Sumer. Dialect Sumer. Standard Common Explanation
(Semit. or Sumer.)

1. Dimmer Dingir Ilu God.
2. U-ki En-ki E-a Ea or Aa.
3. Gasan(?)-ki Nin-ki Dawkina Dauke, the consort of Ea.
4. Mu-ul-lil En-lil-la Bel The God Bel.
5. E-lum A-lim Bel
6. Gasan(?)-lil Nin-lil-la dam-bi sal Bel’s consort.
7. U-lu-a Ni-rig Enu-restu The god of Niffer.
8. U-lib-a Ni-rig Enu-restu

9-12 have Enu-restu’s consort, sister, and attendant.

13. U-sab-sib En-sag-duga Nusku Nusku

14-19 have two other names of Nusku, followed by three names of his
consort. A number of names of minor divinities then follow. At
line 43 five names of Ea are given, followed by four of

48. U-bi-lu-lu En-bi-lu-lu Marduk Merodach
49. U-Tin-dir ki En-Tin-dir ki Marduk Merodach as “lord of Babylon.”
50. U-dimmer-an-kia En-dinger-an-kia Marduk Merodach as “lord god of heaven and earth.”
51. U-ab-sar-u En-ab-sar-u Marduk Merodach, apparently as “lord of the 36,000 steers.”
52. U-bar-gi-si Nin-bar-gi-si Zer-panitum Merodach’s consort.
53. Gasan-abzu Nin-abzu dam-bi sal “the Lady of the Abyss,” his consort.

The remainder of the obverse is mutilated, but gave the names of Nebo in Sumerian, and apparently also of Tasmetum, his consort. The beginning of the reverse also is mutilated, but seems to have given the names of the sun-god, Samas, and his consort, followed by those of Kittu and Mesarum, “justice and righteousness,” his attendants. Other interesting names are:

8. U-libir-si En-ubar-si Dumu-zi Tammuz
9. Sir-tumu Sir-du ama Dumuzi-gi the mother of Tammuz
12. Gasan-anna Innanna Istar Istar (Venus) as “lady of heaven.”
20. Nin-si-anna Innanna mul Istar the star (the planet Venus).
21. Nin Nin-tag-taga Nanaa a goddess identified with Istar.
23. U-sah Nina-sah Pap-sukal the gods’ messenger.
24. U-banda Lugal-banda Lugal-banda
26. U-Mersi Nin-Girsu Nin-Girsu the chief god of Lagas.
27. Ma-sib-sib Ga-tum-duga Bau Bau, a goddess identified with Gula.

Four non-Semitic names of Gula follow, of which that in line 31 is the
most interesting:–

31. Gasan-ti-dibba Nin-tin-guua Gula “the lady saving from death.”
33. Gasan-ki-gal Eres-ki-gala Allatu Persephone.
36. U-mu-zi-da Nin-gis-zi-da Nin-gis-zida “the lord of the everlasting tree.”
37. U-urugal Ne-eri-gal Nerigal Nergal.
42. Mulu-hursag Galu-hursag Amurru the Amorite god.
43. Gasan-gu-edina Nin-gu-edina (apparently the consort of Amurru).

The Atra-Hasis

When the gods instead of man Did the work, bore the loads, The gods’ load was too great, The work too hard, the trouble too much, The great Anunnaki made the Igigi Carry the workload sevenfold. Anu their father was king, Their counselor warrior Ellil, Their Chamberlain was Ninurta, Their canal-controller Ennugi. They took the box of lots Cast the lots; the gods made the division. Anu went up to the sky, And Ellil took the earth for his people. The bolt which bars the sea Was assigned to far-sighted Enki. When Anu had gone up to the sky, And the gods of the Apsu had gone below, The Annunaki of the sky Made the Igigi bear the workload. The gods had to dig out canals, Had to clear channels, the lifelines of the land. The gods dug out the Tigris river And then dug out the Euphrates. …in the deep …they set up …the Apsu …of the land …inside it …raised its top …of all the mountains They were counting the years of loads …the great marsh, They were counting the years of loads. For 3,600 years they bore the excess, Hard work, night and day. They groaned and blamed each other, Grumbled over the masses of excavated soil: Let us confront our Chamberlain And get him to relieve us of our hard work! Come, let us carry the Lord The counselor of the gods, the warrior from his dwelling. Then…made his voice heard And spoke to the gods, his brothers: Come, let us carry The counselor of the gods, the warrior, from his dwelling. Come, let us carry Ellil, The counselor of the gods, the warrior, from his dwelling. Now, cry battle!

