; Tertullianus, Adv. gentes, c. 10; Isidorus, Orig. XIV. c. 4. 18; Macrobius, Sat. I. 7).

After a while though, Saturn vanished from Italy. Incensed by the revolution taking place in his empire, Saturn called again the Titans to arms, asking for their help to decide their fate one way or another (Ovid, Fast. III. 796; Hyginus, Fab. 150). Saturn was again defeated. He was caught, chained (Cicero, N. D. II. 24; II. 25; Plato, Euthyphro, c. 6) and thrown into the cave, or the dark cavern called Tartaros by Greek sources, and Tatu in Egyptian papyri. As the historian Thallus tells us (fragm. 2 in Fragm. Hist. gr. III. 517), Belus, the king of Babylonia and Assyria, had helped Staurn in this war, and had fought together with the Titans of his kingdom against Jove and his other allies.

The Greek poems present this war as a general commotion of the mortal people, of the men gods, and of all the elements of nature. The clamor of the war, writes Hesiodus, rose to the sky, Jove threw continuously his thunderbolts from Olympus, the earth shook and started to scream, the fire engulfed the huge woods, the Ocean (Istru) and the vast Pontos boiled, the entire atmosphere burnt, and it seemed that the sky had blended with the earth (Theog. v. 678 seqq). We find the same picture with the poet Quintus: the sky poured on the Titans all the power of its fire; the earth took fire and the flames engulfed the Titans from everywhere; the vast river of the Ocean started to boil in its depths, the springs dried up, and all the animals born by the earth perished (Posthomer, V. 104; VIII, 461 seqq).

The place where all these extraordinary war events happened was, as results from the ancient traditions and legends, near Oceanus potamos (Istru), close to Atlas mountain (Hesiodus, Theog. v. 746; Hyginus, Fab. 150), on the territory of ancient Dacia. The defeated troupes of the Titans withdrew towards the west, to the mountainous region called Tartaros (Homer, Iliad, XIV. 279; VIII. 481; Hymn. Apoll. v. 335-6; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 721), or Tatu by the Egyptians, at the Iron Gates, sidareiai pylai (Homer, Iliad, VIII. 13-15), “Porta Ser” in Egyptian papyri (Pierret, Le livre d. morts, p. 58) and the high Riphei mountains, behind which the sun passes into another geographical world, that of the dark, or of the night (Orpheus, Argon. v. 1123; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 748; Homer, Odyss. XI. 14 seqq).

In the middle of these mountains, “covered by fog and by dark woods”, the glorious troupes of the Titans sustained the last defensive battles, but they were defeated and overwhelmed by Jove’s army and by the flames of the burning woods. This group of mountains, called by the ancients “Tartaros” and “Tatu”, seem to have been the strong citadel formed by the western ridge of Cerna The historian Dio Cassius, who lived in the 2nd century ad, also mentions a cave on the territory of the Getae, called Keiren, vast and strong (without doubt a cave in the deep roots of Cerna mountains), where, says he, the Titans, defeated by the gods, had withdrawn, according to legends.

This war ended with the total annihilation of the ancient and illustrious noble class of the Titans, called theoi Titanes (Homer, Iliad, XIV. 378), genus antiquum Terrae and Terrae filii (Virgil, Aen. vI. 580), which in fact seems to have been the very purpose of the southern coalition, because, according to the ancients, the Titans and the Giants (Gigantes) had placed the other peoples under the heavy yoke of slavery. The Greek authors attributed to Jove the honorific epithet of Titanochtonos, killer of Titans (Homer, Batr. V. 282), and this entire war was celebrated in ancient Greek literature under the name Titanomachia, the divine defeat of this powerful and arrogant race. Part of the Titans faithful to Saturn, were imprisoned alive in the caves, or the dark depths called “Tartaros”.

Those who managed to escape the wrath of the new master of the world, emigrated and were scattered through various parts of the western world. We arrive now at the Greek version about the battles with the Giants, events which the peoples, once subjected to the Pelasgians, had celebrated during the course of a long series of centuries, as a divine revenge on those conquerors and despots of the ancient world. According to Greek authors, the great war with the Giants had been waged by Jove, not Osyris. Jove was the victor, and Osyris, called Dionysos by the Greeks, had only fought under Jove’s command (Apollodorus, Bibl. I. 6; Diodorus Siculus. IV. 5). “The Greeks”, writes Philo of Byblus (2nd century), “had attributed to themselves several historical events of that epoch, and because their authors wanted to please the ears and hearts of the people, with the sweetness of their fables, they had over-exaggerated those things, using a lot of fiction and embellishments.

Hesiodus and the cyclical poets especially, had invented from their own fantasy various deeds and battles of the Giants and the Titans, and in this way they had darkened the truth” (H. Ph. Fr. 2; Diodor. I. 23. 8). The Giants were, according to Hesiodus, a people of divine origin, born of the blood (people) of Uranos and of Gaea or Terra. By their country or mother they were called gegeneis Gigantes (Homer, Batr. V. 7; Diodorus, I. I. 21), Terrae filii, filii Terras, Terrigenae (Naevius, De Bell. Pun.; Val. Flaccus, Argon. II. 18). The Giants were of a huge stature, much taller than normal. They wore long tresses and beards, and they used in battle shining weapons and long spears (Diodorus, IV. 21. 7; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 185 seqq; Apollodorus, Bibl. I. 6; Apollon. Rh. III. 499).

The Giants, the Greek authors also tell us, were a superb and wild people from the mountains, who hated men of foreign nationalities (Homer, Odyss. VII. 22. 206; Batrach. v. 285; Macrobius, Sat. I. 20; Eustathius, Comment. ad Dionys. v. 327). Their dwellings were in the northern parts of the river Oceanus potamos (Istru), near the country of the Arimii, close to the place where the Titans had been defeated, near Tartaros, today Tatul and Tatar, at the western border of the Romanian Country (Hyginus, Fab. Principium). They are the so-called Gugani, who stand out even today, among the other inhabitants of the Carpathians, with their tall and robust stature). Hesiodus speaks about the battles of the Giants only in the war of Typhon with Jove. Typhon himself is presented as the most terrifying among the Giants (Theog. v. 820; Claudianus, Gigant. v. 32; Hyginus, Fab. Principium).

The residence of Typhon was in the country of the Arimii, ein ‘Arimois (Homer, Iliad, II. 783), or according to Quintus, in the “Black country”, Gaia melaina (Posthom. V. 416). Typhon had a monstrous figure with the Greek authors. He had a mixed nature of beast and human. By the size of his body and by his strength, he surpassed everybody born by the earth until then. With one hand he reached the west, with the other the east. His tresses and beard waved in the air, and fire burnt in his eyes (Apollodorus, Bibl. I. 6. 3).

