Assignatus utitur jure auctoris.
An assignee is clothed with the right of his principal.

Non videtur vim facere, qui jure suo utitur et ordinaria actione experitur.
He is not considered to use force who exercises his own right, and proceeds by ordinary action.

Jus publicum privatooum pactis mutari non potest.
A public right cannot be changed by agreement of private persons.

Nullus jus alienum forisfacere potest.
No man can forfeit the right of another.

Neminem laedit qui jure suo utitur.
He who stands on his own rights injures no one.

Cujus est inntituere, ejus est abrogare.
Whose right it is to institute anything, may also abrogate it.

Ignorantia juris sui non praejudicat juri.
Ignorance of one’s right does not prejudice the right.

Jus triplex est,-propietatis, possessionis, et possibilitatis.
Right is threefold-of property, of possession, and of possibility.

Nullus videtur dolo facere qui suo jure utitur.
No one is considered to have committed a wrong who exercises his legal rights.

Cuilibet licet juri pro se introducto renunciare.
Any one may wave the benefit of a legal right that exists only for his protection.

Qui prior est tempore potior est jure.
He who is first in time is first in right.

Fiat justitia, ruat coelum.
Let right be done, though the heavens fall.

Ipsae leges cupiunt ut jure regannur.
The laws themselves are desirous of being governed by what is right.

Jus naturale est quod apud homines eandem habet potentiam.
Natural right is that which has the same force among all mankind.

Jus est norma recti; et quicquid estcontra normam recti est injuria.
Law is the rule of right; and whatever is contrary to the rule of right is an injury.

Quid sit jus, et in quo consistit injuria, legis est definire.
What constitutes right, and what injury, it is the business of the law to define.

Jus ex injuria non oritur.
A right does not arise from a wrong.

Prince Eugene, tho’ but of a middling Stature, Person. was very well shaped. His visage was somewhat long; his Complexion brown, and becoming a Warrior; his Eyes black, lively, and full of Fire; his Mouth of a moderate Size, and usually open; his Nose well made, but somewhat long; his countenance meagre, and his Cheeks a little sunk in. He had black Hair, which he wore till it began to grow gray. He took abundance of Snuff, and carried it loose in his Pocket. Tho’ his Air was naturally grave and serious, he knew how to be merry on Occasion, and that with great Freedom. When he was at the Head of his Troops, there appeared a Grandeur and Majesty in his Person that commanded Respect from every General, as well as from the meanest Soldiers.

All the Latter loved him, on Account of the His Care he always took to supply them in Countries, of the So where under other Generals they must have wanted every Thing. In the long Wars, made by the three Emperors whom he served, tho’ the Troops were often ill paid, Eugene still found Means to subsist them, and very often at his own Expence. The Generosity of Turenne and Vertdome was real Prodigality: Eugene was liberal without being profuse, and no Man ever accused him of Avarice. He grew rich indeed by War, and by the Liberality of the Emperors: But who can deny that, in Time of Peace, he made a noble Use of his Wealth, a Use worthy the Greatness of his Soul?

He loved the Belles Lettres, and gave Pensions Qualities of to Men of Genius and Learning, among whom his Heart, was the Poet Rousseau. At a Time when the Plague raged in Vienna, and Provisions were very dear, he employed 1500 Men to embellish his Palace, and gave them double Wages, tho’ he did not want a third Part of the Number. The Beauty of this Palace, its Furniture, Paintings; Cabinets of Rarities, Library, Gardens, Waterworks, Statues, Offices, and a Thousand other Particulars, were so many Proofs of this Hero’s Magnisicence and good Taste. The Splendor of those Entertainments, which he gave daily to a great many Persons, displayed his generous and noble Character; and his Readiness to do Service, which infinite Numbers have experienced, is an authentic Testimony of his benesicent Temper. If he could not grant what was asked, at least he made it up with Civilities, so that every Man left him with Satisfaction. He was no Bigot, and .yet had a great Fund of Religion and Probity. He detested an inconsiderate and passionate Zeal, laughed at those People who scruple to eat an Egg on Good-Friday, and not to kill a Man on Easter Sunday, under Pretence of avenging the Divinity ; but he practiced exactly all the Duties of the Religion he professed. Of his The Qualities of his Mind were answerable to Mind those of his Heart.

It was well cultivated, furnished with a vast and extensive Reading, assisted,by a happy Memory, and endowed with extraordinary Penetration. He had a nice Judgment, which seldom deceived him upon the Merits of other Men.- This Discernment was so admirable, that in the Twinkling of an Eye he would penetrate the most obscure and hidden Characters. He spoke very little; but what he said was just, and weighed in the Balance of good Sense. He never spoke ill of any Man, and was always silent when he could not praise j but at the fame Time was very reserved; in his Passegyricks, and never bestowed them but upon true Merit. No Man surpassed him in the Art of keeping a Secret; for nothing ever slipped him that could betray what he had a Mind to conceal. His Enemies he easily pardoned, and tho’ he had many whom he knew well, he never once thought of seeking Revenge. This Notion He never would never carry, and held it for a Maxim, of Women that a Wife is a:, troublesome Piece of Household and Love not Goods for a Warrior, who by thinking of her forgets his Duty, and is often too careful of his Life for the Good of his Family. Love appeared to him one of those frivolous Passions, to which a Man of Reason ought never to give Way. Lovers, .he used to say, are the bains in civil Society as Fanaticks are in Religion. Yet he did not shun the Company of Ladies, and no Man knew better how to give the Fair Sex all the Respect that is due to them. Politeness, Affability, and Compliance, were all so natural to him in the Company of Women, and his whole Behaviour so very gallant, that one would have thought him smitten with some particular one, if he had not acted thus to them all indifferently. If he distinguished any Lady, it was the Countess of Bathiani. With her he would often eat, play, and spend the Winter Evenings; and always seemed to be better pleased at her House than any where else. The Reason was, because the Countess had an infinite deal of that fine, delicate, insinuating wit, that charms whenever it appears. She did every Thing with a good Grace; spoke several Languages, and it was difficult to fee her often without feeling a sort of Tenderness for her Person. But her Virtue, at the fame Time, was equal to her Charms. She willingly entertained the Prince on account of his Birth, his high Rank, and the Fame of his great Actions; and he visited her for her Humour and Conversation, which amused him, and made him pass his Time with Satisfaction and Delight. One may venture to say, that Eugene’s great Passion for War suspended, and, as it were, absorbed all his ether Passions: So that it is no Wonder he was always sober, chaste, and temperate; that Pleasure was never his Business, but the Glory of his Reputation only, and the Means of acquiring an immortal Name. John Bancks

The petit abbé

Prince Eugene Francis of Savoy-Soissons was born on 18 October 1663 as the youngest son of Olympia Mancini, the niece of Cardinal Mazarin, and Eugene Maurice of Savoy-Carignan-Soissons. Eugene is the fifth child, with four elder brothers and two younger sisters. In the paternal line, his ancestry goes back to King Philip II. Eugene grew up at the court of Louis XIV. But when his mother fell into disfavor after being denounced as a poisoner in 1680, she fled to Brussels. She left the upbringing of her children to their grandmother Marie de Bourbon. On 23 July 1683 the 20-year-old Eugene, disguised as a girl, fled Paris in a carriage to seek out the imperial court, which was temporarily in Passau during the siege of Vienna by the Turks. Eugene requested that Leopold allow him to join the imperial army, and in August 1683 he was admitted as a Volontär. His cousins Margrave Louis William of Baden and Elector Max Emanuel of Bavaria accorded their protection to the penniless young man, who was also forced to beg the head of the house of Savoy, Duke Victor Amadeus II, for support.

Circle of Friends

Eugene’s circle of friends in Vienna included the emperor’s personal physician and prefect of the court library, Pius Nicolaus Garelli, the imperial court librarian and director of the collection of antiquities and coin cabinet, Johann Benedikt Gentilotti von Engelsbrunn, the draftsman and archaeologist Daniel Anton Bertoli, and the jurist and historian Pietro Giannone from Naples. The agents and intermediaries for his collections of art and books included the French church historian Jacques Bassenge de Beauval, his Swiss son-in-law Henri de la Sarraz, who, from the Netherlands, did the preliminary work for Eugene together with the imperial envoy in The Hague, Baron Arnold von Heems, the Portuguese scholar Marcus de Fonseca in Paris, the bookseller Johann Philipp Hoffmann and Charles Joseph Palm in London; in addition the Roman scholar Cardinal Alessandro Albani, appointed papal nuncio in Vienna in 1720, Domenico Passionei, papal nuncio in Vienna from 1731. Eugene’s adjutant and adviser Baron Wilhelm von Hohendorf, who died already in 1719, himself left a significant collection of books.

At the end of his life, Frederick the Great described Prince Eugene as the greatest war hero of our century, the favorite son of Mars and Minerva. In his political testament, he called Eugene the actual emperor, as the Atlas of the Austrian monarchy. He was purported to have been the richest man on earth.

The most important individual in the early stages of the settlement of the Banat was Count Claudius Florimund Mercy, a native of Lorraine in the service of Austria, later to be called the ‘Father of the Banat’. Named on 1 November 1716 as Military and Civil Governor of the region by Prince Eugene, Mercy was entrusted with the reconstruction of the territory, ravaged after decades of war.

Count Claudius Florimund Mercy called the area ‘a Land without Lords and rulers, in which everything is pures camerale’

Mercy was given free hand to plan and organise the colonisation of the Banat. Thought highly of by both the Emperor Charles VI and Prince Eugene, he was an obvious choice as first Governor General of the newly conquered Banat, being entrusted with the economic, social and structural rehabilitation and development of the new territory, as well as its repopulation.

It is even possible to speculate on the strategic choice of village location in the Banat: there appears to have been a deliberate plan to favour and protect those villages established by Mercy in his private estates.

One change did occur under the Mercy regime after 1718. All subsequent settlement attempts during the reign of Charles VI were state-sponsored and state-controlled. Private settlement continued on privately owned land in the Batschka and in other regions of Hungary, but settlement in the Banat was to be different.

Following Mercy’s return from campaigns in Sicily in the summer of 1721, the organisation of full settlement could be undertaken. It was planned in this initial plantation to settle the areas of Jarmata, Neu-Arad, Werschetz, Orawitza and Alt-Moldova with subjects of the Empire

Securing the status quo was the highest aim for the Emperor at the turn of the 18th century; indeed, it is obvious from initial moves made in the last decade of the 17th century that security,
through the planting of loyal colonists, and not agriculture, was the primary strategic motive behind colonisation drives

Kuzniar “Prince Eugene of Savoy, the homosexual commander of the victorious Hapsburg armies ”
Rossler “wife in all but law and children”

From 1717-1780, 10,000kg of gold came to the Hapsburg treasury from Transylvania.

Abraham in the History of Austria

God called Abraham to go to Canaan in the calendar year 1942-1941 when Abraham was 75 (Gen. 12:1-5). But what was happening to Abraham prior to this crucial juncture in his life? The Bible does not tell us. But it does not need to for other historical sources do. The ancient “Austrian Chronicles” and Josephus’ “Antiquities” provides us with revealing facts about the significant, tragic, and wild adventures Abraham endured prior to the year 1942-1941!

Ancient history reveals the story behind the story of Gen. 11:28 — why Haran died prematurely. It relates that Abraham was forced to flee to Europe !
Assyrian Persecution
Recall the significant fact that Horus, after killing Semiramis in 2006, was the chief ruler of Assyria till his death in 1968. During those years he waged many successful battles as he expanded the empire.

This Assyrian expansion would inevitably have an effect upon the life of Abraham because he lived in Mesopotamia (a key district of Assyrian control), and was 49 or 50 years old before Horus died! History supports this deduction! Jewish and Arabic tradition tell us that Abraham, in his early years, was persecuted by Horus!

This is all too logical. Horus and the Assyrian Empire of that day were Satan’s instruments for world-domination. Satan wanted to stamp out all knowledge of God and truth in the world. What little truth remained was preserved in the family of Abraham as well as among the followers of the aging Shem and Heber. If Satan could get rid of Abraham and the rest of the family of Terah, God’s chosen line of people would have been eliminated and the light of truth extinguished from the world.

It almost happened. After the death of Horus, the persecution persisted almost continuously. The Assyrians were gaining control of the world. And like good Assyrians do, they believed in one government and one religion for all. They were imposing one false religion upon everyone.

The Austrian Chronicle
An amazing document reveals the interesting events of Abraham’s life before his call. It is the fascinating old World record, the Austrian Chronicle . This ancient record, just one volume out of a great and monumental German work of over one hundred volumes, preserves the history of the Danubian Valley — the area of Austria, Hungary, Bohemia, Bavaria , and neighboring regions. Written in German, it has never been translated into English. A number of copies of the Chronicle are scattered throughout Europe. One copy found its way to the research library of the University of California at Los Angeles. It was completed in the early 1400’s A.D. The last entry is dated 1404.

The Austrian Chronicle begins its consecutive history with a man of princely birth — none other than the patriarch Abraham. It is most unique that an ancient Austrian historical record should begin its list of rulers with a Hebrew name! Yet, apparently, the compilers of this record, who did their work in the 15th century, did not even realize this was the great Biblical patriarch. At least this record nowhere states that this was the Abraham of the Bible. And yet this could be no one else because, when the chronology of the Chronicle is matched with the story of Abraham in the Bible, all the dates fit exactly. There are no conflicts; the story is harmonious in every detail.

The Chronicle states that Abraham was born in an area of Mesopotamia called Aligemorum which was under the jurisdiction of the Assyrian Count Sattan, “Aligemorum” is the Latin name of a district which is now impossible to locate by any contemporary records. Several other geographical names in the Chronicle are unknown at present. Nevertheless, this district of Assyria encompassed the area of Ur of the Chaldees where Abraham was born.
Susanna
The Chronicle states that, quite a few years later, Abraham “took to wife Susanna from the land of Samamorum …” Who was this Susanna? First of all it should again be noted that “Susanna,” like Abraham is another Hebrew name in an Austrian historical record!

The Bible nowhere names Susanna directly. Yet it does mention her indirectly in Gen. 25:6 where it is recorded that Abraham sent his concubines — plural, more than one — away along with their sons, an event which occurred in 1914 when Isaac was weaned at the age of two (see Josephus). The point to consider at this juncture is the fact that the Bible speaks of only one concubine and one son, Hagar and Ishmael. Yet this verse reveals that there had been more than the one expressly named in the Bible. The Austrian Chronicle names the other one — Susanna!

The Austrian Chronicle calls Susanna a wife — the Bible uses the expression concubine. Sarah was Abraham’s legitimate wife. The individual through whom God wanted the chosen seed to come. Susanna was a secondary wife or concubine.

Though there is no record of when these unions took place, there is no reason why Abraham could not have married Sarah first and then taken Susanna several years later after the discovery that Sarah was barren (Gen. 11:30). Sarah died at the age of 127 (Gen. 23:1-2). Gen. 17:17 states that she was about ten years younger than Abraham.

The reason the Austrian Chronicle mentions only Abraham and Susanna, and nothing about Sarah, Hagar, Isaac, and Ishmael is that it is concerned only with the princely line of Austria which they originated! Abraham’s life apart from the history of Austria is completely left out of the account.

Diodorus of Sicily gives a helpful insight into who Susanna actually was. He records that Horus had a half-sister named “Sosannes.” Sosannes is simply the Greek form of Susanna! She was of Assyrian royalty. Susanna and Horus had the same father but not the same mother. Semiramis was the mother of Horus. The mother of Susanna is unknown, but, the father was Ninus II. A son of Asshur and a king in early Assyrian history. He ruled 2100-2048.

Susanna, then, was from the royal line of Assyria. Why should Abraham choose someone with this type of background? He too was heir to royalty and rulership. Genesis 23:6 describes him as a “mighty prince.” And it will be made plain shortly that he has legal heir to a vast realm which he had to be willing to forsake. Thus it is only logical that royalty choose royalty. Just prior to 1944 Abraham had a son by Susanna whose name was Achaim. From him, after 1895, the royal line of Austria continued!
Abraham Flees
Recall that Abraham. Had been subjected to persecution from the Assyrians even before the death of Horus in 1968. In 1944 this oppression became extremely serious. The Austrian Chronicle records that “Abraham of Temonaria and Count Sattan of Aligemorum had war with each other, until Abraham was driven from the land in poverty.” Abraham had to leave so suddenly he was forced to let his family and belongings remain behind.

Count Sattan was a lesser Assyrian ruler who had jurisdiction of a district in Mesopotamia near where Abraham lived. He probably took his orders from Arioch, king of Assur, the son of Horus. Arioch ruled 1968-1938. More will be said about him in relation to Genesis 14. Interestingly enough, the name “Satan — “Sattan” with one “t” removed — is still found among the princely line in the regions of Austria and Bavaria to this very day.

It was in this war that Abraham’s older brother, Haran — next in line of patriarchal succession — WAS SLAIN! This is actually the significant factor which explains what is recorded in verse 28 of Genesis 11: “and Haran died before his father Terah … in Ur of the Chaldees.” Terah was an old man at this point — yet Haran died prematurely when he should have easily outlived his father. The original Hebrew for the verb “died” may be translated “fell.” Thus, “Haran fell before his father” — a definite implication that he was killed. The Bible records what the Austrian Chronicle makes plain: Haran was slain as a result of persecution upon the family of Terah!

Notice what happened to the individuals in this family. Terah was an old man and apparently the Assyrian persecutors did not think important to bother with him. Haran, however, the oldest son, resisted and lost his life as a result. Nahor, on the other hand, must have compromised, lived in the world, and adapted false religion. (Note that two generations later Rachel, a descendant of Nahor, had household gods. Gen. 31:19) Abraham, next in line after Haran, took the coward’s way out. He fled!

