North

Hassuna period, ca. 6900–6500 b.c.
Samarra’ period, ca. 7000–6300 b.c.
Halaf period, ca. 6500–5500 b.c.
Ubaid period, ca. 5500–4000 b.c.
Uruk period, ca. 4000–3100 b.c.
Ninevite V period, ca. 2900–2500 b.c.
Akkadian dynasty, ca. 2350–2150 b.c.

 

South

Ubaid period, ca. 6200–4000 b.c.
Uruk period, ca. 4000–3100 b.c.
Jemdet Nasr period, ca. 3100–2900 b.c.
Early Dynastic period, ca. 2900–2350 b.c.
Akkadian dynasty, ca. 2350–2150 b.c.
Third Dynasty of Ur (Ur III), ca. 2100–2000 b.c.

 

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Holy Inana received deceit, the rebel lands, kindness, being on the move, being sedentary.” In the name of my power, in the name of my abzu, I will give them to holy Inana, my daughter; may …… not …….”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
“He has given me deceit. He has given me the rebel lands. He has given me kindness. He has given me being on the move. He has given me being sedentary.”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
“You have brought with you deceit, you have brought with you the rebel lands, you have brought with you kindness, you have brought with you being on the move, you have brought with you being sedentary.”

Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
“To set the socle in position and make the throne and foundation firm, to carry the might of the šita weapon which bends like a mubum tree, to hold the ground with the sixfold yoke, to extend the thighs with the fourfold yoke, to pursue murderous raids and widespread miltary campaigns, to appear to those kings in the …… of heaven like moonlight, to shoot the arrow from the arm and fall on fields, orchards and forests like the tooth of the locust, to take the harrow to rebel lands, to remove the locks from their city gates so the doors stand open — King An, you have indeed given me all this, and …….”

Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
“You have placed me at the right hand of the king in order to destroy rebel lands: may he, with my aid, smash heads like a falcon in the foothills of the mountain, King An, and may I …… your name throughout the land like a thread.”

Ninurta’s return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
To the hostile mountains ……. To the fortress of the rebellious land ……. (1 line unclear) Lord, frighteningly fierce, ……. Fierce in heaven and earth, ……. (1 line unclear)

Ninurta’s return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
As the sovereign swept on like the deluge, as Ninurta, storm of the rebellious land, swept on like the deluge, he rumbled like a storm on the horizon.

Ninurta’s return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
The great mother Ninlil, from within her Ki-ur, spoke admiringly to Lord Ninurta: “O wild bull, with fierce horns raised, son of Enlil, you have struck blows in the mountains. Warrior, Lord Ninurta, you have ……. You have …… the rebellious land.”

Ninurta’s return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
“My battle, like an onrushing flood, overflowed in the mountains. With a lion’s body and lion’s muscles, it rose up in the rebellious land. The gods have become worried and flee (?) to the mountain ranges. They beat their wings like a flock of small birds. They stand hiding in the grass like wild bulls ……. No one can confront my radiance, heavy as heaven.”

Ninurta’s return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
“I bear my ……. I bear the alkad net of the rebellious land, my alkad net. I bear that from which the mountains cannot escape, my šušgal net. I bear the seven-mouthed mušmaḫ serpent, the slayer, my spike (?). I bear that which strips away the mountains, the sword, my heavenly dagger.”

Ninurta’s return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
“I bear the deluge of battle, my fifty-headed mace. I bear the storm that attacks humans, my bow and quiver. I bear those which carry off the temples of the rebellious land, my throw-stick and shield. I bear the helper of men, my spear. I bear that which brings forth light like the day, my Obliterator-of-the-mountains. I bear the maintainer of the people in heaven and earth, my The-enemy-cannot-escape.”

Ninurta’s return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
“I bear that whose awesome radiance covers the Land, which is grandly suited for my right hand, finished in gold and lapis lazuli, whose presence is amazing, my Object-of-trust. I bear the perfect weapon, exceedingly magnificent, trustworthy in battle, having no equal, well-suited for my wrist on the battlefield, my fifty-headed mace, I bear the weapon which consumes the rebellious land like fire, my fifty-headed club.”

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
{ (1 ms. adds before line 1:) An, king of the gods, majestic one: } O king, storm of majestic splendour, peerless Ninurta, possessing superior strength; who pillages the mountains all alone; deluge, indefatigable serpent hurling yourself at the rebel land, hero striding formidably into battle; lord whose powerful arm is fit to bear the mace, reaping like barley the necks of the insubordinate; Ninurta, king, son in whose strength his father rejoices; hero whose awesomeness covers the mountains like a south storm; Ninurta, who makes the good tiara, the rainbow (?), flash like lightning; grandly begotten by him who wears the princely beard; dragon who turns on himself, strength of a lion snarling at a snake, roaring hurricane; Ninurta, king, whom Enlil has exalted above himself; hero, great battle-net flung over the foe; Ninurta, with the awesomeness of your shadow extending over the Land; releasing fury on the rebel lands, overwhelming their assemblies! Ninurta, king, son who has forced homage to his father far and wide!

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The lord cried “Alas!” so that Heaven trembled, and Earth huddled at his feet and was terrified (?) at his strength. Enlil became confused and went out of the E-kur. The mountains were devastated. That day the earth became dark, the Anuna trembled. The hero beat his thighs with his fists. The gods dispersed; the Anuna disappeared over the horizon like sheep. The lord arose, touching the sky; Ninurta went to battle, with one step (?) he covered a league, he was an alarming storm, and rode on the eight winds towards the rebel lands. His arms grasped the lance. The mace snarled at the mountains, the club began to devour all the enemy. He fitted the evil wind and the sirocco on a pole (?), he placed the quiver on its hook (?). An enormous hurricane, irresistible, went before the hero, stirred up the dust, caused the dust to settle, levelled high and low, filled the holes. It caused a rain of coals and flaming fires; the fire consumed men. It overturned tall trees by their trunks, reducing the forests to heaps, Earth put her hands on her heart and cried harrowingly; the Tigris was muddied, disturbed, cloudy, stirred up. He hurried to battle on the boat Ma-kar-nunta-ea; the people there did not know where to turn, they bumped into (?) the walls. The birds there tried to lift their heads to fly away, but their wings trailed on the ground. The storm flooded out the fish there in the subterranean waters, their mouths snapped at the air. It reduced the animals of the open country to firewood, roasting them like locusts. It was a deluge rising and disastrously ruining the mountains.

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The hero Ninurta led the march through the rebel lands. He killed their messengers in the mountains, he crushed (?) their cities, he smote their cowherds over the head like fluttering butterflies, he tied together their hands with hirin grass, so that they dashed their heads against walls. The lights of the mountains did not gleam in the distance any longer. People gasped for breath (?); those people were ill, they hugged themselves, they cursed the Earth, they considered the day of the Asag’s birth a day of disaster. The lord caused bilious poison to run over the rebel lands. As he went the gall followed, anger filled his heart, and he rose like a river in spate and engulfed all the enemies. In his heart he beamed at his lion-headed weapon, as it flew up like a bird, trampling the mountains for him. It raised itself on its wings to take away prisoner the disobedient, it spun around the horizon of heaven to find out what was happening. Someone from afar came to meet it, brought news for the tireless one, the one who never rests, whose wings bear the deluge, the Šar-ur. What did it gather there …… for Lord Ninurta? It reported the deliberations of the mountains, it explained their intentions to Lord Ninurta, it outlined (?) what people were saying about the Asag.

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
“Hero, pitfall (?), net of battle, Ninurta, king, celestial mace …… irresistible against the enemy, vigorous one, tempest which rages against the rebel lands, wave which submerges the harvest, king, you have looked on battles, you have …… in the thick of them. Ninurta, after gathering the enemy in a battle-net, after erecting a great reed-altar, lord, heavenly serpent, purify your pickaxe and your mace! Ninurta, I will enumerate the names of the warriors you have already slain: the Kuli-ana, the Dragon, the Gypsum, the Strong Copper, the hero Six-headed Wild Ram, the Magilum Boat, Lord Saman-ana, the Bison Bull, the Palm-tree King, the Anzud bird, the Seven-headed Snake — Ninurta, you slew them in the mountains.”