In the first battles with Jove, the Giants were the victors. Jove, seeing that he couldn’t resist the violent assault of Typhon, ran to Egypt, together with his allies, where they all changed into various animal forms, so that Typhon, who was chasing them, could not recognize them. Another battle followed at Casius mountain, in which Jove was wounded and defeated. Typhon caught Jove there, lifted him on his shoulders, crossed the water with him, and shut him in the Coryciu cave in Cilicia. Jove escaped from this prison though, with the help of a woman who was guarding him. Following this defeat, and seeing that he could not beat the Giants, he asked Hercules for help (Apollodorus, Bibl. I. 6. 1. 6).

From then on the war was led by Hercules, not by Jove. As the Greek authors tell us, the final battles with the Giants took place in a meadow at Phlegra, or near the hill, mountain, and village Phlegra, pedion Phlegras (Pindar, Nem. I. 67; Diodorus, I. IV. 21. 5), pedion Phlegraion apo toy lophou (Timaeus, fr. 10, in Fragm. Hist. gr. I. p. 195), Phlegraia plaxi (Eschyl, Eum. v. 295), Phlegra topos chai chome (Schol. of Pindar in Boeckhius II. 434), Phlegraea juga (Propertius, Eleg. III. 9. 48). The Giants, writes Timeus, hearing about the coming of Hercules, gathered all their forces, arranged themselves in battle order and came up against him. A fierce battle ensued (fragm. 10 in Fragm. Hist. gr. I. 195).

In the end, the Giants withdrew to a well fortified place, to the rock and the cave called Aornos and Avernis by the Greek authors, Avernus by the Roman poets. Hercules attacked three times the Giants, but without success, and he finally withdrew because of some great earthquakes and other prodigious phenomena (Arrianus, Indica, c. 5; Strabo, I. XV. 1. 8; Diodorus, I. XVII. 85. 2). According to other traditions though, Hercules totally defeated and destroyed the Giants at Phlegra (Eustathius, Cpomm. Ad Dionys. v. 327; Ephorus, fragm. 70). The Giants fought against Jove and his allies with pieces of lighted wood, with giant rocks, with spears, swords and copper maces; Jove used against them the thunderbolts, and Vulcan hit them with hot chunks of metal (Apollodorus, Bibl. I. 6).

The plains and woods where this battle took place took fire and burnt, because of which this mountain was called Phlegra, meaning the “Burnt” (TN – Arsul), from phlegein, to burn (Diodor. V. 71. 4; Strabo, XIII. 4. 11; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 859). The Giants, the legends tell us, also threw against their adversaries a dreadful dragon, whose memory was later immortalized in the constellation called the “Dragon” (TN – Balaurul), near the northern pole (Dupuis, Origine de tous les cultes, II. 199). It is without doubt meant by this the war standards of the Giants, in the shape of dragons, also used by the Dacians in their battles with the Romans. The traditions of the ancients are not quite clear about the place where Saturn had been buried.

According to some mentions found with Homer and Hesiodus, Saturn had been thrown underground near Oceanus potamos (Iliad, XIV. 204), or had been buried alive, together with the other Titans, in the precipice, or vast and dark cave, called Tartaros (Homer, Iliad, VIII, 482; XIV, 274 seqq; Hesiodus, Theog. v. 851; Eschyl, Prom. vinct. v. 219; Apollonius Rhodius, I. 507). Finally, there is another tradition, which presents Saturn as living in the blessed islands from Oceanus potamos, where he reigns over the souls of the deceased heroes (Hesiodus, Op. v. 169; Pindar, Olymp. II. 136). As we know, the most renowned of these blessed islands had been Leuce, or the “Serpents’ island”, near the mouths of the Danube, also called the “dwelling of the souls”, sedes animarum (Avienus, Descr. orb. v. 724), where, as the poet Arctinos said (Homer, Carmina, ed. Didot, p. 583), the ashes of Achilles had been taken and buried . [2. According to Philochorus (fragm. 184), Saturn had been buried in Sicily (Sichelia).

This is a simple geographical confusion. The term Sichelia is used here instead of Thrinachia, or Trinachria. With Homer though, Thrinachie nasos is an island in Oceanus potamos (Odyss. XI. 107; XII, 127; XIX, 275). With Apollonius Rhodius (Iv. 84), pontos trinachrios is the sea in which flows the eastern arm of Istru (the western arm flew into the Ionic sea). He calls the Danube delta (Peuce) triglochis, meaning triangular]. The war of Osyris with Typhon (I – II). The war of Jove with Typhon (III – IV). After the dethronement of Saturn, the internal peace of the great Pelasgian empire was again shattered, and a new war, much more violent and widespread broke out between the sons of Saturn, for the rule of the ancient world.

Saturn had, according to ancient traditions, three sons (Homer, Iliad, XV. v. 187), who bear though in ancient theogonies different names. The first one is called Typhon by the Greek authors (Philo, H. Ph. Fr. 2. 21; Plutarc, De Is.; Diodorus, I. I. 13. 21), Set by the Egyptians (Plutarc, De Is. c. 41), and Ahriman in the religious traditions of Persia and Bactria. The second son was Osyris, also called Dionysos by the Greeks, an African of obscure origin, but adopted by Saturn with rights of inheritance of the empire. Finally, the third son was Jove, who had been also reared in southern lands.

The war waged by the Osyris and Jove against Typhon for the mastery of the ancient world bear in ancient Greek literature the name Gigantomachia, or the fight against the superb and ferocious tribes of the Guganii from the Mountains, agria phyla Giganton (Homer, Odyss. VII. 59-60), fight which took place near Oceanus potamos. We have two traditions about these remote events, which appear to have been the beginning of a new phase in the history of human civilization: an Egyptian one, which presents Osyris as the victor and the destroyer of the Gigantes (Giants), and a Greek one, in which all the victories and honors are attributed to Jove, not to Osyris. Each of these two versions presents important data, geographical and historical, which complement each other in many respects.

Saturn worshipped in Dacia under the name Zalmox-is or Zeul-mos.

His simulacrum at the Iron Gates. Apart from the honorific title of “tatal” (TN – father), which Saturn had in the religion of ante-Hellenic times, as personification of the supreme divinity of the sky and the earth, one of his most popular epithets, with all the Pelasgian tribes from the south and north of Istru, was that of “mos” (TN – old man). He was called by the Latins Saturnus senex (Virgil, Aen. VII. V. 180; Ovid, Fast. V. v. 629), as he was attributed by ancient traditions a patriarchal age (Cicero, N. D. II. 25), deus vetus (Virgil, Aen. VII. V. 204), Deus Majus (Macrobius, Saturn. I. 12). According to Ovid (Fast. V. 72-75) and Varro (L. L. VI. 33), the name of the month Majus meant “mosi” (TN – old men).

In the language of the Osci, Majus had the form Maesius and Moesius (Festus, De verb. Signif.), word even closer in form to the Romanian “mos”. Saturn was called by the Greek Pelasgians with the epithet presbites (Eschyl, Eumenides, v. 638) and polios, and by the Trojans, Jupiter avus (Virgil, Aen. VII. v. 219-220). The Phrygians called him Zeus (s. theos) ‘Atis (Psellos, p.109. Boiss. at Tomaschek, Die alten Thraker, II. 42), the Scythians Papaios (Herodotus, l. IV. c. 59), and on the territory of Germany he was called Altvater and Grossvater (Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, p.153), all of these names having the same meaning, of “Mos” (TN – Old man).