The Annuna (Anunnaki) and others At the next level were fifty “great gods”, possibly the same as the Annuna, although several gods confined to the underworld are specifically designated Annuna, An’s children. The Annuna are also said to live in Dulkug or Du-ku, the “holy mound”.(Kramer 1963: pp. 122-123, Black and Green p. 72, Kramer 1961, p. 73). In the “Descent of Inanna to the Nether World” the Anunnaki are identified as the seven judges of the nether world. (Kramer 1963 p. 154; Kramer 1961 p. 119)

Kur – Kur literally means “mountain”, “foreign land”, or “land” and came to be identified both with the underworld and, more specifically, the area which either was contained by or contained the Abzu. (Kramer 1961 p. 76) In the prelude to “Gilgamesh, Enkidu and the Underworld, Ereshkigal was carried off into the Kur as it’s prize at about the same time as An and Enlil carried off the heaven and the earth. Later in that same passage, Enki also struggled with Kur as and presumably was victorious, thereby able to claim the title “Lord of Kur” (the realm). Kramer suggests that Kur was a dragon-like creature, calling to mind Tiamat and Leviathan. The texts suggests that Enki’s struggle may have been with instruments of the land of kur – its stones or its creatures hurling stones. (Kramer 1961 p. 37-38, 78-79) (See also Apsu and Tiamat.) In “The Feats and Exploits of Ninurta”, that deity sets out to destroy the Kur. Kur initially intimidates Ninurta into retreating, but when Ninurta returns with greater resolve, Kur is destroyed. This looses the waters of the Abzu, causing the fields to be flooded with unclean waters. Ninurta dams up the Abzu by piling stones over Kur’s corpse. He then drains these waters into the Tigris. (Kramer 1961 pp. 80-82).

The identification of Ninurta’s antagonist in this passage as Kur appears to be miscast. Black and Green identify his foe as the demon Asag, who was the spawn of An and Ki, and who produced monstrous offspring with Kur. The remainder of the details of this story are the same as in Kramer’s account, but with Asag replacing Kur. In other versions, Ninurta is replaced by Adad/Ishkur. (Black & Green pp. 35-36) “Inanna and Mt. Ebih”: Inanna is also described in Hymns as a destroyer of Kur. If one, as Kramer does, identifies Kur with Mt. Ebih, then we learn that it has directed fear against the gods, the Anunnaki and the land, sending forth rays of fire against the land. Inanna declares to An that she will attack Mt. Ebih unless it submits. An warns against such an attack, but Inanna procedes anyway and destroys it. (Kramer 1961 pp. 82-83).

Ereshkigal -Ereshkigal is the queen of the underworld, who is either given to Kur in the underworld or given dominion over the underworld in the prelude to “Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Underworld”. (Wolkstein and Kramer p. 157-158; Kramer 1961 p. 37-38) She has a palace there with seven gates and is due a visit by those entering Kur. (Kramer 1963 pp. 131, 134) She was married to Gugalanna, the Bull of Heaven, and is Inanna’s older sister. When Inanna trespassed on her domain, Ereshkigal first directs her gatekeeper to open the seven gates a crack and remove her garments. (Wolkstein and Kramer pp. 55-57) Then when Inanna arrives she: …fastened on Inanna the eye of death. She spoke against her the word of wrath. She uttered against her the cry of guilt She struck her. Inanna was turned into a corpse, …And was hung from a hook on the wall.( Wolkstein & Kramer 1983 p. 60) Later, when Enki’s messengers arrive, she is moaning in pain. When they empathize with her, she grants them a boon. They request Inanna’s corpse and she accedes. (Wolkstein & Kramer pp. 64-67) (See also Babylonian Ereshkigal) Nergal (Meslamtaea) – Nergal is the second son of Enlil and Ninlil. (Kramer 1961 pp. 44-45) He is perhaps the co-ruler of Kur with Ereshkigal where he has a palace and is due reverence by those who visit. He holds Enkidu fast in the underworld after Enkidu broke several taboos while trying to recover Gilgamesh’s pukku and mikku. He is more prominent in Babylonian literature and makes a brief appearance in II Kings 17:30.