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The hero, the son, pride of his father, the very wise, rising from profound deliberation, Ninurta, the lord, the son of Enlil, gifted with broad wisdom, the …… god, the lord stretched his leg to mount the onager, and joined the battalions ……. He spread over the mountains his great long ……, he caused …… to go out among its people like the ……. He reached ……. He went into the rebel lands in the vanguard of the battle. He gave orders to his lance, and attached it …… by its cord; the lord commanded his mace, and it went to its belt. The hero hastened to the battle, he …… heaven and earth. He prepared the throw-stick and the shield, the mountains were smitten and cringed beside the battle legions of Ninurta. When the hero was girding on his mace, the sun did not wait, the moon went in; they were forgotten, as he marched towards the mountains; the day became like pitch.

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The weapon, its heart ……, was reassured: it slapped its thighs, the Šar-ur began to run, it entered the rebel lands, joyfully it reported the message to Lord Ninurta:

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
“My master, …… for you, Enlil has said: “As the Deluge (i.e. Ninurta), before whom the venom has piled up, attacks the enemy, let him take the Asag by the shoulder, let him pierce its liver, let my son enter with it into the E-kur. Then, Ninurta, to the limits of the earth my people will deservedly praise your power.” You, lord who trusts in the word of his father, do not tarry, great strength of Enlil. Storm of the rebel lands, who grinds the mountains like flour, Ninurta, Enlil’s seal-bearer, go to it! Do not tarry. My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart; the fortress is too high and cannot be reached, …… its fierceness does not diminish.” (3 lines unclear)”My master, …….”

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The lord …… the wind. In his battle he smote the mountains with a cudgel. The Šar-ur made the storm-wind rise to heaven, scattering the people; like …… it tore. Its spittle alone destroyed the townspeople. The destructive mace set fire to the mountains, the murderous weapon smashed skulls with its painful teeth, the club which tears out entrails piled up noses. The lance was stuck into the ground and the crevasses filled with blood. In the rebel lands dogs licked it up like milk. The enemy rose up, crying to wife and child,” You did not lift your arms in prayer to Lord Ninurta.” The weapon covered the mountains with dust, but did not shake the heart of the Asag. The Šar-ur threw its arms around the neck of the lord:

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
“Hero, ah, whatever further awaits you, do not on any account meddle with the hurricane of the mountains. Ninurta, lord, son of Enlil, I tell you again, it is made like a storm. It is a blister whose smell is foul, like mucus which comes from the nose it is unpleasant, lord, its words are devious, it will not obey you. My master, it has been created against you as a god; who can help you? Hero, it falls on the land as a whirlwind, it scrubs it as if with saltwort, Ninurta, it chases the onagers before it in the mountains. Its terrifying splendour sends the dust into clouds, it causes a downpour of potsherds. In the rebel lands it is a lion striking with savage teeth; no man can catch it. After reducing everything to nothing in the north wind, that one will batter you. The sheepfolds have been closed by ghostly demons. It has dried up the waters in the ground. In the whirlwind storm, the people are finished, they have no solution (?). From an implacable enemy, great hero, lord, turn away,” he said quietly.

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
But the lord howled at the mountains, could not withhold a roar. The hero did not address the rebel lands, he ……. He reversed the evil that it had done ……. He smashed the heads of all the enemies, he made the mountains weep. The lord ranged about in all directions, like a soldier saying “I will go on the rampage.” Like a bird of prey the Asag looked up angrily from the mountains. He commanded the rebel lands to be silent and ……. Ninurta approached the enemy and flattened him like a wave (?). The Asag’s terrifying splendour was contained, it began to fade, it began to fade. It looked wonderingly upwards. Like water he agitated it, he scattered it into the mountains, like esparto grass he pulled it up, like esparto grass he ripped it up. Ninurta’s splendour covered the Land, he pounded the Asag like roasted barley, he …… its genitals (?), he piled it up like a heap of broken bricks, he heaped it up like flour, as a potter does with coals; he piled it up like stamped earth whose mud has been dredged. The hero had achieved his heart’s desire. Ninurta, the lord, the son of Enlil, …… began to calm down.

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
“Lord, great meš tree in a watered field, hero, who is like you? My master, beside you there is no one else, nor can anyone stand like you, nor is anyone born like you. Ninurta, from today no one in the mountains will rise against you. My master, if you give but one roar, …… how they will praise you!” (1 line unclear) “Lord Ninurta …….” (7 lines fragmentary) After he had pulled up the Asag like esparto grass in the rebel lands, torn it up like esparto grass, Lord Ninurta …… his club: (1 line unclear) “From today forward, do not say Asag: its name shall be Stone. Its name shall be zalag stone, its name shall be Stone. This, its entrails, shall be the underworld. Its valour shall belong to the lord.”

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
“Lady, since you came to the mountains, Ninmaḫ (‘Great Lady’), since you entered the rebel lands for my sake, since you did not keep far from me when I was surrounded by the horrors of battle — let the name of the pile which I, the hero, have piled up be ‘Mountain’ (ḫursaĝ) and may you be its lady (nin): now that is the destiny decreed by Ninurta. Henceforth people shall speak of Ninḫursaĝa. So be it. Let its meadows produce herbs for you. Let its slopes produce honey and wine for you. Let its hillsides grow cedars, cypress, juniper and box for you. Let it make abundant for you ripe fruits, as a garden. Let the mountain supply you richly with divine perfumes. Let it mine gold and silver for you, make …… for you. Let it smelt copper and tin for you, make its tribute for you. Let the mountains make wild animals teem for you. Let the mountain increase the fecundity of quadrupeds for you. You, O Queen, become equal to An, wearing a terrifying splendour. Great goddess who detests boasting, good lady, maiden Ninḫursaĝa, Nintur, …… approach me. Lady, I have given you great powers: may you be exalted.”

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
“Elel, intelligently you caused terror of me to descend on the mountains where discord had broken out. In the rebel lands you proclaimed my name among my people who had banded together. Nothing of your wholeness shall be diminished (?). It shall be difficult to reduce your mass to small pieces. My divine ordinances shall be set out in straight lines on your body. You shall be greatly suited to the clash of weapons, when I have heroes to slay. You shall be set up on a pedestal in my great courtyard. The Land shall praise you in wonder, the foreign lands shall { speak your praise } { (2 mss. have instead:) elevate you }.”

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
“Young man worthy of respect, whose surface reflects the light, kagena, when the demands of the rebel lands reached you, I did not conquer you ……. I did not notice you among the hostile ones. I shall make room for you in the Land. The divine rites of Utu shall become your powers. Be constituted as a judge in the foreign lands. The craftsman, expert in everything, shall value you as if gold. Young man of whom I have taken possession, because of you I shall not sleep until you come to life. And now, according to the destiny fixed by Ninurta, henceforth kagena shall live! So shall it be.”

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
“Mašda stone, dubban stone, blazing fires; urutum stone, which nothing resists; when the gasura stone …… and you were set ablaze, you burnt against me in the rebel lands like a brazier. Since you all stood against me in the land of Saba: mašda stone, they shall slaughter you like a sheep. Dubban stone, they shall crunch you for pulverising. Urutum stone, they shall sharpen you for the battle-mace; with bronze, the arrowheads of the gods, they shall smash you with the axe, stinging with fierce swords.”

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
“……, pre-eminent with your great name, you have established your habitation ……. Chest, fittingly ……, king of battle, I presented the storm of heaven to you for use against the rebel lands. O hero of heaven and earth I presented to you the club, the deluge which sets the mountains on fire. King, ahead of your storm the way was narrow. But, Ninurta, I had confidence in your march to the mountains. Like a wolf (?) set free to seize his prey, in your storm you adventured into the rebel lands from above. The mountain that you have handed over shall not be restored. You have caused its cities to be counted as ruin-mounds. Its mighty rulers have lost their breath before you. A celestial mace, a prosperous and unchanging rule, eternal life, the good favour of Enlil, O king, and the strength of An: these shall be your reward.”

Ninurta and the turtle: c.1.6.3
The hero secretly was not happy with these promises. Where he stood, he darkened and yellowed like (?) a flood-storm (?). He contemplated great deeds and inwardly he was rebellious. He uttered a word which has no ……. The hero Ninurta set his sights on the whole world. He told no one and inwardly did not …….

Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
Utu accepted his tears as a fitting gift. As befits a compassionate person, he turned to him full of compassion: “Now there are seven warriors, sons of a single mother. The first, their eldest brother, has lion’s paws and eagle’s talons. The second is a …… snake, ……. The third is a dragon snake, ……. The fourth blazes with fire ……. The fifth is a …… snake, ……. The sixth { (1 ms. adds:), a shackle that …… the rebel lands in the hills, } beats at the flanks of the mountains { like a battering flood } { (1 ms. has instead:), floodwater that destroys all }. The seventh …… flashes like lightning, and no one can deflect { it } { (1 ms. has instead:) its power }. { (1 ms. adds 4 lines:) (4 lines fragmentary) } { (another ms. adds instead 6 lines:) (2 lines fragmentary) …… kingship ……. Nisaba has bestowed …… on you in addition. They ……, and know the routes on earth. They will help you find the …… of the way. } They should guide you to the place in the mountains where the boats have to be pulled from the water! { The warrior, youthful Utu, gave these seven to Gilgameš. } { (3 mss. have instead the line, placed after line 43:) These seven the warrior, youthful Utu, gave to Lord Gilgameš. } The feller of cedars was filled with joy; Lord Gilgameš was filled with joy.”

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
— now at that time the king set his mace towards the city, Enmerkar son of Utu prepared an …… expedition against Aratta, the mountain of the holy divine powers. He was going to set off to destroy the rebel land; the lord began a mobilization of his city. The herald made the horn signal sound in all the lands. Now levied Unug took the field with the wise king, indeed levied Kulaba followed Enmerkar. Unug’s levy was a flood, Kulaba’s levy was a clouded sky. As they covered the ground like heavy fog, the dense dust whirled up by them reached up to heaven. As if to rooks on the best seed, rising up, he called to the people. Each one gave his fellow the sign.

Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
(Description of the demons) They make …… Enki, father of the gods; they are ……, they ……; like a string of figs dripping with lusciousness, they hang their arms. They are gazelles of Suen running in flight, they are the fine smooth cloths of Ninlil, they are the helpers of Iškur; they pile up flax, they pile up barley; they are wild animals on the rampage, they descend like a storm on a rebel land hated by Suen, indeed they descend like a storm. They lie up during all the long day, and during the short night they enter …… houses (?); during the long day, during the short night they lie in beds ……, they give ……. At dead of night they ……, in the breeze …… swallows of Utu; they enter into house after house, they peer into street after street, they are talkers, they are repliers to talkers, seeking words with a mother, replying to a great lady; they nestle at the bedside, they smite ……, when the black …… are stolen, they leave …… the doors and tables of humans, they change ……, they tie the door-pivots together. The hero who ……, Utu who ……, the heroic youth Utu of the good word (2 lines unclear) the incantation …… of the youth Utu, which the Anuna, the great gods, do not know, from that time ……, (3 lines unclear)

Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
“Aratta is indeed like a slaughtered sheep! Its roads are inded like those of the rebel lands! Since holy Inana has given the primacy of Aratta to the lord of Kulaba, now it seems that holy Inana is looking with favour on her man who has sent a messenger to make the severe message as clear as the light of Utu. So in Aratta where can one go in this crisis? How long before the yoke-rope becomes bearable? As for us, in the direst hunger, in our direst famine, are we to prostrate ourselves before the lord of Kulaba?”

The building of Ninĝirsu’s temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
“Your will, ever-rising as the sea, crashing down as a destructive flood, roaring like gushing waters, destroying cities (?) like a flood-wave, battering against the rebel lands like a storm; my master, your will, gushing water that no one can stem; warrior, your will inconceivable as the heavens — can I learn anything about it from you, son of Enlil, Lord Ninĝirsu?”

The building of Ninĝirsu’s temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
“Like a fierce snake, I built E-ḫuš, my fierce place, in a dread location. When my heart gets angry at a land that rebels against me — unutterable idea (?) — it will produce venom for me like a snake that dribbles poison.”

The building of Ninĝirsu’s temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely to carry the seven-headed mace; to open the door of the an-kar house, the Gate of Battle; to hit exactly with the dagger blades, with the mitum mace, with the “floodstorm” weapon and with the marratum club, its battle tools; to inundate Enlil’s enemy land, Gudea introduced Lugal-kur-dub, the warrior Šar-ur, who in battle subdues all the foreign lands, the mighty general of the E-ninnu, a falcon against the rebel lands, his general, to Lord Ninĝirsu.

The building of Ninĝirsu’s temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
After the heavenly mitum mace had roared against the foreign lands like a fierce storm — the Šar-ur, the flood storm in battle, the cudgel for the rebel lands — after the lord had frowned at the rebellious land, the foreign country, hurled at it his furious words, driven it insane (the text here seems to be corrupt, and there may be some lines missing),

The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
An frightened the very dwellings of Sumer, the people were afraid. Enlil blew an evil storm, silence lay upon the city. Nintur bolted the door of the storehouses of the Land. Enki blocked the water in the Tigris and the Euphrates. Utu took away the pronouncement of equity and justice. Inana handed over victory in strife and battle to a rebellious land. Ninĝirsu poured Sumer away like milk to the dogs. Turmoil descended upon the Land, something that no one had ever known, something unseen, which had no name, something that could not be fathomed. The lands were confused in their fear. The god of the city turned away, its shepherd vanished.

The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
Keš, built all alone on the high open country, was haunted. Adab, the settlement which stretches out along the river, { was treated as a rebellious land. } { (1 ms. has instead:) was deprived of water. } The snake of the mountains made his lair there, it became a rebellious land. The Gutians bred there, issued their seed. Nintur wept bitter tears over her creatures.” Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house,” she cried bitterly. In Zabalam the sacred Giguna was haunted. Inana abandoned Unug and went off to enemy territory. In the E-ana the enemy set eyes upon the sacred Ĝipar shrine. The sacred Ĝipar of en priesthood was defiled. Its en priest was snatched from the Ĝipar and carried off to enemy territory.” Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house,” she cried bitterly.

A tigi to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma B): c.2.4.1.2
The divine plans of brick-built E-kur were drawn up. The Great Mountain Enlil made up his mind, filled with pure and useful thoughts, to make them shine like the sun in the E-kur, his august shrine. He instructed the shepherd Ur-Namma to make the E-kur rise high; the king made him the mightiest in the Land, he made him the first among the people. The good shepherd Ur-Namma, …… whose trust in Nunamnir is enduring, the knowledgeable judge, the lord of great wisdom, prepared the brick mould. Enlil brought order in his rebellious and hostile lands for the shepherd Ur-Namma, and made Sumer flourish in joy, in days filled with prosperity. The foundations were laid down firmly and the holy foundation pegs were driven in. The enkum and ninkum priests praised it duly and Enki made the temple rejoice with his artful incantations.

A tigi to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma B): c.2.4.1.2
Lord Nunamnir gave to my king the lofty mace which heaps up human heads like piles of dust in the hostile foreign countries and smashes the rebellious lands; he gave to the shepherd Ur-Namma the lofty mace which heaps up human heads like piles of dust in the hostile foreign countries and smashes the rebellious lands, so now he beats down the foreign lands and tramples them underfoot. Lord Nunamnir gave it to the shepherd Ur-Namma, so now he beats down the foreign lands and tramples them underfoot.

A tigi to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma B): c.2.4.1.2
He destroys the cities of the wicked, and with heavy oppression he turns (?) them into haunted places. The shepherd Ur-Namma destroys the cities of the wicked, and with heavy oppression he turns (?) them into haunted places. He has a terrible fame in the houses of the rebellious lands, his storming …… the wicked. The shepherd Ur-Namma has a terrible fame in the houses of the rebellious lands, his storming …… the wicked.

A šir-namšub to Nanna for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma F): c.2.4.1.6
Your …… makes (?) the faithful woman joyous, the father proud. In your interior the evildoer dare not lay hold of the holy statutes. House whose offerings of the temple terrace devastate the rebel lands. At your Dubla-maḫ, the place where the fates are determined, the great gods determine the fates. Suen chose Sumer and Akkad, the black-headed people, and Ur-Namma in his heart.

A šir-namšub to Nanna for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma F): c.2.4.1.6
Let me give praise to the king endowed with allure, the radiance covering the nation, Lord Ur-Namma! In his heart Ašimbabbar has chosen Ur-Namma, Ur-Namma who is endowed with allure, the radiance covering the nation, placing thereby a shackle on all the lands and blocking the way with a strong bolt. The king is worthy of Suen! Wickedness cannot pass unnoticed before his eyes. Ur-Namma has accomplished an achievement, justice! He fills the wicked land with his battle-cry. The rebellious land is overthrown, Ur-Namma acts (?) as the constable.