This epithet indicated Saturn as a mortal man, as the ideal author of their national life, moral and political, as the genealogical originator – principium generis – of the ancient Pelasgian dynasties and noble families . The Trojans claimed their origin from the Old God, “Zeul Mos” (Virgil, Aen. VII.219-220). Varro (R.R.III.1) calls the farmers of Italy the last of Saturn’s nation. For Virgil (Aen. VII. 203), the Latins are gens Saturni, meaning descendants of the old god. And Horatio (Od. I. 12. 50) calls Augustus: Orte Saturno].

The Latin king, addresses the ambassadors of Aeneas, with the following words: “Do not avoid our hospitality, do not ignore the Latins, the nation of Saturn, who are righteous people not as a result of punishment or laws, and who preserve even today the ancestral institutions from the times of the old God (mos), by their goodwill and their inclination” (Virgil, Aen. VII. v. 177-188; Ibid, 202-205). This same title of Old God, Zeul Mos (“deus vetus” or “avus”) was also given to Saturn by the Dacians. The historian Mnaseas of Patrae, who lived in the 3rd century bc, tells us that the Getae venerated Saturn, whom they called Zamolxis (Photius, Fragm. Hist. Graec. III. p.153). Similarly, Diogenis Laertius writes (VIII) that the Getae call Saturn Zamolxis, and Hesychius says Zalmoxis o Kronos.

The form Zalmoxis, which appears with Herodotus( lib. IV. c. 96), Porfirius (De vita Pythagorae, c. 14) and Hesychius (Pauly, Real-Encyclopadie), as well as in various manuscripts of Plato and Suidas, is acknowledged to be the most correct. But the word has remained to this day without an explanation based on positive historical and etymological facts. By the ancient customs of the Saturnian religion, the name of Zalmoxis could not be anything else but a simple hieratic epithet of Saturn, an attribute with the same meaning of senex, deus vetus, deus avus, Papaios, presbites, Majus (or Maesius), which Saturn also had with other Pelasgian tribes. The word Zal-mox-is meant nothing else but Zeul-mos (TN – the old man God) in the language of the Dacians, from the point of view of its etymology and meaning. The ending is represents here, as in other similar cases, just a simple Greek suffix. In reality, the language of the Getae and the Dacians had a proto-Latin character; it formed just a branch or a particular rustic dialect of the Pelasgian language, as we will have occasion to be convinced by the historical research done for this work.

The Greek authors have transmitted various explanations of the word Zalmoxis. Some of these, although knowing very well the real meaning of the word, as results from their writings, gave it only general interpretations. Lucian (lib. XXIV.C. 4), one of the most interesting writers of antiquity, distinguished for his spirit and erudition, calls Zalmoxis patroos theos, meaning “parental god” or “ancestral”. Herodotus (lib. IV. c. 94 and 96) calls him daimon epichorios (deus indigena), and Plato (Charmides, Ed. Didot, Tom. I. p.505) calls him a basileus theos). This interpretation of Plato had a positive basis. In prehistoric antiquity, the founders of states made the object of a particular cult of respect.

The king, founder of the state and colonizer of uninhabited lands, was considered as a common proto-parent, as a public Mos (according to Manetho, the dynasty of Mosi, Manes, had reigned over Egypt for 5813 years), or Lar (Lares, word which in the beginning expressed the same idea as Manes), for all the future generations. So we see that some authors of antiquity have interpreted a part of the name Zal-mox-is by the word theos, and the rest by the epithets patroos, epichorios and basileus, less adequate to the real meaning. Zal, in the language of the Dacians, by meaning and form, is identical with the Romanian word zeu, or zeul, while mox is our word mos, majus in the old Latin language, the maesius and moesius of the Osci.

Finally, the Pelasgian tribes of Italy had also a popular form (ante-Roman) of “mos”, with the meaning of memoria veterum. We find the archaic word zeu or zeul used as a national term in the Pelasgian lands of Thrace and Mesia, even at the time of the Roman Empire. On an inscription discovered in Upper Mesia, close to Scopia, there is a dedication addressed to DEO ZBELTHIURDO (C.I. L. III. nr. 8191 at Tomaschek, Die alten Thraker, II. p.60), or more correct ZBELTHEURGO, meaning to the “God, the miracle maker”.

In the mountains of Rhodope, a veteran erected at 76ad an altar to DEO MHDYZEI (MHDVZEI Desj., MHDIZEI Ren.), where the last word is only an altered form of Domnudzei or Domnidzei, Romanian Dumnezeu, pl. Dumnezei (C I. L. III. nr. 6120). The name Zal-mox-is, so mysterious in modern historical literature, belongs therefore to the primitive Pelasgian dialect of Dacia. It was just a simple honorific and respectful title of the supreme divinity, the same combined expression as Zeul-mos (Deus avus) in Romanian language; only the form under which the Greek authors have transmitted it was altered. Zal-mox-is or Zeul-mos, in the cult of the Dacians and Thracians (Lucian, lib. XXIV. 1.4; lib. XXIV. 42), represented therefore the same great divinity of prehistory who was also venerated by the Scythians under the name of Zeus Papaios, by the Trojans as Jupiter avus, and who appears on the banks of the Tiber under the name of Saturnus senex, deus vetus, Deus Majus .

Zeus, the god traditionally associated with (or personified as) a bull Phoenicia and Sumeria sea bull – Dagon [Daonos] Dyaus DI-U-JA *Dyeus (also *Dyeus phater) is the reconstructed chief deity of the Proto-Indo-European pantheon. He was the god of the daylight sky, and his position may have mirrored the position of patriarch or monarch in society. Later gods who are etymologically connected with Dyeus include: Dyeus group: * Greek Zeus * Roman Iuppiter * Irish The Dagda * Gallo-Roman Dis Pater * Vedic Dyaus Pitar * possibly Dionysos, and Phrygian Sabazios (from Saba Zeus?) Rooted in the related but distinct Indo-European word *deiwos is the Latin word for deity, deus.

The Latin word is also continued in English divine, deity, and the original Germanic word remains visible in Tuesday (originally “Day of Tiwaz”). Deiwos group: * Germanic Tiwaz (later known as Tyr) * Latin Deus * Baltic Dievas * Slavic Dazbog * Indo-Iranian Deva/Daeva Dyeus was addressed as Dyeu Phater, literally “Sky Father” or “shining father”, as reflected in Latin Jupiter, Dispater and deus pater, Greek Zeu pater, Sanskrit Dyàuspítas or DyausPitrah. In his aspect as a father god, his consort was Pltvi Mh2ter, “Earth Mother”. As the pantheons of the individual mythologies related to the Proto-Indo-European religion evolved, attributes of Dyeus were sometimes redistributed to other, newer deities.

