Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
“I shall set fire to its thick forests. I shall take an axe to its evil-doing. I shall make Gibil, the purifier, do his work at its watercourses. I shall spread this terror through the inaccessible mountain range Aratta.”

Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
“Let me set fire to its thick forests. Let me take an axe to its evil-doing. Let me make Gibil, the purifier, do his work at its watercourses. Let me spread this terror through the inaccessible mountain range Aratta.”

Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
(4 lines missing) “The first ……. The second ……. The third ……. The fourth ……. The fifth ……. The sixth beats at the flanks of the mountains like a battering flood. The seventh flashes like lightning, and no one can deflect its power. These shine in the heavens, but they know the routes on earth. In heaven they shine ……, raising ……; on earth they know the way even to Aratta. They know the destructive weather like the merchants. They know the mountain crannies like the pigeons. They will guide you to the place in the mountains where the boats have to be pulled from the water.”

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
— now at that time the king set his mace towards the city, Enmerkar son of Utu prepared an …… expedition against Aratta, the mountain of the holy divine powers. He was going to set off to destroy the rebel land; the lord began a mobilization of his city. The herald made the horn signal sound in all the lands. Now levied Unug took the field with the wise king, indeed levied Kulaba followed Enmerkar. Unug’s levy was a flood, Kulaba’s levy was a clouded sky. As they covered the ground like heavy fog, the dense dust whirled up by them reached up to heaven. As if to rooks on the best seed, rising up, he called to the people. Each one gave his fellow the sign.

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
“But if Utu calls our brother to the holy place, the valued place (i.e. the hereafter), the health of his limbs will leave (?) him. Then it will be up to us, when we come back from Aratta, to bring our brother’s body to brick-built Kulaba.”

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Then the men of Unug followed them as one man; they wound their way through the hills like a snake over a grain-pile. When the city was only a double-hour distant, the armies of Unug and Kulaba encamped by the posts and ditches that surrounded Aratta. From the city it rained down javelins as if from the clouds, slingstones numerous as the raindrops falling in a whole year whizzed down loudly from Aratta’s walls. The days passed, the months became long, the year turned full circle. A yellow harvest grew beneath the sky. They looked askance at the fields. Unease came over them. Slingstones numerous as the raindrops falling in a whole year landed on the road. They were hemmed in by the barrier of mountain thornbushes thronged with dragons. No one knew how to go back to the city, no was rushing to go back to Kulaba. In their midst Enmerkar son of Utu was afraid, was troubled, was disturbed by this upset. He sought someone whom he could send back to the city, he sought someone whom he could send back to Kulaba. No one said to him “I will go to the city.” No one said to him “I will go to Kulaba.” He went out to the foreign host. No one said to him “I will go to the city.” No one said to him “I will go to Kulaba.” He stood before the élite troops. No one said to him “I will go to the city.” No one said to him “I will go to Kulaba.” A second time he went out to the foreign host. No one said to him “I will go to the city.” No one said to him “I will go to Kulaba.” He stepped out before the élite troops.

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
By midnight, but before they had brought the offering-table to holy Inana, he set foot joyfully in brick-built Kulaba. His lady, holy Inana, sat there on her cushion. He bowed and prostrated himself on the ground. With { (1 ms. adds:) joyful } eyes Inana looked at holy Lugalbanda as she would look at the shepherd Ama-ušumgal-ana. In a { (1 ms. adds:) joyful } voice, Inana spoke to holy Lugalbanda as she would speak to her son Lord Šara: “Come now, my Lugalbanda, why do you bring news from the city? How have you come here alone from Aratta?”

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
“It stands alone, it stands alone! One tamarisk stands alone at the side! When Enmerkar son of Utu has cut that tamarisk and has fashioned it into a bucket, he must tear up the old reeds in that holy place roots and all, and collect them in his hands. When he has chased out from it the …… fish, which is a god of the suḫurmaš fish, caught that fish, cooked it, garnished it and brought it as a sacrifice to the a-an-kar weapon, Inana’s battle-strength, then his troops will have success for him; then he will have brought to an end that which in the subterranean waters provides the life-strength of Aratta.”

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
“If he carries off from the city its worked metal and smiths, if he carries off its worked stones and its stonemasons, if he renews the city and settles it, all the moulds of Aratta will be his.”

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Now Aratta’s battlements are of green lapis lazuli, its walls and its towering brickwork are bright red, their brick clay is made of tinstone dug out in the mountains where the cypress grows.

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
…… was colourfully adorned, and ……, the holy place, was …… with flawless lapis lazuli, its interior beautifully formed like a white meš tree bearing fruit. The lord of Aratta placed on his head the golden crown for Inana. But he did not please her like the lord of Kulaba. Aratta did not build for holy Inana — unlike the Shrine E-ana, the ĝipar, the holy place, unlike brick-built Kulaba.