Ninurta – Ninurta is Enlil’s son and a warrior deity, the god of the south wind. (Kramer 1963 p. 145; Kramer 1961 p. 80) In “The Feats and Exploits of Ninurta”, that deity sets out to destroy the Kur. Kur initially intimidates Ninurta into retreating, but when Ninurta returns with greater resolve, Kur is destroyed. This looses the waters of the Abzu, causing the fields to be flooded with unclean waters. Ninurta dams up the Abzu by piling stones over Kur’s corpse. He then drains these waters into the Tigris. (Kramer 1961 pp. 80-82). The identification of Ninurta’s antagonist in this passage as Kur appears to be miscast. Black and Green identify his foe as the demon Asag, who was the spawn of An and Ki, and who produced monstrous offspring with Kur. The remainder of the details of this story are the same as in Kramer’s account, but with Asag replacing Kur. In other versions, Ninurta is replaced by Adad/Ishkur. (Black & Green pp. 35-36)

Nergal (Meslamtaea) – Nergal is the second son of Enlil and Ninlil. (Kramer 1961 pp. 44-45) He is perhaps the co-ruler of Kur with Ereshkigal where he has a palace and is due reverence by those who visit. He holds Enkidu fast in the underworld after Enkidu broke several taboos while trying to recover Gilgamesh’s pukku and mikku. He is more prominent in Babylonian literature and makes a brief appearance in II Kings 17:30. Nippur The earliest age of civilization, which we may designate as the clay age, is marked by rude, hand-made pottery and thumb-marked bricks, flat on one side, concave on the other, gradually developing through several fairly marked stages. The exact form of the sanctuary at that period cannot be determined, but it seems to have been in some way connected with the burning of the dead, and extensive remains of such cremation are found in all the earlier, pre-Sargonic strata.

Ishkur is proclaimed again and again as “great radiant bull, your name is heaven” and also called son of An, lord of Karkara; twin-brother of Enki, lord of abundance, lord who rides the storm, lion of heaven. Aa.–This may be regarded either as the god Ea (though the name is written differently), or as the sun-god assuming the name of his consort; or (what is, perhaps, more probable) as a way of writing A’u or Ya’u (the Hebrew Jah), without the ending of the nominative. This last is also found under the form /Aa’u/, /ya’u/, /yau/, and /ya/. Abil-addu.–This deity seems to have attained a certain popularity in later times, especially among immigrants from the West. As “the son of Hadad,” he was the equivalent of the Syrian Ben-Hadad. A tablet in New York shows that his name was weakened in form to /Ablada/. Aku, the moon-god among the heavenly bodies. It is this name which is regarded as occurring in the name of the Babylonian king Eri-Aku, “servant of the moon-god,” the biblical Arioch (Gen. xiv.). Amma-an-ki, Ea or Aa as lord of heaven and earth. Amna.–A name only found in a syllabary, and assigned to the sun-god, from which it would seem that it is a form of the Egyptian Ammon.

Anunitum, the goddess of one of the two Sippars, called Sippar of Anunitum, who was worshipped in the temple E-ulmas within the city of Agade (Akkad). Sayce identifies, on this account, these two places as being the same. In a list of stars, Anunitum is coupled with Sinunutum, which are explained as (the stars of) the Tigris and Euphrates. These were probably names of Venus as the morning and evening (or evening and morning) star. Apsu.–The deep dissociated from the evil connection with Tiawath, and regarded as “the house of deep wisdom,” i.e. the home of the god Ea or Aa. Aruru.–One of the deities of Sippar and Aruru (in the time of the dynasty of Hammurabi called Ya’ruru), of which she was the chief goddess.

Aruru was one of the names of the “lady of the gods,” and aided Merodach to make the seed of mankind. Bel.–As this name means “lord,” it could be applied, like the Phoenician Baal, to the chief god of any city, as Bel of Niffur, Bel of Hursag-kalama, Bel of Aratta, Bel of Babylon, etc. This often indicates also the star which represented the chief god of a place. Beltu.–In the same way Beltu, meaning “lady,” meant also the chief goddess of any place, as “Aruru, lady of the gods of Sippar of Aruru,” “Nin-mah, lady of the gods of E-mah,” a celebrated temple within Babylon, recently excavated by the Germans, “Nin-hur-saga, lady of the gods of Kes,” etc. Bunene.–A god associated with Samas and Istar at Sippar and elsewhere. He “gave” and “renewed” to his worshippers. Dagan.–This deity, whose worship extends back to an exceedingly early date, is generally identified with the Phoenician Dagon.

Hammurabi seems to speak of the Euphrates as being “the boundary of Dagan,” whom he calls his creator. In later inscriptions the form Daguna, which approaches nearer to the West Semitic form, is found in a few personal names. The Phoenician statues of this deity showed him with the lower part of his body in the form of a fish (see 1 Sam. v. 4). Whether the deities clothed in a fish’s skin in the Nimroud gallery be Dagon or not is uncertain–they may be intended for Ea or Aa, the Oannes of Berosus, who was represented in this way. Probably the two deities were regarded as identical. Damu.–a goddess regarded as equivalent to Gula by the Babylonians and Assyrians. She was goddess of healing, and made one’s dreams happy.