In Greek and Roman mythology, Dyeus remained the chief god, while in Vedic mythology, the etymological continuant of Dyeus became a very abstract god, and his original attributes, and his dominance over other gods, were transferred to gods whose names can (Agni) or cannot (Indra) be reconstructed for Proto-Indo-European times.

The Dioscuri, Castor and (Polydeuces) Pollux, were sons of Zeus. Ptah, chosen by Ammon, making the truth of Ra Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 1. 563 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “It was only after the battle with fierce Iapetus [general of the Titanes] and the toils of Phlegra [against the Gigantes] that Olympus’ palace set me [Zeus] over the universe.” Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1. 378 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “[Zeus speaks :] `What will my aigis [storm-cloud] do fighting with Typhon’s thunderbolt? I fear old Kronos may laugh aloud, I am shy of the proud neck of my lordly adversary Iapetos.'” Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. 298 ff : “[Typhoeus boasts of his intentions once he has seized the throne of heaven :] `I will keep the chains of Iapetos for Poseidon [i.e. he will free Iapetos from his chains and replace him with Poseidon in Tartaros].'” (Greek epic C8th B C ) : “Theolytos says that he [Herakles] sailed across the sea [i e Oceanus] in a cauldron; but the first to give this story is the author of the Titanomakhia ” Stesichorus, Geryoneis Fragment S17 (from Athenaeus, Scholars at Dinner) (trans Campbell, Vol Greek Lyric III) (Greek lyric C7th to C6th B C ) : “Helios (the Sun) too was conveyed to his setting in a cup Stesichorus tells us in the following words: `And then Hyperion’s strong child [Helios] went down into the cup of solid gold, so that he might cross over Oceanus and reach the depths of holy, dark night and his mother [Theia] and wedded wife and dear children; while he Zeus’ son [Herakles], who has reached Erytheia in the cup or has traveled back to the mainland in it, now retuns it to Helios went on foot into the grove, shady with its laurels ‘” Stesichorus, Geryoneis Fragment S17 (from Athenaeus, Scholars at Dinner) : “Stesichorus says that Helios (the Sun) sailed across Oceanus in a cup and that Herakles also crosssed over in it when travelling to get Geryon’s cattle ” Aeschylus, Fragment 37 Heracleidae (from Scholiast on Aristeides) (trans Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B C ) : “Starting thence, when that he [Herakles] had crossed Oceanus in a golden bowl [i e the boat of the sun-god Helios], he drave the straight-horned kine from the uttermost parts of the earth, slew the evil herdsmen and their triple-bodied master [Geryon] ” Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2 107 (trans Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A D ) : “When Helios (the Sun) made him [Herakles] hot as he proceeded, he aimed his bow at the god and stretched it; Helios was so surprised at his daring that he gave him a golden goblet, in which he crossed Oceanus [to reach Erytheia]

He then loaded the cattle [of Geryon] into the goblet, sailed back to Tartessos, and returned the goblet to Helios ” Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2 119 : “Then after proceeding through Libya to the sea beyond, he [Herakles] appropriated the goblet from Helios (the Sun) [for the trip round the river Oceanus from Libya to the Prometheus in the Kaukasos mountains] ” Zeus, the god traditionally associated with (or personified as) a bull Phoenicia and Sumeria sea bull – Dagon [Daonos] Dyaus DI-U-JA Dyeus (also Dyeus phater) is the reconstructed chief deity of the Proto-Indo-European pantheon He was the god of the daylight sky, and his position may have mirrored the position of patriarch or monarch in society

Later gods who are etymologically connected with Dyeus include: Dyeus group: Greek Zeus Roman Iuppiter Irish The Dagda Gallo-Roman Dis Pater Vedic Dyaus Pitar possibly Dionysos, and Phrygian Sabazios (from Saba Zeus ) Rooted in the related but distinct Indo-European word deiwos is the Latin word for deity, deus

The Latin word is also continued in English divine, deity, and the original Germanic word remains visible in Tuesday (originally “Day of Tiwaz”) Deiwos group: Germanic Tiwaz (later known as Tyr) Latin Deus Baltic Dievas Slavic Dazbog Indo-Iranian Deva/Daeva Dyeus was addressed as Dyeu Phater, literally “Sky Father” or “shining father”, as reflected in Latin Jupiter, Dispater and deus pater, Greek Zeu pater, Sanskrit Dyàuspítas or DyausPitrah In his aspect as a father god, his consort was Pltvi Mhater, “Earth Mother” As the pantheons of the individual mythologies related to the Proto-Indo-European religion evolved, attributes of Dyeus were sometimes redistributed to other, newer deities

In Greek and Roman mythology, Dyeus remained the chief god, while in Vedic mythology, the etymological continuant of Dyeus became a very abstract god, and his original attributes, and his dominance over other gods, were transferred to gods whose names can (Agni) or cannot (Indra) be reconstructed for Proto-Indo-European times

The Dioscuri, Castor and (Polydeuces) Pollux, were sons of Zeus Ptah, chosen by Ammon, making the truth of Ra The Divine twins are a mytheme of Proto-Indo-European mythology the Greek Dioscuri the Vedic Ashvins the Lithuanian Ašvieniai the Latvian Dieva deli Alcis (god) Romulus and Remus O’Brien (1982) reconstructs a horse goddess with twin offspring, pointing to Gaulish Epona, Irish Macha (the twins reflected in Macha’s pair, the Grey of Macha and the Black of Sainglenn), Welsh Rhiannon, and Eddaic Freyja in the tale of the construction of the walls of Asgard, seeing a vestige of the birth of hippomorphic twins in Loki in the form of a mare (in place of Freyja) giving birth to eight-legged Sleipnir

The myths surrounding Hengest and Horsa could come from a common source, since they were descendants of Woden and Hengest’s name meant “stallion ” Shapiro (1982) points to Slavic Volos and Veles, and collects the following comparative properties: sons of the Sky God brothers of the Sun Maiden association with horses dual paternity saviours at sea astral nature magic healers warriors and providers of divine aid in battle divinities of fertility association with swans divinities of dance closeness to human beings protectors of the oath assisting at birth founders of cities

Aristotle writes that Greek antiquity knew four gods by the name of Apollo, or in other words, there were four legends about the genealogy of the solar god. The first Apollo, says he, was the son of Neptune and Minerva, the second was the son of Corybas of Crete, the third was Jupiter’s son and the fourth, or Apollo of Arcadia, was the son of Silen, and the Arcadians called him “the shepherd god” (Fragm. Hist. graec. II. p.190). According to Apollodorus (Bibl. I. 7. 4), the first two sons of Neptune were called Opleus and Nereus.

It’s beyond any doubt that the older form of these two names was Aplus and Nierus, meaning Albul and Negrul, exactly as in the Romanian legend. So, the Romanian legend, according to which Albul appears like the son of a maritime divinity, belongs to the oldest cycle of Apollinic legends. In the Romanian legend, exactly as in the genealogy communicated by Apollodorus, dominates the dualistic principle, with two opposite characters: one of the two legendary figures representing the light (Albul), and the other the dark (Negrul)].

