ΧΡYΣΟΣ AND ΧΡYΣΑΩΡ.
Among the different branches of the great Amonian family which spread themselves abroad, the sons of Chus were the most considerable, and at the same time the most enterprising. They got access into countries widely distant; where they may be traced under different denominations, but more particularly by their family title. This we might expect the Greeks to have rendered Chusos, and to have named the people Χυσαιοι, Chusæi. But, by a fatal misprision, they uniformly changed these terms to words more familiar to their ear, and rendered them Χρυσος, and Χρυσειος, as if they had a reference to gold. I have before mentioned the various parts of the world where the Amonians settled, and especially this branch of that family.
Their most considerable colonies westward were in Iönia and Hellas; and about Cuma and Liguria in Italy; and upon the coast of Iberia in Spain. They were likewise to be found in Cyrene; and still farther in Mauritania, and in the islands opposite to that coast. In the north they were to be met with at Colchis, towards the foot of Mount Caucasus, and in most regions upon the coast of the Euxine sea. In the histories of these countries the Grecians have constantly changed Chusos, the Gentile name, to Chrusos, Χρυσος; and Chus-Or, Chusorus, to Χρυσωρ, Chrusor: and, in consequence of this alteration, they have introduced in their accounts of these places some legend about gold. Hence we read of a golden fleece at Colchis; golden apples at the Hesperides; at Tartessus, a golden cup; and, at Cuma, in Campania, a golden branch:
Aureus et foliis, et lento vimine, ramus.
Something similar is observable in the history of Cyrene. The natives were not remarkable for either mines or merchandize: yet, Palæphatus, having mentioned that they were κατα γενος Αιθιοπες, Ethiopians by extraction, that is, Cuseans, subjoins: Εισι δε σφοδρα χρυσοι. Pindar, in celebrating each happy circumstance of the Insulæ Fortunatæ, mentions, that there were trees with branches of gold: Aνθεμα δε χρυσου φλεγει. The river Phasis, in Colchis, was supposed to have abounded with gold; and the like was pretended of the Hermus and Pactolus in Iönia. Not only the Poets, but many of the graver historians, speak of their golden sands. Yet there is reason to doubt of the fact: for not one of them produces any good voucher for what they suppose. They do not mention any trade carried on, nor riches accruing from this lucky circumstance: so that there is no reason to think that one grain of gold was gathered from these celebrated streams. Among the several islands occupied by this people were Rhodes and Delos. In the former, the chief city is said to have been blessed with showers of gold. Ενθα ποτε βρεχε θεον Βασιλευς ὁ μεγας χρυσαις νιφαδεσσι πολιν. At Delos every thing was golden, even the slippers of the God.
Χρυσεα και τα πεδιλα, πολυχρυσος γαρ Απολλων.
And this not only in aftertimes, when the island was enriched with offerings from different nations, but even at the birth of the God; by which is meant the foundation of his temple, and introduction of his rites.
Χρυσεα τοι τοτε παντα θεμειλια γεινατο, Δηλε,
Χρυσῳ δε τροχοεσσα πανημερος εῤῥεε λιμνη,
Χρυσειον δ’ εκομισσε γενεθλιον ερνος ελαιης,
Χρυσῳ δε πλημμυρε βαθυς Ινωπος ἑλιχθεις,
Αυτη δε χρυσοιο απ’ ουδεος ἑιλεο παιδα,
Εν δ’ εβαλευ κολποισιν.
We find that the very soil and foundations of the island were golden: the lake floated with golden waves: the olive tree vegetated with golden fruit: and the river Inopus, deep as it was, swelled with gold. Homer, in a hymn to the same personage, represents the whole more compendiously, by saying, that the island was weighed down with treasure:
Χρυσῳ δ’ αρα Δηλος ἁπασα Βεβριθει.
I have before mentioned that the Amonians settled in Liguria: and, in consequence of it, the Heliadæ are represented as weeping, not only amber, but gold. Philostratus, speaking of a particular species of fir-trees in Bœtica, says, that they dropped blood, just as the Heliadæ upon the Padus did gold.
Chus, by the Egyptians and Canaanites, was styled Or-Chus, and Chus-Or: the latter of which was expressed by the Greeks, analogous to the examples above, Χρυσωρ, Chrusor: and we learn in Eusebius, from Philo, that Chrusor was one of the principal Deities of the Phenicians, a great benefactor to mankind; and by some supposed to have been the same as Hephaistus. Both the Tyrians and Sidonians were undoubtedly a mixed race, and preserved the memory of Ham, and Chus, equally with that of Canaan.