Dumu-zi-abzu, “Tammuz of the Abyss.”–This was one of the six sons of Ea or Aa, according to the lists. His worship is exceedingly ancient, and goes back to the time of E-anna-tum of Lagas (about 4000 B.C.). What connection, if any, he may have with Tammuz, the spouse of Istar, is unknown. Jastrow apparently regards him as a distinct deity, and translates his name “the child of the life of the water-deep.” Elali.–A deity identified with the Hebrew Helal, the new moon. Only found in names of the time of the Hammurabi dynasty, in one of which he appears as “a creator.” En-nugi is described as “lord of streams and canals,” and “lord of the earth, lord of no-return.” This last description, which gives the meaning of his name, suggests that he was one of the gods of the realm of Eres-ki-gal, though he may have borne that name simply as god of streams, which always flow down, never the reverse.

Gibil.–One of the names of the god of fire, sometimes transcribed Girru by Assyriologists, the meaning apparently being “the fire- bearer” or “light-bearer.” Girru is another name of this deity, and translates an ideographic group, rendered by Delitzsch “great” or “highest decider,” suggesting the custom of trial by ordeal. He was identified with Nirig, in Semitic Enu-restu. Gusqi-banda or Kuski-banda, one of the names of Ea, probably as god of gold-workers. Isum, “the glorious sacrificer,” seemingly a name of the fire-god as a means whereby burnt offerings were made. Nur-Isum, “light of Isum,” is found as a man’s name.

Kaawanu, the planet Saturn. Lagamal.–A god identified with the Elamite Lagamar, whose name is regarded as existing in Chedorlaomer (cf. Gen. xiv. 2). He was the chief god of Mair, “the ship-city.” Lugal-Amarada or Lugal-Marad.–This name means “king of Marad,” a city as yet unidentified. The king of this place seems to have been Nerigal, of whom, therefore, Lugal-Marad is another name. Lugal-banda.–This name means “the powerful king,” or something similar, and the god bearing it is supposed to be the same as Nerigal. His consort, however, was named Nin-sun (or Nin-gul).

Lugal-Du-azaga, “the king of the glorious seat.”–The founder of Eridu, “the good city within the Abyss”

There is evidence of the succession on this site of different peoples, varying somewhat in their degrees of civilization. One stratum is marked by painted pottery of good make, similar to that found in a corresponding stratum in Susa, and resembling the early pottery of the Aegean region more closely than any later pottery found in Babylonia. This people gave way in time to another, markedly inferior in the manufacture of pottery, but superior, apparently, as builders. In one of these earlier strata, of very great antiquity, there was discovered, in connection with the shrine, a conduit built of bricks, in the form of an arch. Somewhere, apparently, in the 4th millennium BC, we begin to find inscriptions written on clay, in an almost linear script, in the Sumerian tongue.

The shrine at this time stood on a raised platform and apparently contained, as a characteristic feature, an artificial mountain or peak, a so-called ziggurat, the precise shape and size of which we are, however, unable to determine. Sargon He had neither rival nor equal. His splendor, over the lands it diffused. He crossed the sea in the east. In the eleventh year he conquered the western land to its farthest point. He brought it under one authority. He set up his statues there and ferried the west’s booty across on barges. He stationed his court officials at intervals of five double hours and ruled in unity the tribes of the lands. He marched to Kazallu and turned Kazallu into a ruin heap, so that there was not even a perch for a bird left.

“The black-headed peoples I ruled, I governed; mighty mountains with axes of bronze I destroyed. I ascended the upper mountains; I burst through the lower mountains. The country of the sea I besieged three times; Dilmun I captured. Unto the great Dur-ilu I went up, I … I altered … Whatsoever king shall be exalted after me, … Let him rule, let him govern the black-headed peoples; mighty mountains with axes of bronze let him destroy; let him ascend the upper mountains, let him break through the lower mountains; the country of the sea let him besiege three times; Dilmun let him capture; To great Dur-ilu let him go up.”

Sumerian period 3500-2300 BC Akkadian period (Sargon I, 2275-2219) 2275-2094 Neo-Sumerian period (Sumerian renaissance,2094-1939) 2094-1750 Old Babylonian (Hammurabi 1728-1686)/ Old Assyrian period 1850-1531 Middle Babylonian / Middle Assyrian period 1531-1000 Neo-Babylonian / Neo-Assyrian period (Assurbanipal 668-631) 1000-626 Late Babylonian period (Nebuchadnezzar II 604-562) 626-539 Persian period (Achaemenides) 539-331 Macedonian period (Alexander the Great 331-323) 331-150 Parthian period 150 BC – 226 AD