The Hyperborean religion was Apollinic par excellence. Apollo, as a divinity of the Sun, was a lot closer to the needs of the Pelasgians’ life than any other god. Apollo, tells us Hecateus Abderitas, is venerated by them more than any other god. On the other hand, the entire character of the Apollinic religion, as it is manifested in Greece, depict the Pelasgian life and beliefs. Apollo of Delos, Delphi, Athens and the lands of Troy, is neither a Greek god, nor Egyptian, but a divinity with national Pelasgian legends, dogmas and rites. Apollo is venerated especially in Pelasgian lands, in Thessaly, Phocis, Beotia, Attica, Arcadia, Crete and the lands of Troy. He is the god who protects the flocks and the shepherds.

On the plains of Thessaly, Apollo guards the cattle herds of king Admet of Pherae (Apollodorus, Bibl. I. 9.15, III. 10.4), while in the mountains of Troy he serves as a shepherd for king Laomedon, Priam’s father (Iliad, XXI, 441-44). Together with Neptune he builds the walls of Pelasgian Troy (Iliad. VII. 452, XXI, 515), and helps king Alcatous to build the Pelasgian citadel of Megara (Pausanias, lib.I. 42.2). He fights alongside the Pelasgians against their enemies. He urges the Trojans to fight the Greeks and wishes the victory to be theirs (Homer, Iliad, IV, 507; VII. 21; Ovid, Trist. II.el.2.5).

He often helps Aeneas or Hector in battle. And, when the latter hero goes to the battle field to fight against the Greeks, he takes this solemn vow in front of the Trojans and the enemy army: that if Apollo gave him glory, to kill whomever will come out to fight him, he would bring his opponent’s weapons inside blessed Ilium, and will hang them as trophies in the temple of Apollo (Iliad, VII.51). And during this same war, Apollo directs Paris’ arrow on Achilles and kills him (Arctinus in Aethiopida / Homer, Carmina, Ed.Didot, p.583). Apollo appears as the protecting god of the Pelasgians even when fate seems to persecute them wherever they turn, and part of them are forced to leave their old abodes in the Balkan peninsula.

The Pelasgians, writes Macrobius (Saturn, I.7), chased from their dwellings from every side, gathered all at Dodona and consulted the oracle, in which part of the world should they settle; and the oracle told them to go to the country consecrated to Saturn, and there to offer tithes to Apollo, etc. Apollo is for Pelasgians the god of light, physical and spiritual; the god of shepherding, of agriculture, of health, of wars, of citadels and of divination (Calchas, Cassandra, Helenus and the Sybils had the gift of divination from Apollo).

The ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun; truth and prophecy; archery; medicine and healing; music, poetry, and the arts; and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu. It has also been suggested that Apollo comes from the Hurrian and Hittite divinity, Aplu, who was widely evoked during the “plague years”.

Aplu, it is suggested, comes from the Akkadian Aplu Enlil, meaning “the son of Enlil”, a title that was given to the god Nergal, who was linked to Shamash, Babylonian god of the sun. As Greek traditions tell us, Perseus, the renowned hero from Argos, a son of Jove and the nymph Danae, had been sent by the king Polydectes from the island of Seriphos to bring him the head of Medusa, one of the Gorgons which dwelt on the northern parts of the famous river Oceanus (Hesiod, Theog. v. 274 seqq).

Poseidon, Hippios, Taureos, Pontomedon Demeter and Poseidon’s names are linked in the earliest scratched notes in Linear B found at Mycenaean Pylos, where they appear as PO-SE-DA-WO-NE and DA-MA-TE in the context of sacralized lot-casting. The ‘DA’ element in each of their names is seemingly connected to an Proto-Indo-European root relating to distribution of land and honors Neptune, as Greek traditions tell us, had reigned in the beginning over the regions from Atlas mountain, in the country of the Hyperboreans, or at the north of the lower Istru After the dethronement of Saturn, writes Plato (Critias, ed Didot, II p 256), the great empire of the ancient world being divided, Neptune had received the territory called Atlantis (from Atlas mountain, in the country of the Hyperboreans), which, from a geographical point of view, comprised the lands from the southern part of the Carpathians, and especially today Oltenia Neptune had in antiquity double honors (Homer, Iliad, XV 190; XXIII 307; Hymn 21 5) He was considered as the master and god of the great waters (regnator Marum)

It was also said about him that he had domesticated the noble species of the horses, and that he had been the first to introduce horse riding and their harnessing to wagons In regard to his genealogy, as well as his attributes, Neptune has been mistaken for the titan Atlas even from the most ancient times So, Homer’s Odyssey tells us (I 52) that Atlas, who supported the high columns which separated the sky from the earth, also knew all the depths of the seas We also find this confusion between the prehistoric personality of Neptune and that of Atlas Neptune, the most famous “swimmer” of the ancient world, was celebrated at the same time as the great master of the art of rowing

Sophocles addresses him the following verses: You, with your hands, drove the ships with oars, with so much power, that you made them hop on the surface of the water (Oed Col v 715) With the Greeks, Neptune also had the epithet petraios, “that one with the stone”, or “the one with the rock” (Preller, Gr Myth I, 1854, p 356, 363) The ancient traditions also told about Neptune that he had been the first to make and place bridles on the head of horses; that he had introduced the art of riding horses and their harnessing to wagons (Sophocle, Oed Col v 711; Homer, Iliad, XXIII 307; Ibid, Hymn XXI 4; Pausanias, lib VII 21 8)

In memory of these achievements, to Neptune had been consecrated the horses, and he had the epithet ippios, equester, the rider The most renowned horses of Neptune had been, according to Greek poets: Pegasus, “the winged horse”, about which it was said that he bore the thunderbolts of Jove (Hesiodus, Theog v 284), Xanthus and Balius, “the immortal horses”, which “flew like the wind”, which Achilles had used during the Trojan war Pegasus, writes Hesiodus, had been born near the sources of the river Oceanus (Theog v 281) or Istru, which in ancient times were believed to have been upstream from the cataracts It was also called “Scythius”, meaning from Scythia (Dupuis, Orig d tous l cultes, vI 481; Servius, Virg Georg I 13) According to Diodorus Siculus Poseidon was raised by the Telchines on Rhodes, just as Zeus was raised by the Korybantes on Crete but where was Rhodes?

Helios after being left out of the great land grab of the gods requested that the island he knew was about to re-emerge from the sea should be his domain. The gods agreed. To-day we might ask: “Who and what was the god Poseidon?” We all disagree about whether there was a god Poseidon. There were images of him, but the god himself was not. But, though there was in reality no god Poseidon, there were worshippers of Poseidon, people who imagined the god, feared him, believed in him. It is not the god who comes first and creates the worshipper. Poseidon was worshipped by the old aristocracy in opposition to the new and rising democracy, whose patroness was Athena.