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
I sow fear and confusion in the foreign land. I look to my brother and friend, youthful Utu, as a source of divine encouragement. I, Šulgi, converse with him whenever he rises over there; he is the god who keeps a good eye on my battles. The youth Utu, beloved in the mountains, is the protective deity of my weapons; by his words I am strengthened and made pugnacious (?). In those battles, where weapon clashes on weapon, Utu shines on me. Thus I broke the weapons of the highlands over my knees, and in the south placed a yoke on the neck of Elam. I make the populations of the rebel lands — how could they still resist my weapons? — scatter like seed-grain over Sumer and Akkad.

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
I am a ritually pure interpreter of omens. I am the very Nintur (creator deity) of the collections of omens. These words of the gods are of pre-eminent value for the exact performance of hand-washing and purification rites, for eulogy of the en priestess or for her enthronement in the ĝipar, for the choosing of the lumaḫ and nindiĝir priests by sacred extispicy, for attacking the south or for defeating the uplands, for the opening of the emblem house, for the washing of lances in the “water of battle” (blood), for the taking of subtle decisions about the rebel lands. After I have determined a sound omen through extispicy from a white lamb and a sheep, water and flour are libated at the place of invocation. Then, as I prepare the sheep with words of prayer, my diviner watches in amazement like an idiot. The prepared sheep is placed at my disposal, and I never confuse a favourable sign with an unfavourable one. I myself have a clear intuition, and I judge by my own eyes. In the insides of just one sheep I, the king, can find the indications for everything and everywhere.

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
But if his heart devises treason against me, and he commits violence against anything of mine, may Nanna then adjudicate against this rebel, and let Utu the torch catch him. Wherever that king’s path may lead, his word shall be wiped out. Until he has completed the days of his life, he shall do everything in his power to keep the hymns in their proper form. Through becoming familiar thereby with me, the king, he will speak of me in awed amazement. Because of my extraordinary wisdom and my ancient fame as a master, he should choose my hymns as examples, and himself beget heavenly writings.

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
I am a warrior whose might is enormous might. I am Šulgi, whose shadow lies over the mountain lands. I am the king, the weapon and the downfall of rebel lands. Thus I have spread far and wide my everlasting renown.

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
I am a shepherd who, apart from being one who always makes the right decisions on what he has sworn, is also fully able to re-establish …… in the Land and to …… forcefully the house of the rebel lands; who grasps hold of the righteous as if they were great bulls, and who darts (?) out his tongue at the wicked like a snake in a terrifying place. I never frighten the just, and I never …… the evil.

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
I am the leader living in Sumer! I am engaged in carrying out the planning! When I stand against the cities and territories of the hostile rebel lands, my battle is a hurricane that cannot be overwhelmed. When I surround their contingents from the south and cut the people off, (1 line fragmentary)In the great palace, where I take decisions, when I …… a pure lamb, on the right …… favourable ……, as I …… on my great throne. In my well-established dwelling, I can tell whether to strike with weapons or not to strike with weapons. Since from birth I am also a Nintur (creator deity), wise in all matters, I can recognise the omens of that extispicy in a pure place. I keep a look-out that ……. I am a lord ……, as I range about in my anger. I also have a solidly based knowledge of omens from heaped high censers. My vision enables me to be the dream-interpreter of the Land; my heart enables me to be the Ištaran (god of justice) of the foreign lands. I am Šulgi, good shepherd of Sumer. Like my brother and friend Gilgameš, I can recognise the virtuous and I can recognise the wicked. The virtuous gets justice in my presence, and the wicked and evil person will be carried off by ……. Who like me is able to interpret what is spoken in the heart or is articulated on the tongue?

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
Where I stand, I destroy foreign lands; where I sit, I plunder cities. At my command, ……. Where my weapons strike, ……. (7 lines fragmentary or unclear) Their bricks are dug up from the footings ……. The city which I smash shall not be restored; the houses which I destroy shall be counted as ruin mounds; the walls proudly rising to heaven shall not open ……. (1 line unclear) …… I have been given great strength. (1 line fragmentary) …… arrows of my quiver …… a flying bird. As if ……; …… like a wild bull in a meadow. My spear goes straight. My great emblems are raised at the edge of the mountains. When day breaks and Utu comes forth and looks upon the hills, I shall marvel at them. (2 lines unclear) …… may they be terrified, and may his troops be frightened. (1 line fragmentary) Since I am a king who puts the Land on track, (4 lines fragmentary) Night falls, (2 lines unclear) The rebel lands ……. They are scattered by force, like sheep that have no shepherd. (7 lines fragmentary or unclear) May concord be promoted in the Land. May my attack cause them to collapse, like a wild bull going to its resting place. (1 line unclear)May the numerous people in their well-established dwelling be avenged.

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
“I, the king, …… upon the foreign lands a mighty yoke …… of heroism ……, I subject their people to destruction. After setting my foot on the neck of the foreign lands, I make …… on the rebel lands. After knocking down …… like ……, and placing my foot on his head, I make him die amid dripping blood ……. Against their ……, my battle-axe gnashes and gnashes its teeth like a sharp-toothed beast. Against their ……, which are well fitted with …… axes of meteoric iron and …… gold ore, like a …… snake my mouth brings forth venom. I cut off from his strength the strong one who resorts to his strength. My …… against their warriors as if they were fish. …… the small net over their runners, I catch them like gazelles in the woods. Having …… like fire (?) against their tireless runners, I make them fall violently into a trap set with a net like wild asses. I place …… on their boastful ones in the battle. My fierce weapons pour forth venom into them like a serpent ready to bite. After tearing out the entrails of its …… who are still alive, I make the man coiling like an attacking …… snake sink his head in the dust, like an ailing, neglected (?) bull. I make their little ones who survive eat bitter dust as long as they live, like the locust which consumes everything.”

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
“I raise my spear against the ……, I set up my emblems at the border of the foreign lands. I fill my quiver, and my bow is stretched, ready to shoot, like a raging serpent. Barbed arrows flash before me like lightning. Like scudding bats, …… arrows fly into the mouth of battle. Slingstones rain down on their people; clay bullets clatter on their backs like hammerstones. With my throw-stick and sling I catch like swallows the crushed people of the rebel lands. My …… weapon sharpens its teeth at the head of the Land.”

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
“Its ……, in the foreign land ……. The rebel land ……. The foreign land ……. (7 lines missing)The heart ……. Having filled the ……, …… his prosperous ……; I give them as a gift to …….”

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
The king ……. On that day, in the foreign land ……. His roar …… the hills ……. The city which Enlil has ……, which An has ……, which Nintur has ……, which Enki has …… good wisdom. Nanna has …… the heights of heaven, Utu has …… on the horizon; Inana the lady of battle has frowned (?) on it. The people of the rebel lands, like old reeds ……. The great and terrible battle of Šulgi …….

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
Like a saĝkal snake, he roars against the …… of hostile foreign lands ……. The king, roaring like a rising flood against the rebel lands, Šulgi, roaring like a rising flood against the rebel lands, embraces Gilgameš, his brother and friend, his comrade, as one who was born ……, and he walks along the road together with Šulgi, the good shepherd of Sumer.

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi E): c.2.4.2.05
I did not lie in ambush, like a fierce cheetah, against the rebel and hostile lands, the aggressive foreign lands, in order to establish my renown as far as the horizon with the power of my master Enlil, and to transmit my lasting fame of victories to the distant future. I did not come out of a hole like a scorpion. Instead I left my main forces at my side, and went ahead of my scouts. As I repelled the tribal Gutians, the bandits of the hills, like a …… snake I made my fearsomeness reach afar.

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi E): c.2.4.2.05
For the rebel lands, the illiterate (?) ones that carry no emblems, my warfare is a horizon on which there are clouds, enveloping the twilight in fear. The mountains, where the forests do not grow as thick as thornbushes, where in the cult places of the rites of Inana (i.e. in battle) throw-stick and shield do not tumble to the earth in a great storm, where the combatants take no rest in the insistent bitterness of the fierce battle, where life-fluid and blood from both scoundrel and honest person ……, where no black ewes trek over the mountains like floating clouds, and corpses in reedbeds and crannies …… (1 line unclear)The desert scorpion shall no longer behave thus ……. Neither shortly nor in the future shall he rise again. A villain and rebel …… to the weapons of strength. A path that is confused, a way that is cut off like a ……. I bent low the land of the Gutians like a mubum tree, and the land turned its heart in its fear before me, as I put my foot on its neck. I am he who all alone plunders cities with his own strength. I am the strong one who is praised for his weapons. I am he whose lasting name and prayerful words are as tremendous as ……. I am the just and the benefactor in the Land.