John Heise’s ‘Akkadian language’ d Anunnaki is a collective name for the gods of heaven and earth, and in other contexts only for the gods of the Netherworld, the empire of the death (in particular beginning in the second half of the second millennium). It is a loan word (plural only) from Sumerian a.nun.(n)a(k) ‘semen/descendants of the (-ak) monarch (nun) and refers to the offspring of the King of Heaven An/Anum. Anunna ( Anunnaki, Anukki, Enunaki ) Sumerian title for the pantheon of a given locality. In Assyria and Babylonia, the Anunnaku were the lower order of gods as opposed to those who dwelled in heaven, the Igigi. Enki and Sumer: the Organization of the Earth and its Cultural Processes Cattle and Grain THE CREATION OF THE PICKAXE A HYMN ON THE CREATION OF MAN Life and Thought in the Ancient Near East By Louis Lawrence Orlin Middle Eastern Mythology By S. H. Hooke


“In the course of the struggle for existence, there comes a period when it becomes very important for a nation to be aware of her own origin, her past, her accomplishments and her mission. What others know of her is also of vital importance because they may be in the position to form the future of this nation. If a power intends to intervene in the life of another nation, for the purpose of exploitation and territorial gain, it first ruins its image and then is able to enslave it.” (Ida Bobula) The Carpathian Basin is geographically ideal for settlement. It is a large plain surrounded by mountains and well watered by mountain streams and rivers. It is a territory with natural defenses, accessed through only a few mountain passes.

“The Hungarians, who call themselves Magyar, have an ancient traditional pre-Christian account of their origins according to which they were the descendents of Nimrod (also spelled as Nimrud), son of Cush; Nimrod and Eneth had two sons, Magor and Hunor; Magor was the ancestor of the Magyars, and Hunor was the ancestor of the Huns, thus symbolizing the common origins of the Huns and of the Magyars. Ancient Byzantine sources mention that the Magyars were also known as the Sabirs who originated from Northern Mesopotamia, which was referred to as Subir-ki by the Sumerians who also originated from this land.

Independently from the various political regimes which have ruled over Hungary and which have imposed the current official version of the origins and history of the Hungarians, modern scientific and scholarly research has confirmed the Sumerian – Scythian – Hun – Avar – Saka – Meda – Elamite – Kushite – Parthian – Magyar ethno-linguistic relationship and continuity. The Neolithic revolution: the invention of agriculture and animal domestication in the ancient Near East, the “Fertile Crescent” – the region between the Eastern Mediterranean and the Zagros mountains of Western Iran – by the peoples who formed the distinct (non-Semitic and non-Indo-European) ethno-linguistic group from which the Sumerians, the creators of the first civilization, originated.”(Charles Dombi) “…it is quite possible that the Sumerians came from the Carpathian Basin and the Balkans in a similar manner. The linguistic parallels cited by Mr. Botos are impressive.

The Tartarian tablets have sadly been ignored by archeologists in the West.”(John E. Dayton, London University Institute of Archeology) “After the last Ice Age, approximately 8-9000 years ago, our ancestors developed a pictographic method for people who did not yet read, on our planet. Researchers call these — in connection with the Tatárlaka find — Sumerian pictographs. This is inaccurate because we know that the pictographs found in Mesopotamia are younger than the ones in the Carpathian Basin, so it is more accurate to call them Carpathian Basin pictographs.

” Hunnic-Hungarian Etymological Word List (based on the editions of the Isfahan codex by Dr. Csaba Detre and Imre Pet ) BY PROF. DR. ALFRÉD TÓTH The Hague, Holland 2007. “Introduction According to the results of independent archeology, history and philology, the Scythians entered the Carpathian basin from 130 B.C., the Huns from 361 A.D, and the Avars from 586 A.D. According to their common myths all three people originate from Mesopotamia, thus from the Sumerians who started to flee their homeland since the 19th century B.C., when the Babylonians, Kassites, Assyrians and other people attacked the Euphrates-Tigris area.

According to archeological research from the second part of the 19th century, the Transylvanian Tordos culture shows striking parallels to the Sumerian Uruk Warka IV and Jemdet Nasr cultures and dates from the 6th millennium B.C., hence about 2 millennia before the Sumerian cultures. We thus have to conclude first that the founders of the first high culture on earth, the Sumerians, originated in Transylvania and second that Sumerians emigrated in several waves back to the Carpathian basin.

From these facts (and not from nationalistic reasons), the Hungarian Continuity Theory (HCT) can be formulated as follows: “The origins of the Hungarians can be traced back to Ancient Mesopotamia through the Sumerian- Scythian-Hun-Avar-Magyar ethno-linguistic continuity, which, together with the evidence of the archeological artifacts of Sumerian origin found in the Carpathian Basin, indicates that the ancestors of the Hungarians were the first permanent settlers of the Carpathian Basin.” (Károly Dombi)

The continuity of the Hungarians and their ancestors in the Carpathian basin was also proved anthropologically by the late Professor Grover S. Krantz (1988), yet without recurring to the Sumerian origin of the people concerned.” … “Conclusion We have found a phonetically and semantically satisfying etymology for practically all Hunnic words taken from Dr. Detre’s excerpt of the Isfahan codex. The debatable cases have been markes by “[?]”. 21 Hunnic words do not have a Hungarian cognate.

Hunnic often shows intial prosthetic (unetymological) v-/w-, where the oldest Hungarian testimonies do not. In many cases different Sumerian stems (words) have been amalgameted in Hunnic, while they are different in Hungarian. Also the huge number of diphthongues in Hunnic is astonishing, while they lack in the oldest testimonies of the correspondent Hungarian words. This, however, can be due to the fact, that the Isfahan codex is written in Armenian that has 38 and thus almost twice as many consonants as Hunnic had or Hungarian has. Thus, about phonetics we can generally only speculate, since the orthography may distort the once actual phonology.

Morphologically, Hunnic has the deminutive suffix -r that does not exist in Hungarian. Also in the field of postpositions, Hunnic goes quite different ways than Hungarian did and does. We come to the conclusion that the language shown in the Isfahan codex is not early Hungarian, but a language of its own that we have the right to call “Hunnic”. Hunnic, however, turns out to be very close to Hungarian, testified the first time in the “Halotti Beszéd” from the 12th century A.D. The possible etymological parallels between Hunnic and Turkic and/or Mongolian that have been stipulated already over one hundred years ago are not due to direct genetical relationship between Hunnic and Hungarian but to their common ancestor language: Sumerian. The word-equation Sum. di-bi-id = Hunnic tüve = Hungarian teve “camel” together with the fact that camels are proven by archeology to have lived in the Carpathian basin until approximately the 12th century, that no other neighboring language has a similar word for the camel and that this is not a “Wanderwort”, this alone proves the continuity between the Huns and the Hungarians that is shown in the present study by aid of some additional hundred words more.

At the time when the Huns started to enter the Carpathian basin, in the 4th century A.D., there were no Slavic people there. Thus, because of the Hunnic-Hungarian word-equations, many corrections to alleged Slavonic etymologies presented in the common etymological dictionaries of Hungarian are necessary. The same is true for alleged Turkish borrowings. In many cases, we could prove that not Hungarian has borrowed these words, but that they have been borrowed by neighboring languages from Hungarian or Hunnic.

Given the archeological, philological and historical proofs and the Sumerian-Scythian and Avaric etymologies already published by other researchers, with the present study that fills the “Hunnic gap” in the Scythian-Hun-Avar-Magyar ethno-linguistic continuity, there cannot be any serious doubt anymore that the Hungarian Continuity Theory (HCT) is a historical truth and not a nationalisticideological phantasy.” Professor Dr. Giles, an expert on Hindus, defines (within his major work, “A Cambridge History of India”, pages 68 through 70) the Aryan civilization’s cradle inside a vast Carpathian Land, having the Balkans at its Southern side and, respectively, the Alps at its West. He would also baptize the FIRST PERIOD OF ARYAN CULTURE as “DANUBIAN I”. V. Gordon Childe’s work, “Cradle of Civilization- the Aryans”; pages 176-177, the Aryan tribes distribution chart during their very first appearance, from which a positioning of these clearly follows up as being located inside the Carpatho-Danubian-Pontic Space, respectively between the Carpathian Mountains and Nister River, as well as between the Carpathians and Balkan Peninsula on the other axis. Leonard Woolley (the archeologist and excavator of Uruk) who states that the people of Jamdet-Nasr arrived in Sumer from the Carpathian Basin, by way of the Balkans.

Ethnic History of Sumer The dolichocephalic (long-headed) Iranic Gutians entered Sumeria as the last in a succession of conquering races. The sequence of ethnic groups in generally accepted to have been as follows: Negro-Dravidians, also called Ubaidians or Proto-Euphrateans, were the earliest inhabitants. Remnants of this people survived for long in Elam. Sumerians, members of the round-headed Turanoid race, succeeded the Ubaidians. Their origin was generally sought in the Altaic regions: “Even King, in his History of Sumer and Akkad, looked, as we have seen, toward Turkestan for the beginnings of Sumerian culture.” (Luckenbill 1923, p.7) Regarding the close, yet not conclusive, relation between Sumerian and Ugric, Coon notes: “The supposed kinship between Sumerian and Finno-Ugrian cannot easily be evaluated, owing largely to the gap of over three millennia between the known forms of each.