“What then, we have to ask is: “Who and what were the worshippers of Poseidon, what their environment, and what their ‘reactions,’ as psychologists say, to this environment; how first and foremost did they earn their bread, what were their social activities, what the hopes and fears and joys and sorrows that took their shape in the figure of their god?” Can we in antiquity find a people who fulfilled the conditions of Poseidon worshippers? A people, that is, of fishermen, of agriculturalists, of horse-rearers, of fat-cattle-rearers, a people who were rulers over the sea, a people, above all, who worshipped the bull. One thing at the outset is notable. Poseidon and Zeus are constantly in all but open warfare. In a remarkable passage of the Iliad, Poseidon claims equality with Zeus.

Zeus by the mouth of Iris threatens Poseidon with wrath and retribution, and Poseidon, greatly enraged, claims to be of like parentage and potency with Zeus, and counsels Zeus, if he wishes to “speak terrible words,” to speak them to his own sons and daughters. “Then in great displeasure the renowned Shaker-of-the-Earth answered her: ‘Out on it, verily now, for as strong as he is, he hath spoken over-haughtily, if indeed he will subdue by force, against my will, me that am his equal in honour. For three brethren are we, and sons of Kronos, whom Rhea bare, Zeus, and myself, and Hades is the third, the ruler of the folk in the under-world. And in three lots are all things divided, and each drew a domain of his own, and to me fell the hoary sea, to be my habitation for ever, when we shook the lots: and Hades drew the murky darkness, and Zeus the wide heaven, in clear air and clouds, but the earth and high Olympos are yet common to all. Wherefore no whit will I walk after the will of Zeus, but quietly let him abide, for all his strength, in his third portion.

‘” The Nine Worlds of Germanic Paganism Álfheimr Asgard Jötunheimr Midgard Muspelheim Niðavellir Niflheim Svartálfaheim Vanaheimr Connected by Yggdrasil Aspect of Norse cosmology Niflheimr or Niflheim (“Mist Home”, the “Abode of Mist” or “Mist World”) ; Nifl being cognate with the Old English Nifol (“dark”) and Nebel, a German and Latin root meaning cloud) is a location in Norse mythology which overlaps with the notions of Niflhel and Hel The name Niflheimr only appears in two extant sources and they are Gylfaginning and the much debated Hrafnagaldr Óðins According to Gylfaginning, it was one of the two primordial realms, the other one being Muspelheim, the realm of fire Between these two realms of cold and heat, creation began Later, it became the location of Hel, the abode of those who did not die a heroic death

The Olympian deities were sprung in fact from the marriage of the celestial Jupiter with the terrestrial Juno. Their eldest daughter is Fortune (Fortuna primigenia), who bestows on her worshippers every grace of body and every beauty of soul. Her beneficent generosity is contrasted with Anangke, which represents the unalterable rigor of fate. Themis or the Law, the Moiræ or the Fates, were other personifications of Destiny, which manifests under various forms a character which was susceptible of infinite development. The sovereign couple further gave birth not only to Neptune who became their peer, but to a long line of other immortals: Artagnes or Hercules, whose heroic deeds the sacred hymns celebrated; Shahrîvar or Mars, who was the god of the metals and succored the pious warrior in his combats; Vulcan or Atar, the genius of fire; Mercury, the messenger of Zeus; Bacchus or Haoma, the personification of the plant that furnished the sacred drink; Silvanus or Drvâspa, protector of horses and agriculture; then Anaïtis, the goddess of the fecundating waters, who has been likened to Venus and Cybele and who, presiding over war, was also invoked under the name of Minerva; Diana or Luna, who made the honey which was used in the purifications; Vanaiñiti or Nike, who gave victory to kings; Asha or Arete, perfect virtue; and others besides.

This innumerable multitude of divinities was enthroned with Jupiter or Zeus on the sun-tipped summits of Mt. Olympus and composed the celestial court. Contrasted with this luminous abode, where dwelt the Most High gods in resplendent radiance, was a dark and dismal domain in the bowels of the earth.

Here Ahriman or Pluto, born like Jupiter of Infinite Time, reigned with Hecate over the maleficent monsters that had issued from their impure embraces. These demoniac confederates of the King of Hell then ascended to the assault of Heaven and attempted to dethrone the successor of Kronos; but, shattered like the Greek giants by the ruler of the gods, these rebel monsters were hurled backward into the abyss from which they had risen.

Etymologically, it has been debated whether “Hebrew” is to be traced to Eber, the father of Peleg and Joktan (Gen. 10:24-25, 11:12-16) or is derived from the Hebrew root “to pass over” and has reference to “a land on the other side”. Habiru as to Hebrew, the Hebrew are “those who crossed over” in the sense of trespassing, i.e., “trespassers.”

The Hyperboreans’ country, especially in that epoch, when their religion had started to have a decisive influence on Greek life, was, according to what the most important authors tell us, on the northern parts of the Lower Danube and the Black Sea.

According to Pindar (6th century bc), the most erudite poet of Greek antiquity, the Hyperboreans were the inhabitants of the banks of the Istru, or the Lower Danube. Apollo, the great and popular god of antiquity, whose priests, prophets, exorcists and pilgrims roved along the roads which led from the Hyperboreans to Delos, their hymns echoing in all the temples, at all the sacrifices and on all the sacred ways; this beloved and powerful (Homer, Hymn. in Apoll. V.1-3) god of the ancient world, Pindar tells us (Olymp. VIII,46; Olymp. III, 14-17), had returned to his country from the Istru, in other words to the Hyperboreans, after building the walls of Troy, together with Poseidon and the mortal Aeacus.

On another hand, Strabo says (Geogr. XI. 6.2) “The first men who have described the different parts of the world, tell us that the Hyperboreans dwelt above the Euxine Pontos, the Ister and Adria”.

And finally, Clement the Alexandrine, who had a vast knowledge of the pagan Greek philosophy and theology, named Zamolxe, the philosopher of the Dacians, Hyperborean, meaning a native of the country of the Hyperboreans (Strom. IV. 213 / Apud Pauly, Real-Encyclopadie., IV. p.1394).

A memory of the dwellings of the Hyperboreans, situated on the northern parts of the Lower Danube, has been conserved in the geographic nomenclature of Dacia, until late in the historic epoch. One of the most important towns of eastern Dacia, situated on the lower part of the river Hierasus (today Siret), had in Roman times the name of Piriboridava (Ptolemy, Geogr. Lib. III. 10), name which indicates that this town was, once upon a time, a principal center of the people, whom the Greek authors name Hyperboreans.

The first dwellings of the Hyperboreans in prehistoric times were, according to the most important writers of antiquity, on the northern parts of the Lower Danube (according to Bessell, De rebus Geticis. P.39-40, the Hyperboreans dwelt in the beginning in the region of the Getes. According to Papadopol – Calimach, they dwelt in Dacia (the column of Trajan, An.V. 1874, p.172) But which was the ethnic origin and character of the civilization of this memorable people from the prehistoric antiquity?