An adab to Enlil for Šulgi (Šulgi G): c.2.4.2.07
Šulgi, the mighty king, ……, who exults in his triumph, the …… king vanquished the rebellious land with the agakar weapon of Inana.

A tigi (?) for Šulgi (Šulgi L): c.2.4.2.12
You defeat ……. You impose silence on ……. You roar a war-cry at the rebel lands ……. Your clamour …… even the distant mountains and hills. …… at your roaring devastate (?) …… completely. (unknown no. of lines missing)

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi O): c.2.4.2.15
” (1 line fragmentary) In the judgments that you pronounce ……. Who else like you has gone directly on the road to the mountains and has travelled the way to ……? Valiant one, …… the mountain cedars, …… the tall forests, …… the boats. …… Huwawa. …… his seven terrors. …… the small ……. …… from his well-established dwelling. …… to Enlil, in the shrine of Nibru ……. …… your captured hero. You allowed the mother of the sick man to fetch her son to her embrace. Your battle-mace, its mouth gaping wide, attacks the foreign lands for you. Gilgameš, noble one of Unug, violent storm, at whose oppression ……. The inimical rebel land, like ……. You have revealed your immense majesty! May you extend your protective arms over me!”

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi O): c.2.4.2.15
…… the rebel lands like a horned viper ……, Šulgi, son of Ninsumun …… Enki …… (1 line fragmentary) (unknown no. of lines missing)

An adab (?) to Utu for Šulgi (Šulgi Q): c.2.4.2.17
Like a mace with three lion-heads, he makes the mountains tremble and then destroys the rebel lands. …… the enemy of Nanna. …… the great …… of the gods. (2 lines fragmentary)Utu …… the shepherd. Šulgi …… justice. …… in famine. …… son of Ninsumun ……. May …… great fearsomeness for the people for you. …… the creation of …… no one …….

An adab (?) to Utu for Šulgi (Šulgi Q): c.2.4.2.17
…… is exalted. Like …… very pleasing. …… shepherd Šulgi, the lion …… the rebel lands ……. As long as the cities are not pacified ……. Youthful Utu …… the people numerous as ewes. May …… of the holy lapis-lazuli shrine, rejoicing. …… very proudly ……. Like a cow …… proudly. (3 lines fragmentary)

A tigi to Ninurta for Šulgi (Šulgi T): c.2.4.2.20
Lord, perfect warrior, beloved by ……. Ninurta, meš tree with a broad shining canopy, ……. Weapon striding into battle, …… foreign countries. A dragon with a terrifying face, venomous snake who …… its venom against the rebel lands. …… overpowering ……, foremost lion ……. Ninurta, who …… with the great prince Enki. My king, in your city, shrine Nibru, ……. E-šu-me-ša, where …… for you. Lord, the kingship is perfect with you ……. Adviser, the dragon of the Land, ……. Ninurta, the great wall of Nibru, ……. My king, whose divine powers cannot be scattered, warrior ……. Forceful lion, ……. King with the broad wisdom of heaven and earth, ……. Exalted sceptre rising above the Land, ……. Ninurta, who …… the enemy, …….

A tigi to Ninurta for Šulgi (Šulgi T): c.2.4.2.20
Warrior, powerful lord, overpowering ……. Ninurta, terrible storm, powerful fire, ……. Frightening storm, raging against the rebellious lands, …… lion. Dragon spreading terror, lord without rival ……. King with broad wisdom, neck-stock of gods. …… given strength ……. …… trustworthy ……, Šulgi …… (1 line fragmentary)You have chosen …… among your own …… in your heart. ……, Ninurta, be praised.

An adab (?) to Nergal for Šulgi (?) (Šulgi U): c.2.4.2.21
Hero, wild bull with thick horns, …… like a cow, your terrifying name lets loose awe and fear. You fall on the rebel lands like the south wind. You are a bolt on the broad extent of the mountains. When you sit in E-mešlam, your desires are joyously fulfilled (?). The people assemble at your feet.

An adab (?) to Nergal for Šulgi (?) (Šulgi U): c.2.4.2.21
Mešlamta-ea, your supremacy in the rebel lands! You have encircled the rebel lands, O youth. Nergal, your supremacy in the rebel lands!

An adab (?) to Nergal for Šulgi (?) (Šulgi U): c.2.4.2.21
Hero …… for the people, god roaming the mountains! You have …… the rebel lands. Nergal …… for the people, god roaming the mountains!

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi X): c.2.4.2.24
(Ninazu speaks:) “…… like syrup …… ghee ……. You, the hero, coming from the rebel land ……. O king, the lord of prayers and supplications has chosen you in his heart; shepherd Šulgi, the lord of prayers and supplications has chosen you in his heart. Who can rival (?) a king to whom Enlil has given strength? Who can enter your ……? Who could escape your ……? ……. No one who knows you should desire your strength. If (?) they wished …… battle with you ……, what could escape your outstretched arms? When you shriek like the Anzud-bird, who could stand before you? When you howl like the storm, the foreign lands and the hills tremble like a reed, a split (?) reed ……. The people in the houses of the foreign lands gaze at your deeds (?), the people of Tidnum joyfully admire them.”

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi X): c.2.4.2.24
His master Ašimbabbar looked at him with joy and decreed a fate for Šulgi, the good shepherd of Sumer: “Hero, lord, mighty one of the foreign lands, the right arm of the Land, you have achieved victory for me, have carried out what I have commanded you. You have reduced to ruins the houses of the rebel land that I have cursed. May you never grow weary of perfecting the divine powers for me every month at the new moon! May your name be as sweet as that of Ezina in the mouth of the Land and in the mouths of all the countries! May holy Ningal, the lady of the shrine, spread out her lap for you, like the wooden frame of a waterskin!” Thus Suen decreed a good fate for him.

A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi X): c.2.4.2.24
Because the king exulted in his triumph and let his might radiate, because he implemented (?) his heroism perfectly, made the rebellious land bow and made our city, Urim, rise in prosperity; because the king is adorned with a lapis-lazuli crown (?); because the son of Enlil lifts his head high, wearing a wide crown; because he takes counsel with An in his lofty place and is enthroned with Uraš on a great dais; because he makes the Land of Sumer and all the foreign lands dance with joy day and night, may Lord Ašimbabbar be praised.

A tigi (?) to Ninurta for Šu-Suen (Šu-Suen D): c.2.4.4.4
A flood which frightens the rebel lands, without rival! Ninurta, deathly hush, { …… bolt of lightning (?), …… } { (the other ms. has instead:) imbued with fearsomeness, ……, …… the enemy }. You have made the name of King Šu-Suen known among the widespread people. When he directs big bulls and big sheep to the main courtyard of your E-šu-me-ša, the holy residence, the Igi-šu-galam in which the fates are determined, may he greet (?) you from its holy royal offering place, may Šu-Suen greet (?) you from there. …… Ninurta …… long life ……. …… long life …… for Šu-Suen.

A tigi (?) to Ninurta for Šu-Suen (Šu-Suen D): c.2.4.4.4
…… who moves fast into the heart of the mountains! Ninurta, massive stormwind over the rebel lands, devastating the people! Counsellor, who controls perfectly the divine powers of the E-kur, support of his father! Ninurta, …… who moves fast into the heart of the mountains! Ninurta, massive stormwind over the rebel lands, devastating the people! Counsellor, who controls perfectly the divine powers of the E-kur, support of his father! My king, the great strength of Enlil, from whose grasp no foreign country can escape! For Šu-Suen ……, given great strength by Father Enlil — you, Ninurta, will destroy myriads in the battle and the fray. Ninurta, the great strength of Enlil, from whose grasp no foreign country can escape! For Šu-Suen ……, given great strength by Father Enlil — you, Ninurta, will destroy myriads in the battle and the fray.

An adab (?) to Suen for Šu-Suen (Šu-Suen F): c.2.4.4.6
…… imbued with awesomeness, a dragon for the heavens, …… imbued with awesomeness, …… in the heavens, ……, the prince who trusts in you, my Šu-Suen, …… has embraced ……. …… all the lands in their vastness, …… the sceptre of distant days. The people of the rebel lands, …… all of them ……, have entrusted …… to Šu-Suen for the beneficent princely son of Enlil. My king ……, Šu-Suen …… in celebration!

A praise poem of Iddin-Dagan (Iddin-Dagan B): c.2.5.3.2
Your magnificent reputation exists throughout the Land — your name dazzles to the horizon. Mighty man, standing in battle and conflict with heroism and strength, you come to batter rebellious lands. From the womb Dagan decreed that as your destiny. He has placed your praise in all mouths.