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“My sister, let Aratta fashion gold and silver skilfully on my behalf for Unug. Let them cut the flawless lapis lazuli from the blocks, let them …… the translucence of the flawless lapis lazuli ……. …… build a holy mountain in Unug. Let Aratta build a temple brought down from heaven — your place of worship, the Shrine E-ana; let Aratta skilfully fashion the interior of the holy ĝipar, your abode; may I, the radiant youth, may I be embraced there by you. Let Aratta submit beneath the yoke for Unug on my behalf. Let the people of Aratta bring down for me the mountain stones from their mountain, build the great shrine for me, erect the great abode for me, make the great abode, the abode of the gods, famous for me, make my me prosper in Kulaba, make the abzu grow for me like a holy mountain, make Eridug gleam for me like the mountain range, cause the abzu shrine to shine forth for me like the silver in the lode. When in the abzu I utter praise, when I bring the me from Eridug, when, in lordship, I am adorned with the crown like a purified shrine, when I place on my head the holy crown in Unug Kulaba, then may the …… of the great shrine bring me into the ĝipar, and may the …… of the ĝipar bring me into the great shrine. May the people marvel admiringly, and may Utu witness it in joy.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Come, Enmerkar! I shall offer you advice: let my counsel be heeded. I shall speak words to you; let them be heard. Choose from the troops as a messenger one who is eloquent of speech and endowed with endurance. Where and to whom shall he carry the important message of wise Inana? Let him bring it up into the Zubi mountains, let him descend with it from the Zubi mountains. Let Susa and the land of Anšan humbly salute Inana like tiny mice. In the great mountain ranges, let the teeming multitudes grovel in the dust for her. Aratta shall submit beneath the yoke to Unug. The people of Aratta shall bring down the mountain stones from their mountains, and shall build the great shrine for you, and erect the great abode for you, will cause the great abode, the abode of the gods, to shine forth for you; will make your me flourish in Kulaba, will make the abzu grow for you like a holy mountain, will make Eridug shining for you like the mountain range, will cause the abzu shrine to shine forth for you like the glitter in the lode. When in the abzu you utter praise, when you bring the me from Eridug, when, in lordship, you are adorned with the crown like a purified shrine, when you place on your head the holy crown in Unug Kulaba, then may the …… of the great shrine bring you into the ĝipar, and may the …… of the ĝipar bring you into the great shrine. May the people marvel admiringly, and may Utu witness it in joy. Because …… shall carry daily, when …… in the evening cool ……, — in the place of Dumuzid where the ewes, kids and lambs are numerous, the people of Aratta shall run around for you like the mountain sheep in the akalag fields, the fields of Dumuzid. Rise like the sun over my holy breast! You are the jewel of my throat! Praise be to you, Enmerkar, the son of Utu!”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“You shall bring it up into the Zubi mountains, you shall descend with it from the Zubi mountains. Let Susa and the land of Anšan humbly salute Inana like tiny mice. In the great mountain ranges, let the teeming multitudes grovel in the dust for her. Messenger, speak to the lord of Aratta and say to him: “Lest I make the people fly off from that city like a wild dove from its tree, lest I make them fly around like a bird over its well-founded nest, lest I requite (?) them as if at a current market rate, lest I make it gather dust like an utterly destroyed city, lest like a settlement cursed by Enki and utterly destroyed, I too utterly destroy Aratta; lest like the devastation which swept destructively, and in whose wake Inana arose, shrieked and yelled aloud, I too wreak a sweeping devastation there — let Aratta pack nuggets of gold in leather sacks, placing alongside it the kugmea ore; package up precious metals, and load the packs on the donkeys of the mountains; and then may the Junior Enlil of Sumer have them build for me, the lord whom Nudimmud has chosen in his sacred heart, a mountain of a shining me; have them make it luxuriant for me like a boxwood tree, have them make its shining horns colourful for me as when Utu comes forth from his chamber, have them make its doorposts gleam brightly for me.””

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
The lord added further instructions for the messenger going to the mountains, to Aratta:

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
The messenger gave heed to the words of his king. He journeyed by the starry night, and by day he travelled with Utu of heaven. Where and to whom will he carry the important message of Inana with its stinging tone? He brought it up into the Zubi mountains, he descended with it from the Zubi mountains. Susa and the land of Anšan humbly saluted Inana like tiny mice. In the great mountain ranges, the teeming multitudes grovelled in the dust for her. He traversed five mountains, six mountains, seven mountains. He lifted his eyes as he approached Aratta. He stepped joyfully into the courtyard of Aratta, he made known the authority of his king. Openly he spoke out the words in his heart. The messenger transmitted the message to the lord of Aratta:

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“This is what my master has spoken, this is what he has said. My king who from his birth has been fitted { for lordship } { (1 ms. has instead:) for the crown }, the lord of Unug, the saĝkal snake living in Sumer, who pulverises { mountains } { (2 mss. have instead:) heads } like flour, the stag of the tall mountains, endowed with princely antlers, wild cow, kid pawing the holy soapwort with its hoof, whom the good cow had given birth to in the heart of the mountains, Enmerkar, the son of Utu, has sent me to you.” { (2 mss. add here:) (the lord of Aratta speaks): “What is it to me what your master has spoken? what is it to me what he has said?” } “This is what my master said: “Lest I make the people fly off from that city like a wild dove from its tree, lest I make them fly around like a bird over its well-founded nest, lest I requite (?) them as if at a current market rate, lest I make it gather dust like an utterly destroyed city, lest like a settlement cursed by Enki and utterly destroyed, I too utterly destroy Aratta; lest like the devastation which swept destructively, and in whose wake Inana arose, shrieked and yelled aloud, I too wreak a sweeping devastation there — let Aratta pack nuggets of gold in leather sacks, placing alongside it the kugmea ore; package up precious metals, and load the packs on the donkeys of the mountains; and then may the Junior Enlil of Sumer have them build for me, the lord whom Nudimmud has chosen in his sacred heart, a mountain of a shining me; have them make it luxuriant for me like a boxwood tree, have them make its shining horns colourful for me as when Utu comes forth from his chamber, have them make its doorposts gleam brightly for me. Chant to him for me the holy song, the incantation sung in its chambers — the Incantation of Nudimmud.””

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Say whatever you will say to me, and I shall announce that message in the shrine E-ana as glad tidings to the scion of him with the glistening beard, whom his stalwart cow gave birth to in the mountain of the shining me, who was reared on the soil of Aratta, who was given suck at the udder of the good cow, who is suited for office in Kulaba, the mountain of great me, to Enmerkar, the son of Utu; I shall repeat it in his ĝipar, fruitful as a flourishing meš tree, to my king, the lord of Kulaba.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
When he had spoken thus to him, (the lord of Aratta replied): “Messenger, speak to your king, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: “It is I, the lord suited to purification, I whom the huge heavenly neck-stock, the queen of heaven and earth, the goddess of the numerous me, holy Inana, has brought to Aratta, the mountain of the shining me, I whom she has let bar the entrance of the mountains as if with a great door. How then shall Aratta submit to Unug? Aratta’s submission to Unug is out of the question!” Say this to him.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
When he had spoken thus to him, the messenger replied to the lord of Aratta: “The great queen of heaven, who rides upon the awesome me, dwelling on the peaks of the bright mountains, adorning the dais of the bright mountains — my lord and master, who is her servant, has had them instal her as the divine queen of E-ana. Aratta shall bow, O lord, in absolute submission! She has spoken to him thus, in brick-built Kulaba.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Messenger! Speak to your king, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: “This great mountain range is a meš tree grown high to the sky; its roots form a net, and its branches are a snare. It may be a sparrow but it has the talons of an Anzud bird or of an eagle. The barrier of Inana is perfectly made and is impenetrable (?). Those eagle talons make the blood of the enemy run from the bright mountain. Although in Aratta there is weeping ……, water libations are offered and flour is sprinkled; on the mountain, sacrifices and prayers are offered in obeisance. With fewer than five or 10 men, how can mobilised Unug proceed against the Zubi mountains? Your king is heading in all haste against my military might, but I am equally eager for a contest. (As the proverb goes,) he who ignores a rival, does not get to eat everything up, like the bull which ignores the bull at its side. But he who acknowledges a contest can be the outright winner, like the bull which acknowledges the bull at its side — or does he reject me in this contest? Like ……, …… can match no one — or does he still reject me in this contest? Again, I have words to say to you, messenger: I have an artful proposal to make to you ……, may it get across to you ……. Repeat this to your master, to the lord of Kulaba, a lion lying on its paws in E-ana, a bull bellowing within it, within his ĝipar, fruitful as a flourishing meš tree. The mountain range is a warrior, …… high, like Utu going to his abode at twilight, like one from whose face blood drips; or like Nanna, who is majestic in the high heavens, like him whose countenance shines with radiance, who …… is like the woods in the mountains.””

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“”Now if Enmerkar just makes straight for the …… of Aratta, for the benevolent protective spirit of the mountain of holy powers, for Aratta, which is like a bright crown of heaven, then I shall make my pre-eminence clear, and he need not pour barley into sacks, nor have it carted, nor have that barley carried into the settlements, nor place collectors over the labourers.””

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“”But if he were actually to have barley poured into carrying-nets, and to have it loaded on the packasses at whose sides reserve donkeys have been placed, and were to have it heaped up in a pile in the courtyard of Aratta — were he really to heap it up in such a manner; and were Inana, the luxuriance of the grain pile, who is the ‘illuminator of the lands’, the ‘ornament of the settlements’, who adorns the seven walls, who is the heroic lady, fit for battle, who, as the heroine of the battleground, makes the troops dance the dance of Inana — were she actually to cast off Aratta as if to a carrion-pursuing dog, then in that case I should submit to him; he would indeed have made me know his preeminence; like the city, I in my smallness would submit to him.” So say to him.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After he had spoken thus to him, the lord of Aratta made the messenger repeat the message just as he himself had said it. The messenger turned on his thigh like a wild cow; like a sand fly he went on his way in the morning calm. He set foot joyfully in brick-built Kulaba. The messenger rushed to the great courtyard, the courtyard of the throne room. He repeated it word perfect to his master, the lord of Kulaba; he even bellowed at him like a bull, and Enmerkar listened to him like an ox driver. The king had him sit …… at his right side. As he turned his left side to him, he said: “Does Aratta really understand the implications of his own stratagem?”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After day had broken and Utu had risen, the sun god of the Land lifted his head high. The king combined the Tigris with the Euphrates. He combined the Euphrates with the Tigris. Large vessels were placed in the open air, and he stood small vessels beside them, like lambs lying on the grass. …… vessels were placed in the open air adjacent to them. Then the king, Enmerkar, the son of Utu, placed wide apart the ešda vessels, which were of gold. Thereupon, the …… clay tablet, the pointed stylus of the assembly, the golden statue fashioned on a propitious day, beautiful Nanibgal, grown with a fair luxuriance, Nisaba, the lady of broad wisdom, opened for him her holy house of wisdom. He entered the palace of heaven, and became attentive. Then the lord opened his mighty storehouse, and firmly set his great lidga measure on the ground. The king removed his old barley from the other barley; he soaked the greenmalt all through with water; its lip …… the ḫirin plant. He narrowed the meshes of the carrying nets. He measured out in full (?) the barley for the granary, adding for the teeth of locusts. He had it loaded on the packasses at whose sides reserve donkeys were placed. The king, the lord of broad wisdom, the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba, despatched them directly to Aratta. He made the people go on to Aratta on their own, like ants out of crevices. Again the lord added instructions for the messenger going to the mountains, to Aratta:

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Messenger, speak to the lord of Aratta and say to him: “The base of my sceptre is the divine power of magnificence. Its crown provides a protective shade over Kulaba; under its spreading branches holy Inana refreshes herself in the shrine E-ana. Let him snap off a splinter from it and hold that in his hand; let him hold it in his hand like a string of cornelian beads, a string of lapis lazuli beads. Let the lord of Aratta bring that before me.” So say to him.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After he had thus spoken to him, the messenger went on his way to Aratta; his feet raised the dust of the road, and made the little pebbles of the hills thud; like a dragon prowling the desert, he was unopposed. After the messenger reached Aratta, the people of Aratta stepped forward to admire the packasses. In the courtyard of Aratta, the messenger measured out in full (?) the barley for the granary, adding for the teeth of locusts. As if from the rains of heaven and the sunshine, Aratta was filled with abundance. As when the gods return to their seats (?), Aratta’s hunger was sated. The people of Aratta covered their fields with the water-soaked greenmalt. Afterwards, couriers and šatam officials ……. (2 lines unclear)

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
The citizens of Aratta were mindful; he revealed the matter to Aratta. Consequently, in Aratta, from the hand ……. …… his hand …… to the lord of Unug.

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“What is it to me what your master has spoken? What is it to me what he has said?” “This is what my master has spoken, this is what he has said: “The base of my sceptre is the divine power of magnificence. Its crown provides a protective shade over Kulaba; under its spreading branches holy Inana refreshes herself in the shrine E-ana.Let him snap off a splinter from it and hold that in his hand; let him hold it in his hand like a string of cornelian beads, a string of lapis lazuli beads. Let the lord of Aratta bring that before me. So say to him.””

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After he had spoken to him thus, the messenger went off like a young donkey, braying as it is cut off from the chariot tongue; he trotted like an onager running on dry land, he filled his mouth with wind; he ran in one track (?) like a long-woolled sheep butting other sheep in its fury. He set foot joyfully in brick-built Kulaba. He transmitted the message word for word to his master, the lord of Kulaba. Now Enki gave Enmerkar wisdom, and the lord gave instructions to his chief steward. In his house ……, the king received ……. He wrapped it up like ……, and inspected it. He pounded …… with a pestle like herbs, he poured it like oil on the …… reed. From the sunlight it emerged into the shade, and from the shade it emerged into the sunlight. After five years, 10 years had passsed, he split the …… reed with an axe. The lord looked at it, pleased, and poured on …… fine oil, fine oil of the bright mountains. The lord placed the sceptre in the hands of the messenger going to the mountains. The messenger, whose journeying to Aratta was like a pelican over the hills, like a fly over the ground, who darted through the mountains as swiftly as carp swim, reached Aratta. He set foot joyfully in the courtyard of Aratta, and put the sceptre in ……. He …… and …… it. The lord of Aratta, eying the sceptre, which was shining awesomely in the sanctuary, his holy dwelling — he, the lord, called to his šatam official:

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Aratta is indeed like a slaughtered sheep! Its roads are inded like those of the rebel lands! Since holy Inana has given the primacy of Aratta to the lord of Kulaba, now it seems that holy Inana is looking with favour on her man who has sent a messenger to make the severe message as clear as the light of Utu. So in Aratta where can one go in this crisis? How long before the yoke-rope becomes bearable? As for us, in the direst hunger, in our direst famine, are we to prostrate ourselves before the lord of Kulaba?”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
The lord of Aratta entrusted a message to the messenger as if it were an important tablet:

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After he had spoken to him thus, the messenger set off, ulum, alam. In brick-built Kulaba, he was speechless, like a ……. He gazed like a goat on the mountain slopes, he …… as if it were a huge mir snake coming out from the brambles. In …… he lifted his head. …… of Aratta ……. From his seat, he addressed him like a raging torrent:

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Messenger! Speak to the lord of Aratta and say to him: “A garment that is not black-coloured, a garment that is not white-coloured, a garment that is not brown-coloured, a garment that is not red-coloured, a garment that is not yellow-coloured, a garment that is not multicoloured — I shall give him such a garment. My champion is embraced by Enlil. I shall send him such a champion. My champion will compete against his champion, and let the more able one prevail!” Say this to him. Second, speak to him and say: “Let him immediately pass from subterfuge ……. In his city, let them go before him like sheep. Let him, like their shepherd, follow behind them. As he goes, let the mountain of bright lapis lazuli humble itself before him like a crushed reed. And let them heap up its shining gold and silver in the courtyard of Aratta for Inana the lady of E-ana.” Third, speak to him and say: “Lest I make the people fly off from that city like a wild dove from its tree, lest I smash them like ……, lest I requite (?) them as if at a current market rate, lest I make …… them walk in ……, when he goes, let them take the mountain stones, and rebuild for me the great shrine Eridug, the abzu, the E-nun; let them adorn its architrave for me ……. Let them make its protection spread over the Land for me.” His speaking ……. Recite his omen to him. At that time, the lord ……, …… on the throne daises and on the chairs, the noble seed, …….”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
His speech was substantial, and its contents extensive. The messenger, whose mouth was heavy, was not able to repeat it. Because the messenger, whose mouth was tired, was not able to repeat it, the lord of Kulaba patted some clay and wrote the message as if on a tablet. Formerly, the writing of messages on clay was not established. Now, under that sun and on that day, it was indeed so. The lord of Kulaba inscribed the message like a tablet. It was just like that. The messenger was like a bird, flapping its wings; he raged forth like a wolf following a kid. He traversed five mountains, six mountains, seven mountains. He lifted his eyes as he approached Aratta. He stepped joyfully into the courtyard of Aratta, he made known the authority of his king. Openly he spoke out the words in his heart. The messenger transmitted the message to the lord of Aratta:

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“This is what my master has spoken, this is what he has said. My king is like a huge meš tree, …… son of Enlil; this tree has grown high, uniting heaven and earth; its crown reaches heaven, its trunk is set upon the earth. He who is made to shine forth in lordship and kingship, Enmerkar, the son of Utu, has given me a clay tablet. O lord of Aratta, after you have examined the clay tablet, after you have learned the content of the message, say whatever you will say to me, and I shall announce that message in the shrine E-ana as glad tidings to the scion of him with the glistening beard, whom his stalwart cow gave birth to in the mountains of the shining me, who was reared on the soil of Aratta, who was given suck at the udder of the good cow, who is suited for office in Kulaba, the mountain of great me, to Enmerkar, the son of Utu; I shall repeat it in his ĝipar, fruitful as a flourishing meš tree, to my king, the lord of Kulaba.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After he had spoken thus to him, the lord of Aratta received his kiln-fired tablet from the messenger. The lord of Aratta looked at the tablet. The transmitted message was just nails, and his brow expressed anger. The lord of Aratta looked at his kiln-fired tablet. At that moment, the lord worthy of the crown of lordship, the son of Enlil, the god Iškur, thundering in heaven and earth, caused a raging storm, a great lion, in ……. He was making the mountains quake ……, he was convulsing the mountain range ……; the awesome radiance …… of his breast; he caused the mountain range to raise its voice in joy. On Aratta’s parched flanks, in the midst of the mountains, wheat grew of its own accord, and chickpeas also grew of their own accord; they brought the wheat which grew of its own accord into the granary of …… for the lord of Aratta, and heaped it up before him in the courtyard of Aratta. The lord of Aratta looked at the wheat. The messenger’s eyes looked askance ……. The lord of Aratta called to the messenger:

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Inana, the lady of all the lands, has not run away from the primacy of her city, Aratta, nor has she stolen it for Unug; she has not run away from her E-zagin, nor has she stolen it for the shrine E-ana; she has not run away from the mountain of the shining me, nor has she stolen it for brick-built Kulaba; she has not run away from the adorned bed, nor has she stolen it for the shining bed; she has not run away from the purification for the lord, nor has she stolen it for the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba. Inana, the lady of all the lands, has surrounded Aratta, on its right and left, for her like a rising flood. They are people whom she has separated from other people, they are people whom Dumuzid has made step forth from other people, who firmly establish the holy words of Inana. Let the clever champion and the …… of Dumuzid whirl about! Quickly, come now, ……. After the flood had swept over, Inana, the lady of all the lands, from her great love of Dumuzid, has sprinkled the water of life upon those who had stood in the face of the flood and made the Land subject to them.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
When the old woman came to the mountain of the shining me, she went up to him like a maiden who in her day is perfect, painted her eyes with kohl, wrapped herself in a white garment, came forth with the good crown like the moonlight. She arranged the …… on her head. She made Enmerkar, her spouse, occupy the throne-dais with her. She raised up ……, and indeed, for Aratta, the ewes and their lambs now multiply; indeed, for Aratta, the mother goats and their kids multiply; indeed, for Aratta, the cows and their calves multiply; indeed, for Aratta, the donkey mares and their black, swift-footed foals multiply. In Aratta, they say together: “Let them heap up and pile up for the grain piles; the abundance is truly your abundance.” After having made …… for the lord of Aratta, let him ……. He will ……. He came forth ……, he set right for her. (3 lines missing)

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
(An unidentified person speaks:) “…… befitting ……, …… the ilu song of the heart, …… your abundance in his ……. Enlil has granted you ……, and may …… be made known. …… his father was not luxuriantly fertile, and poured forth no semen. Enlil, king of all the lands ……. In accordance with the tasks which he has now established, the people of Aratta …… their task of plying gold, silver and lapis lazuli; the men who …… golden fruit, fruit trees, with their figs and grapes, shall heap the fruit up in great mounds ……; and shall dig out the flawless lapis lazuli from the roots of the trees, and shall remove the succulent part of the reeds from the crowns of the trees, and then shall heap them up in a pile in the courtyard of E-ana for Inana, the lady of E-ana.”

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Come, my king, I shall offer you advice: let my counsel be heeded. I shall speak words to you; let them be heard. Let the people choose a man …… of the foreign lands, and let the people of Aratta speak ……. When I go from here, the ever-sparkling lady gives me my kingship. Ĝeštin-ana ……. In that city ……, festivals were not ……. Daily …….” (approx. 6 lines missing)

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
Built in magnificence with all the great powers, lustrous mount founded on a favourable day, like moonlight coming up over the land, like bright sunlight radiating over the land, the rear cow and …… cow coming forth in abundance: all this is Unug, the glory of which reaches the highland and its radiance, genuine refined silver, covers Aratta like a garment, is spread over it like linen.

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
At that time the day was lord, the night was sovereign, and Utu was king. Now the name of the lord of Aratta’s minister was minister Ansiga-ria. The name of the minister of Enmerkar, the lord of Kulaba, was Namena-tuma. He with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the man born to be a god; he with a man manifest as a god, with the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba — En-suḫgir-ana, the lord of Aratta, is to make a contest with him, saying first to the messenger concerning Unug:

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
“Let him submit to me, let him bear my yoke. If he submits to me, indeed submits to me, then as for him and me — he may dwell with Inana within a walled enclosure (?), but I dwell with Inana in the E-zagin of Aratta; he may lie with her on the splendid bed, but I lie in sweet slumber with her on the adorned bed, he may see dreams with Inana at night, but I converse with Inana awake. He may feed the geese with barley, but I will definitely not feed the geese with barley. I will …… the geese’s eggs in a basket and …… their goslings. The small ones into my pot, the large ones into my kettle, and the rulers of the land who submitted will consume, together with me, what remains from the geese.” This is what he said to Enmerkar.

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
He entered the presence of the lord in { his holy ĝipar } { (1 ms. has instead:) in his most holy place }. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) He entered the presence of Enmerkar in his most holy place. } “My king has sent me to you. The lord of Aratta, En-suḫgir-ana, has sent me to you.” { (some mss. add the lines:) “What does your king have to tell me, what does he have to add to me? What does En-suḫgir-ana have to tell me, what does he have to add to me?” “This is what my king said, what he added, this is what En-suḫgir-ana said, what he added.” } “This is what my king says: “Let him submit to me, let him bear my yoke. If he submits to me, indeed submits to me, then as for him and me — he may dwell with Inana within a walled enclosure (?), but I dwell with Inana in the E-zagin of Aratta; he may lie with her on the splendid bed, but I lie in sweet slumber with her on the adorned bed, he may see dreams with Inana at night, but I converse with Inana awake. He may feed the geese with barley, but I will definitely not feed the geese with barley. I will …… the geese’s eggs in a basket and …… their goslings. The small ones into my pot, the large ones into my kettle, and the rulers of the land who submitted will consume, together with me, what remains from the geese.””

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
The lord of Unug …… he is their ……, he is their rudder. …… he is the neck-stock which clamps down upon them, …… to the place of its foundation. He is their falcon which flies in the sky, he is their bird-net. The brickwork of the great temple of Aratta ……. …… in Aratta …… great ……. …… bring (?) …….

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
He patted it like a lump of clay, he examined it like a clay-tablet: “He may dwell with Inana in the E-zagin of Aratta, but I dwell with her …… as her earthly companion (?). He may lie with her in sweet slumber on the adorned bed, but I lie on Inana’s splendid bed strewn with pure plants. Its back is an ug lion, its front is a piriĝ lion. The ug lion chases the piriĝ lion, the piriĝ lion chases the ug lion. As the ug lion chases the piriĝ lion and the piriĝ lion chases the ug lion, the day does not dawn, the night does not pass. I accompany Inana for a journey of 15 leagues and yet Utu the sun god cannot see my holy crown, when she enters my holy ĝipar. Enlil has given (?) me the true crown and sceptre. Ninurta, the son of Enlil, held me on his lap as the frame holds the waterskin. Aruru, the sister of Enlil, extended her right breast to me, extended her left breast to me. When I go up to the great shrine, the Mistress screeches like an Anzud chick, and other times when I go there, even though she is not a duckling, she shrieks like one. She …… from the city of her birth. No city was made to be so well-built as the city of Unug (?). It is Unug where Inana dwells and as regards Aratta, what does it have to do with this? It is brick-built Kulaba where she lives, and as regards the mount of the lustrous me, what can it do about this? For five or 10 years she will definitely not go to Aratta. Since the great holy lady of the E-ana took counsel with me (?) about whether to go also to Aratta, since she { let me know } { (1 ms. has instead:) told me } about this matter, I know that she will not go to Aratta. He who has nothing shall not feed the geese with barley, but I will feed the geese with barley. I will …… the geese’s eggs in a basket and …… their goslings. The small ones into my pot, the old ones into my kettle, and the rulers { of the Land } { (some mss. has instead:) of Sumer } who submitted will consume, together with me, what remains from the geese.”

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
A sorcerer whose skill was that of a man of Ḫamazu, Ur-ĝiri-nuna, whose skill was that of a man of Ḫamazu, who came over to Aratta after Ḫamazu had been destroyed, practised (?) sorcery in the inner chamber at the E-ĝipar. He said to minister Ansiga-ria: “My lord, why is it that the great fathers of the city, the founders in earlier times (?), do not ……, do not give advice. I will make Unug dig canals. I will make Unug submit to the shrine of Aratta. After the word of Unug ……, I will make the territories from below to above, from the sea to the cedar mountain, from above to the mountain of the aromatic cedars, submit to my great army. Let Unug bring its own goods by boat, let it tie up boats as a transport flotilla towards the E-zagin of Aratta.” The minister Ansiga-ria rose up in his city, he …….

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
…… Ansiga-ria ……, if only …….” My lord, why is it that the great fathers of the city, the founders in earlier times (?), do not ……, do not give advice. I will make Unug dig canals. I will make Unug submit to the shrine of Aratta. After the word of Unug ……, I will make the territories from below to above, from the sea to the cedar mountain, from above to the mountain of the aromatic cedars, submit to my great army. Let Unug bring its own goods by boat, let it tie up boats as a transport flotilla towards the E-zagin of Aratta.”

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
On that day the animal pen and the byre were turned into a house of silence; they were dealt a disaster. The cow-herd dropped his staff from his hand: he was shocked. The shepherd hung the crook at his side and wept bitterly. The shepherd boy did not enter (?) the byre and animal pen, but took another way; the milk carrier did not sing loudly, but took another road. The cow-herd and shepherd of Nisaba, sons born of the same mother, were brought up in the animal pen and byre. The name of the first one was Maš-gula, the name of the second one was Ur-edina. At the great gate, facing sunrise, the place marvelled at by the land, both of them crouched in the debris and appealed to Utu for help: “The sorcerer from Aratta entered the animal pen. He made the milk scarce, so the young calves could not get any. { In the animal pen and the byre he caused distress; he made the butter and milk scarce } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… diminished ……, …… he made the milk of the goat scarce }. He threw its ……, …… was dealt a disaster.”

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
The sorcerer answered her: “I went there without knowing all about this. I acknowledge your superiority — please do not be bitter.” He pleaded, he prayed to her: “Set me free, my sister; set me free. Let me go in peace to my city. Let me return safely to Aratta, the mount of the lustrous me. I will { make known } { (1 ms. has instead:) declare } your greatness in all the lands. I will sing your praise in Aratta, the mount of the lustrous me.”

The building of Ninĝirsu’s temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The shining roof-beam nails hammered into the house are dragons gripping a victim. The shining ropes attached to the doors are holy Niraḫ parting the abzu. Its …… is pure like Keš and Aratta, its …… is a fierce lion keeping an eye on the Land; nobody going alone can pass in front of it.

Šulgi and Ninlil’s barge: a tigi (?) to Ninlil (Šulgi R): c.2.4.2.18
Your woven …… is ……. Your covering reed-mats are the daylight spreading wide over the holy settlements. Your timbers are sniffing (?) …… reptiles crouching on their paws. Your punting poles are dragons sleeping a sweet sleep in their lair. Your strakes (?) are …… snakes, ……. Your floor-planks are flood-currents, sparkling altogether in the pure Euphrates. Your side-planks, which are fastened into their fixed places (?) with wooden rings (?), are a stairway leading to a mountain spring (?), a …… filled with ……. Your holy …… are persisting and firmly founded abundance. Your bench is a lofty dais erected in the midst of the abzu. Your …… is Aratta, full-laden with treasures. Your door, facing the sunrise, is a …… bird, carrying a …… in its talons while spreading wide its wings.

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi Y): c.2.4.2.25
I lined up my gold statues and lapis-lazuli statues in the main courtyard of her E-niĝara. I filled it with treasures like those of holy Aratta. I despatched oxen and sheep to her great kitchens. I brought the abundant harvest into her imposing bakery. I …… beer in her brewery, most suited to the bronze vessels. I despatched dark beer, kurun beer, and brown beer, all brewed in its house of the pure strength (a description referring to the brewery), to her great dining hall for the evening meals. (1 line fragmentary) (unknown no. of lines missing)

A hymn to Ḫendursaĝa (Ḫendursaĝa A): c.4.06.1
So that everywhere …… and holy places will be established, and so that Gibil the pure (i.e. fire) will be available before the E-kur, Lady Ninmug stands by at your behest. So that the holy orchards (?) will be opened up, { Ama-abzu-E-kura } { (1 ms. has instead:) Dumuzid-abzu } stands by at your behest. So that the bolts of holy houses will be opened, { Ninniĝbunara } { (1 ms. has instead:) Ninĝarĝarĝar (?) } stands by at your behest. So that there will be joy in Umma, Ninbi-šu-kale stands by at your behest. So that Aratta will be overwhelmed (?), Lugalbanda stands by at your behest. So that Niĝin will rise above the waters like a mountain, the minister …… stands by at your behest. So that ……, …… stands by at your behest. (approx. 51 lines missing)

A tigi to Suen (Nanna I): c.4.13.09
“O Nanna, Nanna, where have you tended your cows, Lord Ašimbabbar?” “In the chosen city, the shrine of my heart which I have founded in joy like Aratta ……. In my shrine Urim I have tended my cows.” “First-born son of Enlil, where have you tended the people, Lord Ašimbabbar?”

A tigi to Suen (Nanna I): c.4.13.09
“In the chosen city, the shrine of my heart which I have founded in joy, like Aratta ……; in my E-mud-kura I have tended my cows.” “First-born son of Enlil, where have you tended the people, Lord Ašimbabbar?” “In a place founded on a good day and given a good name, in the place chosen in my heart, my E-mud-kura, I, Ašimbabbar, have tended my cows.” “First-born son of Enlil, where have you tended the people, Lord Ašimbabbar?” “In a place founded on a good day and given a good name, in the place chosen in my heart, my E-mud-kura, I, Ašimbabbar, have tended my cows.” “King of the holy cattle-pen, where have you tended your cows, youthful, noble shepherd?” “In the meadow where I have built a dais for my shrine Urim and have let date palms grow as in the land of Dilmun — there in its holy reedbeds I have tended my cows.” “First-born son of Enlil, where have you tended the people, youthful, noble shepherd?” “In the meadow where I have built a dais for my shrine Urim and have let date palms grow as in the land of Dilmun — there in its holy reedbeds I have tended my cows.”

A hymn to Nisaba (Nisaba A): c.4.16.1
He (Enki (?)) approaches the maiden Nisaba in prayer. He has organised pure food-offerings; he has opened up Nisaba’s house of learning, and has placed the lapis-lazuli tablet on her knees, for her to consult the holy tablet of the heavenly stars. In Aratta he has placed E-zagin at her disposal. You have built up Ereš in abundance, founded from little …… bricks, you who are granted the most complex wisdom!

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