According to the traditions and historic data which we possess, the Hyperboreans, who figure in the holy legends of Apollo, appear as a branch of the great and powerful Pelasgian nation. Their pastoral and agricultural occupations, their social and religious institutions, are identical with those of the other Pelasgian tribes from the lands of Greece, Asia Minor and the Italic peninsula.

The Hyperborean shepherds, Pausanias tells us, referring to those who, together with their flocks, had reached the southern parts of the Pindus, have founded the Oracle of Delphi, which in the beginning had surely quite a modest character, conform to their pastoral life (lib. X. 5.7). Apart from shepherding, their agriculture also flourished. Each year they sent to Delos gifts of fruit and of their first wheat harvest.

The religious custom of the Hyperboreans to sacrifice to Apollo from their first harvest (frugum primitiae) had a Latin character (Festus, Ad v. Sacrima; Ovid, Metam. X. 433; Tibullus, I. Eleg. V. 24). The Hyperboreans had a state, political and religious organisation. Their constitution was theocratic. Boreazii, or Boreas’ descendants, were at the head of the political government, and at the same time they were the great priests of Apollo.

The Hyperboreans are considered by the Greek authors as a people with very pure mores, and with feelings of justice superior, for that epoch, to those of anybody else. Mela (III. c.5) calls the Hyperboreans “cultores justissimi”, and Hellanic calls them “people who practice justice” (Fragmenta Hist. grace. I. 58. fragm. 96).

The Hyperboreans present in everything the character of ancient Latin mores and beliefs. They are kind and hospitable, religious, superstitious, loving predictions (oracles) and exorcisms. They play the flutes, the bagpipes and the “cobzas”, during the religious ceremonies honoring their gods (they also have a college of the “cobza” players for religious ceremonies, which corresponds to collegium tibicinum of the Romans – Mommsen, Rom.Gesch. I. 1856. p.159). The tunes they play are sweet and harmonious.

At the hecatombs or feasts thrown in Apollo’s honor, they sing continuously, with pleasant voices, praises to the god (Pindar, Pyth. X. 30). And during the great holly days of this god (starting with the spring equinox to the middle of the month of May), they dance the “hora” until late at night (Mommsen, Rom. Gesch. I, 1856, p.159). They are wealthy and lead a happy life. They cultivate also the sciences, especially theology, philosophy and poetry. They send to Greece their most cultured representatives.

In the genealogy of the prehistoric peoples, the Hyperboreans are shown as a Pelasgian branch. Their proto-father is Hyperboreos, son of Pelasg, the powerful king and patriarch of the entire Pelasgian nation (Pindar’s scholiast, Olymp.III.28 (Fragmenta Hist. graec.II,p.387) But not only their national character is Latin, but their gods bear Latin archaic names: Aplu (Alb) , Latona (or Leta). Still Latin are the names of the prophets Olen and Abaris, to which we can also add Orpheus.

Finally, the remains of the language we are left with from them, perpheres (gift bearers), Nereu (Negru, TN – black), Helixoea, or the island of the blessed, are also Latin. [1. Apollo, an archaic divinity of the Lelegi (Pelasgian tribe) was called by them, and also by the Thessalians, Aplun (Tomaschek, Die alten Thraker, II. 48). The Etruscans called him Aplu and Apulu (Wissowa, Pauly’s Real-Encyclopadie ad. V. Apollo).

Regarding the etymology of this name, the words of Festus are important: we say album…the Sabines said alpum. Romanians call the time between Easter and the Sunday of Toma “saptamana alba”, or “saptamana Albilor “(TN – the white week, or the week of the white ones) (Conv. Lit. XXI, p.355) and it has to be noted that the holly days of Apollo with the Hyperboreans, started at the same time of the year. In Greek mythology, the original Greek identification of Helios is Saturn.

The Getae, as the historian Mnaseas of Patrae tells us, venerated Saturn, whom they called Zamolxis (Photius, Lex – Frag. Hist. graec. III p.153, frag. 23). This same title of Old God, Zeul Mos (“deus vetus” or “avus”) was also given to Saturn by the Dacians. The historian Mnaseas of Patrae, who lived in the 3rd century bc, tells us that the Getae venerated Saturn, whom they called Zamolxis (Photius, Fragm. Hist. Graec. III. p.153). Similarly, Diogenis Laertius writes (VIII) that the Getae call Saturn Zamolxis, and Hesychius says Zalmoxis o Kronos. The form Zalmoxis, which appears with Herodotus( lib. IV. c. 96), Porfirius (De vita Pythagorae, c. 14) and Hesychius (Pauly, Real-Encyclopadie), as well as in various manuscripts of Plato and Suidas, is acknowledged to be the most correct.

The northern sea is called in Greek literature, as well as in Roman literature, the Sea of Saturn (Dionysius, Orbis Descriptio, v.32; Pliny, H.N.Iv.27.3). Everywhere during antiquity, the entire north-west region was considered as the empire of the religion of Saturn (Diodorus Siculus, V. 66. 5; Cicero, De nat. Deor. III. 17; Theompompos, Fragm. 293; Ephorus, Fragm. 38). Lydians had also preserved the memory of an ancient king of theirs, called Manes, son of Jove (meaning Uranos) and Gaea (Dionysius Halicarn. I. 27). But this Manes was the same as Saturn, who had ruled not only in Europe, but also over a part of western Asia, as well as in the northern lands of Africa]. With Hesiod (Theog. 459), Kronos or Saturn is called megas, and in Latin inscriptions magnus.

Megas and magnus were the only titles of majesty of prehistoric antiquity. While Saturn, as divinity of the lower world, had the name of Manus with the Romans, with the Greeks he appears in this quality with the epithet Tartaros (Pindar, Olymp. II. 77). Saturn was also venerated by the Gauls as a telluric divinity, under the name of Teutates (Lucanius, Phars. I. 444; Dionysius Halic. I. c. 38), which is the same word as the Latin tata, the Greek tata, tetta and the Lituanian tetis, tetatis. With Homer (Hymn. in Apoll. v. 335) and Hesiod (Theog. v. 851) the names of Tartaros and Kronos are identical. And with Valerius Flaccus (Argonaut. IV. 258-260), the supreme lord of the other world appears under the name of Pater Tartarus, although both these words had in the beginning the same origin and meaning, from a historical and philological point of view.

SATURN was the son of Coelus and Titaea or Terra, and married his sister Vesta. She, with her other sisters, persuaded their mother to join them in a plot, to exclude Titan, their elder brother, from his birthright, and laise Saturn to his father’s throne. Their design so far succeeded, that Titan was obliged to resign his claim, though on condition, that Saturn brought up no male children, and thus the succession might revert to the Titans again.