An adab to Ningublaga for Iddin-Dagan (Iddin-Dagan C): c.2.5.3.3
Hero, roaring in the rebel-lands, you have angrily piled up skulls. You have terrified their brick buildings and scattered their chaff heavenward. Vigorous wild bull, roaring in the rebel-lands you have angrily piled up skulls. You have terrified their brick buildings and scattered their chaff heavenward.

A šir-namerima (?) for Iddin-Dagan (Iddin-Dagan D): c.2.5.3.4
Holy Ninisina, the city that fears (?) you is not restored. The …… you address (?) is turned into ruins for you. No one moves about in the rebellious land that you curse. The …… that fears (?) you does not cross the river.

A praise poem of Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan A + V): c.2.5.4.01
I am a judge who gives no explanations; I am a decision-maker who goes straight to the point. The strong does not behave extravagantly towards others, the mighty does not abuse the weak any more. People are not made subject to the lordly. If he does not wish to enter my presence (?) in holy ……, the feeble person may speak contrary words ……. …… slave of my city. …… of Enlil. Sumer and Akkad …… (1 line unclear) Until the distant future (?) ……. I have …… the destructive men. I have destroyed (?) …… the dispossessed (?) who speak with enmity. I have exerted myself ……. I have …… rebellion and destructive criminals ……. I have supported the appeals of the bondsmen, waifs and widows who cry “Alas, Utu!” or “Alas, Nanna!”. I have destroyed ……. I have brought about the extermination of the cut-throats who roam (?) the desert. I have kept the just on the proper track, following the wife and the little child.I have sent (?) people nobly into the fields, and established holy shrines (?) in the desert. I have built the city itself for a long future in the whole world.

A praise poem of Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan A + V): c.2.5.4.01
Išme-Dagan, born for heaven, chosen by the heart — I am kind like a father, attentive (?) like a mother. I am a lofty wall, the encouragement of the Land. I am a tall meš tree with thick roots, and broad shining branches. I am the canopy of Sumer, a pleasant shade; I am a place which even a tall person cannot reach. I am the helper of the troops, the focal point of the Land. I am a warrior on the way to battle, I am a powerful runner who goes like the north wind. I am wise …… superior in every respect. I am a belligerent wild bull, kicking up the dust everywhere; I am a battering ram, ……. I stand in the forefront of the shields. I am the hero of heroes, with the strength of a battle-mace, as I smite the rebel lands right and left.

A praise poem of Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan A + V): c.2.5.4.01
In accordance with the great destiny decided by Father Enlil, my battle-cry overspreads the remotest parts of the mountains. In the rebel cities no one approaches me or fixes their weapons against me. They bring (?) their tribute spontaneously at Enlil’s command. …… to the mountains. …… nir-igi stone, cornelian, …… stone, { …… their stones } { (some mss. have instead the line:) …… time-consuming labour, ……, labour for the king }. For me the black-headed bring great timbers …… to the Land, while Dilmun bestows lavishly on me its linen, dates and date spadices. The Martu, who know no houses, who know no cities — primitives who live in the hills — bring me row upon row of woolly alum sheep. From the upland mountains, from the …… places, cedar, zabalum, cypress and boxwood were together brought to me. Enlil, my master, who batters the foreign lands into submission, kept the people on a single track, and made them unanimous for me, who am all for Enlil, who am the beloved of E-kur.

A tigi (?) to Ninurta for Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan O): c.2.5.4.15
Uta-ulu, riding on fearsome radiance ……, greatest amongst the great lords ……! Ninurta, perfect in authority, caretaker of heaven and earth ……, lord who was given strength by Nunamnir, confident in his strength ……! Ninurta, foremost ……! Enlil ……! …… like a butting bull! …… your foot on the disobedient! Great hero ……! …… the distant hills! …… the enemy lands into the king’s hands! Ninurta, …… helper of Išme-Dagan in the mêlée! …… his majestic weapon! …… the rebellious, disobedient land! …… his majestic mace the enemy! …… battle …… enemy! May …… Išme-Dagan ……! (unknown no. of lines missing)

A tigi (?) to Ninurta for Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan O): c.2.5.4.15
Adviser, whose decisions cannot be countermanded! Ninurta, whose utterances are firm! Hero, lord, august son of Enlil! …… overpowers (?) the mountains. Ninurta, prominent in the E-kur! His huge storm ……. …… furious …… against the rebel lands. (1 line fragmentary) Ninurta, ……, great hero, who …… the enemy. Hero …… Enlil ……. (2 lines fragmentary)…… wicked ……. His …… on the foreign countries, …… covers the Land like a garment.

A praise poem of Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan AA): c.2.5.4.27
In Isin, the royal city, Išme-Dagan, …… for you in masterly fashion a fifty-headed battle-mace to destroy the rebel lands, chosen for your great power. For you he gave it fifty names. From Isin he …… it for you into Nibru, the primeval, well-established city and …… to be marvelled at in the E-šu-me-ša, the majestic residence that …… fearsomeness, at the gate of Igi-šu-galam, the place where fates are decided.

An adab to Ninurta for Lipit-Eštar (Lipit-Eštar D): c.2.5.5.4
“Your roaring and commands make all the foreign countries submit. Your frightening look makes all enemies tremble! Uta-ulu, when like all the evil winds you rise to …… like Gibil, the lord of ……, the hero; (1 line unclear)After you have completely devastated the rebellious lands, ……, all the great gods will duly praise your supremacy!” …… your father decided your destiny.

An adab to Ninurta for Lipit-Eštar (Lipit-Eštar D): c.2.5.5.4
Great hero, when for prince Lipit-Eštar you reduce to heaps the rebellious lands which are insubordinate to him, may ……!

A šir-namgala (?) to Inana for Ur-Ninurta (Ur-Ninurta A): c.2.5.6.1
(Inana speaks:) “Great An, your commands are great indeed: who can revoke them? Father Enlil, no one knows how to dissipate the great destinies that you determine. Both of you, bestow permanently the role of shepherd of living beings, of the numerous people, upon Ur-Ninurta, the youth who knows how to carry out your orders. He has brought with him from the holy womb a knowledge of how to build homes and cities, and how to strengthen the Land. He knows how to direct all countries: let him give great commands. May his shepherd’s crook make the rebel lands bow low; may he let them have stable governance. From the south to the uplands may he clamp down upon the Land like a neck-stock. May his utterances ……. May he search out food for them to eat as if for sheep, and may he get them …… water to drink.”

A šir-namgala (?) to Inana for Ur-Ninurta (Ur-Ninurta A): c.2.5.6.1
“You howl like a storm upon your enemies. May your splendour cover like a heavy raincloud the lands that are disobedient to you. Let the great sovereigns and powerful ones (?) tremble …… like solitary reeds. (1 line fragmentary)You arise like the south wind, and when you have plotted against the rebel lands, when you have taken their people prisoners, then, O Ur-Ninurta, place the yoke on their necks in Isin, your city of great divine powers.” Great An, father of the gods, has determined this as a destiny forever unchangeable for Ur-Ninurta, his attentive shepherd.

An adab to Ninurta for Ur-Ninurta (Ur-Ninurta C): c.2.5.6.3
You who treat as hostile the cities as well as the unsettled areas, the rebel lands — Ninurta, as you pass by, like a terrifying fierce lion (?) you make heaven and earth tremble from east to west. When in judgment, like a hero possessing great strength, you batter a rebel land, by day you thrust, by night you rear up, and you leave the rebel land lying prone. If you merely lift your gaze, you make the great hills tremble (?) together.

An adab to An for Ur-Ninurta (Ur-Ninurta E): c.2.5.6.5
An raised his far-reaching gaze to the good shepherd. He spoke to Ur-Ninurta, his beloved son, with kindly words: “May there be shame at your awe-inspiring splendour, while you (?) ride as if on a great storm. May you have no rival in your youthful power. May the Land remain (?) under your rule. May you make your name supreme in the foreign lands, and may they speak good of you. May the land that is of its own will unbending to you, submit to you. Ur-Ninurta, to whom I have given great power: you should trust in my name. May your words clamp down upon the wicked like a great neck-stock. May the rebel land approach at your command, and do reverence to you. In your lordliness may you hold your head high. May you be good to the people. May you be the man of justice, and may it come to your aid. You have justice that comes from the heart; you are one of Utu’s retainers. May Inana, who is assuredly your beloved, provide you with long life. May the good protective deities of the en priesthood and of kingship stand faithfully at your side. My Ur-Ninurta, named with the name of Sumer! Go with your head high to the shrine of Nibru, to Dur-an-ki. Brick-built E-kur accepts your offerings: “May the awe-inspiring shepherd stand in attendance with his great food offerings for the house.””