Both groups are agglutinative, but the grammatical structure of Sumerian also has verbal prefixes, often with personal tone, unknown in modern Finnic or Ugric.” (Coon 1939, Ch.VI, sect.1: Race, Languages, and European Peoples) Barbaric Akkadian Semites, related to the Sabaeans, overthrew the Sumerians. The Gutians in turn overthrew the Semitic Akkadian tyranny, inaugurating the Neo-Sumerian renaissance which continued long into the subsequent Ur III dynasty. Hewitt also notes the connection between Jats and Goths: “The Jats … trace their descent to the land of Ghazni and Kandahar, watered by the mother-river of the Kushika race, the sacred Haetuman.t or Helmand.

Their name connects them with the Getae of Thrace, and thence with the Gattons, said by Pytheas to live on the southern shores of the Baltic, the Gaettones placed by Ptolemy and Tacitus on the Vistula in the country of the Lithuanians, and the Goths of Gothland = Sweden. This Scandinavian descent is confirmed by their system of land-tenure, for the chief tenure of the Muttra district is that called Bhagadura, in which the members of the village brotherhood each hold as their family property a separate and defined area among the village lands, according to the customs of the Bratovos of the Balkan peninsula and the Hof-bauers of North-West {p.482} Germany .. The Getae of the Balkans are said by Herod to be the bravest and most just of the Thracians.” (Hewitt 1894, p.481-482) “Not long ago, the British scholar W. N. Henning suggested that the Tocharians be identified with the Gutians, who are mentioned in Babylonian cuneiform inscriptions (in Akkadian, a Semitic language) dating from the end of the third millennium B.C., when King Sargon was building the first great Mesopotamian Empire.

If Henning’s views are correct, the Tocharians would be the first Indo-Europeans to appear in the recorded history of the ancient Near East. Lexical affinities of Tocharian with Italo-Celtic give evidence that the speakers of the two language families had associated in the Indo-European homeland before the Tocharians began their migration eastward.” (Gamkrelidze & Ivanov 1990) So self-evident are the connections between the Goths and Gutians that the very person who discovered the existence of the Gutian Dynasty, Prof. Scheil, noted this remarkable fact: “This national or tribal name of Guti, the name of “The Guti Troops (who) carried off the royalty” of the Mesopotamian empire by their conquest of Erech the imperial capital about 2495 BC, was recognized as obviously suggesting ‘Goths’ by Prof. Scheil, when he announced in 1911 his discovery of the Guti Dynasty in Mesopotamia, and at the same time remarked that “nothing yet proves that they were the ancestors of the Goths. (Academie des Inscript. et Belles Lettres, Comptes Rendus, Paris, , 1911, p.327)” (Waddell 1929, p.358)

The learned Prof. Oppert has also identified the Gutians with the Goths: “While Prof. Hilprecht has classed them with the Semites, Oppert has suggested, not without some show of reason, that the name “Guti’ has an Aryan sound, like Gothi, the Goths, and therefore that the tribe itself may have been of this blood. * [ * ftn. Revue Archaeologique, 1893, p.363] (Brinton 1895, p.94) Prof. Waddell agrees, and furthermore, identifies the Gutians as members of the dolichocephalic Nordic race: “The ‘Sumerian’ ruling people were of the same racial physical type, with the same culture, traditions, religion, writing and language as the Early Aryans, who were of the Aryan, Gothic or Nordic race, and they were identical with the leading stock of the latter. And (p.468) the Early Sumerian kings sometimes called themselves in their monuments in Mesopotamia and in their Indus Colony Gut or Got; whilst one of the leading Sumerian dynasties in Mesopotamia called themselves Guti, Goti or “Goths”.” (Waddell 1929, p.467-468)

When one considers that the Iranians are often classed together with Nordics into the “Nordic-Iranian” racial grouping, it becomes clear that the Gutians were of Nordic-Iranian affinities ” In the Runes, significantly, this archaic arrow-head form survived (see Plate II, col.18), and the letter is therein called Tyr, which evidently preserves its Sumerian name of Til – l and r being always freely interchangeable dialectically as we have seen. Moreover, Tyr is the Gothic god of the Arrow or god of War, whose name survives in our Tues-day or Tys-day, just as Thurs-day derives from Thor. And Tir is the common Indo-Persian word for ‘arrow’.” (Waddell 1927, p.47)

Lapouge notes (cited by Closson): “Toward the end of the neolithic there appear in Belgium, England, Italy, Poland and southern Russia brachycephalics of various types who, Lapouge holds, were driven from the central region by the advance of Homo Europaeus that we have just described. The more primitive form of Homo Europaeus – the Finno-Ugrians – were at the same time crowded toward Russia, where their crania are found principally in the small dolmens and kurgans. These people penetrated into Asia by a route south fo the Black Sea; the philologists regard the most ancient language of Babylonia, the Akkadian or Sumerian, as belonging to the Finno-Ugrian group and some ancient Chaldean crania bear out this hypothesis. The Guti of western Persia are described in texts as early as 2000 BC as blond or at least as light (namrutim).

The Amorites were probably of this race; the Egyptian monuments show them as blond, tall, dolichocephalic and with prominent aquiline noses; they interred their dead in dolmens of which there are over 700 in the country of Moab.” (Closson 1899, p.74) Red-haired Gutians Iranics have a high incidence of rufism (red hair), with dark maroon red color being relatively common. The modern Iranic custom of applying henna to redden the hair is in concious emulation of a red-haired ideal, and hearkens back to Scythic customs. This is in contrast to the Nordics, who emulate a blonde ideal. Rufism would thus appear to be one of the traits of the Irano-Afghan race. If the Gutians were Iranic, they should have exhibited rufism, along with minor incidences of blondism. Strikingly, Babylonian linguists have uncovered evidence that the Gutians did indeed have fair har: “We ought to add that Oppert has an entirely different theory about these Guti. He distincly claims, and quite recently, to have found tablets relating to the sale of slaves of the blond race of the Guti 73

He apparently places the Guti on the Oxus and connects them with the Germanic Goths !” [ 73. See Comptes Rendus, 1895, p.383. ] (Howorth 1901, p.32) The Subarians and Gutians were also referred to as “namrum”, a term generally identified by Sumerologists with “fair-complexioned.” Refuting the view that namrum did not denote skin colour, Gelb notes, “For this interpretation of namrum I can find no evidence in Akkadian literature … It would seem that Speiser’s and Ungnad’s reaction against the normal interpretation of namrum as ‘light (-colored)’ was caused by their assumption that Hurrians or Subarians belonged to the Armenoid race, which according to them could hardly be called light-colored.” (Gelb 1944, p.43, n.138) Gelb further notes “the fact that Subarian slaves were called ‘light’, in the sense of ‘light-colored’.” (Gelb 1944, p.88) Both Gelb and Kraus (P.Kraus, MVAeG, 36.1 (1932) 59f.) transcribe a passage [rešamtam] na-wi-ir-tam ša in-ki [ma?]-ra-at (VAS XVI 65.12f.). “a light (-coloured) slave girl who is pleasing to your eye.” (Gelb 1944, ibid.)

Further, the learned Woolley confirms that the Gutians were fair-haired: “In the Zagros hills and across the plains to the Tigris, there lived a … fair-haired … people akin to the Guti (the Goths) who … remained in what was afterwards Assyria, the neighbour land to Akkad” (Woolley 1929, p.5, cited in Hoeh 1967, Vol. 2, Ch.1) “CIVILIZATION OF SUMER PEAKS – AFTER THE FIRST INDO-EUROPEAN GUTIAN INVASION The Kingdom of Sumer and Akkad then fell before the first, and by all accounts ferocious, Indo-European invasion – that of the Celts. Known as Gutians in the Middle East, they fell upon the kingdom of Sumer and Akkad less than 100 years after it was established, around the year 2200 BC. The Gutians sacked and destroyed the mixed Semitic/Mediterranean Sumer and Akkadian civilization and established their own rule and civilization in the region. Soon they had provinces extending right to the Mediterranean Sea itself.

The Gutian invasion sparked a surge in the Sumerian civilization – it was after the Indo-European invasion that Sumerian civilization was to reach some of its greatest heights. These included: the very first written law code in the world, which is still existent and dates from 2095 BC; the construction of the great Sumerian pyramids, called Ziggurats (the most famous of which is the Ziggurat at the Sumerian city of Ur, built in 2100 BC) which served as temples and community centers, many of which are still standing today; and a complex system of canals, weirs and water routes by which the agricultural settlements alongside the rivers were kept irrigated. After a few generations the Gutians themselves became submerged into the wider population of Sumer, whose great cities and wealth had acted as a magnet for all the surrounding Semitic tribes.

Slowly but surely increasing numbers of Semites, as traders, laborers or slaves, were drawn to Sumer, creating over time a mixture of Old European, Semitic and Indo-European peoples. This shows up very clearly in their grave sites and art forms in the wide range of racial features on display.” (Kemp 1999, Ch.8)

2 Responses to “Mesopotamia”

  1. 1 John Smith July 18, 2011 at 2:59 pm

    They finally showed up!

    So becasue they needs gold to save their planet, they took gold from 9/11 site and from Fort Knox as well. Anunnaki are still here.

  2. 2 John Smith July 18, 2011 at 4:15 pm

    Here we have some conection between Celts and Utersberg

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