This name, so often rendered Chrusos, and Chrusor, was sometimes changed to Χρυσαωρ, Chrusaor: and occurs in many places where the Cuthites were known to have settled. We have been shewn that they were a long time in Egypt; and we read of a Chrusaor in those parts, who is said to have arisen from the blood of Medusa.
Εξεθορε Χρυσαωρ τε μεγας, και Πηγασος ἱππος.
We meet with the same Chrusaor in the regions of Asia Minor, especially among the Carians. In these parts he was particularly worshipped, and said to have been the first deified mortal. The great Divan of that nation was called Chrusaorium; and there was a city Chrusaoris, and a temple of the same name. Εγγυς δε της πολεως το του Χρυσαορεως Διος κοινον ἁπαντων Καρων, εις ὁ συνιασι θυσαντες τε και βουλευσαμενοι. This city was properly called Chus-Or, and built in memory of the same person; as the city Chusora, called also Cerchusora, in Egypt. It was undoubtedly founded by some of the same family, who in aftertimes worshipped their chief ancestor; as the Sidonians and Syrians did likewise. For this we have the testimony of Sanchoniathon; who, having mentioned the various benefits bestowed upon mankind by Chrusaor, says, at the conclusion, Διο και ὡς θεον αυτον μετα θανατον εσεβασθησαν· _for which reason, after his death, they worshipped him as a God_. The first king of Iberia was named Chrusaor, the reputed father of Geryon; and he is said to have been πολυχρυσος, a person of great wealth: all which is an Egyptian history, transferred from the Nile to the Bœtis.
Χρυσαωρ δ’ ετεκε τρικαρηνον Γηρυονηα, Μιχθεις Χαλλιροῃ κουρῃ κλυτου Ωκεανοιο.
Geryon of Spain was, according to this mythology of the poet, the son of Chrusaor; and Chrusaor was confessedly of Egyptian original: so that, whatever the fable may allude to, it must have been imported into Bœtica from Egypt by some of the sons of Chus. The Grecians borrowed this term, and applied it to Apollo; and from this epithet, Chrusaor, he was denominated the God of the golden sword. Homer accordingly styles him,
Απολλωνα Χρυσαορα: and, speaking of Apollo’s infancy, he says,
Ουδ’ αρ’ Απολλωνα Χρυσαορα θησατο μητηρ: and Diana is termed
Αυτοκασιγνητη Χρυσαορος Απολλωνος.
This title cannot possibly relate to the implement supposed: for it would be idle to style an infant the God of the golden sword. It was a weapon, which at no time was ascribed to him: nor do I believe, that he is ever
represented with one either upon a gem, or a marble. He is described as wishing for a harp, and for a bow.
Ειη μοι κιθαρις τε φιλη, και καμπυλα τοξα.
And his mother is said to have been pleased that she produced him to the world an archer:
Χαιρε δε Λετω, Ὁυνεκα τοξοφορον και καρτερον ὑιον ετικτεν.
These habiliments are often specified: but I do not recollect any mention made of a sword, nor was the term Chrusaor of Grecian etymology.
Since then we may be assured that Chus was the person alluded to under the name of Chrusos, Chrubor, and Chrusaor; we need not wonder that his substitute Apollo is so often styled Χρυσοκομης, and Χρυσολυρος: that the
harp, called by the Amonians Chan-Or, and Cuth-Or, from the supposed inventor, should by the Grecians be denominated Χρυσεα φορμιγξn Απολλωνος: that so many cities, where Apollo was particularly worshipped, should be called Chruse, and Chrusopolis, the number of which was of no small amount. Nor is this observable in cities only, but in rivers, which were named in the same manner. For it was usual, in the first ages, to consecrate rivers to Deities, and to call them after their names. Hence many were denominated from Chusorus, which by the Greeks was changed to Χρυσοῤῥοας; and from this mistake they were supposed to abound with gold. The Nile was called Chrusorrhoas, which had no pretensions to gold: and there was a river of this name at Damascus. Others too might be produced, none of which had any claim to that mineral. There was a stream Chrusorrhoas near the Amazonian city Themiscura in Pontus: and the river Pactolus was of old so called, whence probably came the notion of its abounding with gold. Πακτωλος ποταμος εστι της Λυδιας—-εκαλειτο δε προτερον Χρυσοῤῥοας. It was named Chrusorrhoas first, and in aftertimes Pactolus: whence we may conclude, in respect to gold, that the name was not given on account of any such circumstance; but the notion was inferred from the name.
It is apparent that this repeated mistake arose in great measure from the term Chusus and Chrusus being similar: whence the latter was easily convertible into the former; which to the Grecians appeared a more intelligible, and at the same time a more splendid, title. But there was still another obvious reason for this change. Chus was by many of the eastern nations expressed Cuth; and his posterity the Cuthim. This term, in the antient Chaldäic, and other Amonian languages, signified gold: hence many cities and countries, where the Cuthites settled, were described as golden, and were represented by the terms Chrusos and Chruse. These, as I have shewn, had no relation to gold, but to Chus, who was reverenced as the Sun, or Apollo; and was looked upon as Dionusus; but may more truly be esteemed Bacchus. Hence, when the poet Dionysius mentions the island Chruse in India, his commentator observes; Χρυση νησος, λεγομενη ὁυτως, η δια το χρυσον φερειν, η κατα τον Διονυσον· and at last concludes, Χρυσους ειναι πως δοκει ὁ ἡλιος.
In a former dissertation concerning the Shepherd Kings in Egypt, I have shewn that they were the sons of Chus, who came into that country under the title of Auritæ. They settled in a province named from them Cushan, which was at the upper part of Delta; and in aftertimes called Nomos Arabicus. It was in the vicinity of Memphis, and Aphroditopolis, which places they likewise occupied. I have mentioned that Chusos was often expressed Chrusos, and the country of the Cuthim rendered the golden country. If then there be that uniformity in error which I maintain, it may be expected that, in the history of these places, there should be some reference to gold. It is remarkable that all this part of Egypt, conformably to what I have said, was called Χρυση, Chruse. Here was the campus aureus, and Aphrodite Aurea of the Romans: and all the country about Memphis was styled golden. To this Diodorus, among others, bears witness: Την τε Αφροδιτην ονομαζεσθαι παρα τοις εγχωριοις Χρυσην ΕΚ ΠΑΛΑΙΑΣ ΠΑΡΑΔΟΣΕΩΣ, και πεδιον ειναι καλουμενον Χρυσης Αφροδιτης περι την ονομαζομενην Μεμφιν. When the Cuthite shepherds came into Egypt, they made Memphis the seat of royal residence: and hard by was the nome of Aphrodite, and the Arabian nome, which they particularly possessed: and which, in consequence of it, were both styled the regions of the Cuthim. Hence came the title of Aphrodite Chruse: and hence the country had the name of the Golden District. The island at the point of Delta, where stood the city Cercusora, is called Gieserat Eddahib, or the Golden Island, at this day. Diodorus mentions, that this appellation of Chruse was derived from _a very ancient tradition_. This tradition undoubtedly related to the shepherds, those sons of Chus, who were so long in possession of the country; and whose history was of the highest antiquity.
The Cuthites in the west occupied only some particular spots: but from Babylonia eastward the greatest part of that extensive sea-coast seems to have been in their possession. In the history of these parts, there is often some allusion to gold, as may be seen in the island Chruse, above-mentioned; and in the Chersonesus Aurea, which lay beyond the Ganges: and not only of gold, but sometimes a reference to brass; and this from a similar mistake. For as Chusus was changed to Chrusus, Χρυσος, gold; so was Cal-Chus, the hill, or place of Chus, converted to Chalcus, Χαλκος, brass. Colchis was properly Col-Chus; and therefore called also Cuta, and Cutaia. But what was Colchian being sometimes rendered Chalcion, Καλκιον, gave rise to the fable of brazen bulls; which were only Colchic Tor, or towers. There was a region named Colchis in India: for where the Cuthites settled, they continually kept up the memory of their forefathers, and called places by their names. This being a secret to Philostratus, has led him into a deal of mysterious error. It is well known that this people were styled Oreitæ, and Auritæ, both in Egypt and in other parts. Philostratus says that Apollonius came to a settlement of the Oreitæ upon the Indian Ocean. He also visited their Pegadæ; and, what is remarkable, he met with a people whose very rocks were brazen; their sand was brazen: the rivers conveyed down their streams fine filaments of brass: and the natives esteemed their land golden on account of the plenty of brass. Now what is this detail, but an abuse of terms, ill understood, and shamefully misapplied? Philostratus had heard of a region in India; the history of which he would fain render marvellous. The country, whither Apollonius is supposed to go, was a province of the Indo-Cuthites, who were to be met with in various parts under the title of Oreitæ. They were worshippers of fire, and came originally from the land of Ur; and hence had that name. The Pegadæ of the country are what we now call Pagodas; and which are too well known to need describing. There were in this part of the world several cities, and temples, dedicated to the memory of Chus. Some of these are famous at this day, though denominated after the Babylonish dialect Cutha, and Cuta; witness Calcutta, and Calecut. The latter seems to have been the capital of the region called of old Colchis. This was more truly expressed Cal-Chus; which Philostratus has mistaken for Χαλκος, brass; and made the very rocks and rivers abound with that mineral. And yet, that the old mistake about gold may not be omitted, he concludes with a strange antithesis, by saying, that the natives esteemed their country Chrusitis, or golden, from the quantity of brass.
It has been my endeavour to prove that what the Grecians represented by Chrusos, Chrusor, and Chrusaor, should have been expressed Chus, Chusos, and Chusor, called also Chus-Orus. Chus was the son of Ham; and though the names of the Grecian Deities are not uniformly appropriated, yet Ham is generally looked upon as Ἑλιος, the Sun; and had the title Dis, and Dios: hence the city of Amon in Egypt was rendered Diospolis. If then Chrusos, and Chrusor, be, as I have supposed, Chus; the person so denominated must have been, according to the more ancient mythology, the son of Helius, and Dios. We find accordingly that it was so. The Scholiast upon Pindar expressly says, Διος παις ὁ Χρυσος. And in another place he is said to have been the offspring of Helius, who was no other than Cham. Εκ θειας και Ὑπεριονος Ἡλιος, εκ δε Ἡλιου ὁ Χρυσος. Magic and incantations are attributed to Chus, as the inventor; and they were certainly first practised among his sons: hence it is said by Sanchoniathon, Τον Χρυσωρ λογους ασκησαι και επῳδας, και μαντειας. He was however esteemed a great benefactor; and many salutary inventions were ascribed to him. He had particularly the credit of being the first who ventured upon the seas:
Πρωτον τε παντων ανθρωπων πλευσαι. Whether this can be said truly of Chus himself, is uncertain: it agrees full well with the history of his sons; who, as we have the greatest reason to be assured, were the first great navigators in the world.
Beginning about 10,000 BC (early Neolithic, or stone age), archaeological research shows conclusively that Syria, Lebanon and Palestine formed a wide cultural province. This was distinct from its neighbors, Egypt and Mesopotamia, and more closely related to Anatolia, notes the fine Anatolian and Near Eastern scholar James Mellaart. (10) “During the early Neolithic Period, wood or skin vessels were used instead of pottery. Even then the stone tools, especially weapons, such as daggers, javelins and arrowheads, show marked resemblance from Anatolia to Palestine. South of the Taurus Mountains , these were made in flint, whereas on the Anatolian Plateau obsidian, a black volcanic glass, predominated. Trade relations were established at an early date and from 8300 BC onwards flint was sent north and obsidian as far south as Jericho. The importance of this trade can hardly be over-estimated. It probably accounts for the wealth of such cities as Catal Huyuk, in Anatolia, and Jericho.  This affluence could hardly be explained by advanced agriculture or intensified hunting.” (10) Mellaart continues, In the later phases of the Neolithic Period pottery came into common use and spread south along the same trade-route. Although the distances involved were by no means great, the technical competence necessary to make a good pot took time to acquire…The earliest known pottery is found in Anatolia ca. 6700 BC. Its use did not become common until half a millennium later (ca. 5900 BC). From there it spread southwards to Cilicia and North Syria, where its first appearance can be dated near 6000 BC….No pottery in Palestine can be dated earlier than 5500 BC. In Egypt, the earliest settlement in which pottery was used…is dated about 4500 BC. (13) When the Storm God and the serpent fought each other in the city of Kiškilušša, the serpent vanquished the Storm God. It is said that the Eridanus was so called first by Pherecydes Syrus: and that my etymology is true, may in great measure be proved from the Scholiast upon Aratus. He shews that the name was of Egyptian original, at least consonant to the language of Egypt; for it was the same as the Nile. It is certain that it occurred in the antient sphere of Egypt, whence the Grecians received it. The great effusion of water in the celestial sphere, which, Aratus says, was the Nile, is still called the Eridanus: and, as the name was of oriental original, the purport of it must be looked for among the people of those parts. The river Strymon, in Thrace, was supposed to abound with swans, as much as the Eridanus; and the ancient name of this river was Palaestinus. It was so called from the Amonians, who settled here under the name of Adonians, and who founded the city Adonis. They were by the later Greeks styled, after the Ioenic manner, Edonians, and their city Edonis. [Greek: Strumon potamos esti tes Thrakes kata polin Edonida, prosegoreueto de proteron Palaistinos.] _The Strymon is a river of Thrace, which runs by the city Edonis: it was of old called the river Palaestinus_. In these places, and in all others where any of the Canaanites settled, the Grecians have introduced some story about swans. on the edge of a sacred lake were the djed-pillars and close to the banks was an enclosure in which was the white mansion [wetjeset neter] nearby was the navel [place or point of first creation]. here there was a simple stone structure … place of the well. in the enclosure lived the shebtiu and/or the sages and/or the elders and/or the falcons