An adab to Ninurta for Būr-Suen (Būr-Suen A): c.2.5.7.1
……, lord, whom the Great Mountain engendered, whose magnificence has no equal. Ninurta, magnificent in heaven and earth, surpassing among the Anuna gods. ……, foremost among the gods, support of An. …… imbued with ……, who roars like a storm, who growls in battle. ……, who butts like a huge wild bull, who destroys the fortresses of the rebel lands. …… of Enlil: no foreign land can escape from his grasp. …… by Nunamnir, whose words are firmly established. ……, fit for princeship, the counsellor of E-kur. …… cannot be scattered, the neckstock of the gods. (approx. 7 lines missing)…… may …… be his helper. …… the son of Iškur. ……, may he provide …… with good food. May he regulate ……. May he be the constant attendant of the E-šu-me-ša, his beloved residence. May he never cease to …… daily his great offerings. May …… prolong the years of abundance and a pleasant life …… for Būr-Suen, well suited for kingship, beloved of An.

An adab to Ninurta for Būr-Suen (Būr-Suen A): c.2.5.7.1
……, the right arm of Enlil, who destroys the rebellious foreign lands; Ninurta, the right arm of Enlil, who destroys the rebellious foreign lands. The king, whose rising is a flood no one can oppose. Ninurta, the furious storm in battle, who tramples upon the enemy. He is girded with heroism, a young man without rival. The one given superior strength by Nunamnir, who makes his father feel truly content. Your mighty commands are lofty and great. Ninurta, your mighty commands are lofty and great. …… flattens …… in the rebel lands, who forces the enemy to bow low. ……, who roars like a storm. (3 lines fragmentary) (4 lines missing) (2 lines fragmentary)

A praise poem of Enlil-bāni (Enlil-bāni A): c.2.5.8.1
Enlil-bāni, king who gladdens the heart of his city, you speed offerings into Nibru. You bring the best corn into E-kiš-nu-ĝal; daily you ensure that it does not cease. You are him whom Enlil has summoned by name; you are the property of Ninlil. As for the lands rebellious against you, Ninurta the strong hero of Enlil, in triumph has dissolved into ruins those that are hostile and are not supporters of yours, and has spread them out as heaps for you. Nuska, the lord who stocks the E-kur, (1 line missing)a favourable omen.

A hymn to Enlil for Samsu-iluna (Samsu-iluna F): c.2.8.3.6
He is the man to whom Enlil has given …… and the shepherdship over the widespread people, the beloved (?) shepherd of Nibru, the constant servant of E-kur; he is the trustworthy farmer of the house of Asalim, who takes care that provisions do not cease in E-saĝ-ila. For you to exercise your divine powers of shepherdship in the Land, Enlil has placed the foreign lands at your feet. Obedient to Utu, beloved (?) of Inana, Samsu-iluna, the king whose fate is never altered by Enlil, my king, at the command uttered by Enlil, Enki and Asalim, Zababa, Lugal-gu-dua, the king who builds temples, …… the rebel lands …… (unknown no. of lines missing)

Letter from Aradĝu to Šulgi about the fortress Igi-ḫursaĝa: c.3.1.06
As to the fortification which my lord sent me back to, the work on it has been put into effect. The approach of the enemy is kept at a distance from the Land. My lord continues to maintain his sublime reputation in the south and the uplands, from the rising to the setting sun, as far as the borders of the entire Land. { The rebellious (?) Martu have turned back …… } { (an Akkadian gloss has instead:) The totality …… }.

Enlil in the E-kur (Enlil A): c.4.05.1
The mighty lord, the greatest in heaven and earth, the knowledgeable judge, the wise one of wide-ranging wisdom, has taken his seat in the Dur-an-ki, and made the Ki-ur, the great place, resplendent with majesty. He has taken up residence in Nibru, the lofty bond (?) between heaven and earth. The front of the city is laden with terrible fearsomeness and radiance, its back is such that even the mightiest god dare not attack, and its interior is the blade of a sharp dagger, a blade of catastrophe. For the rebel lands it is a snare, a trap set with a net.

The exaltation of Inana (Inana B): c.4.07.2
My good divine wild cow, drive out the man, capture the man! In the place of divine encouragement, what is my standing now? May An extradite the land which is a malevolent rebel against your Nanna! May An smash that city! May Enlil curse it! May its plaintive child not be placated by his mother! Lady, with the laments begun, may your ship of lamentation be abandoned in hostile territory. Must I die because of my holy songs? My Nanna has { paid no heed to me } { (1 ms. has instead:) has not decided my case }. He has destroyed me utterly in renegade territory. Ašimbabbar has certainly not pronounced a verdict on me. What is it to me if he has pronounced it? What is it to me if he has not pronounced it? He stood there in triumph and drove me out of the temple. He made me fly like a swallow from the window; I have exhausted my life-strength. He made me walk through the thorn bushes of the mountains. He stripped me of the rightful { crown } { (1 ms. has instead:) garment } of the en priestess. He gave me a knife and dagger, saying to me “These are appropriate ornaments for you.”

The exaltation of Inana (Inana B): c.4.07.2
It must be known! It must be known! Nanna has not yet spoken out! He has said,” He is yours!” Be it known that you are lofty as the heavens! Be it known that you are broad as the earth! Be it known that you destroy the rebel lands! Be it known that you roar at the foreign lands! Be it known that you crush heads! Be it known that you devour corpses like a dog! Be it known that your gaze is terrible! Be it known that you lift your terrible gaze! Be it known that you have flashing eyes! Be it known that you are unshakeable and unyielding! Be it known that you always stand triumphant! That Nanna has not yet spoken out, and that he has said “He is yours!” has made you greater, my lady; you have become the greatest! My lady beloved by An, I shall tell of all your { rages } { (1 ms. has instead:) daises }! I have heaped up the coals in the censer, and prepared the purification rites. The E-ešdam-kug shrine awaits you. Might your heart not be appeased towards me?

A tigi to Inana (Inana E): c.4.07.5
When he goes out to the rebel lands, to the distant mountains, he spends his time in the mêlée of battle. When Ama-ušumgal-ana goes out to the distant mountains, he spends his time in the mêlée of battle. He thickens good butter for you, as Utu rises from the fragrant cedar mountains! Ama-ušumgal-ana thickens good butter for you, as Utu rises from the fragrant cedar mountains!

A tigi to Inana (Inana E): c.4.07.5
Lady whom no one can withstand in battle, great daughter of Suen who rises in heaven and inspires terror, he who for you stands complete in his manhood rejoices in battle as at a festival, and for you he destroys the rebel lands and houses ……. For you Ama-ušumgal-ana, the mighty hero, kills everyone with his shining šita mace.

A tigi to Inana (Inana E): c.4.07.5
Inana, lady whom no one can withstand in battle, great daughter of Suen who rises in heaven and inspires terror, he who for you stands complete in his manhood rejoices in battle as at a festival, and for you he destroys the rebel lands and houses ……. For you Ama-ušumgal-ana, the mighty hero, kills everyone with his shining šita mace.

A hymn to Nergal (Nergal B): c.4.15.2
Hero, majestic, awe-inspiring son of Enlil, battering like a storm and roaring against the rebel lands! Immense at his front, at his rear surging as a flood, after he ……, …… this place; Lord Mešlamta-ea inspiring terrifying awe, his …… not releasing the hostile land, his luxuriant horn …… in the Land, struck …… with weapons.

A tigi to Nergal (Nergal C): c.4.15.3
Lord of the just word, lord of abundance, hero! At your name, people obey. Frightening sea like a rising ……, with your kingship you inspire terrifying fear. Hero, with your magnificent strength …… you pile up the rebel lands in heaps. Nergal, your name is praised in song. May the lady, An’s daughter, the lady who loves her city, Bau who concerns herself with you, in Iri-kug, her city of ladyship, make your appointed …… famous for a reign of distant days.