For all his positive traits of character, Abraham also had some negative ones. He was often fearful as the Bible states in later episodes in his life. He was a coward at heart. It is interesting to notice this human element. But God wanted a fearful man so he could put him through experiences that would turn his fear to faith. If Abraham had not been of this type he would not have learned to develop faith and complete trust in God. Because Abraham did not have faith in himself, he was able to build faith in God.
To the Danube River Valley
Abraham fled at the time of Haran’s death. Where did he go? The Austrian Chronicle continues the story: he was driven our of Count Sattan’s realm and fled to the Danube river valley in 1944. There he built a home and settled until the death of Count Sattan. Why did Abraham go to the Danube?

The most ancient Greek name for the Danube river was the River Noe. “Noe” is the Greek form of the Hebrew Noah. Of course! Noah, in his vast patriarchal duties in the centuries after the Flood, had been to this area of Europe more than once. Abraham, the descendant of Noah knew of this region before he fled there. It as very probable that he learned of it through Shem. Shem, who did not die until 1867 late in the life of Abraham, inevitably must have met with Haran, Abraham, and the family of Terah on more than one occasion. Being a faithful and responsible individual, Shem would have been in contact with those in direct line of succession after him. It is of great significance that the children of Heber through Joktan settled on the Danube. Therefore this region may certainly be classified as a Hebrew area.

The Austrian Chronicle lists Abraham as the first ruler of Austria and assigns him a 30-year rulership beginning in 1944. This great Biblical patriarch was actually the first “Archduke” of Austria — the cultural center of Europe — believe it or not! The truth of history, when finally recovered, is more fascinating than any tale of fiction could ever be! The end of those 30 years brings us down to the year 1914. The significance of the date 1914 will be discussed next.
Completing the Story of Abraham and Austria
Abraham, according to the Chronicle, remained on the Danube for about three years until the death of Count Sattan. This brings the story down to the year 1914. At this point Abraham returned to Mesopotamia to get Susanna and Achaim with the intention of taking them back with him to the Danube valley where he had established a home. (The account in the Chronicle does not mention the rest of the family of Abraham because it is concerned only with the royal line of Austria.) However, this is the point at which Genesis 12 comes into the story. God now called Abraham and directed him toward Canaan instead.

Notice what God said to Abraham in Gen. 12:1: “get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house (Ur of Chaldees), unto a land that I will shew thee.” With what we know from Austrian history, God, in effect, was actually telling Abraham: “You’ll have to change your plans, Abraham. I want you to go south to a land that I will show you, not north to the Danube where you want to migrate, settle and build!”

Actually this is only part of the significance behind the call of Abraham. The full meaning of this re-direction of the life of Abraham by God will be presented at a more opportune place in the story. First, the movements of Abraham Susanna and Achaim must be completed.

The ancient Chronicle relates that Abraham took Susanna and Achaim to the land of Judeisapta — the Jews land.” This of course, the Bible makes plain in Genesis 12, was Palestine. But the authors and copiers of this ancient record did not realize this was the Abraham of the Bible. They assumed Judeisapta meant the Danube Valley because many Jews settled there after 710 B.C. (The story is its II Kings 18, II Chronicle 32, and Isaiah 36. Sennacherib, king of Assyria, conquered all the fortified cities of Judah. These Jews were carried captive by the Assyrians and deported to the Danubian region of Europe. Central Europe was a part of the expanding Assyrian Empire before and after 700 B.C.!

To preserve the continuity of the Austrian material it is necessary to leap ahead in the story to the year 1914. Abraham is given 30 years in the princely line of Austria according to the listing in the Austrian Chronicle — the years 1944 to 1914. Why is Abraham’s reign terminated in 1914? The answer to this question provides proof that the Abraham of the Bible and the Abraham of the Chronicle are one and the same person.

At this point Genesis 25:6 requires more detailed study. This verse tells us that, at a certain time, Abraham sent “the sons of the concubines — and the concubines themselves as well — “away from Isaac his son.” This event is actually out of time sequence in the chapter in which it is found. This account is actually a reference back to Genesis 21. Genesis 21:8-14 tells us that when Isaac was weaned (at the age of two according to Josephus) Sarah wanted Hagar and Ishmael sent away. Josephus (Antiquities IV, XII, 3) tells us that Sarah was afraid Ishmael would harm Isaac since Ishmael was older by 13 years. As Gen. 25:6 shows by the plural “sons of the concubines” this was also the time when Susanna and Achaim were sent away.

Isaac was born when Abraham was 100 (Gen. 21:5). This is the date 1916. Two years later, Isaac was weaned — the year 1914. This is when Abraham sent the concubines and their sons away. Susanna and Achaim went out of Abraham’s life in 1914 and this is exactly the date when Abraham’s years as a prince in the line of Austria are terminated. The chronology of the Bible and of ancient Austria match perfectly.

The departure of Susanna and her son was a significant event. As far as the history of Austria is concerned, it marks the end of the part Abraham played in the royal family of Austria. By this act Abraham repudiated his claim to Austrian royalty. He gave up totally any right to Austrian or Danubian rulership. This is reflected as his ending date of 1914 in the Austrian Chronicle.
The Early Cultures of Austria
There is one last significant point in Gen. 25:6. The words “eastward, unto the east country” definitely imply that Susanna and Achaim first went to Assyria before journeying back to the region of the Danube. Other ancient historical sources reveal that the Danubian Valley, by this time, was under Assyrian hegemony.

In the years 1944-41. During his three year stay after fleeing Sattan, Abraham established a settlement on the Danube. It was to this colony that Susanna and Achaim returned. Here they established Austrian rulership.

The next ruler after Abraham in the Austrian Chronicle is Susanna herself. She ruled the family for 19 years, 1914-1895. Achaim did not take over governmental authority until a later time because he was still relatively young for this responsibility. This fact indicates that Achaim was born just prior to 1444 when Abraham was forced to flee.

Achaim took the reins of government and ruled for 45 years to 1850. He married a Hungarian Countess and they had four children. From this family the royal line of Austria continued. (The list of rulers to 1040 A.D. is given in Dr. Hoeh’ s Compendium, Vol. II.) The family of Susanna was not the first to settle in the Danube region of eastern Europe — but it did become the dominant on. Those who descended from Abraham and Susanna and their son Achaim, became the ruling family of this part of ancient Europe.

What other peoples were in this region? First of all there were Indians (some of whom later migrated to the new world — American Indians) because southeastern Europe borders on Thrace and Thrace was the home of the of the Red Men. Germans (Assyrians) were also living here because they had migrated years before from Mesopotamia. Undoubtedly Slavs had come at an earlier time, people who are still there to this very day. The family of Abraham thus came to rule over a mixture of people. This, then, was actually nothing less than the first Austrian-Hungarian Empire. The Austro-Hungarian Empire in modern history always enveloped a conglomeration of peoples. Its ancient counterpart was no different.

In the history of central Europe, Germany proper has been called the Western Reich (empire or kingdom) while Austria has been termed the Eastern Reich. There has always been a division between the two and yet there has also been unity. The culture of Austria has always been distinct from that of Germany. The two may be characterized this way: the Austrians differ from the Germans in much the same way the English do (when speaking in terms of modern elements of culture). That is, the Austrians drink tea not coffee. Vienna is famous for concert halls, Munich abounds in beer Halls. The great classical music of Austria contrasts with the polkas of Germany.

In other words the Austrian people, both ancient and modern, reflect the influence of Abraham through Susanna and Achaim. They are a mixed population — especially the ruling classes — coming from Shem in two lines. There is the Assyrian part originating with Susanna on the one side. And then there is the Hebrew part stemming from Heber through Abraham. Undoubtedly the refinement in Danubian culture in ancient times was due to the influence of Abraham. An influence which has endured to our day!

A final significant point: there is no history of the Danubian region of Europe before the time of Abraham. When history, as recorded in the Austrian Chronicle, does open up to shed light on this region, a unique refined culture is in existence. And the first ruler, at this same general time, is none other than Abraham. In short. Austria, as a historical and cultural entity, originated with Abraham. This influence has carried forward through Susanna and the subsequent family of Achaim.

The factor to bear is mind, then, is that the name of Abraham does appear in an ancient historical source outsize of the Bible — the history of Austria. In fact, the history of Austria begins with Abraham. Again, history proves the Bible true. Once more our reading of the Biblical account takes on rich new meaning.

What was Abraham before God intervened directly in his life? It is thrilling to realize that now, at least in part, we can now the answer to this intriguing question!

Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all kind of riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead they traded in thy fairs. Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, were thy merchants: they traded the persons of men and vessels of brass in thy market. They of the house of Togarmah traded in thy fairs with horses and horsemen and mules.

The men of Dedan were thy merchants; many isles were the merchandise of thine hand: they brought thee for a present horns of ivory and ebony. Syria was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of the wares of thy making: they occupied in thy fairs with emeralds, purple, and broidered work, and fine linen, and coral, and agate.

Judah, and the land of Israel, they were thy merchants: they traded in thy market wheat of Minnith, and Pannag, and honey, and oil, and balm. Damascus was thy merchant in the multitude of the wares of thy making, for the multitude of all riches; in the wine of Helbon, and white wool. Dan also and Javan going to and fro occupied in thy fairs: bright iron, cassia, and calamus were in thy market.

Dedan was thy merchant in precious clothes for chariots. Arabia, and all the princes of Kedar, they occupied with thee, in lambs, in rams, and goats: in these were they thy merchants. The merchants of Sheba and Raamah, they were thy merchants: they occupied in thy fairs with chief of all spices, and with all precious stones and gold.

Haran, and Canneh and Eden the merchants of Sheba, Asshur, and Chilmad were thy merchants. These were thy merchants in all sorts of things, in blue clothes, and broidered work, and in chests of rich apparel, bound with cords, and made of cedar, among thy merchandise. The ships of Tarshish did sing of thee in thy market: and thou wast replenished, and made very glorious in the midst of the seas.

Shu has passed into Hebrew in his proper character of gatekeeper. ‘The gate of the Tser, it is the gate of the transit of Shu. There is the north gate, it is the gate of the doorway; or they are the doors through which his father Tum goes forth to the eastern horizon of the heaven (saying) to those who belong to his race.'[53] Shuar (רעוש) is the typical porter or gatekeeper[54], who as Kore was Shuar towards the [p.238] east, identical in position with Shu-Anhar, who kept the gate through which the sun went to the eastern horizon. Shu is the personified bringer, the turner, turner-back, and returner, the goer to and fro, all of which meanings are found in the Hebrew בוש shukal is the lion, the fierce lion. Shual, the underworld, grave, pit, hell, the Ethiopic siōl, is the nocturnal heaven supported on his head by Shu, as the starry light of it, its light-in-shade. This is also the הלמש or sunken land, the underworld that Shu and Joshua led up from. The gorge of Shu is said to be the dwelling of Neith; he is hidden in the way of the gorge[55]. Shu is called the En-pe or Na-pe, rendered by Birch the ‘leader of heaven.'[56] As Anhar is the one who ascends, and na means to descend, the en-pe is further the leader of heaven who descends, as indicated by the stooping position of Shu, the bearer of the sun, and its conductor in the descent from the solstitial height. Shu is specially portrayed in the attitude and act of holding up his hands aloft and bearing the disk of the sun above his head. A hieroglyphic legend describes him on the abime of the heaven, on the steps of the inhabitants of Smen, where he ‘afflicts the race of the wicked on the steps of the residents in Smen.’ In the same text he is identified with Ra and Atum[57]. This portrait of Shu with hands uplifted was so well known that in the porcelain figures the modellers have frequently figured him with hands elevated and the solar disk omitted.i Shu holding his hands aloft and supporting the sun, which is saluted by eight cynocephali, typical of the region of Smen, as he stands on the steps of the residents in Smen, the region of preparation, purification, establishing the son in place of the father, Shu-Anhar instead of Ma-Shu, is the original of Moses on the top of the hill in Rephidim, holding up his hands until sunset whilst Joshua discomfited Amalek in the war that went on for ever.

There is an Egyptian version of the myth, in which the woman is the subduer of the evil one. Isis is depicted in the act of piercing the head of a serpent. In other pictures it is the crocodile, Shesh, whose head is being speared, as in the vignettes to the Ritual, and according to Diodorus it was Isis who subdued Typhon at the battle in An (Ant or Antaeus) in the north

The Akar, in Egyptian as well as Hebrew, is the Hades, the lower region, left side, hinder part, west and north. The Au-kar is the nether place.

Shu-si-Ra. He had a dual solstitial function earlier than that of ruler of the equinox, and he can be identified astronomically as the god of the north who rises figuratively under the lion and is a ruler of the south, the two characters corresponding to the upper and lower lands and heavens.

When the sun was passing through the sign of Aquarius the constellation Kepheus, or Regulus, arose with his consort, Cassiopeia, queen of Ethiopia, as the attendant of the sun through the abyss. The sun is said to be ‘forced along by the conducting of Shu.'[100] ‘Shu is the conqueror of the world in Suten-khen’ the celestial [p.246] Bubastis, the royal birthplace, and the great chief in An, another name of the solar birthplace.

In the lower heaven was the place of judgment in the northern quarter, which included the sea-goat, waterer, and fishes. And of Gad it is said he provided the first part for himself; a portion of the lawgiver, or ruler of the north, that is, Gad occupied the first part of the northern quarter, the first of the water signs. The stars of Gad are still found in Capricorn, the sign called Gadia by the Chaldeans, Gadi by the Syrians, Giedi by the Arabians.

Shu is the Egyptian word for the division of land; the Shut or Sheft being a section.

The sign of Gad is the Goat, and in that was in the supposed burial-place of Moses, identifiable by means of Mount Nebo in the land of Gad. Nebo is in the plains of Moab. Mu-ab, as Egyptian, reads, ‘opposite the water.’ The place was opposite the water which Moses did not cross. He was buried on the boundary. He entered the mouth of the void, the bahu, or peh of the north, as the sun entered the peh or khepsh, carried on the head of Anhar, the Akar or pit, said to have been dug by Moses.

The arrow is still another symbol of Shu; one of its names is the kesr, the turner-back, and it keeps its character in the Ute myth. Also the Divine Tear is an Egyptian type of creative power.

The bow of Seb is the circle of time, of starry time. The first drawer of this bow, and maker of the earliest circle of time, was the Great Bear.Also, the bow identifies the lion-god Shu. ‘I am the lion-god coming forth with a bow; what I have shot at is the eye of Horus.

The spies who bring back with them the giant bunch of grapes and other fruit report that the cities of the children of Anak were huge and walled round. ‘And they brought up an evil report of the land, saying, It is a land which eateth up the inhabitants thereof; and there we saw the sons of Anak which come of the giants, and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight.'[154]

This region of things gigantic may be found in the mystical abodes [p.257] through which the soul has to pass on its way to the world of light and blessedness. The second abode is called, ‘Greatest of possessions in the fields of the Aahru. Its wall is of earth. The height of its corn is seven cubits, the ears are twin, its stalks are three cubits (said) by the spirits seven (cubits) in length.’ The spirits also are said to be seven cubits in stature, the height of the corn[155]. Of the fifth abode it is said, ‘Hail, abode of the spirits, through which there is no passage. The spirits belonging to it are seven cubits long in their thighs. They live as wretched shades.’ ‘Oh, this abode of the spirits. Oh, ye spirits belonging to them, open your road. I have ordered it is said by Osiris, the living lord, Osiris in his illumination. If any condemned spirit sets his mouth against me, or any male or female devil comes to me on that day, he falls at the block.’ The monsters are here called spirits, but the word akh, meaning how great, would equally render giants, and these are nearly a cubit longer in their thighs alone than the Hebrew giant[156]. Indeed in chapter 109 the inhabitants are eight cubits in height[157]. The passage through the Hades in the eleventh abode is described as the belly of hell. ‘There is neither coming out of nor going into it, on account of the greatness of the terror of passing him who is in it.’ That is the devouring demon, the Am-Moloch. The same fear is reflected in the faces of the spies from the land of giants; they had seen the same sight. The Moabites called the giants who dwelt there in times past Ammis[158]. The Am-am in Egyptian are the devourers. Am is the male devourer, Am-t the female devourer in the Ritual.

Diodorus relates that after the death of Osiris, caused by Typhon at the autumn equinox, Typhon was defeated by Horus and his mother Isis, on the Arabian side of the river Nile at a spot near Antaeus[165]. This city of Antaeopolis, where stood a temple on the bank of the Nile, was called Gau or Ko, i.e., literally Iaru-Ko. The original of both was in the heavens, and the celestial river was made mundane in the Egyptain Aru and the Jordan. Also, the region of Ai, and Ben-Ben is a place in the celestial circle, referred to in the Magical Texts, the region where Atum sits in his glory, in the pyramidion, at the apex of his power, after the crossing of the waters[166]. It was the work of Shu, the bringer, to lead up the sun and land him on the eastern horizon, after the great conflict in the valley with the swarming powers of darkness.

In the battle of Rephidim we have a rendering of the same original myth as that from which the Greeks drew their story of Hercules and Atlas. When Hercules, in quest of the golden apples of the Hesperides, had come to the spot where Prometheus lay chained, and had shot the eagle that preyed on his liver, that is, when the sun entered the sign of the Waterman, Prometheus, out of gratitude, warned him not to go himself to fetch the golden apples in the keeping of the polar dragon, but to persuade Atlas, the keeper of the pillars which hold heaven and earth asunder (as Homer calls him[195]), to go instead. Atlas consents, and sallies forth to assail the dragon of darkness; meanwhile Hercules takes his stand in the place of Atlas, and supports the heaven himself. Atlas succeeds; he wins the apples, and on coming back to Hercules refuses to take back the burden of the sky upon himself again. In the Mosaic parallel Moses has come within sight of the promised land, or the Hesperides, in the keeping of the monster Amalek. He does not go himself to win the victory but sends Joshua; and whilst the battle is going on Moses takes his stand on the top of a hill and backs up Joshua, not by holding up the heavens for him, as did Hercules, but by holding up his hands; ‘and his hands were steady until the going down of the sun,’ and the perpetual battle between the Lord and Amalek was once more won. Jah had once more ‘spoken by the hand of Moses,’ as in Egypt[196]. Of course the holding up of the hands, or the heavens either, is only a figure, but the figure surely sets forth the same thing, which thing as myth was the [p.264] common property of both Jews and Ionians, from the Egyptian original of Anhar holding up his hands as supporter of the heaven.

Atlas takes his place again, and in later legend is transformed into or gives his name to a mountain in Libya. So Moses passes away, leaving no trace save the mountain in Moab, in which he was buried, with the mountain for his grave. The name of Atlas, in Egyptian At-Ras, means the chief (at) or typical supporter of the heaven. Ras, to raise up, has the propped-up heaven for determinative. The lion-gods are those who ‘do not let the heavens fall.’

Also a perfect parallel may be drawn from the Greek and Roman report and the Hebrew scriptures between Moses and Bacchus. Bacchus, like Moses, was born in Egypt. He was exposed on the Nile in an ark. Orpheus calls Bacchus Mysos, and the Greek sos renders the Egyptian Shu; thus Mysos answers to Masu, as Shu-Anhar, or as Moses. Bacchus was called Bimater; he had two mothers-his own and Thyos, his nurse. Moses had his own mother and the daughter of Pharaoh, his nurse. Bacchus, like Moses and Cepheus, was the lawgiver. Bacchus was represented with horns, as was Moses. Bacchus, like Moses, carried the rod which turned into a dragon, and with which he struck water out of the rock. Bacchus covered the Indians with darkness; Moses the Egyptians. Moses crossed the Red Sea dry-shod; Bacchus did the same at the river Orontes. A nymph of Bacchus, like Miriam, crossed the Red Sea. Jupiter commands Bacchus to go and destroy an impious people in the Indies, just as Moses is ordered to abolish the abominations of the idolatrous nations. Pan gave to Bacchus a dog as his faithful companion; in like manner Moses is accompanied by Caleb, the dog. Bacchus warred with and vanquished the giants; Moses conquered the Anakim. Bacchus is said to have married Zipporah, a name of Venus, one of the seven planets. The priest of Midian had seven daughters; Moses married one of these, whose name was Zipporah. According to Boyse On the Gods[197], Bacchus was called Jehovah-Nissi; Moses erected an altar to Jehovah-Nissi. Bacchus was divinely instructed on Mount Nyssa, whence he was named Dionysus.

Now, as before remarked, the Greeks and Hebrews did not derived their mythology and religion from each other. The cult of both was originally Ionian, Yavonian, or Kephonian. The name of the ancient mother, Kefa, is retained in Koivy, a name of the Hellenistic languages. But they derived from one common original in Egypt. Bacchus and Moses are but two other forms of Shu-Anhar. These two lines are equal to each other, because each is equal to a third-the base of a triangle only to be found in Egypt.

Jamshid is described by Persian scholars as ascending the chariot or carriage on the new day of Naurîz to succeed the Sabeans and renovate the ancient religion. Jamshid is the solar god of the calendar in which the day of the new year was at the time of the spring equinox. In his epoch, we are told, the people increased so fast the earth could not contain them, therefore God commanded the earth to become thrice as large as it was before. Some maintain that Jam (like the Chinese Yu) ordered channels to be dug into which the [p.271] waters were drained. Others say this had been done by Zû[220]. Zû is probably a form of Shu, who is extant also as the German god Ziu, a name of Tiu, the Teutonic Mars, and deity of Tuesday Shu (or Bes) being the Egyptian Mars, as well as the divinity of Cepheus and Cor-Leonis.

Cepheus (Shu) is king of Ethiopia, that is Kush or Khepsh (Eg.), and it may be the name of Bacchus signifies the bak or bekh, the engendered (therefore son) of Kush, for Nyssa also represents the hinder thigh north from which Bacchus was born. Thus, Dionysus, god of the hinder-part north, would be repeated in Bacchus, the son of Kush, who went to India, Egyptian khentu, the south. Moses, not JahAdonai, was the Jewish Bacchus, and he stands behind the solar god as his companion and supporter, in the same way that Bes stands behind Horus, the child, in the monuments.

‘Prince of Ethiopia’ was a title of the repa or heir-apparent to the throne of Ra. Shu (Cepheus) was king of Ethiopia and lord of Nubia. Seb, who was his son, is characterized in the text as the veritable repa of the gods.

Horus, son of Osiris; Iu-em-hept, the son of Atum; and Khunsu, the son of Amen

In the temple of Neptune, says Pausanias, they let down a mirror which is suspended and balanced in such a manner that it may not be merged in the fountain with its anterior part, but so that the water may lightly touch its circumference

Shu, the son of Nun; Shu, the old star-god of the first time, that is the time of Kefa, the typhonian goddess of the seven stars, is translated to become the son of Ra, Hebrew Jah, the solar god. He had served Typhon (or Satan) before, hence the filthy garments; and Typhon still claims him as a servant, and contends for him with the angel, the representative of the time-cycle. Joshua’s iniquity is to pass away, and he is to be clothed anew, and be crowned with the tzniph (ףינצ); that is, to judge from the Egyptian tes, tie, coil, envelope, and neb, gold, to have a crown of gold put on his head and become the image of the crowned Cepheus (Shu) in the planisphere. Previous to this change, made visible in the extant imagery, Shu had worn on his head the khept or hinder-part of the lion, a type of Typhon, the north, the Great Bear, the motherhood.

A new temple is to be built on a fresh foundation. The ancient dwelling of divinity in the north is to be superseded; the great mount is to become the plain.

In the Hymn to Shu it is said the worship of the mortals reached Ra through the intermediation of Shu, son of Ra, lord of truths, and the precise language used is this, ‘People present him with their gifts through his own hands;'[248] Shu being the hands of the god Ra. So the worship of Jah-Adonai reaches him through the intermediation of Moses, who is the hand of the god who is said to speak by Moses, his hand[249]. In the allegory according to Zechariah, Joshua takes the place of Moses and Shu.

There is also a bringing forth of the son (the branch) in the Egyptian text. The aged sun-god says to Seb (time) ‘I cannot preserve [p.279] myself because of my old age; I send (the charge of the serpents or cycles of time) to thy son Osiris.'[250] He establishes the solar sonship in the new tabernacle of time.

Taht was created by Ra in this new adjustment, as his abode and luminary, in the inferior sky; a beautiful light to show or expose to view the evil enemy. ‘Thou art my abode, the god of my abode; behold thou shalt be called Taht, the abode of Ra, and there arose the ibis. (The stork, or chasidah, in Hebrew.) I shall give thee to raise thy hand in the presence of the gods, and there arose the two wings of the ibis of Taht.’ ‘I shall give thee to embrace the two parts of the sky, the south and the north,’ and ‘there arose the moon-crescent of Taht,'[251] and the cynocephalus. These were the two types of the returner. ‘Thou art under my dominion,’ says Ra to Taht. ‘All eyes are upon thee, and all men worship thee as a god.'[252] This is said at the making of the new covenant, to Taht, who is the guardian and scribe of the inhabitants in the northern region.

In popular mythology the Tuat was separated from the world by a range of mountains and consisted of a great valley, shut in by mountains, through which ran a river (the counterpart of the Nile, reminding one of the Jordan of the Jews and Christians), the banks of which were the abode of evil spirits and monstrous beasts. As the sun passed through the Tuat great numbers of souls were described as making their way to the boat of the sun, and those that succeeded in clinging to the boat were able to come forth into new life as the sun rose from the eastern end of the valley to usher in another day. Tuat was also depicted as the region where the soul went during night, returning to join the living on earth during the day.

Originally it was described as the abode of the night-sun, through which the sun god Ra passed during the night, only to arise renewed in the morning. “What is the Tiaou? The frequent allusion to it in the ‘Book of the Dead’ contains a mystery. Tiaou is the path of the Night Sun, the inferior hemisphere, or the infernal region of the Egyptians, placed by them on the concealed side of the moon. The human being, in their exotericism, came out from the moon (a triple mystery — astronomical, physiological, and psychical at once); he crossed the whole cycle of existence and then returned to his birth-place before issuing from it again. Thus the defunct is shown arriving in the West, receiving his judgment before Osiris, resurrecting as the god Horus, and circling round the sidereal heavens, which is an allegorical assimilation to Ra, the Sun; then having crossed the Noot (the celestial abyss), returning once more to Tiaou: an assimilation to Osiris, who, as the God of life and reproduction, inhabits the moon” (SD 1:227-8).

The Tuat was divided into twelve regions, called fields (sekhet), corresponding to the number of hours of the night; or again it was described as being composed of seven circles (arrets), each under the guardianship of a watcher. The realm of Osiris is represented as Sekhet-Aarru or -Aanre (the fields of Aanroo), which was divided into 15 Aats (houses), having 21 Pylons. One of the regions of the Tuat was known as Amenti (Egyptian Amentet, “the hidden place”]

The Egyptians believed that Shu was the second divine pharaoh, ruling after Ra. Apep’s followers, though, plotted against him and attacked the god at his palace in At Nub.

The Egyptians believed that there were also pillars to help Shu lift up the sky – these pillars were on the four cardinal points, and were known as the ‘Pillars of Shu’.

As a god of the wind, the people invoked him to give good wind to the sails of the boats. It was he who was the personification of the cold northern winds; he was the breath of life – the vital principle of all living things. His bones were thought to be clouds. He was also called to ‘lift up’ the spirits of the dead so that they might rise up to the heavens, known as the ‘light land’, reached by means of a giant ‘ladder’ that Shu was thought to hold up.

Khnum – On temple walls, he was sometimes shown as holding a jar, with the precious water flowing out of it. He was also believed to be a guardian of the waters in the underworld. ‘Father of the Fathers of the Gods and Goddesses, Lord of Created Things from Himself, Maker of Heaven and Earth and the Duat and Water and the Mountains’.

That the Allegorist made use of the designations of ancient sun-gods in the names of Ham and Shem, and although the name of Ham was of Aryan derivation and identified with Gentile religions, still the author dare not in any manner curse the representative name which was expressed in various designations of the highest Form of Being among the gods. Thus it is said that Ham was esteemed the Zeus of Greece, and Jupiter of Latium; * the appellations of Zeus Am- mon, and Jupiter Am-mon, also corresponding with the Egyptian Ham-mon or Am-mon Ra; the Egyptians having at an early date conjoined the name of Am-mon with that of Ra, the physical sun, as the source of light and life, the lord of existence and supporter of all things. In this character the Canaanites also addressed the sun as Baal-Ham-mon, a form of symbolism of the luminary, representing the idea of life and light, in contrast with the personification and worship of Baal Shem-esh, as the sun’s orb. This difference may serve to explain why the Allegorist dare not curse Ham, but especially blessed the God of Shem, saying, ” Blessed be the Lord God of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant:” thus marking the different persons of the sun-god, and the different sects of the worshippers.
The worship of the sun-god Shem was widely represented among the Shemitic peoples, who, it is said, “lifted up their hands to Baal-Samen, the Lord of heaven, under which title they honored the sun.” The god Shem, under another form, may be identified with the Babylonian Samas, who “caused it to rain from heaven heavily,” and thus made the deluge. Therefore, to conform with the ancient traditions of Shemitic worship, the Allegorist blessed the Lord God of Shem, and according to ancient custom gave the names of the gods, to distinguish their worshippers; just as “the Egyptian king, Seti I (Sethos), who with his race worshipped foreign gods, and at the head of them all, the Canaanitish Baal-Sutekh or Set, after whose name his father, Ramses I, had called him Seti, that is, the follower of Set” * (Seth).

In this connection the words attributed to Joshua, the successor of Moses, are easily understood, for he is represented as saying to the Israelites (Joshua xxiv: 14), “Put away the gods which your fathers served on the other side of the flood, and in Egypt; and serve ye the Lord.”

The children of Israel substituted, however, the worship of the Shemitic Baal; for it is farther represented that (Judges ii: 10, 13) “when the generation” of Moses and Joshua, ” were gathered to their fathers: and there arose another generation after them; they forsook the Lord and served Baal and Ashtaroth ” (the Sun and Moon).

Bear – Artemis, Zeus, Callisto, Dea Artia, Thor, Odin, Freya, and Norse lunar water goddesses.
Bee – Bridgid, Ra, Vishnu, Krishna, Indra, Aphrodite, Demeter, Cybele, Artemis, Diana, Rhea, Zues, Dionysus, Pan and Priapus.
Dog – Gula, Belit-ili, Astarte, Ashtoreth, Amenti, Cybelle, Artemis, Diana, Hecate, Celtice Mother Goddesses, Arawn, Nodens, Hel, Odin, Saramam, moon goddesses
Dragon – Mithras, Horus, Apollo, Indra, Aruna and Soma.
Gryphon – Montu, Nemesis and Apollo.
Horse – Epona, Kwannon, Anahita, Vesta, Apollo, Mithras, Poseidon, Surya, Odin, Freya, Rhiannon, Leukippe, Waelsi and Volos.
Snake – Isis, Thoth, Apep, Hermes, Sabazius, Bel, Ra, Ahriamn, Mithras, Kadi, Kadru, Ninhursag, Atargatis, Syria, Asclepias, Hygeia, Persephone, Apollo, Hera, Athene, Hecate, Gaea
Swan – Apollo, Aphrodite, the Muses, Venus, Zeus, Aphrodite, Sarasvati, Brahma and Devi.
Wolve – Wepwawet, Zeus Lycaeus, Apollo, Ares, Mars, Silvanus, Cernunnos and Odin.
Hawk – Horus, Ptah, Rehu, Seker, Amenti, Apollo, Artemis, INdra, Ahura Mazda, and Mithras.
Eagle – Ninurta, Marduk, Asshur, Pan, Zeus, Indra, Vishnu, Mithras and Odin.
Falcon – Horus, Circe, Ra, Menthu, Freya and Odin.
Frog – Heket, Isis, Hathor, Ch’ing-Wa Sheng, Aphrodite, Sabazius and Ahriman.

“The hidden Circle of Amentet, through which this great god travelleth and taketh up his place in the Tuat. If these things be made with their names after the manner of this figure which is depicted at the east of the hidden house of the Tuat, and if a man knoweth their names whilst he is upon earth, and knoweth their places in Amenti, [he shall attain to] his own place in the Tuat, and he shall stand up in all places which belong to the gods whose voices (or, words) are maat, even as the divine sovereign chiefs (tchatcha) of Ra, and the mighty ones of the palace, and [this knowledge] shall be of benefit to him upon earth.”

I am the Egg which dwelt in the Great Cackler. I keep ward over that great place which Keb hath proclaimed upon earth. I live; it liveth. I grow up, I live, I snuff the air. I am Utcha-aab. I go round about his egg [to protect it]. I have thwarted the moment of Set. Hail, Sweet one of the Two Lands! Hail, dweller in the tchefa food! Hail, dweller in the lapis-lazuli! Watch ye over him that is in his cradle, the Babe when he cometh forth to you.

Hail, thou God Temu, grant thou unto me the sweet breath which dwelleth in thy nostrils! I am the Egg which is in Kenken-ur (the Great Cackler), and I watch and guard that mighty thing which hath come into being, wherewith the god Keb hath opened the earth. I live; it liveth; I grow, I live, I snuff the air. I am the god Utcha-aabet, and I go about his egg. I shine at the moment of the mighty of strength, Suti. Hail, thou who makest sweet the time of the Two Lands! Hail, dweller among the celestial food. Hail, dweller among the beings of blue (lapis-lazuli), watch ye to protect him that is in his nest, the Child who cometh forth to you.

I, even I, am he who cometh forth from the god Keb. The water- flood is given to him, he hath become the master thereof in the form of Hapi. I, the am khent Nefer-uben-f, open the doors of heaven. Thoth hath opened to me the doors of Qebh. Lo, Hepi Hepi, the two sons of the Sky, mighty in splendour, grant ye that I may be master over the water, even as Set had dominion over his evil power on the day of the storming of the Two Lands.

The god of the Celestial Ocean draweth from thee his waters. Thou sendest forth the north wind at eventide, and breath from thy nostrils to the satisfaction of thy heart. Thy heart reneweth its youth, thou producest the…. The stars in the celestial heights are obedient unto thee, and the great doors of the sky open themselves before thee. Thou art he to whom praises are ascribed in the southern heaven, and thanks are given for thee in the northern heaven. The imperishable stars are under thy supervision, and the stars which never set are thy thrones.

What is this ? “It is the purification [of Osiris] on the day of his birth. “I am purified in my great double nest which is in Hensu on the day of the offerings of the followers of the Great God who dwelleth therein.” What is the “great double nest”? “The name of one nest is ‘Millions of years,’ and ‘Great Green [Sea]’ is the name of the other, that is to say ‘Lake of Natron’ and ‘Lake of Salt.’ “Others, however, say the name of the one is ‘Guide of Millions of Years,’ and that ‘Great Green Lake’ is name of the other. Yet others say that ‘Begetter of Millions of Years’ is the name of one, and ‘Great Green Lake’ is the name of the other.

Now, as concerning the Great God who dwelleth therein, it is Ra himself. “I pass over the way, I know the head of the Island of Maati.” What is this? “It is Ra-stau, that is to say, it is the gate to the South of Nerutef, and it is the Northern Gate of the Domain (Tomb of the god). “Now, as concerning the Island of Maati, it is Abtu. “Others, however, say that it is the way by which Father Tem travelleth when he goeth forth to Sekhet-Aaru, [the place] which produceth the food and sustenance of the gods who are [in] their shrines. “Now the Gate Tchesert is the Gate of the Pillars of Shu, that is to say, the Northern Gate of the Tuat. “Others, however, say that the Gate of Tchesert is the two leaves of the door through which the god Tem passeth when he goeth forth to the eastern horizon of the sky. “O ye gods who are in the presence [of Osiris], grant to me your arms, for I am the god who shall come into being among you.” Who are these gods? “They are the drops of blood which came forth from the phallus of Ra when he went forth to perform his own mutilitation. These drops of blood sprang into being under the forms of the gods Hu and Sa, who are in the bodyguard of Ra, and who accompany the god Tem daily and every day. “I, Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, have filled for thee the utchat (the Eye of Ra, or of Horus), when it had suffered extinction on the day of the combat of the Two Fighters (Horus and Set).” What was this combat? It was the combat which took place on the day when Horus fought with Set, during which Set threw filth in the face of Horus, and Horus crushed the genitals of Set. The filling of the utchat Thoth performed with his own fingers. “I remove the thunder-cloud from the sky when there is a storm with thunder and lightning therein.” What is this? “This storm was the raging of Ra at the thunder-cloud which [Set] sent forth against the Right Eye of Ra (the Sun). Thoth removed the thunder-cloud from the Eye of Ra, and brought back the Eye living, healthy, sound, and with no defect in it to its owner. “Others, however, say that the thunder-cloud is caused by sickness in the Eye of Ra, which weepeth for its companion Eye (the Moon); at this time Thoth cleanseth the Right Eye of Ra. “I behold Ra who was born yesterday from the thighs of the goddess Mehurt; his strength is my strength, and my strength is his strength.” Who is this? “Mehurt is the great Celestial Water, but others say that Mehurt is the image of the Eye of Ra at dawn at his birth daily. “[Others, however, say that] Mehurt is the utchat of Ra. “Now Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, is a very great one among the gods who are in the following of Horus; they say that he is the prince who loveth his lord.” Who are the gods who are in the train of Horus? “[They are] Kesta, Hapi, Taumutef, and Qebhsenuf. “Homage to you, O ye lords of right and truth, ye sovereign princes (Tchatcha) who [stand] round about Osiris, who do away utterly sins and offences, and who are in the following of the goddess Hetepsekhus, grant ye that I may come unto you. Destroy ye all the faults which are within me, even as ye did for the Seven Spirits who are among the followers of their lord Sepa. Anpu (Anubis) appointed to them their places on the day [when he said unto them], “Come ye hither.” Who are the “lords of right and truth”? “The lords of right and truth are Thoth and Astes, the Lord of Amentet. “The Tchatcha round about Osiris are Kesta, Hapi, Tuamutef, and Qebhsenuf, and they are also round about the Constellation of the Thigh (the Great Bear), in the northern sky.

“I am the Cat which fought near the Persea Tree in Anu on the night when the foes of Neb-er-tcher were destroyed.” Who is this Cat? “This male Cat is Ra himself, and he was called ‘Mau’ because of the speech of the god Sa, who said concerning him: ‘He is like (mau) unto that which he hath made’; therefore, did the name of Ra become ‘Mau.’ “Others, however, say that the male Cat is the god Shu, who made over the possessions of Keb to Osiris. “As concerning the fight which took place near the Persea Tree in Anu [these words have reference to the slaughter] of the children of rebellion, when righteous retribution was meted out to them for [the evil] which they had done. “As concerning the ‘night of the battle,’ [these words refer to] the invasion of the eastern portion of the heaven by the children of rebellion, whereupon a great battle arose in heaven and in all the earth. “O thou who art in thine egg (Ra,) who showest from thy Disk, who risest on thy horizon, and dost shine with golden beams in the height of heaven, like unto whom there is none among the gods, who sailest above the Pillars of Shu, who sendest forth blasts of fire from thy mouth, [who illuminest the Two Lands with thy splendour, deliver] thou Nebseni, the lord of fealty [to Osiris], from the god whose form is hidden, and whose eyebrows are like unto the two arms of the Balance on the night when the sentences of doom are promulgated.” Who is this invisible god? “It is An-a-f (he who bringeth his arm.). “As concerning ‘the night when the sentences of doom are promulgated,’ it is the night of the burning of the damned, and of the overthrow of the wicked at the Block, and of the slaughter of souls.” Who is this [slaughterer of souls]? “It is Shesmu, the headsman of Osiris. “[Concerning the invisible god] some say that he is Aapep when he riseth up with a head bearing upon it [the feather of] Maat (Truth). But others say that he is Horus when he riseth up with two heads, whereon one beareth [the feather of] Maat, and the other [the symbol of] wickedness. He bestoweth wickedness on him that worketh wickedness, and right and truth upon him that followeth righteousness and truth. “Others say that he is Heru-ur (the Old Horus), who dwelleth in Sekhem; others say that he is Thoth; others say that he is Nefer-Tem; and others say that he is Sept who doth bring to nought the acts of the foes of Nebertcher. “Deliver thou the scribe Nebseni, whose word is truth, from the Watchers, who carry murderous knives, who possess cruel fingers, and who would slay those who are in the following of Osiris.” May these Watchers never gain the mastery over me, and may I never fall under their knives! Who are these Watchers? “They are Anubis and Horus, [the latter being] in the form of Horus the sightless. Others, however, say that they are the Tchatcha (sovereign princes of Osiris), who bring to nought the operations of their knives; and others say that they are the chiefs of the Sheniu chamber. “May their knives never gain the mastery over me.

“O Ra-Tem, thou Lord of the Great House [in Anu], thou Sovereign (life, strentgh, health [be to thee]) of all the gods, deliver thou the scribe Nebseni, whose word is truth, from the god whose face is like unto that of a greyhound, whose brows are like those of a man, who feedeth upon the dead, who watcheth at the Bend of the Lake of Fire, who devoureth the bodies of the dead, and swalloweth hearts, and who voideth filth, but who himself remaineth unseen.” Who is this greyhound-faced god? “His name is ‘Everlasting Devourer,’ and he liveth in the Domain [of Fire] (the Lake of Unt). “As concerning the Domain of Fire, it is that Aat which is in Naarutef, and is near the Sheniu chamber. The sinner who walketh over this place falleth down among the knives [of the Watchers]. “Others, however, say that the name of this god is ‘Mates,’ and that he keepeth watch over the door of Amentet; others say that his name is ‘Beba,’ and that he keepeth watch over the Bend [of the stream] of Amentet, and yet others say that his name is ‘Herisepef.’ “Hail, Lord of Terror, Chief of the Lands of the South and North, thou Lord of the Desert, who dost keep prepared the block of slaughter, and who dost feed on the intestines [of men]!” Who is this Lord of Terror? “It is the Keeper of the Bend [of the stream] of Amentet.” Who is this Keeper? “It is the Heart of Osiris, which is the devourer of all slaughtered things. “The Urrt Crown hath been given unto him, with gladness of heart, as Lord of Hensu.” Who is this? “He to whom the Urrt Crown hath been given with gladness of heart as Lord of Hensu is Osiris.

Shu, the strengthener of the Two Lands in Hensu; and others say that they represent the Eye of Horus, and that Tannt is the burial- place of Osiris. “Tem hath builded thy house, and the double Lion- god hath laid the foundations of thy habitation. Lo! medicaments have been brought. Horus purifieth Set and Set strengtheneth, and Set purifieth and Horus strengtheneth.

Thou livest according to thy will. Thou art Uatchet, the Lady of Flame, evil befalleth those who set themselves up against thee.” What is this? “‘Hidden in form, given of Menhu,’ is the name of the “tomb. ‘He who seeth what is on his hand’ is the name of Qerau, or, as others say, it is the name of the Block. “Now, he whose mouth shineth and whose head moveth is the phallus of Osiris, but others say it is [the phallus] of Ra. ‘Thou spreadest thy hair, and I shake it out over his brow” is said concerning Isis, who hideth in her hair, and draweth it round about her. “Uatchet, the Lady of Flames, is the Eye of Ra.”

“Sword that smiteth at the utterance of its own name, stinking face, overthrower of him that approacheth her flame” is thy name. Thou keepest the hidden things of the avenger of the god, thou guardest them. Amam is his name. He maketh the ash trees (cedars) not to grow, and the shenu trees (acacias) not to blossom, and preventeth copper from being found in the mountain. The Tchatcha (Chiefs) of this Pylon are Seven Gods. Tchen, or Anthch (At), is the name of the one at the door. Hetepmes is the name of another there. Messep is the name of another there. Utchara is the name of another there. Beq is the name of another there. Anp (Anubis) is the name of another there. I have made the way. I am Menu-Heru, the avenger of his father, the heir of his father Un-Nefer. I have come. I have given [offerings] to my father Osiris. I have overthrown all his enemies. I have come daily with the word of truth, the lord of fealty, in the house of my father Tem, the Lord of Anu, I, the Osiris Auf- ankh, whose word is truth in the southern heaven.

I am the god Tem, the maker of the sky, the creator of the things which are, who cometh forth from the earth, who made the seed of man to come into being, the Lord of things, who fashioned the gods, the Great God, who created himself, the Lord of Life, who made to flourish the Two Companies of the Gods. Homage to you, O ye divine Lords of things, ye holy beings, whose seats are veiled! Homage to you, O ye Lords of Eternity, whose forms are concealed, whose sanctuaries are mysteries, whose places of abode are not known! Homage to you, O ye gods, who dwell in the Tenait (Circle of Light)! Homage to you, O ye gods of the Circle of the country of the Cataracts! Homage to you, O ye gods who dwell in Amentet! Homage to you, O ye gods who dwell within Nut!

Perform thy work, O Seker, perform thy work, O Seker, O thou who dwellest in thy circle, and who dwellest in my feet in Khert-Neter. I am he who sendeth forth light over the Thigh of heaven. I come forth in heaven. I sit down by the Light-god (Khu). O I am helpless. O I am helpless. I would walk. I am helpless. I am helpless in the regions of those who plunder in Khert-Neter

I have washed myself clean in the Lake of the South. I have rested myself in the City of the North, which is in Sekhet Sanhemu, where the mariners of Ra wash themselves clean at the second hour of the night, and at the third hour of the day. The hearts of the gods are gratified when they have passed over it, whether it be by night or whether it be by day, and they say unto me, “Let thyself advance.” They say unto me, “Who art thou?” And they say unto me, “What is thy name?” [And I reply], “Sept-kheri-nehait-ammi- beq-f” is my name. Then they say unto me, “Advance straightway on the city which is to the North of the Olive Tree. What dost thou see there?” The Leg and the Thigh. What dost thou say unto them? Let me see rejoicings in these lands of the Fenkhu. What do they give unto thee? A flame of fire and a sceptre-amulet [made] of crystal. What dost thou do with them? I bury them on the furrow of M’naat, as things for the night. What dost thou find on the furrow of Maat? A sceptre of flint, the name of which is “Giver of winds.” What now didst thou do with the flame of fire and the sceptre- amulet [made] of crystal, after thou didst bury them? I said a spell over them, and I dug them up. I quenched the flame of fire and I broke the sceptre-amulet, and I made a lake of water.

Isis saith:- I have come to be a protector unto thee. I waft unto thee air for thy nostrils, and the north wind which cometh forth from the god Tem unto thy nose. I have made whole for thee thy windpipe. I make thee to live like a god. Thine enemies have fallen under thy feet. I have made thy word to be true before Nut, and thou art mighty before the gods.

Now [when he] setteth in the [land of] life like crystal he performeth everything therein, [which things are] like unto the things done in the Lake Neserser, wherein there is none that rejoiceth, and wherein are evil things of all kinds. The god Hetep goeth in and cometh out, and marcheth hither and thither in the Field of Smas-er-Khet, the Lady of the birth-chamber of the god of the town. [Let me] live with the god Hetep, clothed, and not despoiled by the Lords of the North, and may the Lord of things bring food unto me. May he make me to go forward. May I come forth. May he bring to me my Power there, may I receive it, and may I be rewarded by the god Hetep. May I be master of the great and mighty word in my body in this my place. Make me to remember it. Let me [not] forget it. Let me go forward, let me plough. I am at peace with the god of the town. I know the water, the towns, the nomes, and the lakes which are in Sekhet- Hetepet. I live therein. I am strong therein. I shine therein. I eat therein. I….. therein. I reap the harvest therein. I plough therein. I beget children therein. I am at peace therein with the god Hetep. Behold I sow seed therein. I sail about on the lakes thereof, and I arrive at its towns, O god Hetep. Behold my mouth is equipped, it possesseth horns . Give unto me the abundance of the KAU (Doubles) and Spirit-souls. He who counteth me is Shu. I know him not. I come to its towns. I sail over its lakes. I walk about in Sekhet-Hetepet. Behold, it is Ra who is in heaven. Behold, it is Hetep [who is] its double offering of peace. I have advanced to its territory. I have put on my apparel. I have come forth. I have given what it was upon me to give. I have made glad in [my] heart. I have conquered. I am strong. I have given directions to Hetep. [Hail], Unen-em-hetep, I have come to thee. My soul followeth me. The god Hu is on my hands. [Hail], Nebt-taui, in whom I remember and forget, I have become alive. I have attacked none, let none attack me. I have given, give thou to me gladness. Make thou me to be at peace, bind thou up my veins, let [me] receive air. [Hail], Unen-em -hetep, the Lord of Winds. I have come there. I have opened my head. Ra sleepeth. I watch not, [for] the goddess Hetemet is at the door of heaven by night. Obstacles have been put before, but I have collected his emissions. I am in my city. O Nut-urt (Great City), I have come into thee. I have counted up my abundant stores. I advance on my way to Uakh. I am the Bull which is tied with a rope of lapis-lazuli, the lord of the Field of the Bull, the lord of the words of the god, the goddess Septet (Sothis) at her hours. O Uakh, I have come into thee. I have eaten my food. I am master of choice pieces of the flesh of oxen and of feathered fowl, and the birds of Shu have been given unto me. I follow the gods, and I come [after the Doubles]. O Tcheft, I have come into thee. I array myself in apparel, and I gird about myself the sat garment of Ra. Behold the Court of the sky, and the followers of Ra who dwell in heaven. O Un-em-hetep, the lord of the Two Lands, I have come into thee. I have plunged into the Lakes of Tchesert; behold, impurity of every kind hath removed from me. The divine Great One flourisheth therein. Behold, I have found [him]. I have netted geese, and have fed full upon the finest of them. O Qenqentet, I have come into thee. I have seen the Osiris [my father]. I have saluted my mother. I have begotten children. I have snared the serpents, and I am delivered. I know the name of the god who is with the goddess Tchesert, and who hath straight hair, and is equipped with horns [ready to gore]. He reapeth, and I both plough and reap. O Hetemet, I have entered into thee. I have approached the lapis- lazuli. I have followed the winds of the Company of the Gods. The Great God hath given my head unto me. He who hath bound my head on my body for me is the Mighty One, with eyes of lapis- lazuli, namely, Ari-en-ab-f (“He doeth as he pleaseth”).

Another name in Hindu tradition for the Warrior God Indra is “Sakra;”the Sakko of the Pali and a favorite title used by Buddha for Indra. This name is obviously derived from the Sumerian title “Sakh” or “Sax” of the Father God Induru, as the “Enthroned One.” It is a name which is also disguised in such other names as Kasyapa, Kuberi, Enlil and Enki. Mr. Waddell also shows that “Din”, “Dun'” and “Du” in ‘Ia-Din’ and ‘Edin’ signifies an earth work or fort. The name Sakra and Sakko, Sax or Zax is derived from the Sumerian “Sakh” as well. For, Indra in his Sumerian and Hittite identities is Induru or Bel, the Sun-god and Indara. Therefore, the names Edin and IaDin are interpreted to mean “Induru-fort” or “Indra-shrine,” the shrine, Fort or Saki-City of Ia, Indra or Bel the Sun-god.

On discussing ancient geography, Waddell continues to point out that this “Saki-City” or “Captured-Land,” or what the Hindus call “Sakadwipa” is also identified as the Land of the Bull or heaven in the Vedas. This is the name Saki, Saka-Land or Sakadwipa of Indra. It is the name of the land of the Maga or magi, famous for its worshippers of the Sun and Bull. Its traditional location is in the Indus Valley area, an area known for its animal husbandry and agriculture.[According to Hindu traditions, Sakadwipa is located N.W. of Indian Jumbadwipa. Yet, with Jumbadwipa identified as Mesopotamis, it is shown to the N.E. It may well have included more Southern parts. If the Mesopotamian location for Jumbadwipa The greater, is correct, then the Puranic City of Indra, “Amaravati,” which lies East of Meru would juxtapose it exactly where Waddell locates it in the Indus.] These Indus Valley people, like the Sumerians and early Aryans, regarded the Bull(Ox, Buffalo) as a sacred animal and conjoined the idea of the sacredness of the Bull and that of the Cow, with that of the Sun. To them, the Sun, the Cow and the Bull imagery were interchangeable and had equal symbolic significance, equally referring to Indra himself.

Mr. Waddell continues to say that, the Indus Valley is the traditional location of Indra’s Sakadwipa or City location of the Sun-god Bel, Induru or Indra. Its name consists of three word-signs, meaning “Dwelling-Place,”or “Sanctuary”; “Sun-god”, traditionally claimed to have been built by King Uruas. This location of King Uruas stood outside the territorial claims of Mesopotamia, in the “Captured-Land” of the Saka country. All these personal and geographical names derived from Indra do have a non-cognate correspondence. Even the syllable “Ia” is a short form of the Sumero-Hittite (Sumeru) Induru and Indara.

The division of the world into geographical sectors is a very important aspect of Indra’s “restoration and maintenance” of the new cosmos. Many world mythologies and traditions, such as the East Indian, depict such a division of the world in the first ages. Just as Noah is shown dividing the new world into three geographical sections between his sons Ham, Shem and Japheth, so Indra the Thunder God is shown associated with and responsible for exactly three land divisions! Ancient Hindu geography divides the world’s continents into three, plus one sectors, according to the cardinal points on the compass. On the East is the station of Indra and his city ‘Amarvatti.’ There were other cities stationed on the other seven points of the compass named under different gods. The land allotments or continents were divided accordingly among seven sons, with Mt. Meru as the eighth position. This was the Mountain of Brahma and, therefore, the central governing force under Indra’s control. This is synonymous with Noah and his seven fellow members. He and his three sons rule the four quarters.

On the highest peak of mount Ida, named Gargaron, as Homer tells us (Iliad, VIII. v. 48), there was a sacred place and an altar consecrated to the supreme divinity of the Trojan times, Zeus patroos or Jupiter avus (Eschyl, Fragm. Nr. 169).
” El – Yamm, Baal, and Mot
” Odin, Vili and Vé
” apam napat/varuna, mithra, mazda .. apam napat = poseidon or Oceanus or atlas
” Targitaos – Leipoxais, Arpoxais and Kolaxais
” Israel was given to Yahweh, Moab was given to Chemosh, and Babylon was given to Marduk
” Zeus won the sky, Poseidon the sea, and Pluto was given Hades
” Sib. Or. III.133 makes Iapetus one of the three sons of Gaia and Uranus, along with Cronus and Titan, who each received a third division of the Earth.
” Anu went up to the sky and Ellil took the earth for his people. the bolt which bars the sea Was assigned to far-sighted Enki
” After the flood, Satyavarman is said to have had three sons: Shem, Sham, and Jyapeti
” Vishnu removed the darkness and split himself into three forms: Vishnu, Brahma, and Shiva. This may be a reference to the fact that Enki seems to have been the first god and that Anu and Enlil seem to have been added later.
” SIBYLLINE ORACLES mentions Cronus, Titan and Jäpetus, the three sons of the patriarch governing the world in the tenth generation after the deluge
” 3 sons of Thraetaona/Feridun: Eraj, Salm/Sayrima, Tur Eraj/Iraj/Aria/Arya(ns), Salm/Sayrima (Sarmatians/Solymites), Tur(anians) Rashnu, Mithra, Sraosha (Sykes)
Yahu , Yah , Yam , or Yaw is the name of the Levantine god of chaos and mass-destruction, and in some myths he is one of the ‘ilhm ( Els ) or sons of El Yaw represents the devastating power of the untamed sea and the serpent is frequently used to describe him His palace is in the abyss associated with the depths of the sea Sumerian — Enki was the deity of water, intelligence and creation The main temple of Enki was the so-called é-engur-a , the “house of the lord of deep waters”; it was in Eridu, which was then located in the wetlands of the Euphrates valley not far from the Persian gulf He was the keeper of the holy powers called Me, the gifts of civilized living Enki is also the master shaper of the world, God of wisdom and of all magic Exact meaning of his name is uncertain: the common translation is “Lord of the Earth”: the Sumerian en is translated as “lord”, was originally a title given to the High Priest; ki means “earth”; but there are theories that ki in this name has another origin, possibly kur ( meaning “mound”) In this way it is just possible that in origin Enki was a divinitized human, high priest of the mound of Eridu, on which the first Sumerian temple was built.
Yam, from the Canaanite word meaning “Sea”, is one name of the Ugaritic god of Rivers and Sea. Also titled Judge Nahar (“Judge River”), he is also one of the ‘ilhm (Elohim) or sons of El, the name given to the Levantine pantheon. Others dispute the existence of the alternative names, claiming it is a mistranslation of a damaged tablet Despite linguistic overlap, theologically this god is not a part of the later subregional monotheistic theology, but rather is part of a broader and archaic Levantine polytheism. Yam is the deity of the primordial chaos and represents the power of the sea untamed and raging; he is seen as ruling tempests and the disasters they wreak. The gods cast out Yam from the heavenly mountain Sappan (Tsion). The seven-headed dragon Lotan is associated closely with him and the serpent is frequently used to describe him Of all the gods, despite being the champion of El, Yam holds special hostility against Baal Hadad, son of Dagon Yam is a deity of the sea and his palace is in the abyss associated with the depths, or Biblical tehwom, of the oceans (This is not to be confused with the abode of Mot, the ruler of the netherworlds ) In Ugaritic texts, Yam’s special enemy Hadad is also known as the “king of heaven” and the “first born son” of El, whom ancient Greeks identified with their god Kronos, just as Baal was identified with Zeus, Yam with Poseidon and Mot with Hades Yam wished to become the Lord god in his place In turns the two beings kill each other, yet Hadad is resurrected and Yam also returns Some authors have suggested that these tales reflect the experience of seasonal cycles in the Levant Speculative similarities in other mythological traditions “Yam, Judge Nahar” also has similarities with Mesopotamian Tiamat and Abzu and the battle between Yam and Baal (the Storm God) resembles the battle in Hurrian and Hittite mythology between the sky God Teshub (or Tarhunt) with the serpent Illuyanka In this respect the battle with Baal resembles the battle between Tiamat and Enlil (Sumerian = Lord of the Command) and Babylonian Marduk In the case of Yam, however, there is no indication that he was slain, as it appears from the texts that he was put to sleep through the intervention of Baal’s “sister” and wife, Anath Since Yam wishes to raise himself to the lofty heights of Baal whom he hates, and since he is the lord of chaos and destruction, in some Christian interpretations of , because of his connections with the Leviathan, equated sometimes with the the serpent of Eden, some feel he may have been in eternal conflict with the Messiah, Jehovah’s son A relevant passage in the Christian book of Revelation reads: “And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world” () Also, the chaotic coiling sea serpent Leviathan appears as hated by Jehovah () In the Apocalypse of Abraham, the enemy of Yahweh is called Azazel and is described as a dragon with “hands and feet like a man’s, on his back six wings on the right and six on the left ” (23:7) Some Christian interpretations identify Azazel with the serpent who tempted Eve Moreover, a comparison with the evil Jörmungandr (Norse world-serpent and deity of the sea) is accurate, given his description Like Yam and Hadad, he and Thor (son of Odin) slay each other at the end of the world (Ragnarök or Twilight of the Gods) There are also many similarities with the Egyptian chaos serpent, Apep and his animosity with the sun god Ra In addition, the serpent-Titan Typhon battled the god Zeus over Olympus and was cast into the pits of the Earth Yam shares many characteristics with Greco-Roman Ophion, the serpentine Titan of the sea whom Kronos cast out of the heavenly Mt Olympus The story is also analogus to the war between the serpent Vritra and the god Indra, son of the ‘Sky Father’ Dyaus Pita
Yaw: speculation over connections between Yam and YHWH According to some, Yam was also called Ya’a or Yaw Damaged text in KTU 1 2 iv has been interpreted by Mark S Smith as describing a renaming of Yam from an original name Yaw The resemblance of the latter to the Tetragrammaton YHWH led to speculation over a possible connection between Yam and God of the Hebrew Bible However, even if the reading is correct many scholars argue the names have different roots and reject the idea that they are related Another suggested reading of the name is Ya’a and it has also been suggested as an early form of the divine name Yah, Yahu Earlier archaeologists like Theophilus G Pinches quoted the research of Hommel, Professor of Semitic languages at Munich, who suggested “that this god Ya is another form of the name Ea ” By this theory Ya’a thus appears to have been a God of the waters, both salt (Yam) and fresh (Nahar), in some ways similar to the Mesopotamian God Ea This view has been supported in more recent times by archaeologists like Jean Bottero and others, although this is disputed by other scholars
Yima Kshaeta makes the world grow larger three times, but he does this while he is still alive This version is clearly mythological Yima is the Avestan form of Sanskrit Yama and Kshaeta means “brilliant, shining ” The original source is the Zend-Avesta, Vendidad, Fargard II, and this was published in SBE, Vol 4 (translated by James Darmesteter), p 12-21
Avestan ” Aži Dahâka and Spityura, he who sawed Yima in twain ” According to the editor of the text (Darmesteter), Spityura was a brother of Yima The original source is the Zend-Avesta, Zamyâd Yasht, VIII: 46, published in SBE, Vol 23, p 293-297

Hermaon, that is Hermes, fathered Arabus, presumably the eponym of Arabia
Pankhaia is inhabited by men who were sprung from the soil itself, called Pankhaioi, and the foreigners there are Okeanites and Indoi and Skythai and Kretes. There is also a notable city on the island, called Panara, which enjoys unusual felicity; its citizens are called ‘suppliants of Zeus Triphylios,’ [Triphylios means ‘Of the Three Tribes’] and they are the only inhabitants of the land of Panchaea who live under laws of their own making and have no king over them. Each year they elect three chief magistrates; these men have no authority over capital crimes, but render judgment in all other matters; and the weightiest affairs they refer of their own accord to the priests. Some sixty stades distant from the city of Panara is the temple of Zeus Triphylios, which lies out on a level plain and is especially admired for its antiquity, the costliness of its construction, and its favourable situation. Thus, the plain lying around the temple is thickly covered with trees of every kind, not only such as bear fruit, but those also which possess the power of pleasing the eye; for the plain abounds with cypresses of enormous size and plane-trees and sweet-bay and myrtle, sine the region is full of springs of water. Indeed, close to the sacred precinct there bursts forth from the earth a spring of sweet water of such size that it gives rise to a river on which boats may sail.
And since the water is led off from the river to many parts of the plain and irrigates them, throughout the entire area of the plain there grow continuous forests of lofty trees

The temple was a striking structure of white marble, two plethora in length and the width proportionate to the length; it was supported by large and thick columns and decorated at intervals with reliefs of ingenious design; and there were also remarkable statues of the gods, exceptional in skill of execution and admired by men for their massiveness. Around about the temple the priests who served the gods had their dwellings, and the management of everything pertaining to the sacred precinct was in their hands. Leading from the temple an avenue had been constructed, four stades in length and a plethrum in width. On each side of the avenue are great bronze vessels which rest upon square bases, and at the end of the avenue the river we mentioned above has its sources, which pour forth in a turbulent stream. The water of the stream is exceedingly clear and sweet and the use of it is most conductive to the health of the body; and the river bears the name ‘Water of the Sun.’ The entire spring is surrounded by an expensive stone quay, which extends along each side of it four stades, and no man except the priests may set foot upon the place up to the edge of the quay. The plain lying below the temple has been made sacred to the gods, for a distance of two hundred stades, and the revenues which are derived from it are used to support the sacrifices. Beyond the above-mentioned plain there is a lofty mountain which has been made sacred to the gods and is called the ‘Throne of Ouranos” and also ‘Triphylian Olympos.’

For the myth relates that in ancient times, when Ouranos was king of the inhabited earth, he took pleasure in tarrying in that place and in surveying from its lofty top both the heavens and the stars therein, and that at a later time it came to be called Triphylian (Of Three Tribes) Olympos because the men who dwelt about it were composed of three peoples; these namely, were known as Pankhaioi, Okeanites, and Doians, who were expelled at a later time by Ammon. For Ammon, men say, not only drove this nation into exile but also totally destroyed their cities, razing to the ground both Doia and Asterusia. And once a year, we are told, the priests hold a sacrifice in this mountain with great solemnity. Beyond this mountain and throughout the rest of the land of Pankhaiitis, the account continues, there is found a multitude of beasts of every description; for the land possesses many elephants and lions and leopards and gazelles and an unusual number of other wild animals which differ in their aspect and are of marvellous ferocity. This island also contains three notable cities, Hyrakia, Dalis, and Okeanis.

Originally the Gaetulians and Libyans, according to Sallust [BJ 21] settled Africa. Now Isidore [9.2.14-15] informs us, and Hugucio as well, that the Gaetulians came by sea from the north, from the land of the Getae or Goths. But Jerome, On Genesis, is our authority for [the story that] they were descended from Havilah, son of Chuz, son of Ham, son of Noah; and it is scarcely likely that strangers [advenae] should be the first to inhabit a land destined [debitam] for a single nation. Thus Africa, like Egypt and Ethiopia, was destined for the sons of Ham. The Libyans were descendants of Labaim, son of Mesraim, son of Chuz, son of Ham; so Jerome, On Genesis. Libya gets its name from this Labaim; yet Jerome tells us (On Genesis and also in the last chapter of On Isaiah), Libya was first named Phuth or Phutensia, for a son of Ham with that name. Indeed, to this day there is a river in Libya called the Phuth, and the whole region is called Phutensis. The Getuli used to live rather more in the direction of Egypt and the Libyans to the west, and both wandered more widely than now, since the region is so wide. Once upon a time the whole of Africa was known as Libya after the one tribe which dominated its own territory, and the people of that territory were called the Libyans, as we learn from II Chronicles 12 [.3; the Lubims] and 16 [.8], and Nahum 3 [.9; Put and Lubim], and several other places. But, as <Sallust> [Isidore, [9.2.120-121] points out, after Hercules died in Spain, the army he had enlisted from many peoples broke up. Of that host the Medes, Persians, and Armenians voyaged by sea into Africa and occupied the places nearest the Mediterranean coast; the Persians, though, moved further along the sea and closer to Egypt and Italy than the others, being subject to the Getuli. These Getuli lived to the south, as neighbors of Ethiopia. Little by little the Ethiopians intermarried with the Getulians. Sallust further conjectures that in their raids on other lands in search of new territory, they later adopted the name of “Numidians,” wanderers with no fixed home [= nomads]. So Isidore tells us in book 9.[2.120-121]. The Medes and Armenians settled on the further coast of the Mediterranean (west of the Numidians), all the way to Cadiz, as subjects of the Libyans, who [in turn?] were closed in to the south, in the direction of the Ethiopians. In time the Libyans corrupted the name of the Medes and in their barbarian language called them “Moors” instead of “Medes”.
All these peoples lived from the ocean as far [east] as the province of the Carthaginians. For, as Sallust tells us, later on the Phoenicians, driven by desire for imperial expansion, came from Tyre and Sidon and invaded these parts of Africa. They crushed the Numidians, Gaetulians, and other Africans together, and fortified Carthage-or rather the region [provinciam] around it-where splendid Punic-i.e.
The ancient population of North Africa, which was in large part under Carthagena’s rule, was of Pelasgian origin. Getulii, the most numerous inhabitants of Libya, had emigrated there, according to traditions, from the region of the European Getae (Isidorus Hispal. Lib. IX. 2. 118).

According to Pliny, as well as to other authors of the antiquity, the island Cerne was inhabited by Ethiopians. But, what sort of Ethiopians? This is a geographical question, about which a lot has been written. Homer mentions two ethnic groups of Ethiopians. Some of these dwelt in the east, while others dwelt near Oceanus potamos, the place where, according to the old traditions, the sun set. These latter Ethiopians are also called esperioi, westerners, or from the western regions (Strabo, II. 5. 15), the most extreme people known to the Greeks, virtuous and saintly. The western Ethiopians, or from near Oceanus potamos, are the men favored by gods. According to Stephanos Byzantinos they (Aithiops) were the first to revere the gods, the first who used laws; and the founders of their civilisation had been Mithras and Phlegyas. Jove and all the gods attend their solemn banquets, when they sacrifice hundreds (hecatombs) of bulls and lambs (Homer, Odyss. I. 23; Iliad, I. 428; XXIII. 205). With the poet Pindar, these latter Ethiopians appear under the name of Hyperboreans (Pyth. X. 30 seqq), and with Dionysius Periegetus, under the name of Macrobii, meaning the long lived people. Hesiod places geographically the Ethiopians with the Ligyiens and the Ippomolgian Scythians (Fragm. 132). According to Eschyl (Prom. vinct. 808. 809) they dwelt near the gold rich Arimaspians, and according to Dionysius Periegetus they lived in the beautiful valleys of Kernes / Cerne (v. 218 seqq), or near Erythia, close to the Atlas mountain (Ibid. v. 558-560; Avienus, v. 738 seqq). According to Scylax they were the most handsome and tall among all the known peoples. They dressed in multicoloured clothes, had beards and long hair, were skilful riders, archers and fighters. The Phoenician merchants sold them bottles and earthenware. They ate meat, drank milk and produced a lot of wine, which the Phoenicians bought from them.
But, because of the geographical confusion with the Ethiopians of Africa, the texts of the ancient authors about the Ethiopians from the Oceanus potamos are full of errors and interpolations. Today it is difficult to understand the origin of the name Ethiopians, given to the inhabitants of that region close to the island of Cerne, or the cataracts of the Istru. It is sure though that the Greeks generally understood under the name of Ethiopians, people burnt by the sun, and that they had applied this name not only to part of the Pelasgians who dwelt on the north side of the Istru, but also to the Pelasgians from the islands of Samothrace and Lesbos (Pauly, R. E. I. 1839 see Aethiopia). The Ethiopians from near the Columns of Hercules were shown in the old geographical descriptions as a people rich in gold (Mela, III. 9; Herodotus, III. 145, IV. 196). Prometheus as theos pyrphoros, Mithras genitor luminis, Deus Arimanius.

” 5 Horus says “It is I who traverse the heavens, I go round the Elysian Fields. Eternity has been assigned to me without end, Lo! I am heir to endless time and my attribute is eternity.
” 6 Horus–I open the Tuat that I may drive away the darkness.
” 10 Horus born in Annu, the place of bread.
” 11 Horus The good shepherd with the crook on his shoulders.
” 12 Horus Seven on board the boat with him.
” 13 Horus as the Lion.
” 21 Horus The first Horus as a child of the virgin, the second as son of Ra.
” 22 Horus–Horus the sender and Set the destroyer in the harvest field.
” 23 Horus carried off by Set to the summit of Mount Hetep.
” 24 Horus and Set contending on the Mount.
” 39 Horus The paradise of the Pole star–Am-Khemen.
(I) Amsta (2) Hapi (3) Tuamutef (4)Kabhsenuf The four quarters, who stand on the papyrus of earth and who became the children of Horus in a later creation
” ptah > hephaestus
” ptah – son nefertem > prometheus
” isis – hygeiea > daughter of prometheus
” imhotep – asclepius – imouthes > son of ptah

Vulcanice, Hephœstïades, Lipärese, Planctai CYANÉ -E (Symplegades, ” dashers ;” Syn- dromades, Planctai, ” wanderers”) ins , two rocks within the entrance to the Bosporus Thracius Fabled to be floating rocks, ever and anon dashing against each other Pavonare Heracles, i e Melcarth “self-generated”, which, so we have learned, an Orphic hymn applies to Heracles- Melcarth Melcarth as the all-wise god, and especially as the discoverer or inventor of navigation, the recognized source of Tyre’s commercial affluence Baal Shamem represented as dwelling in Eden, the divine garden, atop the holy mountain of the gods; this can be only Safon, the mountain of assembly of the gods 1), for this sacred mountain, which played such an important role in Phoenician religion and mythology, stood always upon the edge of the sea, looking out westward over the heaving waters, and was always sacred to the Phoenician Baal

To Sydyc, who was called the just, one of the Titanides bare Asclepius: and to Cronus there were born also in Peræa three sons, Cronus bearing the same name with his father, and Zeus Belus, and Apollo.
ConTumporary with these were Pontus, and Typhon, and Nereus the father of Pontus: from Pontus descended Sidon, who by the excellence of her singing first invented the hymns of odes or praises: and Poseidon.
But to Demarous was born Melicarthus, who is also called Heracles.
Ouranus then made war against Pontus, but afterwards relinquishing the attack he attached himself to Demarous, when Demarous invaded Pontus: but Pontus put him to flight, and Demarous vowed a sacrifice for his escape.
In the thirty-second year of his power and reign, Ilus, who is Cronus, having laid an ambuscade for his father Ouranus in a certain place situated in the middle of the earth, when he had got him into his hands dismembered him over against the fountains and rivers. There Ouranus was consecrated, and his spirit was separated, and the blood of his parts flowed into the fountains and the waters of the rivers; and the place, which was the scene of this transaction, is shewed even to this day.
(Then our historian, after some other things, goes on thus:) But Astarte called the greatest, and Demarous named Zeus, and Adodus who is entitled the king of gods, reigned over the country by the consent of Cronus: and Astarte put upon her head, as the mark of her sovereignty, a bull’s head: and travelling about the habitable world, she found a star falling through the air, which she took up, and consecrated in the holy island of Tyre: and the Phœnicians say that Astarte is the same as Aphrodite.
Moreover, Cronus visiting the different regions of habitable world, gave to his daughter Athena the kingdom of Attica: and when there happened a plague with a great mortality, Cronus offered up his only begotten son as a sacrifice to his father Ouranus, and circumcised himself, and compelled his allies to do the same: and not long afterwards he consecrated after his death another of his sons, called Muth, whom he had by Rhea; this (Muth) the Phœnicians esteem the same as Death and Pluto.
After these things, Cronus gave the city of Byblus to the goddess Baaltis, which is Dione, and Berytus to Poseidon, and to the Caberi who were husbandmen and fishermen: and they consecrated the remains of Pontus at Berytus.
But before these things the god Taautus, having pourtrayed Ouranus, represented also the countenances of the gods Cronus, and Dagon, and the sacred characters of the elements. He contrived also for Cronus the ensign of his royal power, having four eyes in the parts before and in the parts behind, two of them closing as in sleep; and upon the shoulders four wings, two in the act of flying, and two reposing as at rest. And the symbol was, that Cronus whilst he slept was watching, and reposed whilst he was awake. And in like manner with respect to the wings, that he was flying whilst he rested, yet rested whilst he flew. But for the other gods there were two wings only to each upon his shoulders, to intimate that they flew under the controul of Cronus; and there were also two wings upon the head, the one as a symbol of the intellectual part, the mind, and the other for the senses.
And Cronus visiting the country of the south, gave all Egypt to the god Taautus, that it might be his kingdom.
These things, says he, the Caberi, the seven sons of Sydyc, and their eighth brother Asclepius, first of all set down in the records in obedience to the commands of the god Taautus.
All these things the son of Thabion, the first Hierophant of all among the Phœnicians, allegorized and mixed up with the occurrences and accidents of nature and the world, and delivered to the priests and prophets, the superintendants of the mysteries: and they, perceiving the rage for these allegories increase, delivered them to their successors, and to foreigners: of whom one was Isiris, the inventor of the three letters, the brother of Chna who; is called the first Phœnician.–Euseb. Præp. Evan. lib. I. c. 10.
According to Sanchoniathon, Ouranos was the son of Autochthon, and, according to Plato, Autochthon was one of the ten kings of Atlantis. He married his sister Ge. He is the Uranos of the Greeks, who was the son of Gæa (the earth), whom he married. The Phœnicians tell us, “Ouranos had by Ge four sons: Ilus (El), who is called Chronos, and Betylus (Beth-El), and Dagon, which signifies bread-corn, and Atlas (Tammuz ).” Here, again, we have the names of two other kings of Atlantis.
Chronos visits the different regions of the habitable world. He gave Egypt as a kingdom to the god Taaut, who had invented the alphabet. The Egyptians called him Thoth, and he was represented among them as “the god of letters, the clerk of the under-world,” bearing a tablet, pen, and palm-branch.
Sanchoniathon tells us, after narrating all the discoveries by which the people advanced to civilization, that the Cabiri set down their records of the past by the command of the god Taaut, “and they delivered them to their successors and to foreigners, of whom one was Isiris (Osiris), the inventor of the three letters, the brother of Chua, who is called the first Phœnician.”
This would show that the first Phœnician came long after this line of the kings or gods, and that he was a foreigner, as compared with them; and, therefore, that it could not have been the Phœnicians proper who made the several inventions narrated by Sanchoniathon, but some other race, from whom the Phœnicians might have been descended.

But surprising still it is the frequent denomination in Egyptian sacred texts of “Two Columns or Wakes” , or “Two Doors or Thresholds” with the name of Atr.t, * Atala or * Atla ( the r also represented the l and -final t usually is not pronounced, since it acts the as of indicative of the femenine). With the same raiz we found the name of pais: “Atru” or “Atlu”, the “Flooded Earth”, “the Country of the Channels”, “the Flooded Island” or “Isla-Peninsula of the Channels”. All these translations are deduced of the determinative ones that they accompany this name that are the determinative hieroglyphics of island (N18), waters (N3Ä), channels (N3Ã or N39) and earth languages, ends or peninsulas (N20or N21)

The God Schu was also sometimes identified with the God Herschefy, being even another one of the “Pillars of the Sky”. The Greeks identified to this divinity with Herakles and was represented like a God-sheep. All we know the narrow symbolic and mitológica relation that has existed between Atlas and Herakles. Also he is peculiar that to this divinity, Herschefy, identified with Schu, and whose name means nothing less than “the one than is on its channel or suspends” sacrificed oxen or bulls to him, according to seems every day. Channels, bulls, pillars or columns, descendants of a God of the Ocean, have supported of the Sky, association with Hercules… Too many coincidences reunited between the Egyptian God Schu and his homónimo Greek Atlas that it induces to us to think that without a doubt some only could be this Egyptian divinity the one that own the Egyptians used to denominate the first king who gave to name to the island or whole peninsula and the sea or Straits where the “Atlas Island sank ” (nêsos Atlantis) or “Island of Schu” (** Iu-Schu) according to the Egyptians.

This observation on the identification of the God Schu with Atlas had not been made to date like possible explanation of the origin of the name of Atlantis or “Atlas Island”. The only theory to date as far as an greco-Egyptian relation of the name of Atlantis has been the one that it postulates that Solón translated the name of pais of Keftiu or Kaftiu by the one of Atlas. The authors who have defended this hypothesis have left from several false or erroneous premises as next we will demonstrate. First false premise: one has affirmed that since Keftiu or Kefatiu means “to pound”, Solón could associate this meaning with the Atlas name . Any test that does not exist Keftiu meant “to pound”. In copto the words exist kaf with the meaning of “trunk, raiz, bases, foundation”; kifi “chest”; and kôôfe “to force, to expel”. In the Egyptian hieroglyphics neither single of the versions known the raiz kf or kft takes like determinative a hieroglyphic of “pounding” or “column”, nor so at least of no element of construction that could allow such interpretation. The only determinative hieroglyphics that accompany these words are those that allude to to the action or sort of “which cuts or is cut” like a knife (T30 or T31 ; kf “knife”; kft “cuts”) or of “which is in the later part or the end”, hieroglyphic of the back quarters of a lion or seated leopard (F22 ; kf3 “extremity”, “distant later part or”, the “Fin”o the “borders”, the “end”, the “bottom”, “remote part or hides”); or of that relative to the action of “force” or effort “, hieroglyphic of an arm with a twig in the hand (D40 ; kf “to force”, “to expel” or “to send far”) that with the determinative hieroglyphics of the forcebody of a sheep (F8) and a enrrollado and sealed papyrus (
The interpretation of the raiz kft or kf like “pounding”, I insist on which it is not sustained of rigorous way within the Egyptian language. In fact, it is not a demonstrated ascepción. The interpretation of the raiz could only be accepted, in last instance, kft like “capital” – that of step is saying, is single an element of a column if we considered that the name of Keftiu is of Hebrew origin (which does not seem very probable) since it is in this language where it appears a similar form, kaphtor, with the meaning of “capital”. With this name the Island of Crete was well-known, according to or Cyprus according to others. But we do not have to forget that the raiz kf or kft, since we have demonstrated, is not an orphaned voice within the Egyptian vocabulary, reason why is not absolutely necessary to resort to a foreign word like the Hebrew kaphtor to be able to explain the original meaning of the Earth name of Kefatiu, since according to the own Egyptian language east names could explain or like “the Pais of the Extremity” or “the Pais of the Borders”. For that reason in the little Egyptian texts that always mention to Kefatiu or Keftiu it describes like a distant and remote earth. He is absurd to imagine to the Island of Kretai or Kypros like a located distant earth in the remote borders but. More likely the “Land of Kefatiu” was one of the ways to call to the Iberian Peninsula or the region near the Columns of Hercules or region of Tartessos.
On the other hand, even though it was possible someday to be demonstrated that the name of Keftiu meant “the Pillar” or “the Column” this would not demonstrate absolutely anything with respect to the Atlantis Island. I explain myself: In the first place nor so at least the security exists of which Keftiu was the own Island that the Greeks knew with the name of Krêsai or Krêtai that is, Crete. Hágamos here a reflective parenthesis from the point of view of the linguistic one: how and porqué would disappear the f of Keftiu, later to appear a new consonant like the r of Krêtai. From the point of view of the linguistic one the phonetic interchange between a r and a f is impossible ; and that stops greater difficulty still dozes off of position by metátesis. The fact that a great part of the egiptólogos and students of the antiquity has accepted this association between Keftiu and Krêtai do not mean that it is because already it has been demonstrated rigorously. In fact one does not treat but that of one of the numerous concensos made by the academic ones in the congresses of History.
The Earth de Keftiu has been indentificada also with the Biblical kaphêtor or Kafêtor, transcription this but correct one that Caphtor. In this case yes an acceptable and but valid relation between Keftiu and Kafêtor could exist . However, neither demonstrating of way inéquivoca that the Earth of Keftiu is the same Kafêtor that is mentioned in the Bible, nor even so, it would be possible to be tied of unequivocal way with the Atlantis Island, “the Atlas Island” or “* the Island of Schu”, although is for a simple reason: because Krêtai was not in the sea, fretum or Straits of the Atlántiko, in front of the Wakes of Heraklês (Gibraltar) and of the region of Gadiri or Gadira (Cadiz). And no matter how much some try to speculate with the possibility that other Columns of Hercules in Krêtai or the mouth of the Ponto Euximo or the Black Sea existed, does not exist nor but the mini irrefutable test that in the times of Plato or Solón those others existed and supposed “Columns of Hercules”. In addition a powerful reason but that exists much all those that I have exposed on the logical imposilidad that Solón, Dropides, Kritias or own the Plato they had confused an Egyptian story that treated on the Island of Keftiu with the “located Atlas Island” in the Atlantic sea and in front of the Columns of Hercules and Gadira. This is the reason: if the Egyptian priests whenever they talked about the Atlantis Island in fact what they did were to mention the Island of Keftiu, porqué Solón or anyone of the four possible authors of the Greek version of history, would change the name of Keftiu by the one of Atlas and not by the one of Krêtai; perhaps neither Solón nor the Egyptian priests knew that the Island of Keftiu was the Island of Krêtai; was the Island of Keftiu a earth ignota for the Egyptians? It is obvious that if the Egyptians knew perfectly which was the Island of keftiu they would indicate it to Solón of unequivocal way, especially when one was priests of Sais; a city of the delta of the Nile that came maintaining one narrow relation with the Greek world and of the Aegean – as they demonstrate the archaeological and documentary evidences to it from at least about 1000 years before the times of Solón. Therefore, if the Egyptians knew that Keftiu was the same Krêtai or Küpros (according to other authors) would have let it know to Solón as well. Reason why it does not have sense that Solón changed “* Island of Keftiu” by “Atlas Island”, when or Island of Krêtai could simply have written “*” or “* Island of Küpros”.

Egypt wanted Solon and the Greeks Solon wanted the Egyptians The common enemy was Cyrus and his new Persian Empire which was currently absorbing the Greeks of Asia minor No doubt Cyrus had designs on Egypt Now the Persians were related to the Trojans [one Persian reason for attacking Greece – revenge for Troy] and the Trojans to Atlanteans so what was the message in the story Ideal society or pre-modern horseshit politics Solon being a descendent of the last king of Athens might be expected to hold some ancient family secrets These secrets might show the close Greek relationship to Atlanteans and therefore Troy and therefore the Persians which is exactly the case as it turns out The Egyptians, not being related to the Atlanteans may well have been attacked and their culture completely transformed In the Greek archaeological record we find a early sudden blip of cow popularity which all but disappears then returns in earnest
Persian king Xerxes, preparing to conquer the Greeks in 480 B C , came to Troy to pay homage to its fallen heroes, and claimed that his reason for invading Greece was to right the wrongs inflicted upon the Trojans
Hitherto the injuries on either side had been mere acts of common violence; but in what followed the Persians consider that the Greeks were greatly to blame, since before any attack had been made on Europe, they led an army into Asia Now as for the carrying off of women, it is the deed, they say, of a rogue: but to make a stir about such as are carried off, argues a man a fool Men of sense care nothing for such women, since it is plain that without their own consent they would never be forced away The Asiatics, when the Greeks ran off with their women, never troubled themselves about the matter; but the Greeks, for the sake of a single Lacedaemonian girl, collected a vast armament, invaded Asia, and destroyed the kingdom of Priam Henceforth they ever looked upon the Greeks as their open enemies For Asia, with all the various tribes of barbarians that inhabit it, is regarded by the Persians as their own; but Europe and the Greek race they look on as distinct and separate 5 Such is the account which the Persians give of these matters They trace to the attack upon Troy their ancient enmity towards the Greeks (Herodotus, The Histories 1 1-5 )

2] Science to 2000
Certainly there was some foreign admixture [in Egypt], but basically a homogeneous African population had lived in the Nile Valley from ancient to modern times… [the] Badarian people, who developed the earliest Predynastic Egyptian culture, already exhibited the mix of North African and Sub-Saharan physical traits that have typified Egyptians ever since (Hassan 1985; Yurco 1989; Trigger 1978; Keita 1990; Brace et al., this volume)… The peoples of Egypt, the Sudan, and much of East Africa, Ethiopia and Somalia are now generally regarded as a Nilotic continuity, with widely ranging physical features (complexions light to dark, various hair and craniofacial types) but with powerful common cultural traits, including cattle pastoralist traditions (Trigger 1978; Bard, Snowden, this volume). Language research suggests that this Saharan-Nilotic population became speakers of the Afro-Asiatic languages… Semitic was evidently spoken by Saharans who crossed the Red Sea into Arabia and became ancestors of the Semitic speakers there, possibly around 7000 BC… In summary we may say that Egypt was a distinct North African culture rooted in the Nile Valley and on the Sahara. Biological anthropologist Shomarka Keita also believes population variation in Egypt to be primarily indigenous, and not necessarily the result of significant intermingling of widely divergent peoples.[26] He identifies northern and southern patterns in the Egyptian population of the early predynastic period, which he describes as “northern-Egyptian-Maghreb” and “tropical African variant” (overlapping with Nubia/Kush) respectively. He shows that a progressive change in Upper Egypt toward the northern Egyptian pattern takes place through the predynastic period. While the southern pattern continues to predominate in Abydos in Upper Egypt by the First Dynasty, Keita indicated that “coastal northern African” modal patterns are observed also, thus making for great diversity. This northern modal pattern is noted by Keita as being intermediate between equatorial African and northern European phenotypes.
The predominant craniometric pattern in the Abydos royal tombs is southern (tropical African variant), and this is consistent with what would be expected based on the literature and other results (Keita, 1990). This pattern is seen in both group and unknown analyses. However, lower Egyptian, Maghrebian, and European patterns are observed also, thus making for great diversity ..The Maghreb series does have a modal pattern most similar to late lower dynastic Egyptians (Keita, 1990).
The general trend from Badari to Nakada times, and then from the Nakadan to the First Dynasty epochs demonstrate change toward the northern-Egyptian centroid value .This might represent an average change from an Africoid (Keita, 1990) to a northern Egyptian-Maghreb modal pattern. It is clear however from the unknown analyses that the Abydos centroid value is explained primarily by the relatively greater number of crania with [u]northern-Egyptian-Maghreb and European patterns in the series….This northern modal pattern, which can be called coastal northern African, is noted in general terms to be intermediate ..to equatorial African and northern European phenotypes.
Studies of crania from southern predynastic Egypt, from the formative period (4000-3100 B.C.), show them usually to be more similar to the crania of ancient Nubians, Kushites, Saharans, or modern groups from the Horn of Africa than to those of dynastic northern Egyptians or ancient or modern southern Europeans.
Speaking about the “European” crania in the royal tombs of Abydos, which house the first dynasty of unified Egypt:
The European metrics of some of the crania clearly emphasize the contrasts found in the tombs. This may denote the range of variation encompassed by the coastal northern pattern, given its intermediate position, or reflect the presence of middle easterners. There is no archaeological, linguistic, or historical data which indicate a European or Asiatic invasion or migration to, the Nile Valley during the First Dynasty times.
Archaeology and history seem to provide the most parsimonious explanation for the variation in the royal tombs of Abydos. Tomb design suggests the presence of northerners in the south in late Nakada times, when the unification probably took place. Delta names are attached to some of the tombs at Abydos, thus perhaps supporting Petrie s (1939) and Gardiner s contention that north-south marriages were undertaken to legitimize the hegemony of the south. The courtiers of the northern elites would have accompanied them. Given all of the above, it is not possible to view the Abydos royal tomb sample as representative of the general southern Upper Egyptian population at the time.
Trinkhaus (1981) provides upper and lower extremity distal/proximal member ratios from numerous populations, including a pre-dynastic Egyptian and Mediterranean European series. The pre-dynastic Egyptian values plotted near tropical Africans, not Mediterranean Europeans….This suggests that the ancestors of the southern Egyptians were not cold-adapted immigrants to Africa. A sample of definite northern Egyptians may have given different results.
“The predominant craniometric pattern in the Abydos royal tombs is southern (tropical African variant), and this is consistent with what would be expected based on the literature and other results (Keita, 1990). This pattern is seen in both group and unknown analyses. However, lower Egyptian, Maghrebian, and European patterns are observed also, thus making for great diversity..The Maghreb series does have a modal pattern most similar to late lower dynastic Egyptians (Keita, 1990).”
“The general trend from Badari to Nakada times, and then from the Nakadan to the First Dynasty epochs demonstrate change toward the northern-Egyptian centroid value .This might represent an average change from an Africoid (Keita, 1990) to a northern Egyptian-Maghreb modal pattern. It is clear however from the unknown analyses that the Abydos centroid value is explained primarily by the relatively greater number of crania with northern-Egyptian-Maghreb and European patterns in the series….This northern modal pattern, which can be called coastal northern African, is noted in general terms to be intermediate ..to equatorial African and northern European phenotypes.”
“Studies of crania from southern predynastic Egypt, from the formative period (4000-3100 B.C.), show them usually to be more similar to the crania of ancient Nubians, Kushites, Saharans, or modern groups from the Horn of Africa than to those of dynastic northern Egyptians or ancient or modern southern Europeans.”
Speaking about the “European” crania in the royal tombs of Abydos, which house the first dynasty of unified Egypt:
“The “European” metrics of some of the crania clearly emphasize the contrasts found in the tombs. This may denote the range of variation encompassed by the coastal northern pattern, given its intermediate position, or reflect the presence of middle easterners. There is no archaeological, linguistic, or historical data which indicate a European or Asiatic invasion or migration to, the Nile Valley during the First Dynasty times.”
“Archaeology and history seem to provide the most parsimonious explanation for the variation in the royal tombs of Abydos. Tomb design suggests the presence of northerners in the south in late Nakada times, when the unification probably took place. Delta names are attached to some of the tombs at Abydos, thus perhaps supporting Petrie’s (1939) and Gardiner’s contention that north-south marriages were undertaken to legitimize the hegemony of the south. The courtiers of the northern elites would have accompanied them. Given all of the above, it is not possible to view the Abydos royal tomb sample as representative of the general southern Upper Egyptian population at the time.”
“Trinkhaus (1981) provides upper and lower extremity distal/proximal member ratios from numerous populations, including a pre-dynastic Egyptian and Mediterranean European series. The pre-dynastic Egyptian values plotted near tropical Africans, not Mediterranean Europeans….This suggests that the ancestors of the southern Egyptians were not cold-adapted immigrants to Africa. A sample of definite northern Egyptians may have given different results.”
How can we account for the “north Egyptian-Maghreb” and “European” crania that Keita finds in the royal tombs of the first dynasty at Abydos.
Note that Keita does not say “elongated East African” or “Ethiopian” crania, but he self-consciously uses the terms “Maghrebian” and “European” to describe some of the crania.
“Maghreb” refers to the region between Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, that contains people of Berber heritage, although Keita warns us about equating northern Egyptians with the Berbers. I will leave it to the Afro-centrists to fully interpret the evidence of what Keita calls “European” crania in the royal tombs of Ancient Egypt’s first unified dynasty.
Keita states explicitly that the northern Egyptians and “European” looking people were not representative of the population of southern ancient Egypt (see quote above), and he correctly surmises that they must be from northern Egypt.
Keita also correctly states that there is no evidence of any mass migration into Egypt following the establishment of Pharonic civilization, until the Hyksos invasion. In other words, the northern Egyptians with “Maghrebian” and “European” morphologies were already indigenous to the Nile Valley by the time of the first unified dynasty 5,500 years ago.
However, he does not consider late Paleolithic (10,000-50,000 years ago) or Mesolithic migration into Egypt.
The latest genetic evidence, which Keita has yet to consider, strongly supports the idea that West Asians migrated to North Africa during the late Paleolithic.
So, now we have a better idea of where the “north Egyptian-Maghreb” and “European” looking northern Egyptians come from:
Here are quotes from 4 separate papers written between 2004 and 2007:
“The first detectable expansion occurred around 59,000-69,000 years ago from Africa, independently colonizing western Asia and India and, following this southern route, swiftly reaching east Asia. Within Africa, this expansion did not replace but mixed with older lineages detectable today only in Africa. Around 39,000 52,000 years ago, the western Asian branch spread radially, bringing Caucasians to North Africa and Europe, also reaching India, and expanding to north and east Asia. More recent migrations have entangled but not completely erased these primitive footprints of modern human expansions.”
“World-wide phylogeographic distribution of human complete mitochondrial DNA sequences suggested a West Asian origin for the autochthonous North African lineage U6…..The most probable origin of the proto-U6 lineage was the Near East. Around 30,000 years ago it spread to North Africa where it represents a signature of regional continuity.”
“Sequencing of 81 entire human mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) belonging to haplogroups M1 and U6 reveals that these predominantly North African clades arose in southwestern Asia and moved together to Africa about 40,000 to 45,000 years ago….Thus, the early Upper Palaeolithic population(s) carrying M1 and U6 did not return to Africa along the southern coastal route of the “out of Africa” exit, but from the Mediterranean area; and the North African Dabban and European Aurignacian industries derived from a common Levantine source.”
“We have typed 275 men from five populations in Algeria, Tunisia, and Egypt with a set of 119 binary markers and 15 microsatellites from the Y chromosome, and we have analyzed the results together with published data from Moroccan populations….Autocorrelation analyses reveal an east-west cline of genetic variation that extends into the Middle East and is compatible with a hypothesis of demic expansion….we suggest that the North African pattern of Y-chromosomal variation is largely of Neolithic origin. Thus, we propose that the Neolithic transition in this part of the world was accompanied by demic diffusion of Afro-Asiatic speaking pastoralists from the Middle East.”

Airyana Vaejah
Vanguhi Daitya originated in the sea called the Vourukasha

While Alborz or Mount Hara was the source for both light and water, the Vourukasha Sea is described in the Avesta as the gathering point of water. This important sea occupied ‘one third of the earth, to the south, on the skirts of the Harburz’ [Vendidad 3 21, 66], and was fed by a huge river, the Harahvaiti. Forming the boundaries of the inhabited world were two great rivers, which flowed out from the sea to the east and the west. The rivers were cleansed as they passed around the earth and, when they returned to the Vourukasha, their clean water was taken back up to the Peak of Hara.

In the middle of the Vourukasha grew the very first tree, the source of all plants, described in the Avesta (Yasht 12, 17) as the Saena Tree, Tree of All Remedies or Tree of All Seeds. This tree held the nest of Saena (Senmurv in Pahlavi, Simurgh in Persian), the legendary bird. Growing nearby was another important plant, the ‘mighty Gaokerena’, which had healing properties when eaten and gave immortality to the resurrected bodies of the dead.

The first animal in the world was the ‘bull’. It was white and as bright as the moon. According to Zoroastrian tradition Angra Mainyu, the Evil Spirit, killed it, and its seed was carried up to the moon. From this seed, once thoroughly purified, came many species of animals. It also sprouted into plants when part of it fell to the ground.

The home of the bull was on the bank of the River Veh Daiti (Veh Rod), which flowed to the east from the Vourukasha Sea. On the opposite bank lived Gayomartan (Gayomard in Pahlavi, Kiyumars in the Shahnameh). In Yasht 13, 87 he is described as the first man, as wide as he was tall and as ‘bright as the sun’. Gayomartan was slain by Angra Mainyu

Eraj came from Eran Vej which came from Airyanem Vaejah, the “original Iran”. Salm, representing the Sairimas (Sarmatians) was in the “west”. Tur, representing the Tuiryas or the Turas (the Turanians) represented the eastern hordes. Since we know that the Sarmatians had a wide distribution, from the Caucasus to the region north of the Caspian and Aral Seas, we can see how Airyanem Vaejah could fit just below the Aral Sea region, where the Sarmatians would be the northwest. According to legend, the Turas (Turanians) possessed Sogdiana, hence we can see how they were “east” of Airyanem Vaejah.

THE GUARD AT HVERGELMIR AND THE ELIVAGAR.

It has already been shown (see Nos. 59, 93) that the Elivagar have their source in the subterranean fountain Hvergelmir, situated on a mountain, which separates the subterranean region of bliss (Hel) from Niflhel. Here, near the source of the Elivagar, stands the great world-mill, which revolves the starry heavens, causes the ebb and flood of the ocean and regulates its currents, and grinds the bodies of the primeval giants into layers of mould on the rocky substrata (see Nos. 79, 80). From Hvergelmir, the mother of all waters, the northern root of the world-tree draws saps, which rise into its topmost branches, evaporate into Eikþyrnir above Asgard, and flow thence as vafer-laden clouds (see No. 36), which emit fructifying showers upon Midgard, and through the earth they return to their original source, the fountain Hvergelmir. The Hvergelmir mountain (the Nida-mountains, Niðafjöll) cannot have been left without care and protection, as it is of so vast importance in the economy of the world, and this the less since it at the same time forms the boundary between the lower world’s realm of bliss and Niflhel, the subterranean Jötunheim, whose frost-thurses sustain the same relation to the inhabitants on the evergreen fields of bliss as the powers of frost in the upper Jötunheim sustain to the gods of Asgard and to the inhabitants of Midgard. There is no reason for assuming that the guard of brave sworn warriors of the Asgard gods, those warriors whom we have already seen in array near the Elivagar, should have only a part of this body of water to keep watch over. The clan of the elves, under their chiefs, the three sons of Ivaldi, even though direct evidence were wanting, must be regarded as having watched over the Elivagar along their whole extent, even to their source, and as having had the same important duty in reference to the giants of the lower world as in reference to those of the upper. As its name indicates, Niflheim is shrouded in darkness and mist, against which the peaks of the Hvergelmir mountain form the natural rampart as a protection to the smiling fields of bliss. But gales and storms might lift themselves above these peaks and enshroud even Mimir’s and Urd’s realms in mist. The elves are endowed with power to hinder this. The last strophe in Þórsdrápa, so interesting from a mythological standpoint, confirms this view. Egil is there called hneitir undir-fjálfs bliku, and is said to be helblótinn. Blika is a name for clouds while they are still near the horizon and appear as pale vapours, which to those skilled in regard to the weather forbode an approaching storm (compare Vigfusson’s Dict., 69). Undir-fjálfr is thought by Egilson to mean subterranean mountains, by Vigfusson “the deep,” abyssus. Hneitir undir-fjálfs bliku is “he wbo conquers (or resolves, scatters) the clouds rising, storm-foreboding, from the abyss (or over the lower-world mountain)”. As Egil can be thus characterised, it is easy to explain why he is called helblótinn, “he who receives sacrifices in the subterranean realm of bliss”. He guards the Teutonic elysian fields against the powers of frost and the mists of Niflheim, and therefore receives tokens of gratitude from their pious inhabitants.

The vocation of the sons of Ivaldi, as the keepers of the Hvergelmir fountain and of the Elivagar, has its counterpart in the vocation which, in the Iranian mythology, is attributed to Thjazi’s prototype, the star-hero Tistrya (Tishya). The fountain Hvergelmir, the source of the ocean and of all waters, has in the Iranian mythology its counterpart in the immense body of water Vourukasha. Just as the Teutonic world-tree grows from its northern root out of Hvergelmir, the Iranian world-tree Gaokerena grows out of Vourukasha (Bundehesh, 18). Vourukasha is guarded by Tistrya, assisted by two heroes belonging to the class of mythological beings that are called Yazatas (Izads; in the Veda literature Yajata), “they who deserve offerings,” and in the Iranian mythology they form the third rank of divine beings, and thus correspond to the elves of the Teutonic mythology. Assisted by these two heroes and by the “fevers of the just,” Tistrya defends Vourukasha, and occasionally fights against the demon Apaosha, who desires to destroy the world (Bundehesh, 7). Tistrya, as such, appears in three forms: as a youth with bright and glistening eyes, as a wild boar, and as a horse. Can it be an accident that these forms have their counterparts in the Teutonic mythology in the fact that one of Thjazi’s brothers (Egil-Örvandil-Ebur) has the epithet “wild boar,” and that, as shall be shown below, his other brother (Slagfinn) bears the epithet Hengest, and that Thjazi-Völund himself, who for years was possessor of, and presumably invented, the “remedy against aging,” which Idunn, his beloved, has charge of – that Thjazi-Völund himself was regarded as a youth with a “white neck” (Völundarkviða 2) and with glittering eyes (Völundarkviða 17), which after his death were placed in the heavens as stars?

Noah cursed Ham because he had castrated (not sodomised) him (in the ark (after flood)?) because he didn’t want earth divided up between more than 3 bros there already were, hence Noah had no further sons (Noachites/Noachians) after flood.
Noah’s cursing of (Ham via) Canaan to be a slave was the source of the “Aryan” (Dumezil) tripartite caste system of the code of Manu (flood survivor, 3 sons Sama/Scherma, Chama & Pra-Jyapeti). (The sometimes 4 instead of 3 castes may be incld Noah or giants/Cainites?)

Biblical Shemites:
– Elam;
– Assyria;
– Chaldee, Hebrew, Arab, Moab, Ammon, Edom, Nabatean;
– Aramaeans/Syrians.

modern label “Semitics”:
– Arab; sth Arab; Ethiopia;
– Canaan, Hebrew, Phoenicia, Punic;
– Akkadian, Assyria, Babylonian;
– Aramaic, Chaldee, Syriac, Ahlamu;
– Amorite; Ugarit; Ebla; Hyksos; biblical Hittites.

Biblical Khamites:
– Egypt, Philistines;
– Canaan, Hittites, Phoenicians, Amorites;
– Libya;
– Ethiopia, Sumer, Assyria, Babylonian, Akkadian.

modern label “Hamitics”:
– Egypt, Libya, Ethiopia, Nilo-Hamites.

According to some sources Hamitic is an arbitrary/convenient grouping of 3 branches of Hamito-Semitic/Afro-Asiatic/Erythraic/Adamic (equal status with Semitic branch).

” Ptah-Sekerti-Asar, Chief
of the Amentet, dwelling in the hidden
(secret) place.”

The deposit of the head of the God-man Osiris at Abydos has already been mentioned, and the belief that it was preserved there was common throughout Egypt. But in the text quoted above the deceased says, “My head shall not be separated from my neck,” which seems to indicate that he wished to keep his body whole, notwithstanding that Osiris was almighty, and could restore the limbs and reconstitute the body, even as he had done for his own limbs and body which had been hacked to pieces by Set. Chapter XLIII of the Book of the Dead 1 also has an important reference to the head of Osiris. It is entitled “The Chapter of not letting the head of a man be cut off from him in the underworld,” and must be of considerable antiquity. In it the deceased says: “I am the Great One, the son of the Great One; I am Fire, and the son of the Fire, to whom was given his head after it had been cut off. The head of Osiris was not taken away from him, let not the head of the deceased be taken away from him. I have knit myself together (or reconstituted myself); I have made myself whole and complete; I have renewed my youth; I am Osiris, the lord of eternity.”

From the above it would seem that, according to one version of the Osiris story, the head of Osiris was not only cut off, but that it was passed through the fire also; and if this version be very ancient, as it well may be and probably is, it takes us back to prehistoric times in Egypt when the bodies of the dead were mutilated and burned. Prof. Wiedemann thinks 1 that the mutilation and breaking of the bodies of the dead were the results of the belief that in order to make the KA, or “double,” leave this earth, the body to which it belonged must be broken, and he instances the fact that objects of every kind were broken at the time when they were placed in the tombs. He traces also a transient custom in the prehistoric graves of Egypt where the methods of burying the body whole and broken into pieces seem to be mingled, for though in some of them the body has been broken into pieces, it is evident that successful attempts have been made to reconstitute it by laying the pieces as far as possible in their proper places. And it may be this custom which is referred to in various places in the Book of the Dead, when the deceased declares that he has collected his limbs “and made his body whole again,” and already in the Vth dynasty King Teta is thus addressed–“Rise up, O thou Teta! Thou hast received thy head, thou hast knitted together thy bones, 2 thou hast collected thy members.”

DNA links in Europe and Asia

Both Shem and Japheth possessed the same YDNA key at Haplogroup F. This Haplogroup was carried by all sons of Shem and Japheth, whereas the sons of Ham did not possess this link. The link for Hg F is P14, M89, M213. All Haplogroups from G to R possess this lineage.

From what we see, the lineages of Shem and the tribes Shem from F produced the Haplogroups G, H, I and J.

Japheth produced Haplogroup K and all the groups coming from K are sons of the sons of Japheth.

The sons of Japheth can be identified from the YDNA chart, but the mutations are not as early as the break-up of the sons and thus some of the sons have descendants of differing Haplogroups. For example, the sons of Gomer possess both R1a and R1b combinations, as well as other Haplogroups. Some of the sons of Gomer as listed by the Bible have developed the same Haplogroups as other sons of Japheth.

A puzzle that is posed by modern science is that of the origin of the sons of HN, who split into the N and O Haplogroups. They came from Hg K and they were one line at M214, and from that ancestor they split into N (LLY22) and O (M175). These sons of HN produced a massive number of people.

HN was the ancestor of the Huns and the sons of Han, being the Han Chinese. The dissimilarity is only in a vowel between the two consonants, being Hun and Han. They both had the same ancestor HN at M214. What makes this most fascinating is that the Finns, another Magyar people, of N Hg as are the Huns, speak Uralic-Altaic languages. Hungarian is part of this group as is Turkic, Mongolian, Manchurian, Manchu-Tungus, Old Korean and Japanese. The Mongols and related peoples are Hamitic Group C and the Japanese are Group D with some Group C, but fifty percent of the Japanese are also Hg O coming from the same group, as are the Tibetans. The Tibetans, who are sons of Cush, also are Hamitic Hg D, but they also have fifty percent O. The Southern Han of South China are Hg O with some C and D. The Sumatrans have more than 50% O and less D (say 5-10%). The Malays have less, but some Hg C also. The Hgs C and D are discussed in the paper Sons of Ham Part II: Cush (No. 45B). The Lapps/Sami are also Hg N, as are some Lithuanian Ashkenazim. Most Ashkenazim are Hg R1a. Ashkenaz is a tribe of Gomer. Riphath is the second son of Gomer and most of Riphath YDNA is R1b.

The only son of Gomer that could qualify is Togarmah, which occupies the uttermost parts of the North, which is what we see with the Lapps/Sami and Finns and the tribes in northern Russia/Siberia. The problem that is posed by this YDNA link is that China also has K, and the K, M and O Haplogroups extend into South-East Asia in the Malays at O with some C and D, and Borneo and Sumatra at O with some C and K. The Papuans are mostly Hg K, and the West Papuans or Irian Jayans are Hg M with a significant amount of Hamitic C. The Philippinos and the North Polynesians also have significant Hg O. The Philippinos have some 15% K, C and D mix, whilst the Maori are predominantly are C3, which is Hamitic. Some 20% of Australian Aborigines and Torres Straight Islanders are also Hg K. They are thus not a homogenous group of one origin but are of three distinct tribal origins from Ham at C4 and two from Japheth at Hgs K and RxR1basic. These are later mutations.

The earliest maps tend to show relationships of
land forms such as rivers and coasts to the borders of farms, cities, and
tribes or nations. Early cosmological maps tend to portray centers of
civilization as squares-reflecting the division of land into quarters or
regions aligned to compass coordinates or the apparent east-to-west rotation of
the sun, moon, and stars.

With the earliest roundtrip ocean voyages, the cosmographers added square
shaped oceans around their square-shaped “Known World.” And around the
border of the square ocean was another ring of square land to hold in the
water. We can see lingering examples of this archaic type of map in the
square-shaped Hindu cosmological world maps. The overseas land remained rather
nebulous-a curiosity of the imagination-until priests, explorers, and
entrepreneurs began adding names to designate actual places overseas. An early
Egyptian name for the overseas land was “Seket-hetepet” (meaning “Fields
of Peace” or “Earthly Paradise”). This naming occurred by approximately
3000 BCE.

Plenty of the Egyptian cosmological “maps” of the Earthly Paradise have
survived in schematic form as temple murals and as illustrations on papyrus
scrolls that are known as “Books of the Dead.” Though mythical in
conception, they none-the-less confirm that Egyptians regarded the overseas
Paradise as a very real place.

Already, many ancient seafarers made frequent voyages to the new lands for
valuable metals and exotic goods that they could sell for great profits in the
Mediterranean markets. But, as is often the case with cautious fishermen, the
secret sources overseas remained unnamed, unmapped, and unknown to the
uninitiated. Minoan metal traders seem to have adopted a peculiar symbol, the
Labyrinth, as a kind of propaganda to keep out interlopers who coveted their
hoards of copper and gold. The Labyrinth, or Maze, represented the convoluted
caverns of the Underworld. According to the Minoan propagandists, only they
knew the secret passages to the Realm of Hades and how to safely find their way
back home again.

Of course, the other maritime civilizations also had their names for the
generalized lands across the seas. Chinese priests and poets spoke of the
glorious “Fu Sang;” the Babylonians praised the gardens of “Dilmun;”
Greeks boasted of the Golden Apples of “the Hesperides;” Romans praised
“the Fortunate Isles;” and the Celts had “Hy Bresail.” But these names
represented vast, mysterious regions-perhaps entirely new continents-not
specific places.

Egyptians began the process of identifying a specific place or locality
with the naming of an overseas “Land of Punt” circa 2500 BCE. No maps have
survived to document the location of this mysterious land. Indeed, the one
place where we might have expected the preservation of an ancient Egyptian map
of overseas lands, the Library at Alexandria, was burned on three occasions by
invading armies-with the result that the greatest repository of ancient
knowledge was lost. Nevertheless, there are clues regarding where “Punt”
might have been located.

The name “Punt” is a reference to a sanctuary of good hunting and good
times. For the Egyptian royalty and wealthy class, punting was a kind of sport
that involved hunting birds or fishing in marshy areas while cruising about
peacefully on a skiff or “punt”-that is, a small boat made of reeds that
was propelled through the marsh reeds using a pole that was also called a
“punt.” Polling this boat through the reeds was called “punting.” So,
basically, the Land of Punt was a reference to the carefree lifestyle that the
wealthy had a chance to enjoy along the margins of the Nile River during flood
stage; and they presumed that after death, they would engage in such leisurely
activities for the rest of eternity. This mythical religious vision not only
offered hope for a beautiful “life-after-death” for Egyptian royalty; it
also provided a mythical foundation for the Christian vision of an Earthly
Paradise for true believers. The Egyptian Paradise, known as the Land of the
Gods or the Abode of Osiris, was said to be situated across the Ocean in the
Land of the Setting Sun. This was a land of paradoxes-because it
simultaneously served the interests of a dogmatic clergy who insisted that it
was a sacred land that was forbidden to mortals, while it was also a principal
destination for merchants who knew that it was the source of valuable metals
(gold, silver, copper, tin), incense (copal), dyes (brasilwood, “grano de
brasil” or cochineal), red pearls, turquoise, and some delightful new
drugs-cocaine, tobacco, and chocolate. Punt was located in the
“Underworld”-the Land of Hades who was renowned for wealth that was
obtained from the mining and distribution of valuable metals.

The Egyptian Pharaoh Sahure sent an expedition to Punt in about 2500 BCE.
The expedition is said to have taken four years to bring back assorted
treasures including 80,000 measures or units of incense. Cinnamon, a spice from
the Far East, was also part of the cargo. Modern Western historians tend to
suggest that Somalia, a country directly south of Egypt, was the destination
for sailors going to Punt. Such a destination offers the best explanation for
those who hope to keep the Egyptians safely in waters that do not threaten the
Eurocentric doctrine of New World discovery by Columbus; however, Somalia does
not actually explain most of the clues relating to the many Egyptian voyages to
Punt. Of course, the picture could be somewhat confused for historians due to
the common practice of mariners who stopped at ports in Somalia on their
voyages to-and-from some more distant lands across the seas-where they picked
up cheap exports of ebony wood, ivory, and perhaps baboons. Some of the exports
that have been used to reinforce the notion of Somalia as a destination for the
Punt Expeditions were ebony and ivory. These were also available in the markets
of Lebanon directly to the north of Egypt.

The Steward, Hennu or Hannu, led an expedition to Punt for Pharaoh
Mentuhotep III in about 2000 BCE. Materials for the ships were carried on
donkeys through Wadi Hammamut to a port on the Red Sea. Gum and perfume are
mentioned as imports.

Queen Hatshepsut sent an expedition to Punt circa 1492 or 1493 BCE. Some
writers relate that five or eight ships sailed from the port of Al-Quseir on
the Red Sea; others visualize an expedition from Coptos on the Nile River and
west across the Mediterranean Sea. Probably, there were at least two
expeditions that were later somewhat confused in the simplified inscriptions on
the Queen’s Temple walls at Dier el-Bahri. The expedition is said to have
found dome-shaped buildings in Punt that were made from reeds and set on pylons
so as to be above flood waters or high tides. This type of building was found
along rivers south of Somalia on Africa’s east coast and also along the
shores of the Gulf of Mexico. Punt was also called “the Land of the
Gods”-which is probably a reference to the ancient notion of an Earthly
Paradise or Abode of Pharaohs in the Far West across the Atlantic Ocean.

The inscription at Dier el-Bahri indicates that Hatsehpsut sent the
expedition to Punt after having a vision from god. This was offered as a
rationale why the Pharaoh Queen would dare to send ships to a place that the
orthodox clergy regarded as “forbidden” to ordinary mortals. This same
prohibition against seafarers was also a factor in Medieval Europe that
repressed voyages overseas or at least restrained seafarers from bragging about
what they had found across the Atlantic Ocean.

One objective for Hatshepsut’s expedition was to obtain myrrh trees or
fragrant incense trees to adorn her Temple. The sailors brought back ebony,
ivory, gold, incense (myrrh or possibly copal and sandlewood), monkeys, and
royal ambassadors (a king and queen) that were presumably returned to Punt on a
second expedition. According to the inscription at Dier el-Bahri, the sailors
brought back plants that had never before been seen in Egypt. Therefore, it is
perhaps not too surprising that the Queen’s carved and painted murals include
the first conclusive evidence of New World maize that is seen in many later 18th
Dynasty temple murals and papyrus scrolls (a.k.a., Books of the Dead) from about
1500 BCE to 1300 BCE. The Queen also claimed sovereignty over “the Land of the
Setting Sun” (obviously, not Somalia).

Folklore related to Punt includes “the Song of the Shipwrecked Sailor.”
It is mentioned that the voyage back from Punt took two months. There was a
prototype “devil” in the form of a serpent who could talk; although,
Egyptians regarded many serpent gods as beneficial. It was said that voyagers
going to Punt “followed the track of the sun.” That is, they sailed west
following the setting sun-which is about the same course that Columbus
followed to Antilia and the Caribbean Sea three thousand years later. Another
intriguing clue is the claim that the wheat (or corn) of the Egyptian paradise
reached eight cubits high (or about 16 feet). Some varieties of maize, unlike
any other grain, grow that high-or higher. In West Africa, grain imported
from Egypt was identified as “Misr or Masra”-which are variations of an
ancient name for Egypt. The modern name for maize, from the native Taino word
“mahiz,” could have been derived from the West African word for Egyptian
corn. West African Moslems sailed to the Caribbean Sea shortly before the
Europeans arrived; and their name for maize could have influenced the Taino
natives who told Columbus that their corn was called “mahiz.”

After her death or departure from Egypt, Queen Hatshepsut’s brother,
Tuthmose III, is said to have mounted several voyages to Punt. These must have
paled by comparison to the Pharaoh’s many expeditions into the Middle East
where he robbed the Semitic population of their hoards of gold, ivory, and
other treasures.

Pharaoh Haremhab III sent an expedition to Punt in about 1323 BCE.
Something in Punt seems to have been very important to the Egyptians. Perhaps
it was copper, as James Bailey suggests; or perhaps it was the new kinds of
drugs and other exotic imports?

In about 1279 BCE, Pharaoh Ramses II sent an expedition to “the Inverted
Waters.” Such a designation indicates Egyptian knowledge that the earth is a
sphere and that voyagers to lands on the opposite side of the earth were
effectively “upside-down” (or inverted) with respect to Egypt. Discovery in
the 1990s that the mummy of Ramses II contained residues of such New World
medicinal plants as tobacco and cocaine support the notion that his expedition
to the Inverted Waters reached the coast of the Americas.

The disk-shaped earth on the Saqqara world map (c. 350 BC; NYC Met)
confirms Egyptian knowledge of the spherical nature of earth. This would have
been regarded as “arcane” or privileged knowledge that the top astronomers
regarded as unsuitable for the common farmers who would probably be scared to
death to think that they were standing on a sphere that was flying through
space around the sun. Likewise, most Medieval Europeans were kept in the dark
by repressive Church doctrine that placed the earth at the center of the
Universe-even while people like Chaucer and Galileo knew this was not the
case. Wise astronomers kept silent as those who revealed arcane knowledge
risked being burned to death as a threat to Church dogma. This arcane knowledge
was the real “DaVinci Code”-the real threat to Church authority and
power-and many scholars and scientists lost their lives at the hands of
Church officials while striving to learn the secrets of nature.

While the location of Punt remains somewhat speculative, Egyptian artifacts
and influence found in Central America and the presence of maize, pineapples,
and squash on Egyptian murals of the 18th Dynasty as well as tobacco and
cocaine in Egyptian mummies (all New World plants) indicate that Punt was one
of several trading centers located along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico.
Solomon and Columbus serve to tie Punt to later maps showing New World lands in
this region.

According to Hebrew chronicles, King Solomon received sailing instructions
to an overseas land of gold as a wedding present from the father of an Egyptian
princess. Some writers suggest that this was a legacy from Queen Hatshepsut.
King Solomon renamed the overseas land “Ophir” in honor of a grandson of
Moses. As was the case with Punt, it seems that there were several places that
eventually got called “Ophir.”

Enlil was considered the ideal king. Enki came to define the ever-faithful deputy.The choice of words in the Blessing of Joseph characterizes Enki/Enoch as an afflicted but fruitful (parah) limb of a tree with widely spreading branches. Enki was a limb (arm/hand/son) of the superior god Enlil, and was relegated to the lower lands. In Egypt, Enki was known as Ptah and for establishing the house of his own son Ra (Per-Ra), the archetypal pharaoh (per-a’a). The aggressively clambering branches (ben, sons/offspring) of Ptah/Enki were numerous and eventually crowded Shu/Enlil within his own palace wall (shuwr).In response, Enlil appointed his true son the Lord Ninurta-Geb, specifically called the “The Archer,” to keep them in check. He was joined in this task by Enkimdu-Set, also of the male line of Enlil-Shu. The Blessing of Joseph states that the archers (baal)37 sorely grieved (merar-merar)38 him, shot (rabab) at him, and hated (satam) him, but that his arms (zeroah)39 were was only strengthened as a result. As the Blessing of Joseph indicates, he ultimately acquired the title, “Lord of the Universe.” He dominated both the upper and lower regions, including the heights of the heavens and especially the watery deep (tehom) below (toah).40 There was in practice no bound (taavah derived from ta-ah) to the authority delegated to Ptah.

The leading son of Ptah/Ea, namely Re/Marduk, did find a way to overstep his bounds by approving the murder of Osiris/Dumuzi. According to the Sumerian King List, the ancient god and namesake of Dumuzi was a “shepherd” and had one of the longest reigns of the gods. However, the reign of the later Osiris-Dumuzi came to an abrupt end in only his 29th year. In Genesis, his killer Re (or Ra),41 is given the name Irad son of Enoch. Irad means, “(the) fugitive,” and recalls this god’s flight from Egypt to Babylon, not as a hero but as a goat. The one that was slain, Osiris/Sokar (archetypal Issachar), is called the Patriarch Mehujael, “killed by God.”

The next Patriarch, Mehushael, “he who is of God,” corresponds to Horus the Elder (archetypal Judah son of Jacob). Horus the Elder was a brother of Ptah. In Mesopotamia he was known as Ishkur/Adad, and considered a full brother (even the “twin”) of Ea/Enki. Both were sons of An/Anu by Ninhursag (Egyptian Hathor). After the death of Osiris and departure of Re, Set became lord of Upper Egypt, and Horus the Elder was granted the rule of Lower Egypt. Thus began the legendary duel between Horus and Set. Initially, Horus the Elder gained the upper hand forcing Set from Egypt to Canaan. However, after re-establishing himself in Phoenicia, Set then defeated and killed Horus the Elder in the Valley of Megiddo, the archetypal battle of Armageddon. Henceforth, Horus the Elder became known as “Horus who is in Osiris.”

In Italic traditions the titan Atlas, the king of the Hyperboreans, appears also as ancestor of the Ausones, in particular of the Latins and the Romans

But Tahmooress, his son, was not unworthy of his sire. He too opened the eyes of men, and they learned to spin and to weave; and he reigned over the land long and mightily. But of him also
were the Deevs right envious, and sought to destroy him. Yet Tahmooress overcame them and cast them to earth. Then some craved mercy at his hands, and sware how they would show him an
art if he would spare them, and Tahmooress listened to their voice. And they taught him the art of writing, and thus from the evil Deevs came a boon upon mankind.
Howbeit when Tahmooress had sat upon the golden throne for the space of thirty years he passed away, but his works endured; and JAMSHID, his glorious son, whose heart was filled with the
counsels of his father, came after him.

Thraetaona (Thahmoureth)

“Pandia, Pangenia & Doxophania are names given the All Mother [earth].” Page 232 of the Schimidt translation of “The Book of Ieou”, [a gnostic manuscript which G.R.S.Mead believes attributable to Valentinus, page 284 “Fragments of a Faith Forgotten” Valentinus lived in the first century AD, page 571 on Gnosticism “Encyclopedia of Religion”].

“We have Pandions, Pan-dis, Pan-deas, Pandus…This means Universal God…Pan-di-Man-dalam [India], means the circle or district of the holy Pan, or district sacred to the Catholic [meaning; universal] God…Respecting the Pans, I cannot help believing that, under a mythos, a doctrine or history of a sect is concealed…Indeed I cannot doubt that there has been really one grand empire, or one Universal, one Pandaean…religion with one language, which has extended over the whole of the world…I believe…that for many generations the arts of reading, writing, and the higher branches of arithmetic, were secret, sacred, and astrological; that they were solely confined to the priesthood…and…was probably that of which we read so much in the Indian books, described by the name of the empire of Pandaea…From the Pandaean system the name of God, al, came to mean all…Sometimes Pan was called the God of all, sometimes Jupiter [Deus-pater]”
Page 44,438,439,440&443 Vol. 1 and 234,284 Vol. 2 “Anacalypsis” by Godfrey Higgins.

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