Saturn, it is said, observed this covenant so faithfully, that he devoured, as soon as they were born, his legitimate sons. His punctuality, however, in this respect, was at last frustrated by the artifice of Vesta, who, being delivered of twins. Jupiter and Juno, presented the latter to her husband, and concealing the former, sent him to be nursed on Mount Ida in Crete, committing the care of him to the Curetes and Corybantep.

The reign of Saturn was so mild and happy, that the poets have given it the name of the golden age. The people, who before wandered about like beasts, were then reduced to civil society; laws were enacted, and the art of tilling and sowing the ground introduced; whence Varro tells us, that Saturn had his name a satu, from sowing.

He was usually represented as an old man, bare-headed and bald, with all the marks of infirmity in his eyes, countenance, and figure. In his right hand they sometimes placed a sickle or scythe ; at others, a key, and a circumflexed serpent biting its tail, in his left. He sometimes was pictured with six wings, and feet of wool, to show how insensibly and swiftly time passes. The scythe denoted his cutting down and subverting all things, and the serpent the revolution of the year, quod in sese volvitur annus.

JANUS was a pagan deity, particularly of the ancient Romans. He was esteemed the wisest sovereign of his time, and because he was supposed to know what was past, and what was to come, they feigned that he had two faces, whence the Latins gave him the epithets of Biceps, Bifrons, and Biformis.

He is introduced by Ovid as describing his origin, office and form : he was the ancient Chaos, or confused mass of matter before the formation of the world, the reduction of which into order and regularity, gave him his divinity. Thus deified, he had the power of opening and shutting every thing in the universe : he was arbiter of peace and war, and keeper of the door of heaven. He was the god who presided over the beginning of all undertakings; the first libations of wine and wheat were offered to him, and the preface of all prayers directed to him. The first month of the year took its denomination from Janus.

It is certain that Janus early obtained divine honors among the Romans. Numa ordained that his temple should be shut in time of peace, and opened in time of war, from which ceremony Janus was called Clus’ius and Patulcius.

The peculiar offerings to Janus were cakes of new meal and salt, with new wine and frankincense. In the feasts instituted by Numa, the sacrifice was a ram, and the solemnities were performed by men, in the manner of exercises and combats. Then all artificers and tradesmen began their works, and the Roman consuls for the new year solemnly entered on their office : all quarrels were laid aside, mutual presents were made, and the day concluded with joy and festivity. Janus was seated in the centre of twelve altars, in allusion to the twelve months of the year, and had on his hands fingers to the amount of the days in the year. Sometimes his image had four faces, either ia regard to the four seasons of the year, or to the four quarters of the world: he held in one hand a key, and in the other a sceptrethe former may denote his opening, as it were, and shutting the world, by the admission and exclusion of light; and the latter his dominion over it.

VULCAN was the offspring of Jupiter and Juno. He was so remarkably deformed that Jupiter threw him down from heaven to the isle of Lemnos. In this fall he broke his leg, as he also would have broken his neck, had he not been caught by the Lemnians. It is added that he was a day in falling from heaven to earth. Some report that Juno herself, disgusted at his deformity, hurled down Vulcan into the sea, where he was nursed by Thetis and her nymphs, whilst others contend that he fell upon land, and was brought up by apes. It is probable that Juno had some hand in his disgrace, since Vulcan afterwards, in resentment of the injury, presented his mother with a golden chair, which was so contrived by springs unseen, that being seated in it she was unable to rise, till the inventor was prevailed upon to grant her deliverance.

The first abode of Vulcan on earth was in the isle of Lemnos. There he set up his forges, and taught men the malleability and polishing of metals. Thence he removed to the Liparean islands, near Sicily, where, with the assistance of the Cyclops, he made Jupiter fresh thunderbolts as the old ones decayed. He also wrought an helmet for Pluto, which rendered him invisible ; a trident for Neptune, which shook both land and sea; and a dog of brass for Jupiter, which he animated so as to perform the functions of nature. At the request of Thetis he fabricated the divine armor of Achilles, whose shield is so beautifully described by Homer; as also the invincible armor of iEneas, at the entreaty of Venus. However disagreeable the person of Vulcan might be, he was susceptible notwithstanding of love. His first passion was for Minerva, having Jupiter’s consent to address her ; but his courtship, in this instance, failed of success, not only on account of his person, but also because the goddess had vowed perpetual virginity. He afterwards became the husband of Venus.

He was reckoned among the gods presiding over marriage, from the torches lighted by him to grace that solemnity. It was the custom in several nations, after gaining a victory, to pile the arms of the enemy in a heap on the field of battle, and make a sacrifice of them to Vulcan. As to his worship, Vulcan had an altar in common with Prometheus, who first invented fire, as did Vulcan the use of it, in making arms and utensils. His principal temple was in a consecrated grove at the foot of mount JEtna, in which was a fire continually burning. This temple was guarded by dogs, which had the discernment to distinguish his votaries by tearing the vicious, and fawning upon the virtuous.

He was highly honored at Rome. Romulus built him a temple without the walls of the city, the augurs being of opinion that the god of fire ought not to be admitted within. But the highest mark of respect paid him by the Romans was, that those assemblies were kept in his temple where the most important concerns of the republic were debated, the Romans thinking they could invoke nothing more sacred to confirm their treaties and decisions, than the avenging fire of which that god was the symbol.

This deity, as the god of fire, was represented differently in different nations: the Egyptians depicted him proceeding from an egg, placed in the mouth of Jupiter, to denote the radical or natural heat diffused through all created beings. In aneient gems and medals he is figured as a lame, deformed and squalid man, with a beard, and hair neglected; half naked; his habit reaching down to his knee only, and having a round peaked cap on his head, a hammer in his right hand, and a smith’s tongs in his left, working at the anvil, and usually attended by the Cyclops, or by some of the gods or goddesses for whom he is employed.

The poets described him as blackened and hardened from the forge, with a face red and fiery whilst at his work, and tired and heated after it. He is almost always the subject either of pity or ridicule. In short, the great celestial deities seem to have admitted Vulcan among them as great men used to keep buffoons at their tables, to make them laugh, and to be the butt of the whole company.

If we wish to come at the probable meaning of this fable, we must have recourse to Egyptian antiquities. The Horus of the Egyptians was the most mutable figure on earth, for he assumed shapes suitable to all seasons, and to all ranks. To direct the husbandman he wore a rural dress; by a change of attributes he became the instructer of smiths and other artificers, whose instruments he appeared adorned with. This Horus of the smiths had a short or lame leg, to signify that agriculture or husbandry will halt without the assistance of the handicraft or mechanic arts. In this apparatus he was called Mulciber, (from Mulci, to direct and manage, and ber or beer, a cave or mine, comes Mulciber, the king of the mines or forges;) he was called also Hephaistos, (from Aph, father, and Esto,fire, comes Ephaisto, or Hephaiston, the father of fire; and from Wall, to work, and Canan, to hasten, comes Wolcon, Vulcan, or work furnished; ) all which names the Greeks and Romans adopted with the figure, and, as usual, converted from a symbol to a god.

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