A šir-gida to Ninisina (Ninisina A): c.4.22.1
“The heart of the Great Mountain Enlil became fearsome: he frowned at the enemy land, and cursed the rebel land. My father Enlil despatched me to the rebel land, the enemy land that he had frowned at — me, the young woman, me, the strong heroine — I went there. I made the shepherd of the rebel land there grasp Enlil’s words well in his ears. He became frightened at me and became silent (?) in my presence. Then he was consigned to oblivion. Now no one knows him there in the destroyed city, no one finds the shepherd there in his pastures. After I had destroyed it like water, drowned it like the harvest, after I had grabbed him as a threshing sledge grabs barley, after I had set him ablaze like esparto grass, I struck him with the mace and killed him. I announced the news to my father Enlil in Nibru.”

A šir-gida to Ninurta (Ninurta A): c.4.27.01
The warrior, the lordly son of Enlil, Ninurta, the fierce bull, fit to be a prince, the hero manifest in E-šu-me-ša, the glory of E-kur, the rigorous judge, king, …… of the gods, the butting bull, placing his foot on the rebel lands, Ninurta, the lord of E-šu-me-ša, has taken his seat on the throne-dais of An.

Ninurta’s journey to Eridug: a šir-gida to Ninurta (Ninurta B): c.4.27.02
At the word of Enlil, you rise up (?), warrior Ninurta. Your kingship’s fearsomeness and awesome radiance covers the rebellious lands. Warrior, you harrow and you fortify the Land. From the heart of the mountains you bring down silver and lapis lazuli, the treasures of the mountains ……, to your father Enlil. On the horizon ……. At evening ……, …… companion ……. Lord who destroys the foreign lands, who always claims (?) victory, Ninurta you are the warrior of Enlil; you are authoritative in heaven, warrior ……. (unknown no. of lines missing)

A hymn to Ninurta (Ninurta C): c.4.27.03
(1 line fragmentary) ……. ……, lordly son of Enlil, ……. ……, hero who appears in glory, who ……. …… in Enlil’s house ……. …… no one ……. …… of E-kur, the rebel lands ……. ……, lord ……. ……, captain, ……. …… king of Urim, ……. ……, king of Adab ……. ……, king of ……. …… E-kur ……. (1 line fragmentary) …… of Ninlil ……. …… to the …… of Enlil ……. …… heaven and earth, the mother who bore ……. …… Enlil ……. …… of the hero ……. (1 line fragmentary) …… Zababa ……. …… hero ……. (20 lines missing)

A hymn to Ninurta (Ninurta C): c.4.27.03
You desire everything in your heart, you wish for everything valuable in your heart. Hero, Enlil’s right arm, youth without rival! Ninurta, Enlil’s right arm, youth without rival, grandly heaping up …… with the fifty-headed ……, letting no enemies escape from the mountains! Wild raging lion, overpowering the enemy, Ninurta, wild raging lion, overpowering the enemy — who like a foul moving storm …… the rebel lands and territories! Hero, first choice of his father, Lord Ninurta, first choice of his father! He is the hero, he is the hero, the hero who does not let the mountains escape! He (?) is the hero! He is Ninurta who does not let the mountains escape!

A tigi to Ninurta (Ninurta D): c.4.27.04
The warrior, …… in furious battle, smashes heads. The lord curses the disobedient, rebellious lands: “I will …… battering ram, I will …… your venom. I will destroy (?) your city gate ……, and reach your ……. I will …… shield on (?) your tower, and reduce it to a pile of dust. I will …… your ……, like a city cursed by Enlil. I will …… you into ruin mounds, like a city hated by Ninurta.”

A šir-namšub to Ninurta (Ninurta G): c.4.27.07
The hero, devastator of the mountains, pillager of cities, batters at the rebel lands. The hero Ninurta, devastator of the mountains, pillager of cities, the hero Pabilsaĝ, devastator of the mountains, pillager of cities, the hero Ninĝirsu, devastator of the mountains, pillager of cities, batters at the rebel lands. A king, a storm beating down from above: you are an unrivalled lord. Hero, you are the towering wall of your city; may your august name be invoked! Hero Ninurta, you are the towering wall of your city. Hero Pabilsaĝ, you are the towering wall of your city. Hero Ninĝirsu, you are the towering wall of your city; may your august name be invoked!

A šir-namšub to Ninurta (Ninurta G): c.4.27.07
House of the rebel lands! Ah you! You! Ah me! Me! House of the rebel lands, when will your clay return to its abzu? House of the rebel lands, when will your reeds return to their reedbeds? House of the rebel lands, when will your beams return to their forests?

A hymn to Šul-pa-e (Šul-pa-e A): c.4.31.1
Lordly with weapons in the thick of battle! Owner of the rebel lands, lordly in the rebel lands, my king, you are an august god! You are an august god, and your wife is an august queen. You are beloved by Ninḫursaĝa. You are a hero before whom the gods are very fearful. Hero Šul-pa-e, lordly in heaven and on earth, my ……, may your name be truly called upon in all the foreign lands! My king, may your greatness be truly called upon in all the foreign lands!

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
Your prince, the most precious prince Asarluḫi, the most precious one, is a warrior, born a noble prince, a leopard who seizes prey. He is like an onrushing storm battering the rebel land. As long as it remains disobedient, he pours spittle upon it. Asar-alim-nuna, the son of the abzu, has erected a house in your precinct, O house Kuara, and taken his seat upon your dais.

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
Your lady Inana, the ……, the singular woman, the dragon who speaks hostile words to ……, who shines in brightness, who goes against the rebel land, through whom the firmament is made beautiful in the evening, the great daughter of Suen, holy Inana, has erected a house in your precinct, O house Zabalam, and taken her seat upon your dais.

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O E-sikil (Pure house) whose pure divine powers are supreme in all lands, whose name is high and mighty, magnificent dwelling of the warrior, holy house of Ninazu, house of the holy divine powers! House, your divine powers are pure divine powers, your lustration is a cleansing lustration. The warrior refreshes himself in your dwelling. Ninazu dines on your platform. Your sovereign, the great lord, the son of Enlil, is a towering lion spitting venom over hostile lands, rising like the south wind against enemy lands, snarling like a dragon against the walls of rebel lands, a storm enveloping the disobedient and trampling on the enemy.

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
When he strides forth, no evil-doer can escape. When he establishes his triumph, the cities of the rebel lands are destroyed. When he frowns, their people are cast into the dust. House, your prince is a great lion from whose claws the enemy hangs. Your sovereign is a terrifying, mighty storm, the vigour of the battle, in combat …… like a …… with a shield on his lofty arm, a net over the widespread people from whose reach the foe cannot escape. When the great lord is resplendent, his magnificence has no equal. The true seed born of the Great Mountain and Ninlil, your sovereign, the warrior Ninazu, has erected a house in your precinct, O E-sikil, O Ešnunna, and taken his seat upon your dais.

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O Ulmaš, upper land, …… of the Land, terrifying lion battering a wild bull, net spreading over an enemy, making silence fall upon a rebel land on which, as long as it remains insubmissive, spittle is poured! House of Inana of silver and lapis lazuli, a storehouse built of gold, your princess is an arabu bird, the Mistress of the Niĝin-ĝar.

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O house, right arm, battle-axe cutting down the rebel lands, digging up their green fields, (2 lines fragmentary)

The debate between Grain and Sheep: c.5.3.2
Thereupon Sheep answered Grain: “My sister, whatever are you saying? An, king of the gods, made me descend from the holy place, my most precious place. All the yarns of Uttu, the splendour of kingship, belong to me. Šakkan, king of the mountain, embosses the king’s emblems and puts his implements in order. He twists a giant rope against the great peaks of the rebel land. He …… the sling, the quiver and the longbows.”

The song of the hoe: c.5.5.4
The king who measured up the hoe (al) and who passes (zal) his time in its tracks, the hero Ninurta, has introduced working with the hoe (altar) into the rebel (bal) lands. He subdues (alĝaĝa) any city that does not obey its lord. Towards heaven he roars (algigi) like a storm, earthwards he strikes (alĝaĝa) like a dragon (ušumgal). Šara { sat down on } { (1 ms. has instead:) got onto } Enlil’s knees, and Enlil gave him what he had desired (al-dug): { he had mentioned the mace, the club, arrows and quiver, and the hoe (al) } { (3 mss. have instead:) he desired (al-dug) the mace, the club, arrows and quiver }. Dumuzid is the one who makes the upper land fertile (allumlum). Gibil made his hoe (al) raise its head towards the heavens — he caused the hoe (al), sacred indeed, to be refined with fire. The Anuna were rejoicing (alḫulḫuledeš).

1 Response to “Rebel Lands”


  1. 1 Lu December 8, 2011 at 10:39 am

    Thank you so much for all the info, really enjoying the site.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s





%d bloggers like this: