Nun

In the coming forth from the cavern the risen one exclaims, ‘Let the two doors of earth be opened to me: let the bolts of Seb open to me: and let the first mansion be opened to me, that he may behold me who hath kept guard over me, and let him enclose me who bath wound his arms about me, and hath fastened his arms around me in the earth.’….. in the ritual.

‘I am Osiris, who shut up his father and his mother when (or whilst) the great slaughter took place. I am Horus, the eldest of Ra, as he riseth. I am Anup on the day of rending asunder.’….. in the ritual.

The tomb of Seb, the earth, becomes the garden of Joseph; the ‘bolts of Seb’ are replaced by the great stone that Joseph rolls against the door of the sepulchre, and he who kept guard over the mummy-Osiris in the sepulchre is represented by the guard who watches over the tomb in the history.

Of old the heavens were always falling down when they consisted of water without any bulwark or embankment. To put a limit, to build or make any firm enclosure, was to circumscribe the waters and secure a place of refuge from the dreaded deluge. In the time of Ptah, their great architect, the Egyptians were advanced enough in craftsmanship for the enclosure formed by him to keep out the waters of the deluge in Amenta to be made of either iron or steel, called the ba-metal. An ark was a primitive enclosure formed in the celestial water. This, as Egyptian, is the ark of Nnu, and Nnu is heaven, as water, also a name for the deity of the celestial water.
In a papyrus at Turin the god who claims to be self-existent says, “I make the waters and the Mehura comes into being. ” That is heaven as the celestial water. In a hymn to Ptah it is said, “The waters of the inundation cover the lofty trees of every region.” These, however, are the waters of Nnu or the Nun (Renouf, H. L., pp. 221-2), and not the overwhelming flood of water on the earth. When the mehura first came into existence it was a heaven imaged as the water that was undivided by the astronomers, the islands or other land-limits that were figured in the aerial vast; and heaven as the celestial water was the Nnu or Nun.
It is not necessary to suppose that the Egyptians were the helpless victims of their own symbolism, who lived in mortal dread of the celestial waters falling down and overwhelming them in a deluge once for all. But there can be no doubt that the water-flood on earth against which the early race was powerless produced a profound and permanent impression, so that the deluge idea became associated with the firmamental water. This can be proved by the mythical deluge dramatically represented in the Ritual. “I am the Father of the Inundation,” says Anup at the northern pole, whence the waters issued in the deluge of the Nun
In the chapter by which the ship is sailed in the nether-world, the speaker not only sails across the water of Nnu, for he says, “I come from the lake of fire and flame, from the field of flame,” and he stands erect and safe “in the bark which the god is piloting, at the head of Aarru,” that is, on the summit of the mount, or final resting-place of the ark (Rit., ch. 98, Renouf), which the deceased had safely reached through fire and flood. On entering the solar bark the Osiris says, “I have come myself and delivered the deity from the pain and suffering that were in the trunk, in shoulder, and in leg. I have come and healed the trunk and fastened the shoulder and made firm the leg. And I embark for the voyage of Ra.” The leg of Osiris, like the leg of Nut or the leg of Ptah, imaged the supporting power of the pole. The manes pleads, “Let not the Osiris Nu be shipwrecked on the great voyage” (ch. 130). ‘Let not disasters reach him.” “May the steering be kept clear from misadventure.” “Let me come to see my father Osiris” (ch. 99). “O, thou ship of the garden of Aarru, let me be conveyed to that bread of thy canal as my father, the great one, who advanceth in the divine ship” (ch. 106, Renouf). “Lo, I sail the great bark on the stream of the god Hetep. I took it at the mansion of Shu” – the starry heaven (ch. 110, Renouf). “I sail upon its stream and range within the garden of Hetep” (ch. 110).
There is a great bursting forth of the floods in Amenta, described in the Ritual as a vast and overwhelming inundation. This [Page 552] passage of the waters shows the deluge-legend in the Kamite eschatology. The Osiris calls upon the lord of the flood, “the great one who is shoreless,” to save him. “Do thou save me!” “I who know the deep waters” is my name. But “I am not one who drowneth. Blessed are they who see the bourne. Beautiful is the god of the motionless heart who causeth the stay of the overflowing – or the flood. Behold! there cometh forth the lord of life, Osiris thy support, who abideth day by day.” “The tunnels of the earth have given me birth.” This overflow of the great waters called the flood also occurs in Sheol amongst the other trials and tribulations of the sufferer represented in the Hebrew book of Psalms. “The channels of waters appeared, and the foundations of the world were laid bare” (ch. 18). “He drew me out of great waters.” As one means of salvation from the overwhelming waters the manes clings to the sycamore-tree which standeth in the lake of Akeb. He exclaims, “I embrace the sycamore, I am united to the sycamore-tree.” That is, to Osiris in the tree, the tat or pole, the type of fixity to be clasped for safety amid the waters rising round the soul in death and in the darkness of the nether earth.
We learn from this that the bursting forth of the waters in an overwhelming flood was based upon the natural fact of the inundation in Egypt. The imagery had been reproduced in heaven, and also in Amenta, the lower Egypt of the nether-world. A great catastrophe caused by the waters that have broken out of bounds is more than once referred to in the Ritual. The Osiris says to the powers, “Grant ye that I may have the command of the water, even as the mighty Sut had the command of his enemies on the day of disaster to the earth. May I prevail over the long-armed ones in their (four) corners, even as that glorious and ready god prevailed over them” (Renouf, ch. 60). The bursting forth of the waters is described as a great disaster. In this chapter there is an application of the deluge imagery to the sun in the mythos and the departed soul in the eschatology. With the Egyptians, the supreme type of helpfulness and charity, or of love to the neighbour, was an ark or boat that offered safety to the shipwrecked amidst the waters. Hence, when pleading in the Hall of Judgment the speaker claims to have “done the right thing in Tamerit” (Egypt), he clinches it by saying, “I have given bread to the hungry, water to the thirsty, clothes to the naked, and a boat to the shipwrecked” (ch. 125).
The subject-matter is very ancient. It belongs to that early time when Sut was a pre-Osirian form of the Good Being, in relation to the pole, the dog-star, and the inundation of the Nile. Here the deluge of the inundation is a deluge of destruction directed against the workers of evil. In short, it does what the [Page 553] inundation did for Egypt in washing away the result of drought, in cleansing from corruption and restoring a healthy new life to the land. Hence the deceased desires to have the same command over the waters in Amenta that Sut had when they burst forth in a drowning flood. Thus, 6,000 years ago the so-called “deluge legend” was ancient in Egypt, and it belonged to the time when Sut, in command of the waters, had not lost his place in glory; and his deluge was employed to destroy the Sebau, the Sami, the Apap-dragon, the long-armed ones, and other evil enemies of God and man who were not human beings

Ta is the earth and land or earth in the Nun is “Ta-nen”, which is the name of the earth in the waters of the Nun, the lower earth of the Egyptian Tanen. Tanen as a locality was earlier than Amenta, and the name was continued in the title of Ptah-Tanen, the opener of the earth, which had been founded in the Nun by the order of gods or powers called the “Nunu”, as fellow-males, and a form of the first company, who were seven in number. In the Hebrew account of creation, the earth and firmament were already extant, but “the earth was waste and void; and darkness was on the face of the deep”. Therefore the beginning is with the formlessness of the unfeatured Nun.
In the Chaldean account of creation (first tablet, line 5). The dry land is made to appear. “And the Elohim called the dry land, earth, and the gathering together of the waters they called seas”.
Now Ûrnes, the river of Duat, flows into the primevalocean in which Nu has his abode.

Tat and Tatu, in the Osyric religion was a mountain or place, the Olympos or Egyptian paradise, situated in the northern parts of the ancient world. In the times of the Pelasgian domination, had been introduced in Egypt, as well as in Greece, the religious mysteries and doctrines of the Hyperboreans, about the places of eternal bliss, which were in the northern parts of the river Oceanus, called Nun by the Egyptians. Tat or Tatu is the residence of Osyris after he died, a place identical with Tartaros, where Saturn lived after his dethronement.

THE ABODE OF THE BLESSED.
The Egyptian heaven.

The gods of the Egyptians dwelt in a heaven with their ka’s, and khu’s, and shadows, and there they received the blessed dead to dwell with them. This heaven was situated in the sky, which the Egyptians believed to be like an iron ceiling, either flat or vaulted, and to correspond in extent and shape with the earth beneath it. This ceiling was rectangular, and was supported at each corner by a pillar; in this idea, we have, as M. Maspero has observed, a survival of the roof-tree of very primitive nations. At a very early date the four pillars were identified with “the four ancient khu’s who dwell in the hair of Horus,” who are also said to be “the four gods who stand by the pillar-sceptres of heaven.” These four gods are “children of Horus,” and their names are Amset, Hapi, Tuamautef, and Qebhsennuf. They were supposed to preside over the four quarters of the world, and subsequently were acknowledged to be the gods of the cardinal points. The Egyptians named the sky or heaven pet. A less primitive view made the heavens in the form of the goddess Nut who was represented as a woman with bowed body whose hands and feet rest on the earth. In this case the two arms and the two legs form the four pillars upon which the heavens are supported. Nut, the sky goddess, was the wife of Seb, the earth god, from whose embrace she was separated by Shu, the god of the air; when this separation was effected, earth, air, and sky came into being. Signor Lanzone has collected a number of illustrations of this event from papyri and other documents, wherein we have Seb lying on the ground, and Shu uplifting Nut with his outstretched hands. The feet of the goddess rested on the east, and her hands on the west this is shown by the scene wherein Shu is accompanied by two females who have on their heads “east” and, “west” respectively. The child of the union of Seb and Nut was the Sun, who was born in the east in the morning, and who made his course along his mother’s body, until he set in the west in the evening. The moon followed the sun’s course along his mother’s body, but sometimes a second female is represented bowed beneath Nut, and this is believed to signify the night sky across which the moon travels. In an interesting picture which M. Jéquier has published the goddess is depicted lying flat with her arms stretched out at full length above her head; on her breast is the disk of the sun, and on her stomach the moon. Those who believed that the sky was an iron plane imagined that the stars were a numbers of lamps which were hung out therefrom, and those who pictured the sky as a goddess studded her body with stars. One scene makes the morning and evening boats of Ra to sail along the back of Nut; another depicts Shu holding up the boat of the sun wherein is the disk on the horizon. A third from the sarcophagus of Seti I. represents Nu the god of the primeval water holding up the boat of the sun, wherein we see the beetle with the solar disk facing it accompanied by Isis and Nephthys, who stand one on each side; behind Isis stand the gods Seb, Shu, Hek, Hu, and Sa, and behind Nephthys are three deities who represent the doors through which the god Tmu has made his way to the world.

The Tuat, or abode of the dead.

Within the two bowed female figures which represent the day and the night sky, and which have been referred to above, is a third figure which is bent round in a circle; the space enclosed by it represents according to Dr. Brugsch the Tuat or Egyptian underworld, wherein dwelt the gods of the dead and the departed souls. This view is supported by the scene from the sarcophagus of Seti I. In the watery space above the bark is the figure of the god bent round in a circle with his toes touching his head, and upon his head stands the goddess Nut with outstretched hands receiving the disk of the sun. In the space enclosed by the body of the god is the legend, “This is Osiris; his circuit is the Tuat.” Though nearly all Egyptologists agree about the meaning of the word being “the place of departed souls,” yet it has been translated in various ways, different scholars locating the Tuat in different parts of creation. Dr. Brugsch and others place it under the earth, others have supposed it to be the space which exists between the arms of Shu and the body of Nut, but the most recent theory put forth is that it was situated neither above nor below the earth, but beyond Egypt to the north, from which it was separated by the mountain range which, as the Egyptians thought, supported the sky. The region of the Tuat was a long, mountainous, narrow valley with a river running along it; starting from the east it made its way to the north, and then taking a circular direction it came back to the east. In the Tuat lived all manner of fearful monsters and beasts, and here was the country through which the sun passed during the twelve hours of the night; according to one view he traversed this region in splendour, and according to another he died and became subject to Osiris the king, god and judge of the kingdom of the departed.

The Fields of Aaru and Hetep.

The souls of the dead made their way to their abode in the “other world” by a ladder, according to a very ancient view, or through a gap in the mountains of Abydos called Peka according to another; but, by whichever way they passed from earth, their destination was a region in the Tuat which is called in the pyramid and later texts Sekhet-Aaru, which was situated in the Sekhet-Hetep, and was supposed to lie to the north of Egypt. Here dwell Horus and Set, for the fields of Aaru and Hetep are their domains, and here enters the deceased with two of the children of Horus on one side of him, and two on the other, and the “two great chiefs who preside over the throne of the great god proclaim eternal life and power for him.” Here like the supreme God he is declared to be “one,” and the four children of Horus proclaim his name to Ra. Having gone to the north of the Aaru Field he makes his way to the eastern portion of the tuat, where according to one legend he becomes like the morning star, near his sister Sothis. Here he lived in the form of the star Sothis, and “the great and little companies of the gods purify him in the Great Bear.” The Egyptian theologians, who conceived that a ladder was necessary to enable the soul to ascend to the next world, provided it also with an address which it was to utter when it reached the top. As given in the pyramid of Unas it reads as follows’:–“Hail to thee, O daughter of Amenta, mistress of Peteru of heaven, thou gift of Thoth, thou mistress of the two sides of the ladder, open a way to Unas, let Unas pass. Hail to thee, O Nau, who art [seated] upon the brink of the Lake of Kha, open thou a way to Unas, let Unas pass. Hail to thee, O thou bull of four horns, thou who hast one horn to the west, and one to the east, and one to the north, and one to the south, . . . . . . let Unas pass, for he is a being from the purified Amenta, who goeth forth from the country of Baqta. Hail to thee, O Sekhet-Hetep, hail to thee, and to the fields which are in thee, the fields of Unas are in thee, for pure offerings are in thee.”

Power of the gods of Annu.

The souls of the dead could also be commended to the care of the gods above by the gods of Annu, and thus we find it said in the pyramid of Unas: “O gods of the west, O gods of the east, O gods of the south, O gods of the north, ye four [orders of gods] who embrace the four holy ends of the universe, and who granted to Osiris to come forth to heaven, and to sail over the celestial waters thereof with his son Horus by his side to protect him and to make him to rise like a great god from the celestial deep, say ye to Unas, ‘Behold Horus, the son of Osiris, behold Unas, the god of the aged gods, the son of Hathor, behold the seed of Seb, for Osiris hath commanded that Unas shall rise like the second of Horus, and the four khu’s who are in Annu have written this command to the great gods who are in the celestial waters.'” And again, “When men are buried and receive their thousands of cakes and thousands of vases of ale upon the table of him that ruleth in Amenta, that being is in sore straits who hath not a written decree: now the decree of Unas is under the greatest, and not under the little seal.”

The plan of the Sekhet-Hetep which we find in the Book of the Dead during the Theban period will be described below, and it is therefore sufficient to say here that the ideas of the happy life which the deceased led had their origin in the pyramid texts, as may be seen from the following passage:–“Unas hath offered incense unto the great and little companies of the gods, and his mouth is pure, and the tongue which is therein is pure. O ye judges, ye have taken Unas unto yourselves, let him eat that which ye eat, let him drink that which ye drink, let him live upon that which ye live upon, let your seat be his seat, let his power be your power, let the boat wherein he shall sail be your boat, let him net birds in Aaru, let him possess running streams in Sekhet-Hetep, and may he obtain his meat and his drink from you, O ye gods. May the water of Unas be of the wine which is of Ra, may he revolve in the sky like Ra, and may he pass over the sky like Thoth.”

Of the condition of those who failed to secure a life of beatitude with the gods in the Sekhet-Aaru of the Tuat, the pyramid texts say nothing, and it seems as if the doctrine of punishment of the wicked and of the judgment which took place after death is a development characteristic of a later period.

It is related in very old Egyptian legends that when Shu-Anhur lifted up the paradise or park of Am-Khemen he was compelled to make use of a mound or staircase with steps to it in order that he might reach the height. This mound, says Maspero, was famous throughout all Egypt. The event (as supposed history) took place at Hermopolis, the city of which Thoth was lord; therefore we may look to the lunar deity for the origin of the step-mound. A figure of this mound may be seen in vignettes to the Ritual as a pyramid with seven steps called the ladder or staircase of Shu.
Shu, the lion of breathing force and uplifter of the firmament. to be third of the elemental powers born of the ancient Genetrix. Shu upraised the heaven of day in one character and the heaven of night in the other.. He is a pillar of support to the firmament as founder of the double equinox.. He sustains the heaven with his two-pronged stick, his two arms, or with the two lions of force which represent himself and his sister Tefnut the lioness. It was at the equinoctial level that the quarrel of Sut and Horus was settled for the time being by Shu.
Shu thus stands for the equinox as the link of connection betwixt Sut and Horus in the north and south. The heaven in two parts. south and north, as the domains of Sut and Horus was now followed by the heaven in three divisions that was upraised by Shu as establisher of the equinox in the more northern latitudes. And this heaven in three divisions was the heaven of the Triangle which preceded the one built on the square, by Ptah. Horus and Sut had been the twin builders and the founders south and north. Shu followed with the new foundation in the equinox, which was double, east and west. Sut, Horus, and Shu then, aided by his sister Tefnut, founded the heaven of the triangle based upon the two-fold horizon and the crossing. Shu as the equinoctial power is the third to Sut and Horus of the south and north. With him a triad was completed and the two pillars with a line across would form the figure of the triangle ∇
three brothers Sut, Horus and Shu with one female (as the mother or sister Tefnut) Law and order were established by putting “bounds to the contentions of the powers” and by dividing the whole universe from Zenith to Nadir into the two domains called the portion of Sut and the portion of Horus.
When Ptah had built his mansion in the double earth the two horizons were united, or, as it is said, the double earth became united, “the union is in the house of Ptah”, and “the two pillars of the gateway in the house of Ptah are Horus and Sut”. The united ones made peace; they fraternized completely. They made a treaty.”Geb says to Horus and Sut”, “there shall be an arbitration between you”. Geb said to Horus, “come from the place where thy father was submerged”, that is in the north. Geb said to Sut, “come from the place where thou wast born”, that was in the south. “A mountain in the midst of the earth unites the portion of Horus to the portion of Sut, at the division of the earth”. This, in the solar mythos, was the mount of the equinox.. Now Horus and Sut each stood upon a hillock; they made peace saying “the two earths meet in ANun for it is the march (border) of the two earths”.. In this legend there is a shifting of boundaries from south and north to east and west in the union that is now contracted in the house of Ptah, “in the house of his two earths in which is the boundary of south and north” that was drawn from east to west by the equinoctial line. “Here the united ones fraternized completely. They made a treaty”; which was sustained by Geb. And henceforth the twin powers, Sut and Horus, now called Horus and Sut, who had stood as the two pillars, south and north, for the two poles in Apta, are now “the two pillars of the gateway to the house of Ptah”; which two pillars are afterwards portrayed as the double Tat of eternal stability in the making of Amenta (Text from Memphis).
Before the solar god attained his supremacy as the determiner of time Shu was the readjuster of the power of the equinox.. Hence Shu is said to have kept the contention of these warring powers within bounds and brought about their reconcilement (Rit., ch. 110). Thus the “reckonings of Shu” involved the readjustment of the equinoctial point and re-establishing the equilibrium of the equinoxes in the different reckonings of time.
The three seasons of four months each would naturally lead to the circle of the Ecliptic being measured and divided into three parts, which tripartite division was followed, at a distance, by the Babylonians in their mapping out of the sphere, and continued by them in afar later calendar of twelve signs. The Egyptian month was divided into three weeks of ten days each, which obviously corresponded to the heaven of the triangle, the tripartite ecliptic, and the three seasons in Egypt. Then followed a heaven of four quarters or sides. in which may be traced the houses of Sut, Horus, Shu and Thoth; but the division of the month or moon and the Ecliptic in three parts equated with the three seasons in a circle or zodiac that was measured monthly by the lunar god with his 3 X 10= 30 days. The two roads of heaven had been divided between the twin brothers Sut and Horus. The three roads were next divided between Sut, Horus, and Shu in the heaven of the triangle that stood as it were upon a tripod = three roads of the south, north, and equinox.
Type after type, the mythical Great Mother and her children passed into the legendary lore of the whole world. The mother and her twins were followed by the mother in the character of sister, who is the companion of three brothers, our Sut, Horus, and Shu in the triangular heaven or triple division, the uranographic symbol of which was constellated in “Triangula”, composed of three stars held in the hand of Horus (Drummond,Oed. Jud., pl. 3).
The god of the Triangle was of a threefold nature in the trinity of Sut, Horus, and Shu, which three were one with the mother in the heaven of the Triangle, the mount with the triple peaks, the Ecliptic: in three divisions, the year in the three seasons, the month in three weeks. The Triangle, like the Oval, is a figure of the female, as it was on the Goddess Nana in Babylonia.
Now these four appear upon Mount Hetep when the later heaven is portrayed in the ten divisions that preceded the final twelve as a trinity of primeval, powers united with the Great Mother, who was the abode as Triangle when the heaven was not yet builded on the square (Rit., ch. 110). The other four brothers who make up the group of seven great gods (at least in one form) are Amsta, Hapi, Tuamutef, and Kabhsenuf, who stand on the lotus or papyrus, and are the four gods, paddles or eyes of the four quarters. Thus, the seven are: (I) Gebek-Horus, the crocodile; (2) Sut, the water-bull; (3) Shu, the lion; (4). Hapi, the ape; (5) Tuamutef, the jackal; (6) Kabhsenuf, the hawk; (7) Amsta, the man, who, together with the Great Mother, were the founders.

In all the mythologies the Pole-star is an emblem of stability, a seat or throne of the power who is the highest god pro Tum., as was Anup in Egypt, Sydik in Phoenicia , Anu in Babylonia, Tai-Yih (the arch-first) in China, Avather, or Zivo, in Mesopotamia, and others. It was not the seat that was worshipped, but the power; the sustainer and the judge that was enthroned upon the stellar Mount of Glory as the god. The Pole-star was a type of the eternal, because apparently beyond the region of time and change. It was the earliest type of a supreme intelligence which gave the law in heaven that was unerring, just and true; if only as the law of equipoise or, as we should now say, of gravitation. This was the sole point at which there seemed to be any certainty of foothold in that moving ocean of the starry infinite. And this became a standpoint in the heavens for the mind of man to rest on at the centre and radiate to the circumference. The summit was well-named the Mount of Glory. Around this island-mount the hosts of heaven appeared to wheel by night in one vast, glorious, never-ceasing “march past” in the presence of the “Royal Arch” or, more religiously regarded, the Most High God. The earliest law in heaven was given on the mount because the mount was an image of the pole.It was administered by the judge, whether as Anup, in the north, or Sut as jackal of the south, because the jackal in Egypt was a zootype of the judge.

Horus was the highest in the solar mythos, the highest being worshipped as the “Only One”. Anup and Tehuti then became two witnesses to the supremacy of Horus, the one as the eighth, who in turn became the witness for his father, Ra-Unnefer.

As a group, the eight great gods of Am-Khemen were followed by the Put-cycle or Ennead of the Nine. The word Put, whence the name of Putah or Ptah, denotes the number nine, and the Put-cycle was formed when Ptah was added to the earlier eight great gods. Neither Anup nor Thoth was now the highest one. The groups of seven and eight, however, were not submerged. The group of seven survived as the seven Khnemmu, moulders or metallurgists who assisted Ptah the divine craftsman, and the group of eight to which he was the ninth god are sometimes described as the children of Ptah.. In an inscription at Edfu they are called “the most great of the first time; the august who were earlier than the gods, children of Ptah, who issued forth from him, engendered to take the north and the south, to create in Thebes and in Memphis; the creators of all creation”, according to the later, i.e. solar, mythology. The earliest form of a divine father-hood was outlined though not perfected in the pygmy Ptah; hence one of his titles is “the Father of the Fathers”, which indicates the father-hood that was founded on the eldest brother. Ptah was a solar god who did not attain the status of Ra.

Now, until the time of Ptah, Amenta was not founded as the earth of eternity in the subterranean regions, nor excavated from one horizon to the other as a pathway for the nocturnal sun and the Manes. Gebek swam in the water round about the earth from west to east upon the outside of the mount. Horus crossed the waters on the wings of the hawk. Behutet or Aten of the disk rode on the wings of the vulture, Tum-Horus was the calf that issued from the cow of earth, and Har-Makhu passed from one side of the mount to the other through the body of the Sphinx. The Amenta had not then been hollowed out. The passage through the mount from west to east was tunnelled now by Ptah and his co-workers, who in this character might be called his seven navvies. When Ptah, the supreme craftsman of the gods, constructed his terrestrial and subterranean house of the double earth he built it on the earlier foundations, such as the Akar and Tuat of the abyss that were previously extant. The two pillars of the south and north were likewise utilized. As it is said in. the mythological text from Memphis, “the two pillars of the gateway of the house of Ptah are Horus and Sut”, which had previously represented the two poles of Sut and Horus, the twin founders, as we show, in the beginning. Ptah the great architect of the universe, who followed the earlier sky-supporters, Sut, Horus, and Shu.

Kamite Khemenu, the eight great gods in Am-Khemen, the heaven upraised by Shu. Kamite cows, the givers of plenty in the meadows of Aarru, that rest by the still waters at the head of the river of light and the twin lakes in the region of the north celestial pole. The Kamite Amenta is “the grave of man’s lost world”, where his legendary garden of the beginning may be rediscovered.. In this subterranean country will be found a copy of the primary paradise of all mythology, which can be restored from the Ritual and the imagery set in the stars of heaven, and proved to be the work of ancient [Page 346] Egypt’s wisdom. The most primitive imagery was sacredly preserved in Amenta, which makes the Book of the Dead an eschatological record of the beginnings in mythology that is unparalleled, and not until we have mastered the wisdom of Egypt as recorded in Amenta shall we be enabled to read it on the surface of the earth. First comes the natural fact, next the mythical representation, and lastly the eschatological application of the type, be it the mount, or tree, the Deluge, the ark, the evil serpent, or the victorious young hero.
The primal paradise of universal legend was above the earth upon the summit of the mount, up which the spirits climbed to reach the region of eternal rest among the stars that never set. It was configurated round about the pole of heaven. This has yet to be depicted as the mount of glory. The later paradise was sub-terrestrial, the earthly paradise of legendary lore. The first was stellar, the last is solar, and it is this last that was founded on the subterranean path of the nocturnal sun first opened up by Ptah. The duplicating of paradise was partly a result of repeating the imagery of the stellar representation in the solar mythos. The mount of glory in the east was added to the mount of glory in the north, with the wide water of the heavens flowing round between the terrestrial and celestial paradise beyond the ocean in every direction there exists another continent which cannot be reached by man, but of which one part was inhabited by him before the Deluge.. To the east, just as in other maps of the world and in later systems, he placed the terrestrial paradise and the four rivers that watered Eden which came by subterranean channels to water the post-diluvian earth (Blake, Astronomical Myths, pages 266-7). This can be followed by means of the upper paradise of Am-Khemen, that was raised by Shu, and the lower one now configurated by the opener Ptah, who suspended a sky overhead in Amenta.
In the mythology, Amenta is the subterranean country of the sun by night. The dawn and sunset were its gates of glory. It is called the beautiful Amenta, the earth of eternity. It was the passage of the sun that made the pathway of the solar circle which was completed in the eastern equinox.. Hence it is said of the sun-god, “The junction of the double earth is the head of the coffin of Osiris, the beneficent soul in Sutenkhen, who hath determined the paths of eternity”, that is in completing a circle by making the passage through Amenta (Rit., ch. 17, Renouf). The road to heaven for the manes now began with a pathway through the nether earth, from the place of sunset to the gate of sunrise.. Previously the way to heaven was up the mount which was a figure of the north celestial pole. There was no solar passage through the nether regions in the stellar mythos; the sun went round the mount of earth, not through it. Ptah the opener added earth to earth and heaven to heaven, the solar mythos to the stellar. The sky upraised by him is indicated by the figure of heaven reversed. It is called the firmament of Ptah.. Hence it is said by the Osiris in Amenta, “Mine is the radiance in which Ptah floateth over his firmament” (Rit., ch. 64), his firmament [Page 347] being that of the nocturnal sun in the under-world. There was now a firmament above and one below the earth. The firmament uplifted first by Sut, Horus, and Shu was supplemented by a nether sky up-raised and suspended by the opener Ptah. The Nun, nun, or heaven is the celestial water, and this, as sky, was both above and below the earth.. Now, the account of creation in the book of Genesis, with its waters above the firmament and its waters below the firmament, could not have been written until the division of these waters of heaven above the earth and of Amenta below the earth was effected when Ptah created the firmament of the nether-earth and raised another heaven in Amenta.
When the sun-god Atum-Ra mounts into heaven from the garden of Aarru it is from the lower Aarru in the secret earth of Amenta.. Hence it is said at the same time he “goeth to the field of Aarru, approaching to the land of spirits in heaven” (Rit., ch. 17, Renouf), i.e., to the upper Aarru, which was in the heaven of eternity, not in the nether-land of the double earth, called the earth of eternity. This duality has to be completely comprehended before the Ritual can be read, or its traditions followed round the world, as for example, in the Hebrew Genesis and the Assyrian legends of creation.
Paradise in Amenta is said by the deceased to be the “beautiful earth of eternity”. But the deceased does not stay in it as his place of repose. It is not the eternal dwelling.. In passing through Amenta he is bound for the heaven of eternity above. This below is but the earthly paradise, and there is an upper paradise to be attained across the celestial waters by those who can secure a seat in the boat of Ra. The typical mount was doubled; a mountain east was added to the most ancient mount of the north, which sometimes makes it look as if the site of the primitive paradise had been shifted and slewed round from the north to the east. The mistake hitherto made regarding the mount is in supposing the mount of earth, or Amenta, to be identical with the mount of the north, whereas the two belong to two distinct systems of the mythos, stellar and solar. The mount of heaven was stellar in the north; the mount of earth is solar in the east. The mount of heaven had its summit at the north celestial pole; the mount of Amenta was level with the sky-line on the horizon. There is also a double judgment seat, and a twofold judgment.. One great hall was in Amenta. The other was at the apex of the hill of heaven, the maat of the final judgment that was given on the last great day. When the two are sundered, we sometimes find the judgment seat is imaged at the north celestial pole; at others, the great judge is seated as the Rhat-Amenta or Rhadamanthus, in the maat of the nether-earth.
The garden of Aarru or paradise of the eight great gods, whom we identify as a group with the seven in the Lesser Bear, plus the deity of the pole-star, was in the north. Not on the horizon north, but at the celestial pole that was figured as the summit of a very lofty mount, the mythical mountain of the north, diamond-pointed at the apex with the polar star, whereas the Semitic Eden is the garden eastward. Mount Hetep it may look as if the mount were all in one, but it is not so. There was a double mount; the mount of earth which was solar, and the mount of heaven which was stellar.. In the Ritual (ch. 108) the mount of earth is said to be “the hill on which heaven resteth”. This is called the hill Bakhu, the solar mount. Its dimensions in length and breadth are given in some of the early papyri.. In the Papyrus of Nebseni the hill is 300 cubits in breadth.. In the Turin Ritual it is 140 cubits in breadth
This stellar mountain in the northern heaven and solar mountain in the east will likewise account for the twofold mount of the Babylonians. Above the earth extended the sky, and revolving round the mountain of the east, the column which joined the heavens and the earth and served as an axis to the celestial vault. The culminating point of the heavens, the zenith (Nuzku) was not this axis or pole. On the contrary , that was situated immediately above the country of Akkadia (in the north), and was regarded as the centre of the inhabited lands, whilst the mountain which acted as a pivot to the starry system was to the north-east of this country. Beyond the mountain, and also the north-east, extended the land of Aralli, which was rich in gold, and was inhabited by the gods and blessed spirits. Gilgames, “To the mountains whose name is double, to the twin mountains in his course he came”.The mount of earth or Amenta below was entered in the west. The upper mount was also, entered at the west in the heaven of the setting stars.
tat or pole of Ptah supporting the nether sky.. In Chinese legendary lore there is a pillar that sustains the earth. They also have a pillar which sustains the heaven. These two correspond to the pillar of Shu that supports the firmament above and the tat-pillar of Ptah which supports the earth in Amenta below. These are distinct from each other; they belong to two entirely different mythical creations and cannot be resolved into one single pillar derived from the mount of earth as axis – [Page 352] pillar of the heavens. Heaven had rested on the pillar of the earth or the pillars raised upon the mundane mount by Shu. But the tat-pillar of Ptah was erected in the nether earth of two. Consequently our earth was then supported on the pillar of Ptah. Egyptian, there are two divine pillars answering to the double mount, which we call the pillar of Shu and the tat-pillar of Ptah.. One is the sustainer of the firmament above the earth, the other is the support of the firmament below the earth. The two together are the double pillars of earth and heaven.
The backbone was a figure of the pole: it is at one time the backbone of Sut, at another the backbone of Anup, at another of Ptah or Osiris – the backbone being a natural type of sustaining power. This at first was single as a figure of the pole. It was duplicated in Amenta, the same as was the pillar of support and other figures of sustaining power. The power of Ptah in Amenta is not simply that of the pillar or backbone. These are doubled in the earth of eternity to express his power as sustainer of the universe. The figure is referred to in the magic papyrus as the long backbone of Ptah, the Nemma. “O Nemma of the great face, of the long backbone, of the deformed legs! O long column which commences in (both) the upper and the lower heaven. O lord of the great body which reposes in ANun”, the place of the column or pole, now doubled in Amenta (Magic Papyrus, Records, vol. x., p. 152). There was a tendency to blend the twofold mount in one as in the double Mount [Page 353] Meru, which is sometimes denominated the North Pole, but was primarily a figure on earth of the pole in heaven, like the mound of earth and the cone or pillar. But Meru was doubled or divided into upper and lower, called Su-Meru and Ku-Meru, when it imaged the mount that was opened for the passage of the heavenly bodies through the nether earth.. One mountain standing in the east and one in the north were not vertically blended in one. They were symbolical of the double mount of earth and heaven as a figure, but this was in the end, not. at the starting-point.
The Kamite teachers also imaged the two poles as the two trees called the two sycamores of the south and north. The later tree in Eridu, as well as the Norse tree Yggdrasil, was compounded of the two as the tree which had its roots down south or in the under-world, and its branches high up in the northern heaven; a two-fold tree that corresponded to the double mount.. Again, the rock is a co-type with the mount, and the double rock is equivalent to the two-fold mount. These two were also blended in one as in the rock that “begat” the Israelites. The rock and the double rock are both mentioned in the Ritual. Thoth the moon-god is said to be the “son of the rock proceeding from the place of the two rocks” in Anruti (Renouf, ch. 134). The name of Anruti identifies the double rock with the double horizon, which was also called the double mount,[SET hieroglyph] .The son of the rock who proceeds from the two rocks is the moon-god as the son of earth and heaven, or son of the double mount of earth and heaven, the two rocks having been blended in one as a typical figure of Osiris, the rock of eternity, imaged as the pole of heaven. The two-fold origin of the mythical mount is now sufficiently established in relation to identifiable natural facts which alone can furnish the proof that the mount, the pole, the tree, the paradise, pillar, column, or backbone were single in the stellar and are duplicated in the solar mythos, and that this duplication followed on the making of Amenta. The Rig-Veda speaks of “him who, as the collective pillar of heaven, sustains the sky” (Wilson, 3. 143, 144). This collective pillar was the dual type of the two-fold mount of earth and of heaven imaged in one figure of support. The Hebrew pillar of the lower and upper paradise that is called “the strength of the hill Zion” was another form of the collective pillar. As Egyptian, this collective pillar was the double tat of Ptah erected in Amenta. The tat-pillar of Ptah and Osiris was continued in the ancient Germanic Irmin pillars, which were mostly made of wood. The mythical pillar Irminsul was that which joined together earth arid heaven, like the mount of Amenta and the tat-support of the gods. The Irmin-pillars were a form of the Hermae in Greece that were set up as boundary signs at cross roads and street corners to mark the extent of certain lands. This points to an origin for their name.. In Egyptian the word remen or ermen denotes the extent as far as the limit or boundary. Rema or erma is a measure of land. The deity Irmin, like Hermes of the pillar, was a god of boundaries.
If the mount or the pillar had been single and not double, there would have been no voyage across the water that flowed between the mount of earth and the mount of heaven; no need of boat or bridge [Page 354] or place of “jumping off” from one side to the other.. If the mythical mount had simply been a single figure of the universe axis (as O’Neil describes it), the climbers would have gone straight up to heaven, whereas the solar mount of glory in the east did not and could not blend vertically with the stellar mount of glory in the north. The mount was dual; the water ran betwixt the two, and that necessitated the means of crossing from one to the other.. Nothing could make the universe axis twofold, in keeping with the double mount of earth and heaven. And this duality alone will explain why one type should be considered female, the other male. The mount or pillar of earth was an image of the Great Mother as bringer-forth, and the mount or pillar of heaven was typical of the fatherhood, the “rock that begat”, or rather of two sexes in one nature as they were blended in the deity Ptah, Atum, Osiris, Ihuh, and Brahma. The type of this duality is to be seen in the navel, the umbilicus, and the nabhiyoni united and imaged in one as a figure of the birthplace and prototype of the navel mounds; the pit below and the pile of stones above, the well and pyramid, the church and steeple, the grave and monument.

When the solar mythos had been added to the stellar, the pathway to paradise was through the nether-world. The road of the sun in the mythos now became the road of souls in the eschatology. The entrance to the under-world was consequently in the west. The maker of the road was the nocturnal sun as the bull or god of the west.. One name of the western hill is Manu. It is said to Ra when setting, “Wake up from thy rest; thine abode is in Manu” (Rit., ch. 15). This apparently survives in the Samoan Mane. At death, the soul went to a paradise in the western horizon called Mane= Manu.
When the nether-world had been completely excavated by Ptah, Amenta was established as the lower storey of two in the mount of earth which henceforth becomes the mount of Amenta. The name denotes the hidden or secret (Amen) earth (ta). It is also called the earth of eternity, the land of the living; for the Egyptians call those the living whom the less spiritualistic moderns designate the dead. The mount of earth became the mount of Amenta because Amenta had been tunnelled through the lower earth. It became the funereal mount because Amenta was the earth of the manes.. In the Egyptian chart the west is the beautiful gate of entrance to this divine nether-world, otherwise called the land of life. It is not paradise itself, but the way to it through purgatory. The beautiful gate of exit was at the place of sunrise, not sunset, in the garden eastward, and this was the locality of the terrestrial paradise, which was a copy of the garden of Aarru first configurated in the circumpolar heaven of the stellar mythology. The dead in Egypt were called “the westerners”. On the way to the place of burial the mourners sang the funeral song “To the west, to the west, to the west!”. The mummy was ferried over the water to the western mount, where Hathor-lsis or the cow waited to receive the solar god, and in his track the souls of the departed. The entrance to the mount was shown as the mouth of the cow, or cleft in the rock. The sun-god made his passage through the mount of earth, or the sphinx, for his rebirth and resurrection on the eastern side, and the opening- in the rock was at the end or at the summit, in the Tser hill, the rock of the horizon.. In the Russian märchen Prince Ivan = Horus the prince, climbs up the magical ladder to get into the “great house” of the “tremendously high steep mountain”.. His sister = the princess, or lunar lady, calls to him from the balcony. “See, there is a chink in the enclosure. Touch it with your little finger and it will become a door! “. This he does, and obtains entrance into the mountain of Amenta. (Ralston, Russian Folk-tales, 102.)
In the lower paradise was the land of gold, not as metal, but as the glory of the sun by night. The sun god rising from this land that was yellow with gold is thus addressed, “Adoration to thee, who arisest out of the golden and givest light to the earth” (Rit., ch. 15, Renouf). Still, mining for metals had commenced when Ptah and [Page 359] his pygmy workers hollowed out the under-world. Amenta was based upon the mine. It was the secret earth in which the treasures were concealed. These were guarded by the dragon, but they were likewise known to the dwarfs, the wee folk, the fairies, the Tuatha de Danan. Amenta was the land of precious metals and the furnace of the solar fire.. Hence Ptah, the miner, became the blacksmith of the gods, the Kamite Vulcan.. Some missing details respecting the work of Ptah the metallurgist may be found in the Greek rendering of this god as Hephaistos. Ptah, working in concert with the goddess Mati, built the great double hall of Truth and Justice, which was gilded and glorified with his precious metal. Hephaistos is the architect of the house of the gods. As a proof that his place and work are in the nether earth, Hephaistos does not know what occurs until he learns it from the coming sun.
A subterranean pleasaunce opened to the eastward of the mount of earth called now, the earth of eternity. This is a paradise to which the manes look forward on their path of progress. It was the field in which they had to till and grow the divine harvest as the food of the gods.. For Aarru was apportioned on the small allotment system.. Each one had a share of arable land to cultivate, and by the fruit was known and judged at the great harvest-home as a true worker or a lazy one; and by their labour in this spirit-world Egyptians earned their living for the life hereafter. The lower Aarru, the garden eastward in Amenta, is that earthly paradise of legendary lore in search of which so many heroes sailed.. In the Erik Saga, Erik sets out in search of Odainsakr, a form of the Norse paradise, which is said to be encircled by a wall of fire.. He enters a dark forest-land in which the stars are seen by day. A dragon bars his way across the river – the Apap of darkness in the valley of darkness (Rit., ch. 7).. He rushes into the monster’s mouth and passes through its body – a common way with the solar hero. Erik emerges with his companions in the land of light, the lower paradise of the mythos. After awhile they come to a tower that is suspended in the air without any visible supports; access to it was obtained by means of a ladder that enabled the seekers to reach the top of the tower, which had neither foundations nor pillars. They had now attained Odainsakr, the earth of living men, the Egyptian land of the living, but not the upper paradise, the place of spirits perfected, which is said to be so glorious that Odainsakr in comparison was but a desert. Erik’s is but the journey of the nocturnal sun or the aNunal sun in the inferior hemisphere represented in the primitive form of a passage through the nether-earth.
The aim and end of the Osiris on the journey by water or by land is to reach the circumpolar paradise and secure a place among the stars that never set, the glorious ones that “beacon from the abodes [Page 360] where the eternals are”. The mount of earth was the point of emergence in the mythology. It was the place of birth for the sun upon the mount to the east where the Temple of Gebek-Horus stood.. In the eschatology it was the place of rebirth for the souls or manes who ascended by the mount or by the tree of dawn to the summit from which they entered the bark of the sun to make the voyage over the waters round to Manu in the region of the west. This under-world, with its mount of birth as a point of departure for the sun and manes in the east, became the traditional birthplace and point of departure in the legends of various supposed ethnical migrations of a similar nature to that of the Jews in the exodus from Egypt.
The passage from the mount or island of earth to the mount of the upper paradise across the water was already mapped out in the time of Pepi I., as the following extract from his pyramid shows: “Hail thou who (at thy will) makest to pass over to the field Aarru the soul that is right and true, or dost make shipwreck of it (if wrong).Pepi is right and true in respect of the island of the earth, whither he swimmeth and where he ariseth”. (Budge.)
This is not very clear, but the island of the earth is the mount on the eastern summit of which the manes joined the solar bark to make the voyage from Mount Bakhu east to Mount Manu in the west on their way to the mount of glory at the north celestial pole. Thus the pathway for the dead from this life to the upper paradise was laid down by the Egyptians. It was they who tunnelled the mount of earth and hollowed out Amenta with its places of purgatory, its hells, its paradise of plenty in the Aarru meadows; its means of ascent for the Manes by the mount or up the tree; its solar bark and boat of souls that voyaged over the waters of the Nun from east to west; its steps or ladder that was raised at the landing-place by night for the ascent to heaven in the upper Aarru paradise. Led by the jackal Anup as guide through all the ways of darkness, and lighted by Thoth, the lunar god, who carries in his hand the lamp of light and eye of Horus as the moon of Amenta shining through the night, we emerge at length from underneath the upper earth.. We are now outside the mount of earth, which stands upon a vast illimitable plain of the nether-world.. We thus retain our foothold in the Nun where upper earth comes to an end.. We follow the track of the sun and therefore issue on the eastern side of the . mountain, which the solar god ascends at sunrise when seen by the dwellers on the upper earth.. Now we are facing the solar east and the garden eastward.
Apuat, the opener of roads, raises him up and acts the part of the giant Christopher in carrying him across the waters ( ch. 44).. He wanders in the wilderness where nothing grows.. He obtains command of the water in the nether-world and prevails over the deluge.. He escapes the second death (ch. 58). The double doors of heaven are opened for his coming forth ( ch. 68).. Still following the course of the sun, the passage of Amenta endeth with the garden eastward and the ascent by which the Manes enter the bark of Ra.
The sun goes down to Amenta in the west each night, but their sun sets no more. They have done with the mount of earth in the mythology, and come to the mount belonging to the heavens. But there is a great gulf fixed between the mount of Amenta and the stellar mount of glory. This is the lake of darkness and the lair of the Apap-dragon. The void is spoken of as the cavern of Putrata, where the dead fall into darkness. It is also called the void of Apap.. In strict accordance with natural phenomena, the gulf or void of Putrata lay betwixt the place of sunset on the western side of the mount of earth and the heaven of the setting stars. It is the prototype of the abyss or lake of outer darkness, the pit, in the Christian version of the legend; the great gulf that was fixed betwixt those who remained in the lower Amenta and those who had attained the bosom of Ra, an Egyptian expression for the boat. On the other side of the water “Shu standeth erect, and the non-setting stars are instantly active in raising the ladder” by which the sinking souls or setting stars are saved from destruction in the lake of outer darkness. These steps are carried round from east to west for that purpose on board the solar bark. (Vignettes to Ritual.). This is described as “that most conspicuous but inaccessible stream” when conTemplated from the earth. (Rit., ch. 98.). When the departed reach the starry shore, the seven steps or ladder for ascending the mount of heaven is now erected in the boat. This ladder, as Egyptian, was double in the time of King Pepi. It is called the ladder of Sut for the ascent from [Page 362] Amenta, and the ladder of Horus for the ascent to heaven. A bark that can ascend the stream awaits the voyagers. This picture of the bark that made its glorious journey upward to the circumpolar paradise was obviously constellated as the Argo Navis, which is figured in the position of ascending backwards on the white waters of the Milky Way. The cavern and gulf of Putrata no doubt existed when there was as yet no boat or bridge extant.. Hence in various legends the manes have to spring from one side of the chasm to the other .
Birds in the Kamite representation, fly to the regions of eternal rest. As Egyptian, this road was a great stream, because with them the water was their earliest way ( ch. 86). Another Egyptian name for the heaven as water is urnas or uranus. This we claim to be the Kamite original of the Greek uranus. Dr. Birch renders it in his dictionary “Urnas, Ouranos, the celestial water”. The Egyptians did not personalize it under that name; still, the urnas is the celestial water, and urnas=uranos. The okeanus that flows around the world was neither a fabulous sea nor a stream of water, but the firmament itself, that was figured as the celestial water surrounding the mount of earth. Through this ocean ran the great stream of the white water or the Milky Way. Thus we have the Oceanus and the ocean stream of Homer for the first time separately identified.. Again, the water appeared divided into two lakes at the head of the celestial river united to form one stream in the Via Lactea. The system of the waters in the Bundahish is identical with the Egyptian. It is said that all the waters in heaven and earth had their origin in the heavenly mount of Ardvi Sura at the summit of Alborz upon which the red cow rested. There is but one source and only place of discharge for all the rivers in the world. This was the river of the Milky Way, which the Egyptians figured as [Page 363] descending from the celestial lakes to be continued in the lakes and in the Nile below.. In China the Yellow River is looked upon as a continuation of the Tien Ho, or Milky Way, the river of heaven continued as the river of earth (Mayers’ Manual, page 98).
The Osirian looking heavenward in death exclaims, “O very high mountain! I hold myself in thy enclosure” (Rit., 149, 14).. He also says, “A divine domain hath been constructed for me. I know the name of it; the name of it is the garden of Aarru”. (Rit., ch. 109, Renouf.). But the enclosure at the summit of the mount was not only figured as a paradise of plenty. It was a dwelling-place which had expanded to a city; the city of the blessed, the holy city, the city of the great king, the heavenly city, the eternal city, that was the model of Memphis and ANun, Thebes and Abydos, Eridu and Babylon, Rome, Jerusalem, and other sacred cities of the world. On approaching this, the Osirian says, “I stand erect in the bark which the god is piloting, at the head of Aarru, and the non-setting stars open to receive me and my fellow-citizens present to me the sacred cakes with flesh” ( ch. 98, Renouf).. In an earlier chapter he had said, “I arrive at my own city” ( ch. 17). On the Stele of Beka the speaker says, “I reach the city of those who are in eternity”.. That is the eternal city. When the Osiris has attained the land of eternity he says his future is in ANun.. That is ANun as a celestial locality, ANun as the eternal city, not Heliopolis in Egypt. (Rit., ch. 133.) ANun, like Tattu, was a form of the celestial city at the pole.. An is a name of the mount and the column, the pole, and in ANun was the pillar, fortress, or rock of eternity.
As a city it was the city of the white wall. As the seat it was the great white throne of the eternal. As a country’ it is the land of the silver sky. It is also known as the mountain of white limestone, the stone of Sut. The house constructed by Ptah was double-storied, a house of the lower and upper paradise combined in one. Finally, the heaven of astronomical mythology was figured as the great house of Osiris. This included all the previous formations: the circle of the Bear; the heaven of Sut and Horus, south and north; the triangular heaven of the ecliptic; the heaven built on the square; the double house of Amenta below the earth, and the eternal dwelling-place above, whence the house of Osiris at Abydos, called the mansion of Geb and Nu, or earth and heaven, was built in two stories. (Magical Texts, page 6; Records, vol. vi. page 118)
Kamite city of the white wall, the celestial Ha-Ptah-Ka.. To the dweller in ANun the eternal city was ANun on the summit of the celestial mount.. To the dweller in Thebes the eternal city was Thebes on high.. To the dweller in Jerusalem the eternal city was Jerusalem above. Only once was there a mundane original for the paradise or later city set in heaven at the pole.. That is demonstrably derived from the land, the river, the ANun, the Troy or Teriu of Egypt. The Egyptians set “the pattern in the mount”, and from this the later builders of the sacred cities, the ark cities, on the mount of heaven, derived the plan. The city of Troy on earth was a type of the eternal Troy upon the summit of the mount.. Both city and name are demonstrably Egyptian, as Troy= Terui. Terui denotes the circumference or enclosure, and this was a name of SeseNun, and consequently of Am-Khemen – the paradise of the eight, the enclosure on the mount of heaven which afterwards supplied a name for the city of Troy in Greece. The “Tale of Troy” is based on the downfall of the great city on the summit, which was the lofty dwelling-place of those whom we may term the people of the pole. The Greeks are solarites, with the sun-god Achilles as their leader. This fall occurred when the stellar representation was followed by the luni-solar mythos. The fall of Babylon in the book of Revelation is another form of the tale of Troy; and both were representations of the one great original in the astronomical mythos. The Semites would have had no heaven on the summit of the mount to go to if the Egyptians had not enclosed it and planted it, and showed the way in their astronomy. They would have had no Sheol if the Egyptians had not excavated the Amenta for the passage of the sun in their mythology and for the souls in the eschatology. And it is by means of the Egyptian imagery that we shall be able to restore something of the lapsed sense to the Hebrew writings.
Entrance into the eternal city was preceded by baptism, with Anup, father of the inundation, as the baptiser and sprinkler both in one. On approaching the two lakes the speaker says, “Lo, I come that I may purify this soul of mine in the most high degree. Let me be purified in the lake of propitiation and equipoise. Let me plunge into the divine pool beneath the two divine sycamores of heaven and earth”. (Rit., ch. 97, Renouf.). This precedes the sacrament or eating of the sacrifice consisting of bread, beer, and meat.. He also [Page 365] says, “Give me bread and beer. Let me be made pure by the sacrificial joint, together with the white bread”, that is, by partaking of the sacrament. (Rit., ch. 106, Renouf)
Heaven as a house had been founded by Sesheta or Sefekh, a form of the old First Mother as co-worker with Thoth in the lunar mythos. Atum-Ra was also a builder of the house in the solar mythos.His son lu-em-hetep, the Egyptian Solomon, was the builder or designer of the Temple to whom. The Book of the Model of the Temple is ascribed (Dümichen, Temple. Inschriften, vol. i., pi. 97). It was the Temple in heaven that was built without the sound of workmen’s tools; “there was neither hammer nor axe nor any tool of iron heard in the house while it was building” ( I Kings, vi. 7). The twelve kings”, continues Herodotus, “determined to leave in common a memorial of themselves, and having so determined, they built a labyrinth, a little above the lake of Moeris”. This labyrinth “surpasses even the pyramid”. It has twelve courts enclosed with walls, with doors opposite each other, six facing the north and six the south.
The Egyptian Ta-Nuter or divine land of the gods is usually described as being in the Orient.

But there was also a Ta-Nuter Meh-ti, which is rendered by Brugsch, “das nördliche Gottesland”, (Brugsch, Astron. and Astrol. Inscript., p. 179). [Among the countries of the Egyptian sky geography included areas such as “the land Mafket” or the Sinaihalbinfel, “Punt the country” (the Somaligegcnd), “the country Uthenet”, “Upper Kenemti” and “the northern land of God” or Arabia ^).] This was the land of the gods in the north – that is, the polar paradise in heaven, not an elevated part of our earth. The breeze of the north was the breath of life to the Egyptians. It is synonymous with blessedness. The paradise of Hetep is the garden blessed with breezes. The breeze of the north, however, would not represent heaven to the dwellers in the northern quarter of the world. But the paradise was figured in the north originally, and there it remained in every land to which the wisdom of Old Egypt went.

This will explain the paradise of Airyana Vaêjô described in the Avesta. Ahura-Mazda tells Zarathustra that he has created a delectable spot which was previously unapproachable or nowhere habitable. But in this first of regions and best of countries there was winter during ten months of the year. “Ten months of winter are there, two of summer, and these (latter) are cold as to water, cold as to earth, cold as to plants; then as the snow falls around there is the direst disaster” (Vendidad, Fargard, i.). The good god made the good creation, and Angro-Mainyus, the dark and deadly, is said to have formed a mighty serpent and brought on the frost that was created by the Daevas, who correspond to the Gebau in the Ritual as agents of evil in physical phenomena. It is also said in [Page 379] the Minokhird (p. 322, ff.) the Dev of winter is most vehement in Airyana Vaêjô. Which does not mean that the primal paradise was created at the northern pole of the earth, to be overtaken by the glacial period. The true interpretation is that the legendary paradise was astronomical, and that it was an enclosure at the north celestial pole, and not in the northern regions of the earth.. In the Vendidad version it has been made geographical and rendered according to climate in some northern region of the earth; the evils of a winter world being then attributed to the devil, or the opposition of the black mind, Angro-Mainyus. There was no frost or winter in the circum-polar paradise, nor in the African birthplace of the legend in the oasis, whereas frost and winter were both met with in the highlands of the north, whether in Asia or in Europe, and this leads to a paradise in which there are ten months of bitter winter weather, which is the result of rendering the celestial by the terrestrial north.. In a supplement to the first Fargard of the Vendidad the time has been changed to suit a milder climate: “Seven months of summer are there; five months of winter were there”, which is in direct contradiction to the original text, and also opposed to the prototypal paradise with the life-giving breeze of the north in Africa, but is suitable to a milder climate, although one that is still in the cold north. The Chinese paradise, like the Egyptian, is at the north pole, the apex of the celestial mount. The summit is the seat of the gods. Heaven divided into the ten regions of space is identical with the Kamite heaven at the summit of Mount Hetep, that was divided into ten divine domains (Rit., ch. 110) which followed the celestial heptanomis and the enclosure of Am-Khemen, and preceded the zodiac with twelve signs.. In no country is the mount of the north more sacred than in China.. For thousands of years the Chinese emperors have ascended the holy mountain T’ai to offer sacrifice to heaven. This mount is designated “Lord of the World”.. To the north there is nothing but hills upon hills. It has 6,000 steps of hewn stone, each fifteen feet in length, leading upward like a staircase to the skies, exactly the same as the throne of Osiris, who “sits at the head of the staircase”.
One ideograph of Hetep, the mount of glory, is a table heaped with provisions as the sign of plenty.. In the mythical rendering it is a table-mountain. This will explain the round table of King Arthur and that table of the sun which was said to exist among the Ethiopians as described by Herodotus. “There is a meadow in the suburbs”, he says, furnished with the cooked flesh of all sorts of quadrupeds. It is filled with meat at night, “and in the day time whosoever chooses comes and feasts upon it. The inhabitants say that the earth itself from time to time produces these things”. Such is the description given of what is called the table of the sun. (Book iii. 17, 18.). This table of the sun is referred to in the Ritual (rubric to chs. 1 and 72).. If the deceased has kept the commandments, it is said that there shall be given to him bread and beer and flesh upon the table of Ra – that is, the table of the solar god, which was the table-land upon the summit of Mount Hetep, the mount of peace and plenty, where the followers of Horus as the spirits of the just made perfect gathered together at the table of the Lord for their eternal feast. When the beatified spirit attains the meadow of Aarru and the “table of the sun”, he says, ” I rest at the table of my father Osiris” (Rit., ch. 70). The deceased asks that he may be made strong with the “thousands of loaves, beer, beef and fowl, and the flesh of the oxen and various kinds of birds upon the table of his father” (ch. 69)

The Hebrew paradise upon the summit of the mount in the promised land is the same ideal of primitive blessedness. “In this mountain”, says the prophet Isaiah, “shall the Lord of Hosts make unto the people a feast of fat things, a feast of wines on the lees, of fat things full of marrow; of wines on the lees well refined” (Is. 25, 6). Papias, that ignoramus of a primitive Christian, also recounts how “the elders who saw John, the disciple of the Lord, related that they had heard from him how the Lord used to teach in regard to these times, and say:. The days will come, in which vines shall grow, each having ten thousand branches, and in each branch ten thousand twigs and in each true twig ten thousand shoots, and in each one of the shoots ten thousand clusters, and on everyone of the clusters ten thousand grapes, and every grape when pressed will give five and twenty metretes. of wine. And when anyone of the saints shall lay hold of a cluster another shall cry out, ‘ I am a better cluster; take me: bless the Lord through me.’. In like manner (the Lord declared) a grain of wheat would produce ten thousand ears, and that every ear should have ten thousand grains, and every grain would yield ten pounds (quinque bilibres) of clear, pure, fine flour; and that all other fruit-bearing trees, and seeds and grass, would produce in similar proportions (secundum congruentiam iis consequenTum). And these things are borne witness to in writing by Papias, the hearer of John, and a companion of Polycarp, in his fourth book, for there were five books compiled (syntetagmena) by him. And he says in addition, ‘.. Now these things are credible to believers’ “. (Irenaeus, B. 5, ch. 33, 3-4, Ante-Nicene Library.)

The Kamite paradise was the place of plenty and of strong drink. The. Indian’s idea of future felicity, which consisted in being eternally intoxicated, is but an extension from this primary basis. The “cauldron of regeneration for spirits” was derived from the brewing-vat. Also it is noticeable that the Egyptian garden of Aarru or Allu, in the Ritual, has the same name as the grape, the vine-branch, and the wine. Hetep was the land that flowed with milk and honey, and the imagery is demonstrably Egyptian. It flowed with honey because the flowers were always in bloom. A curious illustration of this land of honey and its Egyptian origin may be drawn from the Ritual.

The 110th chapter of the Ritual suffices of itself to prove the Kamite origin of the mount of glory and the circumpolar paradise. This is the chapter of coming forth from the nether-world by day, or with the sun, and arriving in the garden of Aarru, on the mount of resurrection in Hetep, and at “the grand domain, blest with the breezes”. This was the heaven lifted up by Shu of old as the summit of attainment. It is called “the beautiful creation which he raiseth up”, the mansion of his stars which had been again and again renewed in the heaven of astronomy.. In the eschatology it was the heaven of reconciliation, reunion, and of rest. It had been the heaven of Abydos, of ANun,. Thebes, Memphis, Hermopolis, and other cities on earth, and now it was the heaven of eternity, the heaven of spirits perfected; also the heaven of Chaldean, Hebrew, Hindu, Japanese, Greek, and all the others who repeated the astronomical imagery and founded their religious teaching on the wisdom of ancient Egypt. The summit of Hetep was the seat of Hathor, queen of heaven and mother of fair love on earth.. She who had drawn the world in offering her full breast as nurse to Horus now offered it upon the mount of glory to the weary spirits whom she gathered in her motherly embrace.. She was also represented by those seven cows or meris, as the giver of plenty in the meadows of Aarru, so abundantly that the river called the Milky Way was as the overflowing plenitude from this perpetual source. On a tablet in the Louvre (ch. 14) this divine mother of gods and men is asked for “the white liquor that the glorified ones love”. This is distinctly called milk upon a Florentine tablet (2567), and vases of her milk are mentioned in the inscriptions of Denderah (Rit., ch. 110, note 9, Renouf). Hesit the cow is identified with Hathor the divine mother, the fair nurse, the mistress of heaven and sovereign of the gods.. She was the cow-mother, and her child was the calf who became her bull as fertilizer.. Hence the deceased as Horus in Hetep exclaims, “I am the bull, raised on high in the blue, lord of the bull’s field ” (Rit., ch. 110, Renouf), whose cow or nourisher is Hesit. (Dümichen, [Page 385] Resultate, 27, 6.). In this way the cow of heaven supplied not only milk for the infant Horus, but for all who were reborn as babes in the new life, and the heaven of plenty and of rest was tenderly pictured in the welling bosom of the motherhood, thus divinized upon the mount. When the departed have reached the summit of life upon the mount of spirits perfected, they emerge in the garden of Hetep or paradise of Aarru.. Here they attain the land of promise in the highest sense of spiritual fulfilment. They eat of the fruit of the tree and drink the water of life, or the milk of the old First Great Mother, who yields it in the form of Hesit the cow: the ancient mother of gods and men to whom the Egyptians assigned a foremost station in the starry heavens.. Here the beatified spirits who sat upon their thrones of ba-metal, “raised on high in the blue”, among the never-setting stars, extended the hand of welcome to the coming generations of human beings. Three classes of human beings are recognized in the past, present, and future of existence: the Pait are those of the past, the Rekhit are the living, and the Hamemet are the future generations.. In one of her inscriptions Queen Hatshepsu appeals to these latter as future witnesses to the glory of her present work.. She says, “I make this known to the Hamemet, who will live in times to come”. (Records, vol. xii. pp. 131-136.). The name denotes the unembodied, or, more literally, the un-mummied, from Ha, before, and mem or mum, the mummy. These are the future beings to whom the glorified spirits extend their welcome in the garden of beginning and rebirth; and it is in this enclosure or paradise that we shall at last discover the garden on the summit of the mount in the north that has become a traditional cradle and creatory of life itself as the rebirth place of the glorified. It is said to Ra, who had become the highest god, ” Glory to thee upon the mount of glory. Hail to thee who purifiest and preparest the generations yet unborn, and to whom this great quarter of heaven offereth homage”. (Rit., ch. 130.). This great quarter was the northern summit in the region of the two lakes of Sa and of Purification. The divine re-birthplace of the soul constellated in the meskhen

The “original Aryan home”, the Iranian paradise, the Semitic garden of Eden, the Greek elysian fields are each derived from the Egyptian Sekhet-hetep, the fields of peace and plenty, or the Sekhet Aarru, where amid the still waters are portrayed the islands of the blessed, the amaranthine meads and pastures ever green. When Assyriologists speak of Urdu the mountain of the world as the primitive cradle of the human race (Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., vol. vi. p. 535), they are oblivious of the fact that there are fifty or a hundred such cradles of the race.. Hence over eighty different sites have been assigned to the garden of the beginning, called Edin or Eden by the Semites. The Akkadian Urdhu is one with or corresponds to the Egyptian Urtu, a name both for the ascent or mount and the thigh or haunch, as a figure of the birthplace, human or divine. The emigrants from Urdhu, like the Meropes, were the people of the thigh. The Hyperboreans were reputed to dwell above the north wind, as Festus says, “supra aquilonis flatum”, which gives us an astronomical hint. Apparently the bird aquila represents the Egyptian vulture mut, which is described in the Ritual (ch. 149) as being on or above the leg constellation: “I am the divine vulture who is on the uarit”. But whether it does or does not, the Hyperboreans are localized above Aquila in the northern heaven in the celestial pole-land, where dwelt the ancestors of the Ainu, and the Hamemet of the Egyptian theology.. Again, the constellation of the thigh, as sign of the meskhen, womb, or birthplace, will show us the origin of the Meropes. The word μέροπες ; (or people of the thigh) was a sacred expression used by the Greeks to denote mankind. It is said of the Hyperboreans by Hellanikos (fragment 96) that they dwelt beyond the Ripaian mountains, and were the teachers of justice, and ate the fruit of trees. This identifies them with the glorified spirits in the polar paradise by two unmistakable determinatives of locality.. One is the tree, or wood, of life, on the fruit of which the gods and glorified were fed; the other is the maat or judgment seat upon the summit of the mount, where sat the great judge as Anup, or Atum, or Osiris, in succession according to the reigning dynasty of gods, that were stellar, lunar, or solar.

Mythical monsters like the Cyclops have descended from this birthplace of the beginning. According to Hesiod, the Cyclops were Titans, and the Titans are the giants who were properly a group of seven in later tradition. They were the assistants of Hapaestus, the worker in fire, who was the Greek Vulcan. This tends to identify them with the seven Khnemmu, who were the assistants of Ptah, the metallurgist; the seven who were the giants of an earlier time as turners of the sphere in huge and monstrous form. Homer calls Mycenae, the ark-city on the summit, the altar of the Cyclops; and the altar is a final form of the mount which was figured in the constellation “Ara”.. In one character the seven powers that were grouped in the Lesser Bear were the giants, and the giants as Cyclops had but one eye between them. Naturally Polaris as the one eye to the seven was said to be the one eye of the seven, and the giants were then said to have been one-eyed. This would account for the Arimaspoi and other one-eyed people as dwellers in the uttermost vertical north. All was golden in the primal paradise, and according to Hesiod there was a “golden race of men”. These were they who came the first. This race was stellar, like the gold that made the circumpolar heaven golden. They were the glorious ones, the never-setting ones, the born immortals in the everlasting “golden-hued region whose food never fails”, described in the Vendidad (Fargard ii., line 103).

The cynosure of the watcher is a point above the constellation called “the leg” by the Egyptian astronomers. This was a constellation in the northern sky.. We learn from the solar mythos that the rope of the towers was made fast to the star Ak, which is to be identified with the pole. The tow men say, “The rope is with Ak”. ” Ra calls it, and the rope puts itself in its place”. Ra is then in Amenta, and the rope of the towers is fastened at the upper end to the pole. Ra says, “Power to you, towers. Tow me to the dwelling of stable things. Free yourselves on this mysterious mountain of the horizon”.

Finally, the great bark of salvation was solar, with Horus at the out-look. The deceased prays to the god who is on board, “O Ra, in that thy name of Ra, since thou passest through those who perish headlong: do thou keep me standing on my feet”. “Are you coming into the bark?” says the great god Atum-Ra, with a naïve familiar invitation that reminds us somewhat of the invitation “come with us” of more recent salvationists.

“The bark advanceth. Acclamation cometh from the mount of glory and greeting from the lines of measurement”. These are the cheers with which the boat is hailed and welcomed by the inhabitants of the upper paradise. “Lo, the lamp is lifted up in ANun” as a light by night to lead them on the way when they come to the heaven of the stars that set, and they have to steer by the pole-star as their guide of ways. While the Osiris passes over the waters to the west the Khabsu gods get ready for lighting up the heavens with their starry lamps, to greet the passengers approaching in the bark with acclamations of great joy.

“All right is the Osiris; his future is in ANun”, the eternal city at the pole. The glorified deceased sails in the great bark on the stream of the god Hetep, the White Way, until he comes to the ten divisions of the circumpolar paradise. These he enters to take possession of them one by one. As an astronomical foundation, the upper paradise of all mythology upon the mount of glory was dependent on establishing the celestial pole for a fixture in the waters of surrounding space, or, as’ the Ritual phrases it, “a mooring-post” for the ship of souls.. Here was the rock of safety and the tree to which the sinking spirits clung for their salvation.. Here the mariner says, “I make myself fast to the block of moorage on the heavenly stream”.. That is, to the pole which was figured as the final mooring-post upon the landing-stage of an eternal shore.

zodiak based on inundation. There are two sets of names in the Ritual given to the seven primordial powers in two of their astronomical characters. The first seven are called: ( I) An-ar-ef the great. (2) Kat-Kar. (3). The Bull who Loveth in his fire.(4). The Red-eyed. One in the House of Gauze. (5) Fiery face which turneth backwards.(6) Dark face in its hour, and (7) Seer in the night. The second seven are: (I) Amsta. (2) Hapi. (3) Tuamutef. (4)Kabhsenuf (5) Maa-tef-f (6) Karbek-f (7) Har-Khent-an-maa-ti.The first four of the latter seven are the gods of the four quarters, who stand on the papyrus of earth and who became the children of Horus in a later creation.
Egypt the brother builders are the Sut and Horus twins

The manuscript of Solon about the conversations which he had with the priests of Sais, ends in this way:. In the course of a number of centuries, the inhabitants of this country (Atlantis), being led by the noblest feelings of justice, had been moderate and wise, they despised all worldly things, in order to be virtuous. But, after the divine part in them had started to disappear and their human nature had won, they fell into depravity, and Jove, the father of gods, who rules by law, understanding that a good genus of humans had become wicked, had decided to punish them, so that they would become more moderate .
[6.. From this last part of the narrative results therefore that, from a historical point of view, a total disappearance or submersion of the country or region called Atlantis cannot be understood here, but only an extraordinary flooding, yet only Temporary. A proof in this regard offers Diodorus (III. 57), who speaks about some historical traditions of the Atlantes (or the inhabitants near Atlas), gathered much later than those remote times about which spoke the priests of Sais.

To the dweller in Thebes the eternal city was Thebes on high. To the dweller in Jerusalem the eternal city was Jerusalem above Only once was there a mundane original for the paradise or later city set in heaven at the pole. That is demonstrably derived from the land, the river, the ANun, the Troy or Teriu of Egypt. The Egyptians set “the pattern in the mount”, and from this the later builders of the sacred cities, the ark cities, on the mount of heaven, derived the plan. The city of Troy on earth was a type of the eternal Troy upon the summit of the mount. Both city and name are demonstrably Egyptian, as Troy= Terui Terui denotes the circumference or enclosure, and this was a name of SeseNun, and consequently of Am-Khemen – the paradise of the eight, the enclosure on the mount of heaven which afterwards supplied a name for the city of Troy in Greece. The “Tale of Troy” is based on the downfall of the great city on the summit, which was the lofty dwelling-place of those whom we may term the people of the pole.

An early Egyptian symbol for heaven was that of a flat slab made of some kind of stone or metal called baa. It formed a ceiling for the Earth which, in the Quran, is called a “canopy.”. This baa rested on two mountains, Bakha in the East and Manu in the West. Another early view was that the slab rested on four pillars.. Again, the Quran echoes this idea when it states that the heaven is held up by “pillars you cannot see.”. The four pillars were eventually identified with the four cardinal points and were kept in position by “the four gods who stood by them,” i.e., Heru’s children Amset, Hap, Tuamutef and Qebhsenuf.

It may sound a paradoxical thing to say, but it is true that according to the mythical representation the earliest earth was a bit of ground solidified in the celestial waters for the planting of a stake, or tree, or building, raising a pile, or some kind of bulwark against the overwhelming water-flood.

When the pole-star changed the bulwark would be overthrown, and the mistress of the waters would be charged with causing a catastrophe by which the “bulwarks” of her consort, who was Sut in the Egyptian astral mythos, were submerged. The blame, of course, in after-times, was laid upon the woman, that is when the woman had taken the place of the primitive zootype, such as the water-cow or crocodile.. In Amenta Ptah is the builder of the bulwark that was raised against the waters, or to keep out the Apap-reptile. But Sut-Anup, as a ruler at the pole, was an indefinitely earlier god who raised the bulwark to keep out the deluge.. In later ages, when Anup had become the son of Ra, one name for his dwelling-place upon the mountain, that was on the solar mount of glory, is called Ut, the “Town of the Embankment,” which is equivalent to the pile of earth that was heaped up by the mythical mound-builders in seven mounds that formed the bulwarks or embankments at the seven stations of the pole in the circuit of precession. When the deluge occurred at the celestial pole the type of stability and fixed foothold on land was whelmed beneath the firmamental waters.. If this was an island or a tree it sank and was lost sight of.. Hence the tree of the pole had to be replanted, or the embankment was to be raised anew when the deluge was over.

When the flood of Noah came to an end, the tower of brick was raised by the survivors in the land of Shinar.. In this version we see the tower succeeding the mountain, and the mound as a typical figure of the station at the pole. After the Assyrian deluge the tree was replanted in the circle or enclosure, and to replant the tree was to re-establish the pole in its new station.

Xisuthrus, the Chaldean Noah, is called the King of Surippak, the ship-city, the city of refuge that was represented by or as an ark upon the waters. The building on land was earlier than the boat upon the waters, and when the gods decide to make a deluge it is said, upon the Chaldean tablet, “O man of Surippak, son of Ubarratutu, destroy the house and build a ship.”. Here the ship or ark on the waters succeeds the dwelling-place on land. And both the ark and house were united in Surippak, the ark-city, or “City of the Ship.” After the Babylonian deluge, Hasisadra says, “I built an altar on the peak of a mountain,” and there he offered a sacrifice to the gods. The altar-mound, we repeat, is a figure of the pole. The structure overthrown by the deluge is rebuilt in several ways, the types ranging from the mound to the metropolis. Not only is the typical altar of the pole erected on the mountain-peak, but the structure was finally rebuilt on the scale of the eternal city. Thus, the ark-city of Surippak is succeeded by the city of Erech-Suburi.. In raising this, “great stones”; are dragged for a long distance to where the wall of the new enclosure is to be erected, on the summit of the ascent, in the midst of Erech-Suburi. Seven such structures were raised in the course of precession, at seven stages of the pole, and the journey from one stage to another is described in the legend of Gilgames (Deluge Tablet, column 6, George Smith, Records, vol. VII, p. 133).

The Tower of Babel was a symbol of the pole which had been overthrown or shifted by the waters of the deluge.. To build the tower, then, was to replace the pole. The tower was the Babylonian Bab-illu, which the Hebrew writer has turned into the tower of “babble” and confusion. The story itself is found on an Assyrian tablet in the British Museum, with this difference:. In the older legend the structure is a mound, whereas in the Hebrew version it is a tower built of brick. It is explained that Babylon corruptly turned to sin. “Great and small commingled on the mound.”. There was a revolt against the great god Anu, “king of the holy [Page 588] mound.”. The rebels are described as building a stronghold, but they were confounded in their work. What they did by day was all undone by night. The supreme god gave a command to make strange their speech. “For future time the mountain,” or the mound, was overthrown by Nu-nam-nir, the god of lawlessness or no rule, and the destruction occurred, though not in the form of a deluge (Records of the Past, vol. VII, p. 131).

Sut (or Sut-Anup), the first-born son of Apt (Kep or Kefa), the most ancient form of the Great Mother, as the founder of the celestial pole, or the eternal tree in the paradise, the garden or cultivated enclosure of the northern heaven. Sut and his mother became the primal pair in the Egyptian mythology.

Sut acquired an evil character in later times, and became the original form of an anthropomorphic Satan.. He was looked upon as the fallen leader of the angelic host because he had been first in glory as the ruling power at the primary station of the pole. This is the Satan worshipped by the Izedis in Mesopotamia, for whom there is to be a restoration as well as a fall, which points to an astronomical origin in both aspects of the character. Sut, in the Ritual (ch. 175), is proclaimed as having been the first in glory. It is said “the power of Sut which hath departed was greater than that of all the gods.”. He was first as primary power of the pole, the first to sit upon “the mount of congregation” as the “most high” in “the uttermost parts of the north,” or at the pole of heaven.

Although the mother of all living things, one of whose names, Khefa, survived in Hebrew as Chavvah (Eve), the primal pair of beings were not constellated as the human parents of the human race, but as male and female hippopotami, or Behemoth and Leviathan, and later as the Greater and the Lesser Bears; she as the maker of the circle, and he as the first to plant the tree, or erect the pole, the pillar, or the mound within the circle

On the deluge tablet, as rendered by Smith, the builder of the ark relates that, “in its circuit it was fourteen measures” ; “its frame fourteen measures it measured.”. Now, as the cubit was the typical measure, this was equivalent to fourteen cubits. Boscawen has it: “Two sides were raised.. In its enclosure fourteen ribs, also fourteen they numbered above” (The Bible and its Monuments, p. 117).. In this reckoning the ark of twenty-eight measures corresponds to the circle of twenty-eight lunar measures, or stations of the moon. Thus numerically the ark is identified as one with the arc by the fourteen measures below and fourteen above, and the ark of the moon was the ark of Osiris in the lunar mythos. As the lunar circle was divided in four quarters, and these four were each subdivided into seven, that may explain the statement of the builder, who says he divided the interior seven times and (its passages or parts) seven times (later version by Professors Haupt and Sayce). This ark of abode is admittedly built” in a circuit” (col. 2), which has fourteen measures above and fourteen below, sub-divided by seven in the interior and by seven in its parts or passages.

The arkite symbolism culminated as Egyptian in the ark of Nnu. This was the ark that was built “with lower, second, and third stories” (Gen. VI. 16), because it was a threefold figure of Amenta, earth and heaven in one, as it is represented in the Ritual. Once it is shown that Noah’s ark is a geometrical figure of the heaven, there is no further difficulty respecting its size or content. The beasts of the earth, the birds of the air, the fish of the waters, and the human beings were all represented by the four types at the four corners, by Tuamutef, the jackal; Kabhsenuf, the hawk; Hapi, the ape; and Amsta, the man. These were accompanied in the enclosure by their consorts, Isis, the cow; Serkh, the scorpion; Nephthys, and Neith. Salvation from the deluge in the under-world is sought for by the Manes in the ark, whether called the ark of Osiris, or Ra, or Nnu.

We can but infer that it was an object-picture of the ark of Nnu, as “the bark of millions of years”

The water of the deluge in the Assyrian legend was not terrestrial. It is said in the opening lines:
Then arose the water of dawn at daylight;
It arose like a black cloud from the horizon of heaven.

It was a deluge feared by the gods themselves because the waters were celestial.. Hence they sought refuge in the highest heaven. “They ascended to the heaven of Anu,” the enclosure at the Pole. This was the heaven of the stars that never set; the heaven, the enclosure or ark of refuge, which is said to have rested on the mount when the flood subsided. It was Bel, the wise one, the counsellor of the gods, who caused the deluge, and he is a pole-star god, equivalent to Sut or Anup the judge, whose seat was above the summit at the north celestial pole. The deluge here was evidently the result of a change in the pole-stars; hence the tree re-planted in a circle by the gods.. If Bel made the deluge when he represented the pole-star a change in the pole-star would be as the letting in of waters, otherwise called the flood. The ark was built against this contemplated change. The Greek tradition included two legends of the great deluge or cataclysm by which the race was destroyed.. One of these was the flood from which Ogyges escaped with a few companions in a vessel. The other is known as the deluge of Deucalion, from which he escaped with Pyrrha his wife. Ogyges with his few companions are equivalent to Horus with the seven great spirits who were saved from the deluge in the ark of Orion. Deucalion and Pyrrha are equivalent to Atum and his consort Hathor-Iusâas.

A principle of arking, so to call it, was established when the great Bear, as the mother of the revolutions or time-cycles, and mistress of the waters, made the circle of the year in turning round “the Atlantean Pole.” She, as the pregnant water-cow, was herself an ark of life that might be looked to as a divine type of safety by the sufferers from the water-floods on earth. The mother of time and station was the mistress of the firmamental waters; the mistress therefore of the enclosure in the waters which in the later rendering is a park, a garden, a paradise, or a harvest-field.

The Egyptians always kept on building closely in accordance with some primal type like this of the ark.. In the beginning the earth itself was a mount or table-land that rose up out of the abyss as a kind of ark amidst the waters of space, an ark of one story. But when Amenta had been hollowed out by Ptah the opener of an underworld, there was an ark of two stories, fixed or floating. Whether called an ark or a house, it was two-storied. It was double-decked like a ship. It was also a house of two stories for Osiris in Abydos. With heaven added over all it becomes three-storied or triple-decked, with Amenta, earth and heaven answering to the three stories of the triple-deck.. Now, it is commanded that the ark of Noah, or Nnu, shall be built “with lower, second and third stories,” like the ship with three decks. This is a fragment of the genuine mythos which tends to show that it was the ark here identified as the figure of three worlds, viz., Amenta, middle-earth and heaven; a figure that agrees [Page 574] with the typical tree of the Akkado-Assyrian and the Norse mythology which had its roots in the nether-world, its stem in middle-earth and its branches high in heaven. But did the Egyptians ever launch this three-decker, and get it afloat in space? or did it remain a fixture in the mythical abyss?

It was argued in the Natural Genesis that the Kamite astronomers had measured the earth and knew it to be a globe rotating in space. It is now suggested that the ark of three stories was a compound image of the three regions built up deck by deck and completed by the arch-craftsman Ptah in a vessel that is called the ship of heaven in the Ritual.. In the words of M. Lieblin, the Egyptians “knew that the earth circulated in the great ocean of heaven.” And as the earth was the sekru-bark of Osiris in Amenta, it was the ark afloat upon the waters of the Nnu (Nat. Gen., vol. 2, pp. 60-61).

After the Babylonian deluge when the ship touches the shore and its occupants have landed, as it is said, Gilgames “collected great stones,” “he piled up the great stones.”. Instead of piling the mound of earth, or planting the typical tree, or launching the ark, the survivors now are the builders of a city with stones. They landed and “left the ship by the shore. They journeyed a stage of twenty kaspu. They made the stage ascent of thirty kaspu. They came to the midst of Erech Suburi.”. Then follows the building of Erech, the ark-city on the summit; or the new heaven that was divided into three parts; “one measure for the circuit of the city, one measure for the boundary of the temple of Nantur, the house of Ishtar; three measures together (for) the divisions of Erech” (Records, v. 7, 148-9).

The earliest ark of Nnu, or heaven, is an enclosure in the water of the Nun; the latest is a paradise on piles; we might say seven piles or poles which are co-types with the seven mountains or seven pyramids. But an ark, as a means of refuge in relation to a deluge of water, is not limited to the boat-type. The ark of Noë on the Apamean coin is figured as a box four-square. This, in Egyptian, is a Teba, Hebrew. Thebah, the name of Noah’s ark, and of Thebes as a form of the eternal city. There was an ark of the sphere which is described in the Thlinkeet legend as a vast floating building. At the time of the deluge it struck on the mount, or was driven on the rock and broken in two halves by its own weight. This agrees with the division of the heaven into north and south between Sut and Horus, as their two divine domains.

The word ark in Egyptian signifies a circle, to encircle, bands, enclosings, encirclings, also number thirty, thence a month. Arkai is to appoint a limit, fix an end by decree. This was applied in measuring a cycle of time, which might be monthly, as in the Assyrian Arkhu.. From this comes the arc, as part of a circle, which in Egyptian is to encircle or to make the circle. And thus the enclosure and ark are both forms of the circle. The enclosure made by Yima was an ark-circle but not an ark, or bark upon the waters. Still, the meaning is the same. It was the type of an enclosure and of safety from the deluge whether figured as stationary or afloat; and the heaven built upon four corners as a circular enclosure was an ark.

The god Num who is lord of the earthly inundation was preceded by the ancient deity Nun (or Nnu), who had an ark or shrine, but was not worshipped in any temple hitherto discovered. It appears from inscriptions of Tahtmes III at Thebes that Nnu the deity of the deluge and the ark had been continued in the character of Num as the lord of the inundation of the Nile, with his ark or teba represented by the city of. Thebes, that “heaven on earth,” as it was designated by the Queen Hatshepsu.. From these inscriptions we learn that Tahtmes rebuilt the sanctuary of Nnu, or rather that he built the temple of Amen-Ra at Thebes on the site of the ancient shrine. This, we are told, had a circuit wall of brick, and a canal which conducted the water of the inundation “to the shrine of the god Nun (Nnu) on the arrival of his season,” which shows that Nnu was one with Num as the elder pre-solar god, and that Nun (Nnu) passed into the god Num as a solar god associated with the inundation. The temple built by Tahtmes was a shrine of Nnu and Amen, as in “No-Amen,” the name of. Thebes.. In laying the foundation stone of the new temple Tahtmes records the fact that he had to remove the older shrine of the god Nun (or Nnu), and divert the course of the water that flowed to the shrine of the god Nnu, because [Page 566] it was in the way (inscription cited by Brugsch, Egypt under the Pharaohs, p. 178, Eng. tr.). Brugsch calls this shrine of Nnu the temple of the god; other Egyptologists tell us that no temple was ever raised to Nnu or Num. But whether termed a temple or not, this ancient sanctuary was an ark-shrine and a type of protection from the waters. The ark of Num is called his lordly bark. It is said that with the inundation “he brings once more his lordly bark” (verse 5). Also, “Thou art the august ornament of the earth, letting thy bark advance before men and lifting up the heart of women in labour” ; “All is changed by the inundation; it is a balm of healing for mankind” (verses 9 and 11). Thus Nnu as deity of the heavenly water was represented by the Nile as river and by Num as divinity when the sun-god was united with the water-god in Num or in Amen-Ra at. Thebes. But the main point here is the ark of Nnu that comes again with the inundation once a year to Egypt. And if no temple of Nnu is known, he was expressly associated with a shrine which originated in an ark that was a means of safety to the ancient lake-dwellers of Africa.. In the Papyrus of Nefer-uben-f (Budge) the god of the inundation is described as “the old man Nnu.” Deceased is standing in the water and holding the sail of breath in his left hand.. He prays that he may have power over the seven divine princes who dwell in the place of the god of the inundation – that is, of Nnu the lord of the celestial water as builder of the ark.. He says, “I have power with my father, the old man Nnu.. He hath granted that I may live.”. This is the father Nnu as Egyptian who became father Noah in the Hebrew version.

In the Egyptian inscription called “the Destruction of Mankind” there is a rebellion against Ra, the sun-god, followed by a great destruction and a deluge. Atum-Ra had been established as the king of gods and men, the god by himself. There is a revolt against his supremacy.. He calls the elder gods around him for consultation, and says to them, “You ancient gods, behold the beings who are born of myself; they utter words against me. Tell me what you would do in these circumstances. Behold, I have waited, and I have not destroyed them until I should hear what you have to say.”. The elder gods advise that they may go and smite the enemies who plot evil against Ra, and let none remain alive. The rebels are then destroyed “in [Page 557] three days of navigation.”. When the deluge of blood is over it is said by the majesty of Ra, “I shall now protect men on this account.” “I raise my hand (in token) that I shall not again destroy men.”. The rebel powers, headed by the coiling and constricting Apap-reptile vomiting the deluge of the dark by night, were always in revolt against the lord of light, and this legend commemorates their overthrowal in a deluge of blood. The chief agent in the work of vengeance is Hathor, the lunar goddess, who is aided by the solar goddess, Sekhet, in executing the commands of Ra. The goddess started; she smote the enemies over all the land because they had plotted evil against the majesty of Ra. These enemies are drowned in the deluge then poured out; “the fields were entirely covered with water through the will of his majesty the god. And there came the goddess (Hathor) in the morning, and she found the fields covered with water; and she was pleased with it, and drank to her heart’s content.. She saw no more of the enemies, who were sunk in the waters that represented the flood of light which was now poured forth by Ra at dawn, and in which the creatures of the dark were drowned. It is said by his majesty, living and well, to his followers, “ I call before my face Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut, and the fathers and mothers who were with me when I was yet in the Nun, and I prescribe to Nnu, who brings his companions with him”; these are the instructions given by the god to Nnu: “Bring a small number of them (his companions), that the beings may not see them” – these beings are the creatures about to be destroyed in the coming flood – “and that their heart may not be afraid, thou shalt go with them into the ark or sanctuary until I shall go with Nnu to the place where I stand,” or to the summit of the mount on which the legendary ark at last was safely landed. The ark or sanctuary here indicated is the figure of a newly founded heaven which follows the deluge by which a previous world was wrecked. The inscription is very dilapidated, nevertheless it obviously contains a creation of “the men,” as in the Assyrian revolt in heaven in the place of the creatures thus destroyed. When “his majesty arrived in the sanctuary,” “the men” were going forth and bearing their bows and shooting their arrows against his enemies. These were not the enemies but the defenders of Ra.. Hence it was said to Ra by “the men,” “Let us smite the enemies, the rebels.”

The waters of the deep were in Amenta. The deep is identical with the pit, the pit with Sheol, and Sheol with Amenta. “Save me, O God; for the waters are come in unto my soul. I sink in deep mire, there is no standing. I am come into deep waters where the floods overflow me”. “Deliver me out of the mire, and let me not sink. Let me be delivered from them that hate me. Let not the water-fIood overwhelm me, neither let the deep swallow me up”.. In the Psalms the Hebrew deity is he who sitteth on the waters. “The Lord sitteth on the flood; yea, the Lord sitteth as king for ever”. “He hath founded the earth upon the waters and established it upon the floods” (Ps. XXIV.2)

As a symbol in sign-language the ark was built by Nnu, the master of the firmamental water, for the means of safety in the world all water against the coming flood and the subsidence of land, which was the land of Nnu

In space it was the ark of the four quarters that was propelled by the four paddles of Hapi, Tuamutef, Kabhsenuf, and Amsta.. Hence Geb (or the earth) “abideth stably” by means of the four rudders or oars (Rit., ch. 99).. Hence also the four-square box that imaged the ark of Noë on the well-known Apamean coin.. In Akar, or Amenta, it was the ark of Osiris; in earth the ark of Geb; in heaven the ark of Ra. Its mainmast was the pole. The nightlight on the masthead was the pole-star.. In the myth it was the ark of Ra, “the bark of millions of years”; in the eschatology it is the ark of salvation, the refuge for eternity.

The sinking ones had looked for their deliverance from the waters to the bark of Anup, voyaging round the pole; also to the crescent-shaped arc of Thoth seen in the new moon; then to the ark of Horus and the “holy sahus” constellated in Orion; and finally they sought salvation in the ark which Nnu and his three sons, Shu, Thoth, and Geb, were now to build for Ra, the solar god.

In the time of Ptah, their great architect, the Egyptians were advanced enough in craftsmanship for the enclosure formed by him to keep out the waters of the deluge in Amenta to be made of either iron or steel, called the ba-metal.. An ark was a primitive enclosure formed in the celestial water. This, as Egyptian, is the ark of Nun, and Nun is heaven, as water, also a name for the deity of the celestial water.

The subject-matter is very ancient. It belongs to that early time when Sut was a pre-Osirian form of the Good Being, in relation to the pole, the dog-star, and the inundation of the Nile.. Here the deluge of the inundation is a deluge of destruction directed against the workers of evil.. In short, it does what the inundation did for Egypt in washing away the result of drought, in cleansing from corruption and restoring a healthy new life to the land.. Hence the deceased desires to have the same command over the waters in Amenta that Sut had when they burst forth in a drowning flood. Thus, 6,000 years ago the so-called “deluge legend” was ancient in Egypt, and it belonged to the time when Sut, in command of the waters, had not lost his place in glory; and his deluge was employed to destroy the Gebau, the Sami, the Apap-dragon, the long-armed ones, and other evil enemies of God and man who were not human beings.. In the same chapter Osiris has superseded Sut as lord of the flood.

In a papyrus at Turin the god who claims to be self-existent says, “I make the waters and the Mehura comes into being. ”. That is heaven as the celestial water.. In a hymn to Ptah it is said, “The waters of the inundation cover the lofty trees of every region.”. These, however, are the waters of Nnu or the Nun (Renouf, H. L., pp. 221-2), and not the overwhelming flood of water on the earth. When the mehura first came into existence it was a heaven imaged as the water that was undivided by the astronomers, the islands or other land-limits that were figured in the aerial vast; and heaven as the celestial water was the Nnu or Nun.

The sun-god, whether as Atum-Iu (Aiu or Aai) or Osiris-Ra, is a mummy in Amenta. Atum or Osiris, as the sun in Amenta, is the mummy buried down in Khebt.. In the story of Isis and Osiris. Their infant, Horus, was suckled by Isis in solitude.. She reared him in secret, and his limbs grew strong in the hidden land.. None knew the hiding place, but it was somewhere in the marshes of Amenta. This is matched in toto by the story of the birth of the mythical Sargon of Assyria. Likewise it is the background of the “flight into Egypt” of Jesus in the Gospels. The divine child had to be taken down into “Egypt” until the Herut menace was passed and in order that the son of God might be brought up out of it. As the angel of the Lord says to Joseph, “Arise and take the young child and his mother and flee into Egypt,” so at the birth of Horus the god Thoth says to the mother, “Come, thou goddess Isis, hide thyself with thy child.”. She is bidden to take him down into the marshes of Lower Egypt, called Kheb or Khebt.

The leg of Nut, which the deluge devastated, was a very early type of the celestial pole, as the bulwark, prop, or mainstay against the waters of the firmament.. In one phase the ark of Nnu is the ark of the Nun as the celestial water. It is depicted in chapter 44 crossing the water of Putrata, the lake of darkness, and cutting its way through the coils of the Apap-dragon. The speaker is one of the manes in Amenta about to embark on board the boat of souls.. He says, “O thou who sailest the ship of Nnu across that gulf which is void, let me sail the ship; let me fasten the tackle in peace, in peace. Let me fasten my tackle and come forth.” “The place is empty into which the starry ones fall down headlong upon their faces and find nothing by which they can raise themselves up.”. The ship of Nnu is facing the west, where it has to cross the lake of darkness, or the great gulf of the waters, by night, the lurking-place of the devouring dragon, into which the setting stars go down, also the human souls that have not attained salvation on board the ark.. We learn previously that the deluge is imminent.. In other words, the waters of the Nun are traversed by the ark at night with the rescued souls on board. The shrine at the centre of the earth is one with the shrine in the ark of earth, and the ark of earth in one character is the ship of Nnu in the other; it is the ark of Osiris or Ptah in Amenta, and the ark of Ra in heaven

Osiris was not the only sun-deity whose body suffered dismemberment in the Egyptian pantheon, for Ptah, an earlier god, shared the same mythic fate. Under his name of Ptah-Sekari he underwent fragmentation as did Osiris.. For “Sekari is the title of the suffering Ptah, and sekar means to cut; cut in pieces; sacrifice.. In. India the Lord of Creation, Prajapati, was represented as having undergone dismemberment. Likewise Sarasvati.

In the pre-atlantic scriptures we see that Eden or the Egyptian Aarru in Amenta (Sheol) was called the Garden of the Magpie, Ha, or Har.

The mythos of the old lost garden may be seen transforming into Hebrew legendary lore when Ezekiel describes an Eden that was sunk and buried in the lowermost parts of the earth. “Thus saith the Lord. .When I cast him (Pharaoh) down to Sheol with them that descend into the pit: and all the trees of Eden, .and all that drink water were comforted in the nether parts of the earth. .”, “To whom art thou thus like in glory and in greatness among the trees of Eden ? Yet shalt thou be brought down with the trees of Eden into the nether parts of the earth; thou shalt lie in the midst of the uncircumcised”. (Ez. xxxi. 15, 16, 18.). This is the garden of Eden in Sheol, and Sheol is a Semitic version of the Egyptian Amenta.. That is why the lost Gan-Eden is to be found in the nether parts of the earth as an outcast of the later theology.

The valley of Akar. The valley of passengers, the burial-place for Gog and his multitude; the valley of Elah, the valley of giants, the valley of the Rephaim, the valley of death, the valley of judgment, the valley of Siddim, the valley of Hinom – are all figures of Amenta in the nether-earth of the mythos and eschatology, and therefore of the Hebrew Sheol. The “valley of decision” Joel, iii. 14) is likewise the valley of Amenta associated with the mount of the Lord

The nature of Achor is indicated by Hosea when he says of Israel, (ii. 14, 15), “I will allure her and bring her into the wilderness, and I will give her the valley of Achor for a door of hope, and she shall make answer in the judgment there”. It was in Achor that the stoning of Achan occurred, in the valley of vengeance, and it is there that Israel was to answer for all her iniquities. Thus, whatsoever events had occurred in Achor’s gloomy vale took place in the Akar or Ati-kerti of the nether-earth, which was a place of passage for the manes through Amenta.. In the distance lay the Aarru-paradise with the seven cows called the providers of plenty resting in the green fields of peace and prosperity. The vale of Akar led to the Aarru-meadows, and out of “these arose the mountain of the Lord, upon the summit of which was the place of rebirth in the upper paradise, the abode of the blessed. This is the imagery made use of by Isaiah (Ixv. 9, 12): “Thus saith the Lord: I will bring forth a seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah an inheritor of my mountain; and my chosen [Page 475] shall inherit it, and my servants shall dwell there. And Sharon shall be a pasture for flocks, and the valley of Achor a place for herds to lie down in, for my people that have sought me. But ye that forsake the Lord, that forget my holy mountain, that prepare a table for fortune and that fill up mingled wine unto destiny, I will destine you to the sword”. This is the mountain of Amenta.

The valley of decision is the Egyptian valley of judgment in which the great hall of mati, the house of the Lord in the solar mythos, was the judgment-seat. The lord who sat in judgment was Atum, in his lion form as lord of terrors. The lord enthroned upon his holy mountain was Atum-Ra upon the mountain of Amenta which the manes climbed for their rebirth in heaven. The mountain that souls are commanded to flee to for safety in the time of trouble and threatened destruction – which is repeated in the New Testament – is the mountain of the manes, who fled to its summit in the likeness of birds. This is expressed in Psalm xi. “In the Lord put I my trust.. How say ye to my soul flee as a bird (or birds) to your mountain.. For lo, the wicked bend the bow; they make ready their arrow upon the string, that they may shoot in darkness at the upright of heart. The Lord is in his holy temple, the Lord, his throne is in heaven”, on the summit of the solar mount to which the hawk-headed manes fled and were out of the reach of the rebels, the Gebau, the wicked, the Sut-Typhonians who pursued and shot at them in the darkness, and who were rained upon with fire and brimstone and the burning blast, or overwhelmed with the inundation in the Red Sea or lake of Putrata in Amenta. According to the ancient Osirian mythos, there was a cleft in the hill-side at Abydos, through which the manes passed as human-headed birds in the shape of hawks or herons. This was a proto-typal representation of the souls fleeing for refuge to the mountain, that was afterwards repeated in Semitic legends, Hebrew and Arabic.

The typical valley, then, goes with the mythical mountain or mountains in the Hebrew writings. The valley of Amenta is the dwelling-place of the manes, which are represented as the rephaim who answer to the Egyptian repait. The repait, or pait, are the dead below the earth who are in the custody of Geb. The rephaim are the dead in the Hebrew Sheol.. In the day of vengeance, says Isaiah, “it shall be as when the corn is reaped and the ears are gleaned in the valley of Rephaim”.. In the valley of Amenta was the field of divine harvest and the vintage of vengeance.. In tracing the Israelites on their journey out of Lower Egypt we shall meet with the rephaim, who are the giants and at the same time shades of enormous stature. Meanwhile, whatsoever battles were fought or vast events occurred in the valley of the rephaim, they took place in the earth of the dead, and not upon the upper earth. The giant king of Bashan was one of the rephaim; Goliath, the colossus, was another of the rephaim; and these giants dwelt in the valley of the rephaim. Consequently, the conquerors of the rephaim, whether called Moses or Abraham, Joshua or David, who warred with the giants as shades of the dead in the valley of the rephaim, could no more be historical characters than were the rephaim themselves.

On entering the dark valley of Amenta the Egyptian manes most assiduously seeks for the place of refuge and safety provided by the great god, and for the entrance to the ark or tabernacle of Osiris-Ra. This is a secret covert in the midst of Akar. Osiris is denominated “lord of the shrine which standeth at the centre of the earth” (Rit.ch.64). It is said by the speaker in the Litany of Ra, “Here is the Osiris; carry him into the hidden sanctuary of Osiris, lord of eternity who is under the care of the two divine sisters that give protection in the tomb! Carry him into the hidden dwelling where Osiris resides, and which is in Amenta, the mysterious sanctuary of the god at rest. Bear him, open your arms to him, stretch out your hands to him, take off your veils before him, for he is the great essence whom the dead spirits do not know”, but to whom they are indebted for the resurrection to new life.. In the Psalms the tabernacle or sanctuary in Sheol takes the place of the ark or secret shrine of Osiris in Amenta. “Lord, who shall sojourn in thy Tabernacle ? ,. (Ps. xv. I). “In the court of his tabernacle shall he hide me” ( xxvii. 5).[Page 477] “In Salem is his tabernacle, and his dwelling-place in Zion” (Ps. lxxvi.2). The resurrection of the manes took place in Sheol or Amenta.

Ra had resolved to be lifted up in an ark or sanctuary. Nun and his small number of companions who enter the ark or sanctuary are eight in number, four male, Nun, Geb, Shu, and Thoth, and four female, Sekhet, Nut, Hathor, and Tefnut, who can be paired thus:- (1) Nun with Sekhet, (2) Shu with Tefnut, (3) Geb with Nut (4) Thoth with Hathor. Nun was the deity of the heavenly water, and Sekhet is in possession of the water on the night of the great disaster or the deluge (Rit., 57, I, 2); Sekhet is also called the “very great one of the liquid domain” (149). These are certainly a pre-Semitic form of the eight in the ark, and as Nun was the first-born of these gods, he may be called the father of the other three in the ark as represented in the biblical version. The whole world, however, that was divided between the three sons of Nun, Shu, Geb, and Thoth. Shu was to be the guardian of the multitudes in the nocturnal sky, Geb of the serpents in the cycles of time, and to Thoth were assigned the nations of the north. Thoth had a double portion. Ra says, “I shall give thee to raise thy hand in the presence of the gods. I shall give thee to embrace the two parts of the sky. I shall give thee to turn thyself toward the northern nations.”. This looks as if Thoth were the prototype of Japheth. Shu, whose name signifies shade, and who was to be the guardian of those who are in the sky of night, agrees with Ham, the dark of colour or black. It was Shu who might have seen his father Nun by night with his person exposed, as it was his work to lift up the nocturnal heaven or Nun. This leaves Shem as the representative of Geb. Geb is the father of Horus on earth, and, as it was supposed, the Hebrew Messiah was to descend from Shem. Thus it is possible to identify the new point of departure for the threefold human race derived from Shem, Ham, and Japheth, considered to be the fathers of three different and diverse races of mankind. Ra describes the group of elder gods who preceded him as the fathers and the mothers. “Said by his majesty, I call before my face Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut, and the fathers and mothers who were with me when I was still in Nun,” or previously to his issuing from the lotus in the bosom of the heavenly water.. Here we have the “fathers and mothers” of the new race or races in the new world that followed the flood ready to the hand of the “sacred historian.”. These fathers and mothers are eight in number all told, who are mentioned by name: Nun and Sekhet, Geb and Nut, Shu and Tefnut, Thoth and Hathor. These are eight persons in four pairs of consorts, exactly the same as the eight consorts in the ark of Noah.

“I shall give thee to embrace the two parts of the sky with thy beauty and thy rays, and there arose the lunar crescent of Taht. I shall give thee to turn thyself towards the northern nations, and there arose the cynocephalus of Taht which is in his escort. Thou art under my dominion.”. This was written in the Book of Atum-Ra, who was also the god Huhi=Ihuh. Thus, in this new creation of Ra which was established after the old heaven had been overwhelmed by the deluge, the moon-god Taht was made the enlarger of the domains of Ra. As we read in the texts, “Ra created him a beautiful light to show the name of his evil enemy,” the Apap-dragon of darkness. This enlargement turns on the moon-god becoming the ruler for Ra by night and establishing his sovereignty over the black race in the domain of Sut and in the inferior hemisphere. The “enlarging” in the Hebrew version is at the expense of Ham (=Kam, the black): “A servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren,” but “God enlarge Japheth.” Ham is treated in the märchen as the “evil enemy” Apap, or the black Sut in the mythos, thus making the legend ethnical by this perversion of the meaning. Enlargement of the world denotes the formation of a heaven on a larger scale. Thus Taht, like Japheth, was the enlarger or the enlarged. Also one mode of the enlarging was by Taht becoming a luminary in the inferior sky and in the region of Amenta. And here we come upon the probable origin of the cursing of Canaan in the Semitic travesty. Ham=Kam represents the power and the people of darkness. Taht is to enlarge the borders of light at the expense of the domain of darkness. It is said to Taht by Ra, “In the deep region where thou inscribest the inhabitants, thou art the keeper of those who do evil, the followers whom my heart abhors.”. These were the darkies and the “black-heads” in the dark land of Amenta, who are to be subject to the rule of Taht by night, which has been converted in the Semitic perversion of the mythos into the servitude of Canaan and the children of Ham.

Then Horus stood over the land. He is the uniter of this land, proclaimed in the great name: Ta-tenen, South-of-his-Wall, Lord of Eternity. Then sprouted the two Great Magicians upon his head. He is Horus who arose as king of Upper and Lower Egypt, who united the Two Lands in the Nome of the Wall, the place in which the Two Lands were united.

Ptah was also a miracle worker. It was believed that Ptah saved the town of Pelusium from Assyrian invaders with an army of rats Ptah ordered the rats to sneak into the camp of the Assyrians and gnaw through the bowstrings and shield handles of the enemy. Without weaponry or defense, the Assyrian army fled. It was also said that he stopped a fight between Horus and Set:. He judged between Heru and Set; he ended their quarrel. He made Set the king of Upper Egypt in the land of Upper Egypt, up to the place in which he was born, which is Su And Geb made Horus King of Lower Egypt in the land of Lower Egypt, up to the place in which his father was drowned which is “Division-of-the-Two-Lands “. Thus Horus stood over one region, and Set stood over one region. They made peace over the Two Lands at Ayan. That was the division of the Two Lands

The Egyptians spoke of the mysterious Hanebut (or Haunebut), a people who lived in the region of Amenti (or Punt). The name of the Hanebut means “People of the Haze” or “Behind the Islands” or “People of the Pillar [of Atlas]” (Hau-nabha in Sanskrit and Dravida, thet ending merely marking out the feminine gender in Egyptian). The elusive Hanebut were indeed the same as the people of Punt who, as the Gerzeans, invaded and conquered Upper Egypt in pre-Dynastic times, and who were later expelled when Egypt was unified by King Menes, “the Greek”.

Several Egyptian pharaohs claimed ownership over “Haunebut”. The Greek portion of the Rosetta Stone text clearly translates the phrase Haunebu – meaning “the people of Haunebut” – as Greek or Hellene. And Greece does lie “behind the islands” of the Aegean Sea, when viewed from Egypt. Thutmosis III boasted that he had “trussed. the Haunebut” and struck those that lived “in the midst of the Great Green Sea”.. In a single year, he claimed to have collected 36,692 deben of gold from his conquered subjects – the equivalent of three metric tons – of which 27,000 kilos is specifically said to have come from the Asian provinces and the Isles in the Midst of the Great Green Sea

The Nine Bows and all princes are at peace desolation is for Tehenu (Libya) and Hatti is at peace Canaan is plundered Ashkelon and Gezer are taken Yenocam is made to nothing Israel is laid waste and has no grain Kharu has become with widows All lands are pacified and everyone is bound
The princesa re prostrates, aying “peace!” Not one is raising his head among the Nine Bows.. Now that Tehenu (Libya) has come to ruin, Hatti is pacified;. The Canaanh as been plunderedi nto every sort of woe Ashkelon has been overcome Gezer has been captured Yanocam is made non-existent Israel is laid waste and his seed is not Hurru is become a widow because of Egypt

Before Amon: Welcome! my beloved son, Sheshonk, – mighty in strength Thou hast smitten the lands and the countries, thou hast crushed the Nubian Trogodytes, (thy) sword was mighty among the Asiatics; they were made fragments every moment Thy victorious fame – all lands Thou wentest forth in victory and thou hast returned in might; thou hast united6 -; I have – ( ) for thee the countries that knew not Egypt, that had begun to invade thy boundaries, in order to cut off their heads Victory is given into thy hands, all lands and all countries are united – -, the fear of thee is as far as the four pillars (of heaven), the terror of thy majesty is among the Nine Bows; thou hast – ( ) the hearts of the countries Thou art Horus over the Two Lands (Egypt) thou art – ( ) against thy enemies, when thou hast smitten the foe Take thou my victorious sword7, thou whose war-mace has smitten the chiefs of the countries

The pharaoh reaches with his chariot the outermost limits of his empire Naharin and Karoi appear in the two lists: in fact the two lists can be regarded as an extension of the expression “from Nahrin to Karoi

THE DAWN OF HISTORY

Philosophy must settle the question how it came to pass that religious ideas were in ancient times so universally prevalent and so strongly pronounced History is only bound to note the fact Coeval, then, with the foundation of the city of Menes was, according to the tradition, the erection of a great Temple to Ptah–“the Revealer,” the Divine artificer, by whom the world and man were created, and the hidden thought of the remote Supreme Being was made manifest to. His creatures, Ptah’s Temple lay within the town, and was originally a naos or “cell,” a single building probably not unlike that between the Sphinx’s paws at Ghizeh, situated within a Tumenos, or “sacred enclosure,” watered from the river, and no doubt planted with trees

Egypt the brother builders are the Sut and Horus twins
Atlas – Shu
The octonary was one of the “upliftings of Shu” which are alluded to in the Ritual. The heaven, that is also called the mansion of his stars, which was again and again renewed (ch 110) Shu had been one of the sustaining powers of the firmament who were known as the seven giants. He then became the elevator of the heaven that was imaged as the cow of Nut; and lastly his was the sustaining power with Atum-Horus in the double equinox Apparently this change from the heptanomis of the ancient mother and her seven sons to the heaven of the eight great gods upraised by Shu is indicated in the Magic Papyrus. In this the giant of seven cubits is addressed. A divine command is given to him: “Get made for me a shrine of eight cubits! And as thou hast been (or wast) a giant of seven cubits, I have said to thee, thou canst not enter this shrine of eight cubits And, as (or although) thou wast a giant of seven cubits, thou hast entered and reposed in it “The giant of seven cubits” in the shrine of seven cubits now gives place to one who “has the face of a Kafi ape, with the head of hair of a monkey Aani”. The type that is, of the moon-god, Tehuti-Aani, in the shrine of eight cubits, or the heaven of the eight great gods in the enclosure of Am-Khemen, the octonary of Thoth, upraised by Shu (Magic Papyrus, Records of the Past, vol x , pp 151-154)

It is related in very old Egyptian legends that when Shu-Anhur lifted up the paradise or park of Am-Khemen he was compelled to make use of a mound or staircase with steps to it in order that he might reach the height. This mound, says Maspero, was famous throughout all Egypt. The event (as supposed history) took place at Hermopolis, the city of which Thoth was lord; therefore we may look to the lunar deity for the origin of the step-mound. A figure of this mound may be seen in vignettes to the Ritual as a pyramid with seven steps called the ladder or staircase of Shu
Shu, the lion of breathing force and uplifter of the firmament to be third of the elemental powers born of the ancient Genetrix Shu upraised the heaven of day in one character and the heaven of night in the other. He is a pillar of support to the firmament as founder of the double equinox. He sustains the heaven with his two-pronged stick, his two arms, or with the two lions of force which represent himself and his sister Tefnut the lioness. It was at the equinoctial level that the quarrel of Sut and Horus was settled for the time being by Shu Shu thus stands for the equinox as the link of connection betwixt Sut and Horus in the north and south. The heaven in two parts south and north, as the domains of Sut and Horus was now followed by the heaven in three divisions that was upraised by Shu as establisher of the equinox in the more northern latitudes And this heaven in three divisions was the heaven of the Triangle which preceded the one built on the square, by Ptah Horus and Sut had been the twin builders and the founders south and north Shu followed with the new foundation in the equinox, which was double, east and west Sut, Horus, and Shu then, aided by his sister Tefnut, founded the heaven of the triangle based upon the two-fold horizon and the crossing Shu as the equinoctial power is the third to Sut and Horus of the south and north. With him a triad was completed and the two pillars with a line across would form the figure of the triangle ∇ three brothers Sut, Horus and Shu with one female (as the mother or sister Tefnut) Law and order were established by putting “bounds to the contentions of the powers” and by dividing the whole universe from Zenith to Nadir into the two domains called the portion of Sut and the portion of Horus. When Ptah had built his mansion in the double earth the two horizons were united, or, as it is said, the double earth became united, “the union is in the house of Ptah”, and “the two pillars of the gateway in the house of Ptah are Horus and Sut”. The united ones made peace; they fraternized completely. They made a treaty “Geb says to Horus and Sut”, “there shall be an arbitration between you” Geb said to Horus, “come from the place where thy father was submerged”, that is in the north Geb said to Sut, “come from the place where thou wast born”, that was in the south “A mountain in the midst of the earth unites the portion of Horus to the portion of Sut, at the division of the earth”. This, in the solar mythos, was the mount of the equinox.. Now Horus and Sut each stood upon a hillock; they made peace saying “the two earths meet in ANun for it is the march (border) of the two earths”. In this legend there is a shifting of boundaries from south and north to east and west in the union that is now contracted in the house of Ptah, “in the house of his two earths in which is the boundary of south and north” that was drawn from east to west by the equinoctial line “Here the united ones fraternized completely. They made a treaty”; which was sustained by Geb And henceforth the twin powers, Sut and Horus, now called Horus and Sut, who had stood as the two pillars, south and north, for the two poles in Apta, are now “the two pillars of the gateway to the house of Ptah”; which two pillars are afterwards portrayed as the double Tat of eternal stability in the making of Amenta (Text from Memphis) Before the solar god attained his supremacy as the determiner of time Shu was the readjuster of the power of the equinox. Hence Shu is said to have kept the contention of these warring powers within bounds and brought about their reconcilement (Rit , ch 110). Thus the “reckonings of Shu” involved the readjustment of the equinoctial point and re-establishing the equilibrium of the equinoxes in the different reckonings of time. The three seasons of four months each would naturally lead to the circle of the Ecliptic being measured and divided into three parts, which tripartite division was followed, at a distance, by the Babylonians in their mapping out of the sphere, and continued by them in afar later calendar of twelve signs. The Egyptian month was divided into three weeks of ten days each, which obviously corresponded to the heaven of the triangle, the tripartite ecliptic, and the three seasons in Egypt. Then followed a heaven of four quarters or sides in which may be traced the houses of Sut, Horus, Shu and Thoth; but the division of the month or moon and the Ecliptic in three parts equated with the three seasons in a circle or zodiac that was measured monthly by the lunar god with his 3 X 10= 30 days. The two roads of heaven had been divided between the twin brothers Sut and Horus. The three roads were next divided between Sut, Horus, and Shu in the heaven of the triangle that stood as it were upon a tripod = three roads of the south, north, and equinox Type after type, the mythical Great Mother and her children passed into the legendary lore of the whole world. The mother and her twins were followed by the mother in the character of sister, who is the companion of three brothers, our Sut, Horus, and Shu in the triangular heaven or triple division, the uranographic symbol of which was constellated in “Triangula”, composed of three stars held in the hand of Horus (Drummond,Oed Jud , pl 3). The god of the Triangle was of a threefold nature in the trinity of Sut, Horus, and Shu, which three were one with the mother in the heaven of the Triangle, the mount with the triple peaks, the Ecliptic: in three divisions, the year in the three seasons, the month in three weeks. The Triangle, like the Oval, is a figure of the female, as it was on the Goddess Nana in Babylonia.. Now these four appear upon Mount Hetep when the later heaven is portrayed in the ten divisions that preceded the final twelve as a trinity of primeval, powers united with the Great Mother, who was the abode as Triangle when the heaven was not yet builded on the square (Rit , ch 110). The other four brothers who make up the group of seven great gods (at least in one form) are Amsta, Hapi, Tuamutef, and Kabhsenuf, who stand on the lotus or papyrus, and are the four gods, paddles or eyes of the four quarters Thus, the seven are: (I) Gebek-Horus, the crocodile; (2) Sut, the water-bull; (3) Shu, the lion; (4) Hapi, the ape; (5) Tuamutef, the jackal; (6) Kabhsenuf, the hawk; (7) Amsta, the man, who, together with the Great Mother, were the founders or the zodiac – three in the Triangle and four in the Square
In all the mythologies the Pole-star is an emblem of stability, a seat or throne of the power who is the highest god pro Tum , as was Anup in Egypt, Sydik in Phoenicia , Anu in Babylonia, Tai-Yih (the arch-first) in China, Avather, or Zivo, in Mesopotamia, and others. It was not the seat that was worshipped, but the power; the sustainer and the judge that was enthroned upon the stellar Mount of Glory as the god. The Pole-star was a type of the eternal, because apparently beyond the region of time and change. It was the earliest type of a supreme intelligence which gave the law in heaven that was unerring, just and true; if only as the law of equipoise or, as we should now say, of gravitation. This was the sole point at which there seemed to be any certainty of foothold in that moving ocean of the starry infinite And this became a standpoint in the heavens for the mind of man to rest on at the centre and radiate to the circumference. The summit was well-named the Mount of Glory Around this island-mount the hosts of heaven appeared to wheel by night in one vast, glorious, never-ceasing “march past” in the presence of the “Royal Arch” or, more religiously regarded, the Most High God. The earliest law in heaven was given on the mount because the mount was an image of the pole. It was administered by the judge, whether as Anup, in the north, or Sut as jackal of the south, because the jackal in Egypt was a zootype of the judge Horus was the highest in the solar mythos, the highest being worshipped as the “Only One” Anup and Tehuti then became two witnesses to the supremacy of Horus, the one as the eighth, who in turn became the witness for his father, Ra-Unnefer

The Amenta had not then been hollowed out. The passage through the mount from west to east was tunnelled now by Ptah and his co-workers, who in this character might be called his seven navvies. When Ptah, the supreme craftsman of the gods, constructed his terrestrial and subterranean house of the double earth he built it on the earlier foundations, such as the Akar and Tuat of the abyss that were previously extant. The two pillars of the south and north were likewise utilized. As it is said in the mythological text from Memphis, “the two pillars of the gateway of the house of Ptah are Horus and Sut”, which had previously represented the two poles of Sut and Horus, the twin founders, as we show, in the beginning Ptah the great architect of the universe, who followed the earlier sky-supporters, Sut, Horus, and Shu

Kamite Khemenu, the eight great gods in Am-Khemen, the heaven upraised by Shu Kamite cows, the givers of plenty in the meadows of Aarru, that rest by the still waters at the head of the river of light and the twin lakes in the region of the north celestial pole. The Kamite Amenta is “the grave of man’s lost world”, where his legendary garden of the beginning may be rediscovered. In this subterranean country will be found a copy of the primary paradise of all mythology, which can be restored from the Ritual and the imagery set in the stars of heaven, and proved to be the work of ancient Egypt’s wisdom. The most primitive imagery was sacredly preserved in Amenta, which makes the Book of the Dead an eschatological record of the beginnings in mythology that is unparalleled, and not until we have mastered the wisdom of Egypt as recorded in Amenta shall we be enabled to read it on the surface of the earth.

The primal paradise of universal legend was above the earth upon the summit of the mount, up which the spirits climbed to reach the region of eternal rest among the stars that never set. It was configurated round about the pole of heaven. This has yet to be depicted as the mount of glory. The later paradise was sub-terrestrial, the earthly paradise of legendary lore. The first was stellar, the last is solar, and it is this last that was founded on the subterranean path of the nocturnal sun first opened up by Ptah. The duplicating of paradise was partly a result of repeating the imagery of the stellar representation in the solar mythos. The mount of glory in the east was added to the mount of glory in the north, with the wide water of the heavens flowing round between the terrestrial and celestial paradise beyond the ocean in every direction there exists another continent which cannot be reached by man, but of which one part was inhabited by him before the Deluge. To the east, just as in other maps of the world and in later systems, he placed the terrestrial paradise and the four rivers that watered Eden which came by subterranean channels to water the post-diluvian earth (Blake, Astronomical Myths, pages 266-7). This can be followed by means of the upper paradise of Am-Khemen, that was raised by Shu, and the lower one now configurated by the opener Ptah, who suspended a sky overhead in Amenta. In the mythology, Amenta is the subterranean country of the sun by night. The dawn and sunset were its gates of glory. It is called the beautiful Amenta, the earth of eternity. It was the passage of the sun that made the pathway of the solar circle which was completed in the eastern equinox. Hence it is said of the sun-god, “The junction of the double earth is the head of the coffin of Osiris, the beneficent soul in Sutenkhen, who hath determined the paths of eternity”, that is in completing a circle by making the passage through Amenta (Rit , ch 17, Renouf). The road to heaven for the manes now began with a pathway through the nether earth, from the place of sunset to the gate of sunrise. Previously the way to heaven was up the mount which was a figure of the north celestial pole. There was no solar passage through the nether regions in the stellar mythos; the sun went round the mount of earth, not through it Ptah the opener added earth to earth and heaven to heaven, the solar mythos to the stellar. The sky upraised by him is indicated by the figure of heaven reversed. It is called the firmament of Ptah. Hence it is said by the Osiris in Amenta, “Mine is the radiance in which Ptah floateth over his firmament” (Rit , ch 64), his firmament [Page 347] being that of the nocturnal sun in the under-world. There was now a firmament above and one below the earth. The firmament uplifted first by Sut, Horus, and Shu was supplemented by a nether sky up-raised and suspended by the opener Ptah. The Nun, nun, or heaven is the celestial water, and this, as sky, was both above and below the earth. Now, the account of creation in the book of Genesis, with its waters above the firmament and its waters below the firmament, could not have been written until the division of these waters of heaven above the earth and of Amenta below the earth was effected when Ptah created the firmament of the nether-earth and raised another heaven in Amenta. When the sun-god Atum-Ra mounts into heaven from the garden of Aarru it is from the lower Aarru in the secret earth of Amenta. Hence it is said at the same time he “goeth to the field of Aarru, approaching to the land of spirits in heaven” (Rit , ch 17, Renouf), i e , to the upper Aarru, which was in the heaven of eternity, not in the nether-land of the double earth, called the earth of eternity. This duality has to be completely comprehended before the Ritual can be read, or its traditions followed round the world, as for example, in the Hebrew Genesis and the Assyrian legends of creation Paradise in Amenta is said by the deceased to be the “beautiful earth of eternity”. But the deceased does not stay in it as his place of repose. It is not the eternal dwelling. In passing through Amenta he is bound for the heaven of eternity above. This below is but the earthly paradise, and there is an upper paradise to be attained across the celestial waters by those who can secure a seat in the boat of Ra. The typical mount was doubled; a mountain east was added to the most ancient mount of the north, which sometimes makes it look as if the site of the primitive paradise had been shifted and slewed round from the north to the east. The mistake hitherto made regarding the mount is in supposing the mount of earth, or Amenta, to be identical with the mount of the north, whereas the two belong to two distinct systems of the mythos, stellar and solar. The mount of heaven was stellar in the north; the mount of earth is solar in the east. The mount of heaven had its summit at the north celestial pole; the mount of Amenta was level with the sky-line on the horizon. There is also a double judgment seat, and a twofold judgment. One great hall was in Amenta. The other was at the apex of the hill of heaven, the maat of the final judgment that was given on the last great day. When the two are sundered, we sometimes find the judgment seat is imaged at the north celestial pole; at others, the great judge is seated as the Rhat-Amenta or Rhadamanthus, in the maat of the nether-earth. The garden of Aarru or paradise of the eight great gods, whom we identify as a group with the seven in the Lesser Bear, plus the deity of the pole-star, was in the north Not on the horizon north, but at the celestial pole that was figured as the summit of a very lofty mount, the mythical mountain of the north, diamond-pointed at the apex with the polar star, whereas the Semitic Eden is the garden eastward.

Mount Hetep it may look as if the mount were all in one, but it is not so. There was a double mount; the mount of earth which was solar, and the mount of heaven which was stellar. In the Ritual (ch 108) the mount of earth is said to be “the hill on which heaven resteth”. This is called the hill Bakhu, the solar mount Its dimensions in length and breadth are given in some of the early papyri. In the Papyrus of Nebseni the hill is 300 cubits in breadth. In the Turin Ritual it is 140 cubits in breadth. This stellar mountain in the northern heaven and solar mountain in the east will likewise account for the twofold mount of the Babylonians Above the earth extended the sky, and revolving round the mountain of the east, the column which joined the heavens and the earth and served as an axis to the celestial vault. The culminating point of the heavens, the zenith (Nuzku) was not this axis or pole On the contrary , that was situated immediately above the country of Akkadia (in the north), and was regarded as the centre of the inhabited lands, whilst the mountain which acted as a pivot to the starry system was to the north-east of this country Beyond the mountain, and also the north-east, extended the land of Aralli, which was rich in gold, and was inhabited by the gods and blessed spirits Gilgames, “To the mountains whose name is double, to the twin mountains in his course he came”. The mount of earth or Amenta below was entered in the west. The upper mount was also, entered at the west in the heaven of the setting stars tat or pole of Ptah supporting the nether sky. In Chinese legendary lore there is a pillar that sustains the earth. They also have a pillar which sustains the heaven. These two correspond to the pillar of Shu that supports the firmament above and the tat-pillar of Ptah which supports the earth in Amenta below. These are distinct from each other; they belong to two entirely different mythical creations and cannot be resolved into one single pillar derived from the mount of earth as axis – pillar of the heavens Heaven had rested on the pillar of the earth or the pillars raised upon the mundane mount by Shu. But the tat-pillar of Ptah was erected in the nether earth of two. Consequently our earth was then supported on the pillar of Ptah.

Egyptian, there are two divine pillars answering to the double mount, which we call the pillar of Shu and the tat-pillar of Ptah. One is the sustainer of the firmament above the earth, the other is the support of the firmament below the earth. The two together are the double pillars of earth and heaven. The backbone was a figure of the pole: it is at one time the backbone of Sut, at another the backbone of Anup, at another of Ptah or Osiris – the backbone being a natural type of sustaining power. This at first was single as a figure of the pole. It was duplicated in Amenta, the same as was the pillar of support and other figures of sustaining power. The power of Ptah in Amenta is not simply that of the pillar or backbone. These are doubled in the earth of eternity to express his power as sustainer of the universe. The figure is referred to in the magic papyrus as the long backbone of Ptah, the Nemma “O Nemma of the great face, of the long backbone, of the deformed legs! O long column which commences in (both) the upper and the lower heaven O lord of the great body which reposes in ANun”, the place of the column or pole, now doubled in Amenta (Magic Papyrus, Records, vol x , p 152). There was a tendency to blend the twofold mount in one as in the double Mount Meru, which is sometimes denominated the North Pole, but was primarily a figure on earth of the pole in heaven, like the mound of earth and the cone or pillar. But Meru was doubled or divided into upper and lower, called Su-Meru and Ku-Meru, when it imaged the mount that was opened for the passage of the heavenly bodies through the nether earth. One mountain standing in the east and one in the north were not vertically blended in one. They were symbolical of the double mount of earth and heaven as a figure, but this was in the end, not at the starting-point. The Kamite teachers also imaged the two poles as the two trees called the two sycamores of the south and north. The later tree in Eridu, as well as the Norse tree Yggdrasil, was compounded of the two as the tree which had its roots down south or in the under-world, and its branches high up in the northern heaven; a two-fold tree that corresponded to the double mount. Again, the rock is a co-type with the mount, and the double rock is equivalent to the two-fold mount. These two were also blended in one as in the rock that “begat” the Israelites. The rock and the double rock are both mentioned in the Ritual Thoth the moon-god is said to be the “son of the rock proceeding from the place of the two rocks” in Anruti (Renouf, ch 134). The name of Anruti identifies the double rock with the double horizon, which was also called the double mount,[SET hieroglyph]. The son of the rock who proceeds from the two rocks is the moon-god as the son of earth and heaven, or son of the double mount of earth and heaven, the two rocks having been blended in one as a typical figure of Osiris, the rock of eternity, imaged as the pole of heaven. The two-fold origin of the mythical mount is now sufficiently established in relation to identifiable natural facts which alone can furnish the proof that the mount, the pole, the tree, the paradise, pillar, column, or backbone were single in the stellar and are duplicated in the solar mythos, and that this duplication followed on the making of Amenta. The Rig-Veda speaks of “him who, as the collective pillar of heaven, sustains the sky” (Wilson, 3 143, 144). This collective pillar was the dual type of the two-fold mount of earth and of heaven imaged in one figure of support. The Hebrew pillar of the lower and upper paradise that is called “the strength of the hill Zion” was another form of the collective pillar. As Egyptian, this collective pillar was the double tat of Ptah erected in Amenta. The tat-pillar of Ptah and Osiris was continued in the ancient Germanic Irmin pillars, which were mostly made of wood. The mythical pillar Irminsul was that which joined together earth arid heaven, like the mount of Amenta and the tat-support of the gods. The Irmin-pillars were a form of the Hermae in Greece that were set up as boundary signs at cross roads and street corners to mark the extent of certain lands. This points to an origin for their name. In Egyptian the word remen or ermen denotes the extent as far as the limit or boundary Rema or erma is a measure of land. The deity Irmin, like Hermes of the pillar, was a god of boundaries. If the mount or the pillar had been single and not double, there would have been no voyage across the water that flowed between the mount of earth and the mount of heaven; no need of boat or bridge [Page 354] or place of “jumping off” from one side to the other. If the mythical mount had simply been a single figure of the universe axis (as O’Neil describes it), the climbers would have gone straight up to heaven, whereas the solar mount of glory in the east did not and could not blend vertically with the stellar mount of glory in the north. The mount was dual; the water ran betwixt the two, and that necessitated the means of crossing from one to the other. Nothing could make the universe axis twofold, in keeping with the double mount of earth and heaven And this duality alone will explain why one type should be considered female, the other male. The mount or pillar of earth was an image of the Great Mother as bringer-forth, and the mount or pillar of heaven was typical of the fatherhood, the “rock that begat”, or rather of two sexes in one nature as they were blended in the deity Ptah, Atum, Osiris, Ihuh, and Brahma. The type of this duality is to be seen in the navel, the umbilicus, and the nabhiyoni united and imaged in one as a figure of the birthplace and prototype of the navel mounds; the pit below and the pile of stones above, the well and pyramid, the church and steeple, the grave and monument. When the solar mythos had been added to the stellar, the pathway to paradise was through the nether-world. The road of the sun in the mythos now became the road of souls in the eschatology. The entrance to the under-world was consequently in the west. The maker of the road was the nocturnal sun as the bull or god of the west. One name of the western hill is Manu. It is said to Ra when setting, “Wake up from thy rest; thine abode is in Manu” (Rit , ch 15). This apparently survives in the Samoan Mane At death, the soul went to a paradise in the western horizon called Mane= Manu. When the nether-world had been completely excavated by Ptah, Amenta was established as the lower storey of two in the mount of earth which henceforth becomes the mount of Amenta. The name denotes the hidden or secret (Amen) earth (ta). It is also called the earth of eternity, the land of the living; for the Egyptians call those the living whom the less spiritualistic moderns designate the dead. The mount of earth became the mount of Amenta because Amenta had been tunnelled through the lower earth. It became the funereal mount because Amenta was the earth of the manes. In the Egyptian chart the west is the beautiful gate of entrance to this divine nether-world, otherwise called the land of life. It is not paradise itself, but the way to it through purgatory. The beautiful gate of exit was at the place of sunrise, not sunset, in the garden eastward, and this was the locality of the terrestrial paradise, which was a copy of the garden of Aarru first configurated in the circumpolar heaven of the stellar mythology. The dead in Egypt were called “the westerners” On the way to the place of burial the mourners sang the funeral song “To the west, to the west, to the west!”. The mummy was ferried over the water to the western mount, where Hathor-lsis or the cow waited to receive the solar god, and in his track the souls of the departed. The entrance to the mount was shown as the mouth of the cow, or cleft in the rock. The sun-god made his passage through the mount of earth, or the sphinx, for his rebirth and resurrection on the eastern side, and the opening- in the rock was at the end or at the summit, in the Tser hill, the rock of the horizon. In the Russian märchen Prince Ivan = Horus the prince, climbs up the magical ladder to get into the “great house” of the “tremendously high steep mountain”. His sister = the princess, or lunar lady, calls to him from the balcony “See, there is a chink in the enclosure Touch it with your little finger and it will become a door! “. This he does, and obtains entrance into the mountain of Amenta (Ralston, Russian Folk-tales, 102 )

In the lower paradise was the land of gold, not as metal, but as the glory of the sun by night. The sun god rising from this land that was yellow with gold is thus addressed, “Adoration to thee, who arisest out of the golden and givest light to the earth” (Rit , ch 15, Renouf) Still, mining for metals had commenced when Ptah and [Page 359] his pygmy workers hollowed out the under-world Amenta was based upon the mine. It was the secret earth in which the treasures were concealed. These were guarded by the dragon, but they were likewise known to the dwarfs, the wee folk, the fairies, the Tuatha de Danan Amenta was the land of precious metals and the furnace of the solar fire. Hence Ptah, the miner, became the blacksmith of the gods, the Kamite Vulcan. Some missing details respecting the work of Ptah the metallurgist may be found in the Greek rendering of this god as Hephaistos Ptah, working in concert with the goddess Mati, built the great double hall of Truth and Justice, which was gilded and glorified with his precious metal Hephaistos is the architect of the house of the gods. As a proof that his place and work are in the nether earth, Hephaistos does not know what occurs until he learns it from the coming sun. A subterranean pleasaunce opened to the eastward of the mount of earth called now, the earth of eternity. This is a paradise to which the manes look forward on their path of progress. It was the field in which they had to till and grow the divine harvest as the food of the gods. For Aarru was apportioned on the small allotment system. Each one had a share of arable land to cultivate, and by the fruit was known and judged at the great harvest-home as a true worker or a lazy one; and by their labour in this spirit-world Egyptians earned their living for the life hereafter. The lower Aarru, the garden eastward in Amenta, is that earthly paradise of legendary lore in search of which so many heroes sailed.

The aim and end of the Osiris on the journey by water or by land is to reach the circumpolar paradise and secure a place among the stars that never set, the glorious ones that “beacon from the abodes where the eternals are”. The mount of earth was the point of emergence in the mythology. It was the place of birth for the sun upon the mount to the east where the Temple of Gebek-Horus stood. In the eschatology it was the place of rebirth for the souls or manes who ascended by the mount or by the tree of dawn to the summit from which they entered the bark of the sun to make the voyage over the waters round to Manu in the region of the west. This under-world, with its mount of birth as a point of departure for the sun and manes in the east, became the traditional birthplace and point of departure in the legends of various supposed ethnical migrations of a similar nature to that of the Jews in the exodus from Egypt. The passage from the mount or island of earth to the mount of the upper paradise across the water was already mapped out in the time of Pepi I , as the following extract from his pyramid shows: “Hail thou who (at thy will) makest to pass over to the field Aarru the soul that is right and true, or dost make shipwreck of it (if wrong).

Pepi is right and true in respect of the island of the earth, whither he swimmeth and where he ariseth” (Budge ). This is not very clear, but the island of the earth is the mount on the eastern summit of which the manes joined the solar bark to make the voyage from Mount Bakhu east to Mount Manu in the west on their way to the mount of glory at the north celestial pole. Thus the pathway for the dead from this life to the upper paradise was laid down by the Egyptians. It was they who tunnelled the mount of earth and hollowed out Amenta with its places of purgatory, its hells, its paradise of plenty in the Aarru meadows; its means of ascent for the Manes by the mount or up the tree; its solar bark and boat of souls that voyaged over the waters of the Nun from east to west; its steps or ladder that was raised at the landing-place by night for the ascent to heaven in the upper Aarru paradise Led by the jackal Anup as guide through all the ways of darkness, and lighted by Thoth, the lunar god, who carries in his hand the lamp of light and eye of Horus as the moon of Amenta shining through the night, we emerge at length from underneath the upper earth. We are now outside the mount of earth, which stands upon a vast illimitable plain of the nether-world. We thus retain our foothold in the Nun where upper earth comes to an end. We follow the track of the sun and therefore issue on the eastern side of the mountain, which the solar god ascends at sunrise when seen by the dwellers on the upper earth.. Now we are facing the solar east and the garden eastward Apuat, the opener of roads, raises him up and acts the part of the giant Christopher in carrying him across the waters ( ch 44). He wanders in the wilderness where nothing grows. He obtains command of the water in the nether-world and prevails over the deluge. He escapes the second death (ch 58). The double doors of heaven are opened for his coming forth ( ch 68). Still following the course of the sun, the passage of Amenta endeth with the garden eastward and the ascent by which the Manes enter the bark of Ra. The sun goes down to Amenta in the west each night, but their sun sets no more. They have done with the mount of earth in the mythology, and come to the mount belonging to the heavens. But there is a great gulf fixed between the mount of Amenta and the stellar mount of glory. This is the lake of darkness and the lair of the Apap-dragon. The void is spoken of as the cavern of Putrata, where the dead fall into darkness. It is also called the void of Apap.

In strict accordance with natural phenomena, the gulf or void of Putrata lay betwixt the place of sunset on the western side of the mount of earth and the heaven of the setting stars. It is the prototype of the abyss or lake of outer darkness, the pit, in the Christian version of the legend; the great gulf that was fixed betwixt those who remained in the lower Amenta and those who had attained the bosom of Ra, an Egyptian expression for the boat On the other side of the water “Shu standeth erect, and the non-setting stars are instantly active in raising the ladder” by which the sinking souls or setting stars are saved from destruction in the lake of outer darkness. These steps are carried round from east to west for that purpose on board the solar bark (Vignettes to Ritual ).

This is described as “that most conspicuous but inaccessible stream” when contemplated from the earth (Rit , ch 98 ). When the departed reach the starry shore, the seven steps or ladder for ascending the mount of heaven is now erected in the boat. This ladder, as Egyptian, was double in the time of King Pepi. It is called the ladder of Sut for the ascent from Amenta, and the ladder of Horus for the ascent to heaven. A bark that can ascend the stream awaits the voyagers. This picture of the bark that made its glorious journey upward to the circumpolar paradise was obviously constellated as the Argo Navis, which is figured in the position of ascending backwards on the white waters of the Milky Way.

The cavern and gulf of Putrata no doubt existed when there was as yet no boat or bridge extant. Hence in various legends the manes have to spring from one side of the chasm to the other Birds in the Kamite representation, fly to the regions of eternal rest. As Egyptian, this road was a great stream, because with them the water was their earliest way ( ch 86)

Another Egyptian name for the heaven as water is urnas or uranus. This we claim to be the Kamite original of the Greek uranus Dr Birch renders it in his dictionary “Urnas, Ouranos, the celestial water”. The Egyptians did not personalize it under that name; still, the urnas is the celestial water, and urnas=uranos. The okeanus that flows around the world was neither a fabulous sea nor a stream of water, but the firmament itself, that was figured as the celestial water surrounding the mount of earth Through this ocean ran the great stream of the white water or the Milky Way. Thus we have the Oceanus and the ocean stream of Homer for the first time separately identified.

Again, the water appeared divided into two lakes at the head of the celestial river united to form one stream in the Via Lactea. The system of the waters in the Bundahish is identical with the Egyptian. It is said that all the waters in heaven and earth had their origin in the heavenly mount of Ardvi Sura at the summit of Alborz upon which the red cow rested. There is but one source and only place of discharge for all the rivers in the world. This was the river of the Milky Way, which the Egyptians figured as descending from the celestial lakes to be continued in the lakes and in the Nile below. In China the Yellow River is looked upon as a continuation of the Tien Ho, or Milky Way, the river of heaven continued as the river of earth (Mayers’ Manual, page 98).

The Osirian looking heavenward in death exclaims, “O very high mountain! I hold myself in thy enclosure” (Rit , 149, 14). He also says, “A divine domain hath been constructed for me I know the name of it; the name of it is the garden of Aarru” (Rit , ch 109, Renouf ). But the enclosure at the summit of the mount was not only figured as a paradise of plenty. It was a dwelling-place which had expanded to a city; the city of the blessed, the holy city, the city of the great king, the heavenly city, the eternal city, that was the model of Memphis and ANun, Thebes and Abydos, Eridu and Babylon, Rome, Jerusalem, and other sacred cities of the world On approaching this, the Osirian says, “I stand erect in the bark which the god is piloting, at the head of Aarru, and the non-setting stars open to receive me and my fellow-citizens present to me the sacred cakes with flesh” ( ch 98, Renouf). In an earlier chapter he had said, “I arrive at my own city” ( ch 17)

On the Stele of Beka the speaker says, “I reach the city of those who are in eternity”. That is the eternal city. When the Osiris has attained the land of eternity he says his future is in ANun. That is ANun as a celestial locality, ANun as the eternal city, not Heliopolis in Egypt (Rit , ch 133 ) ANun, like Tattu, was a form of the celestial city at the pole. An is a name of the mount and the column, the pole, and in ANun was the pillar, fortress, or rock of eternity. As a city it was the city of the white wall. As the seat it was the great white throne of the eternal.

As a country’ it is the land of the silver sky. It is also known as the mountain of white limestone, the stone of Sut. The house constructed by Ptah was double-storied, a house of the lower and upper paradise combined in one Finally, the heaven of astronomical mythology was figured as the great house of Osiris. This included all the previous formations: the circle of the Bear; the heaven of Sut and Horus, south and north; the triangular heaven of the ecliptic; the heaven built on the square; the double house of Amenta below the earth, and the eternal dwelling-place above, whence the house of Osiris at Abydos, called the mansion of Geb and Nu, or earth and heaven, was built in two stories (Magical Texts, page 6; Records, vol vi page 118) Kamite city of the white wall, the celestial Ha-Ptah-Ka. To the dweller in ANun the eternal city was ANun on the summit of the celestial mount.

The Egyptian Ta-Nuter or divine land of the gods is usually described as being in the Orient. But there was also a Ta-Nuter Meh-ti, which is rendered by Brugsch, “das nördliche Gottesland”, (Brugsch, Astron and Astrol. Inscript , p 179). This was the land of the gods in the north – that is, the polar paradise in heaven, not an elevated part of our earth. The breeze of the north was the breath of life to the Egyptians. It is synonymous with blessedness. The paradise of Hetep is the garden blessed with breezes. The breeze of the north, however, would not represent heaven to the dwellers in the northern quarter of the world. But the paradise was figured in the north originally, and there it remained in every land to which the wisdom of Old Egypt went.

This will explain the paradise of Airyana Vaêjô described in the Avesta. Ahura-Mazda tells Zarathustra that he has created a delectable spot which was previously unapproachable or nowhere habitable. But in this first of regions and best of countries there was winter during ten months of the year “Ten months of winter are there, two of summer, and these (latter) are cold as to water, cold as to earth, cold as to plants; then as the snow falls around there is the direst disaster” (Vendidad, Fargard, i ).

The good god made the good creation, and Angro-Mainyus, the dark and deadly, is said to have formed a mighty serpent and brought on the frost that was created by the Daevas, who correspond to the Gebau in the Ritual as agents of evil in physical phenomena. It is also said in [Page 379] the Minokhird (p 322, ff ) the Dev of winter is most vehement in Airyana Vaêjô Which does not mean that the primal paradise was created at the northern pole of the earth, to be overtaken by the glacial period. The true interpretation is that the legendary paradise was astronomical, and that it was an enclosure at the north celestial pole, and not in the northern regions of the earth.

In the Vendidad version it has been made geographical and rendered according to climate in some northern region of the earth; the evils of a winter world being then attributed to the devil, or the opposition of the black mind, Angro-Mainyus. There was no frost or winter in the circum-polar paradise, nor in the African birthplace of the legend in the oasis, whereas frost and winter were both met with in the highlands of the north, whether in Asia or in Europe, and this leads to a paradise in which there are ten months of bitter winter weather, which is the result of rendering the celestial by the terrestrial north.

In a supplement to the first Fargard of the Vendidad the time has been changed to suit a milder climate: “Seven months of summer are there; five months of winter were there”, which is in direct contradiction to the original text, and also opposed to the prototypal paradise with the life-giving breeze of the north in Africa, but is suitable to a milder climate, although one that is still in the cold north.

The Chinese paradise, like the Egyptian, is at the north pole, the apex of the celestial mount. The summit is the seat of the gods Heaven divided into the ten regions of space is identical with the Kamite heaven at the summit of Mount Hetep, that was divided into ten divine domains (Rit , ch 110) which followed the celestial heptanomis and the enclosure of Am-Khemen, and preceded the zodiac with twelve signs. In no country is the mount of the north more sacred than in China. For thousands of years the Chinese emperors have ascended the holy mountain T’ai to offer sacrifice to heaven. This mount is designated “Lord of the World”. To the north there is nothing but hills upon hills. It has 6,000 steps of hewn stone, each fifteen feet in length, leading upward like a staircase to the skies, exactly the same as the throne of Osiris, who “sits at the head of the staircase”.

One ideograph of Hetep, the mount of glory, is a table heaped with provisions as the sign of plenty. In the mythical rendering it is a table-mountain. This will explain the table of the sun which was said to exist among the Ethiopians as described by Herodotus. “There is a meadow in the suburbs”, he says, furnished with the cooked flesh of all sorts of quadrupeds. It is filled with meat at night, “and in the day time whosoever chooses comes and feasts upon it. The inhabitants say that the earth itself from time to time produces these things” Such is the description given of what is called the table of the sun (Book iii 17, 18 ). This table of the sun is referred to in the Ritual (rubric to chs 1 and 72).

The Kamite paradise, as an enclosure of the water and the tree of life upon the summit of the mount, is traceable in four different forms. At first it was the primitive paradise of the Oasis in the south. Next it is the circumpolar paradise of Am-Khemen, upraised by Anhur in the north. The third one is the paradise of Atum in the garden of Amenta. The final paradise was founded on the mount of glory for the spirits of the just made perfect in the heaven of eternity. Thus there are four types of paradise. And these apparently are enumerated and described in Irish legendary lore when Cesair, ” the first woman who landed in Ireland before the Flood”, says of her great knowledge, “Truly I am well versed in the world’s history, for. Inis Patmos is precisely the earth’s fourth paradise, the others being
( I). Inis Daleb in the world’s southern, (2). Inis Escandra in its boreal part, and (3) Adam’s paradise”.

Kamite paradise was the place of plenty and of strong drink. The. Indian’s idea of future felicity, which consisted in being eternally intoxicated, is but an extension from this primary basis. The “cauldron of regeneration for spirits” was derived from the brewing-vat Also it is noticeable that the Egyptian garden of Aarru or Allu, in the Ritual, has the same name as the grape, the vine-branch, and the wine Hetep was the land that flowed with milk and honey, and the imagery is demonstrably Egyptian. It flowed with honey because the flowers were always in bloom. A curious illustration of this land of honey and its Egyptian origin may be drawn from the Ritual. The 110th chapter of the Ritual suffices of itself to prove the Kamite origin of the mount of glory and the circumpolar paradise. This is the chapter of coming forth from the nether-world by day, or with the sun, and arriving in the garden of Aarru, on the mount of resurrection in Hetep, and at “the grand domain, blest with the breezes”.

This was the heaven lifted up by Shu of old as the summit of attainment. It is called “the beautiful creation which he raiseth up”, the mansion of his stars which had been again and again renewed in the heaven of astronomy. In the eschatology it was the heaven of reconciliation, reunion, and of rest. It had been the heaven of Abydos, of ANun,. Thebes, Memphis, Hermopolis, and other cities on earth, and now it was the heaven of eternity, the heaven of spirits perfected; also the heaven of Chaldean, Hebrew, Hindu, Japanese, Greek, and all the others who repeated the astronomical imagery and founded their religious teaching on the wisdom of ancient Egypt.

The summit of Hetep was the seat of Hathor, queen of heaven and mother of fair love on earth. She who had drawn the world in offering her full breast as nurse to Horus now offered it upon the mount of glory to the weary spirits whom she gathered in her motherly embrace. She was also represented by those seven cows or meris, as the giver of plenty in the meadows of Aarru, so abundantly that the river called the Milky Way was as the overflowing plenitude from this perpetual source On a tablet in the Louvre (ch 14) this divine mother of gods and men is asked for “the white liquor that the glorified ones love”. This is distinctly called milk upon a Florentine tablet (2567), and vases of her milk are mentioned in the inscriptions of Denderah (Rit , ch 110, note 9, Renouf)

Hesit the cow is identified with Hathor the divine mother, the fair nurse, the mistress of heaven and sovereign of the gods. She was the cow-mother, and her child was the calf who became her bull as fertilizer. Hence the deceased as Horus in Hetep exclaims, “I am the bull, raised on high in the blue, lord of the bull’s field ” (Rit , ch 110, Renouf), whose cow or nourisher is Hesit (Dümichen, [Page 385] Resultate, 27, 6 ). In this way the cow of heaven supplied not only milk for the infant Horus, but for all who were reborn as babes in the new life, and the heaven of plenty and of rest was tenderly pictured in the welling bosom of the motherhood, thus divinized upon the mount.

When the departed have reached the summit of life upon the mount of spirits perfected, they emerge in the garden of Hetep or paradise of Aarru. Here they attain the land of promise in the highest sense of spiritual fulfilment. They eat of the fruit of the tree and drink the water of life, or the milk of the old First Great Mother, who yields it in the form of Hesit the cow: the ancient mother of gods and men to whom the Egyptians assigned a foremost station in the starry heavens.

Here the beatified spirits who sat upon their thrones of ba-metal, “raised on high in the blue”, among the never-setting stars, extended the hand of welcome to the coming generations of human beings Three classes of human beings are recognized in the past, present, and future of existence: the Pait are those of the past, the Rekhit are the living, and the Hamemet are the future generations. In one of her inscriptions Queen Hatshepsu appeals to these latter as future witnesses to the glory of her present work. She says, “I make this known to the Hamemet, who will live in times to come” (Records, vol xii pp 131-136 ). The name denotes the unembodied, or, more literally, the un-mummied, from Ha, before, and mem or mum, the mummy. These are the future beings to whom the glorified spirits extend their welcome in the garden of beginning and rebirth; and it is in this enclosure or paradise that we shall at last discover the garden on the summit of the mount in the north that has become a traditional cradle and creatory of life itself as the rebirth place of the glorified.

Religion in Egypt first began in worship or propitiation of the primal providence that was figured as the Great Mother who brought forth the seven elemental powers called her children. These powers in Egypt were the seven Ali. In Phoenicia they are the seven Elohim, in Assyria they are seven forms of the Ili, and in Israel the seven Elohim, Kabirim, or Baalim. Sut was one of these, and Sut upon his mountain at the pole became EI-Shadai in his Hebrew form of Seth. The company of seven (with the great mother) passed into the astronomical mythology as the seven great spirits which were divinized as star gods with Anup, a form of Sut, at the pole. Under the figure of Israel, the abandoned female, later writers in the Old Testament denounce the pre-monogamous great mother as the harlot of promiscuous sexual intercourse. Jeremiah rejoices furiously because “she that hath borne seven languisheth”, ashamed and confounded, and hath given up the ghost” (ch. xv. 9). When the one god had been “lifted up” as Ra in the solar mythos and Huhi the eternal in the eschatology by both the Egyptians and the Jews, or by the Egyptian Jews, the previous divinities called the ancestors of Ra were superseded, or their powers were absorbed in or blended with the one great power, who was now the all-one as Neb-er-ter.

“When the children of Israel did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord” (Іhuh), and served the Baalim and Ashtoreth (Judges ii. II, 14), they were returning to the worship of the most ancient great mother and her sons the Ali, the companions, the brothers in the first circle of the gods; the Baalim being one with the Elohim and the Kabirim.

The change from Baal to Іhuh is indicated by Hosea (ch. ii. 16, also by Jeremiah iii.) when it is said to Israel, “And it shall be at that day, saith the Lord, thou shalt call me ‘my husband’, and thou shalt call me no longer Baal. For I will take away the names of the Baalim out of her mouth, and they shall no more be memorialized by name”. The Baalim, like the Elohim and Âbirim, were the Ali, companion gods or powers, that were originally a group of seven, to whom El or Baal was added as the eighth or highest God. They existed in the time of the totemic matriarchate before the husband or the father could be known personally, whether as human or divine. When the fatherhood was divinized the god became the husband, the one instead of the seven or eight, who were the Ali, Illi, Elohim, Âberim, or Baalim.

The change in Israel from the worship of El-Shaddai to the worship of Іhuh, from the Eloistic to the Jehovistic god, corresponds to the change from the stellar to the solar worship in the astronomical mythology. El in the highest was the star-god on the summit of the mountain, who in the Kamite mythos might be Sut, Seth, or Anup at the pole. The pole was represented by the mount, one Egyptian name of which is Sut, denoting standing-ground. The ruler of the pole-star was the lord of standing-ground or station at the fixed centre of the heavens. The highest El was the eighth of the Ali or Baalim. In Hebrew he is called El-Shaddai, commonly rendered the powerful or mighty one. Another rendering, however, of the name is more than probable. This was the most high god, El-Elyon, whom the Phoenicians also called Israel. As Egyptian, it was Anup on the mount, or at the pole, the highest of the star-gods or Elohim who preceded the solar sovereignty of Ra. El-Shaddai, who was Phoenician, and had been co-worker with the Elohim in the legends of creation, was succeeded and superseded by the god of two names who is made known to Israel as “Іhuh” and lahu, or “lao” = Egyptian Іu. The Egyptian word Ιu is also written Ì, with u inherent, and has the meaning of coming, come, to come, and is the name of the ever- coming and eternal child, Іu-em-hetep, or Іusa, the coming son. In the Phoenician version the deity lao= Іu is the coming son, the well-beloved, the only-begotten son of El, who was to be called leoud. When Iamblichus describes the one god who was worshipped at Heliopolis or Annu as “Ichton and Emphe”, he refers to Atum in his two characters of father and son or Ra and Horus. .Atum was represented at Annu by the fish of the inundation, and also by Ιu-em-hetep, the bringer of peace and plenty, as Ichton the fish that typified the saviour to Egypt.

And now if for the modern Jews we read the ancient worshippers of Atum-Ιu or, still earlier, of Ptah, we shall be able to follow Isaiah in his survey of the great dispersion of the Jewish people over all the earth. “The Lord shall set his hand to recover the remnants of his people which shall remain from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Kush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands (or coast-lands) of the sea. He shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth”. ( Is. xi. I I, 13. ) It is noticeable that the prophet calls the Lord who is to gather the Jews together from all lands by the double name of lah-Jehovah. Іah is the Egyptian Ιu, whose followers were the primeval Jews of Egypt north and south (Pathros), of Ethiopia and Chaldea, of the islands of the sea, and the remotest shores of the earth, including the Jews of Cornwall. These are the prehistoric Jews who are to be known by the name of the god they worshipped. This range will include the black Jews of Africa and India, and all the rest of those whose god we identify with Іu the Egyptian original and prototype of all; Іu as god the son, whether of the father as Atum or as Ptah. No such world-wide dispersion of the Jewish race from Palestine or Judea had ever occurred in the time of Isaiah. It is the religious community, not the race, that will account for the Jews who emigrated to the ends of the earth, and for the names of the Jewish god, who was the Egyptian Іu, Phoenician lao, Hebrew lah, Assyrian lau, Egypto-gnostic leou (greater and lesser), Chinese laou, Polynesian Іho-Іho, Dyak laouh, Nicobar Islands Eewu, Mexican Ao, Toda Au, Hungarian lao, Manx lee, Cornish lau, Welsh lau (greater and lesser), Hebrew lao-Sabaoth, Chaldean lao-Heptaktis, Greek la, and IE, Latin Jupiter and Jove.
The worshippers of lao in Phoenicia, of lau in Assyria, of lao in Syria, lau and Hu in Britain, la or Іu in Greece, Jupiter in Italy,Іho-Іho in Polynesia, lau in America were each and all of them Jews in a sense, but the sense was religious, not originally ethnical; and religion does not determine race any more than language does in later ages of the world. There was a religion of the god Іu or lao in Egypt thirteen thousand years ago. That god was Atum-Ιu, born son of Ptah. He was the earliest father in heaven because he was the divine Ra in his primordial sovereignty. He is the god in two persons who was first figured as the sun upon the double horizon =the father in the west, the son in the east. This god went forth from Kam by several names and various routes. Those who worshipped him as Atum became the Adamites, the Edomites, the red men; those who worshipped him as lao, lah, or Іu became the Jews in many lands and these are the Jews of that world-wide dispersion recognized by Isaiah, which did not follow any known historical exodus from Egypt or captivity in Babylon, or migration from Palestine. The Jews were only ethnical at root when the root was the vine in Egypt, or in Ethiopia beyond, and the Jews were one of its branches. They were only ethnical at root when the race was black, whether these were the black Jews in Africa or in India.

The same god is found in the Babylonian mythology with the name la, or lau= lah in Hebrew (Pinches, T. G., Proc. Soc. of Bib. Arch.). But it is not necessary to suppose the Assyrian god lau was derived from the Hebrew deity lahu, or vice versa, when there is a common origin for both in the Egyptian god lu. This is not a matter merely of philology, but of the characters in the mythology. lau is “the sage of the gods” (Assyn. Fragments). He is also described as the divine artisan or art-workman, especially in the character of the potter. This is Ptah all over. He was pre-eminently the potter, and the head of the Khnemmu or divine moulders. Further and finally, it was Ptah-Ιu who, with his Ali, the Elohim, created the Aarru-garden as a paradise of pleasure in the earth of eternity. And in the Assyrian eschatology it is lau, “the sage of the gods”, who transports the justified spirits after death to the “place of delights”, where they are fed on butter and honey and drink the water that gives eternal life (Records, vol. xi. 161-2).

The god Іu, as son of Ptah, was an astronomical builder and architect of the heavens. Іu the son of Atum was also reputed to be a great builder. As the Kamite Solomon he was not only the prince of peace and the divine healer; he was also said to have designed the Temple. The stages of building on earth were reflected in the heavens. The mound-builders were first. They raised the seven mounds of the heptanomis. Shu raised the four pillars of the four quarters. Ptah was the architect who based his building on the pole and the four cardinal points = the four-square tent and tent-staff Atum, his son, was the builder of heaven as the house, the Father’s house on high”.

This in the Ritual is called “the dwelling of my father Tum” (ch. 17). It is also said to the deceased, “Tum hath built thy house” (ch. 17, 30). “The double lion-god hath founded thy habitation”. Lastly, the temple was designed by Іu-em-hetep the son of Atum, as the builder in the astronomical mythology. Thence the people named after the deity Іu as the Aiu, or later Jews, would come to be recognized in Egypt, the land of temples, as the great builders. And according to Rabbinical traditions the Jews= Ιus or Aaiu were the great typical builders. They are said to have excavated the mountains, raised the pyramids, built temples and cities, and surrounded them with walls; divided the Nile into several canals, and constructed dykes against the inundation (Josephus and Philo ). One of these great works was the canal of Joseph, i.e. the divine architect who as son of Ptah was his sif, Іu-sif= Joseph. Also, if we have to do with Egyptians who are only identified by a religious name, that of the deity Іu, there is no difficulty about their having built the Meskenoth of Tum.

We are told, as something very terrible, that Solomon built a temple to Ashtoreth “on the right hand of the mount of corruption” (II. Kings, xxiii. 13), the mount of the Great Mother. The female nature of the mount of earth was shown when the Lord “covered the daughter of Zion with a cloud in his anger and cast down the beauty of Israel”, and is said to have “forgotten his footstool”. She was the footstool of Іhuh as a type of the earth-mother, just as Isis is the seat of Osiris. There is a general casting out of the divine motherhood by the Hebrew writers, especially under the type of the female mount. For the Lord of hosts was to reign in Mount Zion after the casting out of the woman Wickedness, whose emblem was an abomination in all the earth (Is. xxiv. 23). “Behold, I am against thee, O destroying mountain, saith the Lord. I will make thee a burnt mountain. …Thou shalt be desolate for ever” (Jer. li. 25). “O my mountain in the field, I will give thy substance and all thy treasures for a spoil, and thy high places, because of sin throughout all thy borders” (Jer. xvii. 3). This was the mount of earth and of the motherhood, and the seat of the Great Mother in the mount of earth or Jerusalem below is now to be superseded by the throne of God most high in the holy mount of Jerusalem above. The change is described in the book of Zechariah. Jerusalem that was forsaken in one sense, and her mount of the motherhood cast down, is to be restored to Israel, in another character, by the erection of another mount and sanctuary. “Thus saith the Lord: I am reTumed to Jerusalem with mercies; my house shall be built in it. The Lord shall yet comfort Zion, and shall yet choose Jerusalem” (Zech. i. 17). The mother in the earlier cult was cast out and her seat denounced as the mount of corruption because she had been worshipped and fecundated beneath every green tree on this mons veneris of the earth (II. Kings, xxiii. 13), in all the high places that were consecrated to Ashtoreth and the asherim, as the mount of the mother. This was the hill of Jerusalem on which her whoredoms were committed by the daughter of Zion (Is. x. 32). It is the hill of Esau, and of her that “dwelt in the clefts of the rock” as the old earth-mother, who was now to be swept away in the coming day of the Lord, the mountain that before Zerubbabel was to become a plain for the foundation of a new house of heaven (Zech. iv. 7). The preparation for the building – the four horns or corners, the four smiths, the man with a measuring-Iine in his hand – show that the new Jerusalem signified is celestial or astronomical. It is to be built by Zerubbabel, whose hands “have laid the foundations of this house”. The mount that had been is to be levelled by him and become a plain. This was the mount of the woman called Wickedness, whose emblem was to be removed to the land of Shinar, where her house was to be built, and when it was established she was to be set upon her own base. The new house of heaven or the new Jerusalem is built upon the mountain of the Lord, who is about to bring forth his servant, the Branch. And now we learn that, notwithstanding the historic-looking instructions given by “the word of the Lord to Zerubbabel” concerning the building, the actual builder is the man whose name is the Branch. “Thus speaketh the Lord of hosts, saying, Behold the man whose name is the Branch; and he shall grow up out of his place, and he shall build the temple of the Lord; and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon his throne; and he shall be a priest upon his throne, and the counsel of peace shall be between them both” (Zech. vi. 12, 13). As Egyptian, this builder of the temple was Ιu-em-hetep, the prince of peace. In one of its various meanings the word hetep signifies gathering and uniting together. Hence hetep is the mount of congregation. This was continued as a Hebrew title of the mount. Isaiah identifies “the mount of congregation”, or place of gathering together, as the mount in the uttermost parts of the north – that is, with the summit of rest at the celestial pole (Is. xiv. 13).

The great prince, eldest of his brothers, the chiefs of the divine companies, who establishes the truth in the double land, who seats the son (himself) upon the throne of his father, the favourite of his father Seb, the beloved of his mother Nut (heaven, one of whose names is Meri). Very valiant, he overthrows the impious; strong of arm, he immolates his adversary (Sut=Satan); breathing terror upon his enemies, conquering the distant frontiers of the wicked. Firm of heart, his feet are vigilant. Flesh (or heir) of Seb ! Royalty of the double earth! (Horus of the royal countenance). Seb contemplates his benefits (the benefits of his advent to the earth); he has ordered him to govern all countries to assure their prosperity. …The desert carries its tribute to the son of Nut; Egypt is happy when it sees him appear upon his father’s throne. The author of evil (Sut) pronounces magical words and displays his power in his turn, but the son of Isis makes his way to him and avenges his father, sanctifying and honouring his name. The paths are cleared, the roads are opened, evil flees away. He has caused the authority of his father to be recognized in the great dwelling of Seb

THE EARLIEST EGYPTIAN CONCEPTION OF THE OTHER WORLD.

HAVING briefly referred to the origin and development of the magical, religious, and purely funeral texts which, sometimes with and sometimes without illustrations, formed the “Guides” to the Ancient Egyptian Underworld, the form of the conceptions concerning the place of departed spirits as it appears in the Recensions of the XVIIIth and XIXth Dynasties must now be considered. To reconstruct the form which they took in the Predynastic Period is impossible, for no materials exist, and the documents of the Early Empire are concerned chiefly with providing the deceased with an abundance of meat, drink, and other material comforts, and numbers of wives and concubines, and a place in Sekhet-Aaru, a division of Sekhet-hetepet, to which the name “Elysian Fields” has not inaptly been given. In later times Sekhet-Aaru, or Sekhet-Aanru, comprised all Sekhet-hetepet. Of Sekhet-hetepet as a whole the earliest known pictures are those which are painted on the coffins of Al-Barsha, and of no portion of this region have we any detailed illustrations of the occupations of its inhabitants older than the XVIIIth Dynasty. To the consideration of Sekhet-Aaru, which was the true heaven of every faithful worshipper of Osiris, from the time when he became the judge and benevolent god and friend of the dead down to the, Ptolemaïc Period, that is to say, for a period of four thousand years at least, the scribes and artists of the XVIIIth Dynasty devoted much attention, and the results of their views are set forth in the copies of PER-EM-HRU, or the Theban Book of the Dead, which have come down to us.

In one of the oldest copies of PER-EM-HRU, i.e., in the Papyrus of Nu, 1 is a vignette of the Seven Arits, or divisions of Sekhet-Aaru; the portion shown of each Arit is the door, or gate, which is guarded by a gatekeeper, by a watcher, who reports the arrival of every comer, and by a herald, who receives and announces his name. All these beings save two have the head of an animal, or bird, on a human body, a fact which indicates the great antiquity of the ideas that underlie this vignette. Their names are:–

Arit I. Gatekeeper. SEKHET-HRA-ASHT-ARU.

Watcher. SEMETU.

Herald. HU-KHERU.Arit II. Gatekeeper. TUN-HAT.

Watcher. SEQET-HRA.

Herald. SABES.

Arit III. Gatekeeper. AM-HUAT-ENT-PEHUI-FI.

Watcher. RES-HRA.

Herald. UAAU.

Arit IV. Gatekeeper. KHESEF-HRA-ASHT-KHERU.

Watcher. RES-AB.

Herald. NETEKA-HRA-KHESEF-ATU.

Arit V. Gatekeeper. ANKH-EM-FENTU.

Watcher. ASHEBU.

Herald. TEB-HER-KEHAAT.

Arit VI. Gatekeeper. AKEN-TAU-K-HA-KHERU.

Watcher. AN-HRA.

Herald. METES-HRA-ARI-SHE.

Arit VII. Gatekeeper. METES-SEN.

Watcher. AAA-KHERU.

Herald. KHESEF-HRA-KHEMIU.

From another place in the same papyrus, 1 and from other papyri, we learn that the “Secret Gates of the House of Osiris in Sekhet-Aaru” were twenty-one in number; the Chapter (CXLVI.) gives the name of each Gate, and also that of each Gatekeeper up to No. X., thus:–

I. Gate. NEBT-SETAU-QAT-SEBT-HERT-NEBT-KHEBKHEBT-SERT-METU-KHESEFET-NESHENIU-NEHEMET-UAI-EN-I-UAU.

Gatekeeper. NERI.

II. Gate. NEBT-PET-HENT-TAUI-NESBIT-NEBT-TEMEMU-TENT-BU-NEBU.

Gatekeeper. MES-PEH. (or, MES-PTAH).

III. Gate. NEBT-KHAUT-AAT-AABET-SENETCHEMET-NETER-NEB-AM-S-HRU-KHENT-ER-ABTU.

Gatekeeper. ERTAT-SEBANQA.

IV. Gate. SEKHEMET-TESU-HENT-TAUI-HETCHET-KHEFTI-NU-URT-AB-ARIT-SARU-SHUT-EM-AU.

Gatekeeper. NEKAU.

V. Gate. NEBT-REKHU-RESHT-TEBHET-TATU-AN-AQ-ERES-UN-TEP-F.

Gatekeeper. HENTI-REQU.

VI. Gate. NEBT-SENKET-AAT-HEMHEMET-AN-REKH-TU-QA-S-ER-USEKH-S-AN-QEMTU-QET-S-EM-SHAA-AU-HEFU-HER-S-AN-REKH-TENNU-MES-EN-THU-KHER-HAT-URTU-AB.

Gatekeeper. SMAMTI.

VII. Gate. AKKIT-HEBSET-BAK-AAKEBIT-MERT-SEHAP-KHAT.

Gatekeeper. AKENTI.

VIII. Gate. REKHET-BESU-AKHMET-TCHAFU-SEPT-PAU-KHAT-TET-SMAM-AN-NETCHNETCH-ATET-SESH-HER-S-EN-SENT-NAH-S.

Gatekeeper. KHU-TCHET-F.

IX. Gate. AMT-HAT-NEBT-USER-HERT-AB-MESTET-NEB-S-KHEMT-SHAA-. . . .-EM-SHEN-S-SATU-EM-UATCHET-QEMA-THESET-BES-HEBSET-BAK-FEQAT-NEB-S-RA-NEB.

Gatekeeper. TCHESEF.

X. Gate. QAT-KHERU-NEHESET-TENATU-SEBHET-ER-QA-EN-KHERU-S-NERT-NEBT-SHEFSHEFT-AN-TER-S-NETET-EM-KHENNU-S.

Gatekeeper. SEKHEN-UR.

XI. Gate. NEMT-TESU-UBTET-SEBAU-HENT-ENT-SEBKHET-NEBT-ARU-NES-AHEHI-HRU-EN-ANKHEKH. 1

XII. Gate. NAST-TAUI-SI-SEKSEKET-NEMMATU-EM-NEHEPU-QAHIT-NEBT-KHU-SETEMTH-KHERU-NEB-S.

XIII. Gate. STA-EN-ASAR-AAUI-F-HER-S-SEHETCHET-HAP-EM-AMENT-F.

XIV. Gate. NEBT-TENTEN-KHEBT-HER-TESHERU-ARU-NES-HAKER-HRU-EN-SETEMET-AU.

XV. Gate. BATI-TESHERU-QEMHUT-AARERT-PERT-EM-KERH-SENTCHERT-SEBA-HER-QABI-F-ERTAT-AAUI-S-EN-URTU-AB-EM-AT-F-ART-ITET-SHEM-S.

XVI. Gate. NERUTET-NEBT-AATET-KHAA-KHAU-EM-BA-EN-RETH-KHEBSU-MIT-EN-RETH-SERT-PER-QEMAMET-SHAT.

XVII. Gate. KHEBT-HER-SENF-AHBIT-NEBT-UAUIUAIT.

XVIII. Gate. MER-SETAU-AB-ABTU-MERER-S-SHAT-TEPU-AMKHIT-NEBT-AHA-UHSET-SEBAU-EM-MASHERU.

XIX. Gate. SERT-NEHEPU-EM-AHA-S-URSH-SHEMMET-NEBT-USERU-ANU-EN-TEHUTI-TCHESEF.

XX. Gate. AMT-KHEN-TEPEH-NEB-S-HEBS-REN-S-AMENT-QEMAMU-S-THETET-HATI-EN-AM-S.

XXI. Gate. TEM-SIA-ER-METUU-ARI-HEMEN-HAI-NEBAU-S.

From the above lists, and from copies of them which are found in the Papyrus of Ani, and other finely illustrated Books of the Dead, it is quite clear that, according to one view, Sekhet-Aaru, the land of the blessed, was divided into seven sections, each of which was entered through a Gate having three attendants, and that, according to other traditions, it had sections varying in number from ten to twenty-one, for each of the Gates mentioned above must have been intended to protect a division. It will be noted that the names of the Ten Gates are in reality long sentences, which make sense and can be translated, but there is little doubt that under the XVIIIth Dynasty these sentences were used as purely magical formulae, or words of power, which, provided the deceased knew how to pronounce them, there was no great need to understand. In other words, it was not any goodness or virtue of his own which would enable him to pass through the Gates of Sekhet-Aaru, and disarm the opposition of their warders, but the knowledge of certain formulæ, or words of power, and magical names. We are thus taken back to a very remote period by these ideas, and to a time when the conceptions as to the abode of the blessed were of a purely magical character; the addition of pictures to the formulae, or names, belongs to a later period, when it was thought right to strengthen them by illustrations. The deceased, who not only possessed the secret name of a god or demon, but also a picture of him whereby he could easily recognize him when he met him, was doubly armed against danger.

In addition to the Seven Arits, and the Ten, Fourteen, or Twenty-one Gates (according to the manuscript authority followed), the Sekhet-Hetepet possessed Fourteen or Fifteen Aats, or Regions, each of which was presided over by a god. Their names, as given in the Papyrus of Nu, 1 are as follows:–

Aat I. AMENTET wherein a man lived on cakes and ale; its god was AMSU-QET, or MENU-QET.

Aat II. SEKHET-AARU. Its walls are of iron. The wheat here is five cubits high, the barley is seven cubits high, and the Spirits who reap them are nine cubits high. The god of this Aat is RA-HERUKHUTI.

Aat III. AATENKHU. Its god was OSIRIS or RA.

Aat IV. TUI-QAUI-AAUI. Its god was SATI-TEMUI.

Aat V. AATENKHU. The Spirits here live upon the inert and feeble. Its god was probably OSIRIS.

Aat VI. AMMEHET, which is presided over either by SEKHER-AT or SEKHER-REMUS. This was sacred to the gods, the Spirits could not find it out, and it was accursed for the dead.

Aat VII. ASES, a region of burning, fiery flame, wherein the serpent REREK lives.

Aat VIII. HA-HETEP, a region containing roaring torrents of water, and ruled over by a god called QA-HA-HETEP. A variant gives the name of this Aat as HA-SERT, and that of its god as FA-PET.

Aat IX. AKESI, a region which is unknown even to the gods; its god was MAA-THETEF, and its only inhabitant is the “god who dwelleth in his egg.”

Aat X. NUT-ENT-QAHU, i.e., the city of Qahu. It was also known by the name APT-ENT-QAHU. The gods of this region appear to have been NAU, KAPET, and NEHEB-KAU.

Aat XI. ATU, the god of which was SEPT (Sothis).

Aat XII. UNT, the god of which was HETEMET-BAIU; also called ASTCHETET-EM-AMENT.

Aat XIII. UART-ENT-MU: its deity was the hippopotamus-god called HEBT-RE-F.

Aat XIV. The mountainous region of KHER-AHA, the god of which was HAP, the Nile.

A brief examination of this list of Aats, or Regions, suggests that the divisions of Sekhet-hetepet given in it are arranged in order from south to north, for it is well known that Amentet, the first Aat, was entered from the neighbourbood of Thebes, and that the last-mentioned Aat, i.e., Kher-aha, represents a region quite close to Heliopolis; if this be so, Sekhet-Aaru was probably situated at no great distance from Abydos, near which was the famous “Gap” in the mountains, whereby the spirits of the dead entered the abode set apart for them. We see from this list also that the heaven provided for the blessed was one such as an agricultural population would expect to have, and a nation of farmers would revel in the idea of living among fields of wheat and barley, the former being
between seven and eight feet, and the latter between nine and ten feet high. The spirits who reaped this grain are said to have been nine cubits, i.e., over thirteen feet, in height, a statement which seems to indicate that a belief in the existence of men of exceptional height in very ancient days was extant in Egypt traditionally.

Other facts to be gleaned from the list of Aats concerning Sekhet-Aaru are that:–1. One section at least was filled with fire. 2. Another was filled with rushing, roaring waters, which swept everything away before them. 3. In another the serpent Rerek lived. 4. In another the Spirits lived upon the inert and the feeble. 5. In another lived the “Destroyer of Souls.” 6. The great antiquity of the ideas about the Aats is proved by the appearance of the names of Hap, the Nile-god, Sept, or Sothis, and the Hippopotamus-goddess, Hebt-re-f, in connection with them.

The qualification for entering the Aats was not so much the living of a good life upon earth as a knowledge of the magical figures which represented them, and their names; these are given twice in the Papyrus of Nu, and as they are of great importance for the study of magical pictures they have been reproduced above.

Of the general form and the divisions of Sekhet-Aaru, or the “Field of Reeds,” and Sekhet-hetepet, or the “Field of Peace,” thanks to the funeral papyri of the XVIIIth Dynasty, much is known, and they may now be briefly described. From the Papyrus of Nebseni 1 we learn that Sekhet-hetep was rectangular in shape, and that it was intersected by canals, supplied from the stream by which the whole region was enclosed. In one division were three pools of water,in another four pools, and in a third two pools; a place specially set apart was known as the “birthplace of the god of the region,” and the “great company of the gods in Sekhet-hetep” occupied another section of it. At the end of a short canal was moored a boat, provided with eight oars or paddles, and each end of it terminated in a serpent’s head; in it was a flight of steps. The deceased, as we see, also possessed a boat wherein he sailed about at will, but its form is different from that of the boat moored at the end of the canal. The operations of ploughing, and of seed-time and harvest, are all represented. As to the deceased himself, we see him in the act of offering incense to the “great company of the gods,” and he addresses a bearded figure, which is intended probably to represent his father, or some near relation; we see him paddling in a boat, and also sitting on a chair of state smelling a flower, with a table of offerings before him. None of the inscriptions mentions Sekhet-Aaru, but it is distinctly said that the reaping of the grain by the deceased is taking place in Sekhet-hetep, or Sekhet-hetepet.

inner coffin of Kua-Tep, which was found at Al-Barsha, and is now in the British Museum (No. 30,840); it dates front the period of the XIth Dynasty. From this we see that the country of the blessed was rectangular in shape, and surrounded by water, and intersected by streams, and that, in addition to large tracts of land, there were numbers of eyots belonging to it. In many pictures these eyots are confounded with lakes, but it is pretty clear that the “Islands of the Blessed” were either fertile eyots, or oases which appeared to be green islands in a sea of sand. Near the first section were three, near the second four, near the third four, three, being oval, and one triangular; the fourth section was divided into three parts by means of a canal with two arms, and contained the birthplace of the god, and near it were seven eyots; the fifth is the smallest division of all, and has only one eyot near it. Each eyot has a name which accorded with its chief characteristic; the dimensions of three of the streams or divisions are given, the region where ploughing takes place is indicated, and the positions of the staircase and the mystic boat are clearly shown. The name of the god Hetep occurs twice, and that of Osiris once.

Egyptian pharaohs claimed ownership over “Haunebut” The Greek portion of the Rosetta Stone text clearly translates the phrase Haunebu – meaning “the people of Haunebut” – as Greek or Hellene And Greece does lie “behind the islands” of the Aegean Sea, when viewed from Egypt Thutmosis III boasted that he had “trussed… the Haunebut” and struck those that lived “in the midst of the Great Green Sea” In a single year, he claimed to have collected 36,692 deben of gold from his conquered subjects – the equivalent of three metric tons – of which 27,000 kilos is specifically said to have come from the Asian provinces and the Isles in the Midst of the Great Green Sea

Ra, gives to Teta (one of the type names of the divine soul in man) “the power to journey
over the Great Green Sea.” Then it is said: “Thou sailest over the Lake of Kha, in the north of
heaven, like a star passing over the Great Green Sea…as far as the place where is the star Seh
(Orion).”

The countries of Syria and Nubia, the land of Egypt,
Thou settest every man in his place,
Thou suppliest their necessities:
Everyone has his food, and his time of life is reckoned.
Their tongues are separate in speech,
And their natures as well;
Their skins are distinguished,
As thou distinguishest the foreign peoples.
Thou makest a Nile in the underworld,
Thou bringest forth as thou desirest
To maintain the people (of Egypt)
According as thou madest them for thyself,
The lord of all of them, wearying (himself) with them,
The lord of every land, rising for them,
The Aton of the day, great of majesty.

All distant foreign countries, thou makest their life (also),
For thou hast set a Nile in heaven,
That it may descend for them and make waves upon the mountains,
Like the great green sea,
To water their fields in their towns.
How effective they are, thy plans, O lord of eternity!
The Nile in heaven, it is for the foreign peoples
And for the beasts of every desert that go upon (their) feet;
(While the true) Nile comes from the underworld for Egypt.

Voyage of Unamun and the Shipwrecked Sailor, which are Egyptian writings. A similar use, however, is found in Exod. 14:2, 9, 16, 21, 28, and Exod. 15:1, 4, 8, 10, 19, where the Hebrew word O’ is used for Red Sea. On turning to the Egyptian texts, we find that they open up another line of inquiry. It is recorded in these texts that in the “world beyond” there was a region which bore the identical name of “Sea of Reeds” or “Pool” or “Lake of Reeds.” This term in ancient Egyptian is s i3rw.
(a) wcb.n P4 hnc Rc m s i3rw5
P has been purified with Ra in the Sea of Reeds.
(b) wcb.n P pn m isrw7 This P has been purified in the sea of reeds.
(c) wcb wcb m s iZrw wcb Rc m s izrw wcb P pn ds.f m s i3rw wcb ?w m s i3rw wcb P ds.f m s ‘irw8
He who is pure is purified in the sea of reeds, Ra is purified in the sea of reeds; This P purifieth himself in the sea of reeds, Shu is purified in the sea of reeds, P purifieth himself in the sea of reeds.
(d) pr.n.k m s n cn wcb.t m s n kbhw9
Thou hast come forth from the sea of life Purified in the sea of heaven.
(e) wcb.k m s dw3til?
Thou art purified in the sea of the under- world.
(f) wcb.n.f m sw dwt”L
He is purified in the seas of the under- world.

W travels on the inundation of the sea of reeds,
W sails on the lake of the lotus (s n h3).
The lake of Menai is opened, The lake of the lotus (s n h3) is inundated,
The field (or lake) or reeds is filled (with water).

265b. N. comes out of the Isle of Flame,

265c. (after) he, N., had set truth therein in the place of error.

265d. N. it is who is the guardian of laundry, who protects the uraeus-serpents,

265e. in the night of the great flood, which proceeds from the Great.

A dam shall dam up the earth,

279a. both boundaries-of-the-cultivation shall be united, both riverbanks shall be joined,

279b. roads shall be closed against passengers,

279c. stairs for those who would ascend shall be destroyed.

279d. Adjust the cable, traverse the mśḳ.t, hit the ball on the meadow of Ḥȝpi.

280a. O, thy fields tremble, O, ’iȝd-star, at the column of the stars,

280b. when they see the column of Kns.t, the ox (or, bull) of heaven,

280c. and how the ox-herd is terrified (overwhelmed) at him.

281a. O, be afraid, tremble, ye criminals, before the tempest of heaven;

281b. he opened the earth with that which he knew, on the day he loved to come;

282a. so said, he–he who is rich in arable-land, he who inhabits the Dȝt.

1480b. When N. comes to thee, that thou mayest make him live,

1480c. command N. to sit by thy side,

1480d. near the dwȝ-canal on the horizon.

1481a. Father of N., Rē‘, commend N. to Mśḫȝȝ.t, she who is at thy side,

1481b. to cause to designate a place for N. near the Rd-wr-lake under ḳbḥ.w.

1485a. To say: Greetings to thee, Sycamore, who protects the god, under which the gods of the underworld stand,

1485b. whose tips are seared, whose inside is burned, (whose) suffering is real.

1486a. Assemble those who dwell in Nun; collect those who are among the bows.

Utterance 503.

1078a. To say: The door of heaven is open, the door of earth is open,

1078b. apertures of the (heavenly) windows are open,

1078c. the steps of Nun are open,

1078d. the steps of light are revealed

1078e. by that one who endures always.

1079a. I say this to myself when I ascend to heaven,

1079b. that I may anoint myself with the best ointment and clothe myself with the best linen,

1079c. and seat myself upon (the throne) of “Truth which makes alive”;

1080a. while my side is against the side of those gods who are in the north of the sky,

1080b. the imperishable stars, and I will not set,

1080c. the untiring (in swimming), and I will not tire (in swimming),

1080d. the one not drawn out of the water, and I will not be drawn out of the water.

1081a. If Mnt.w (a star?) is high, I will be high with him,

1081b. If Mnt.w hastens away, I will hasten away with him.

Utterance 504.

1082a. To say: The sky is pregnant with the wine juice of the vine;

1082b. Nut has given birth to (it) as her daughter, the morning star.

1082c. I also arise;

1082d. the third is Sothis of the pure places.

1083a. I have purified myself in the lakes of the dancers(?) singers(?) or, panegyrists(?),

1083b. I have cleansed myself in the lakes of the jackal.

1083c. Thorn-bush, remove thyself from my way,

1084a. that I may take the south side of the Marsh of Reeds.

1084b. The m3′-canal is opened, the Winding Watercourse is inundated.

1084c. The two reed-floats of heaven are placed for Horus,

1084d. that he may ferry over to Rē‘, to the horizon.

1085a. The two reed-floats of heaven are placed for him of the horizon,

1085b. that he may ferry over to Rē‘, to the horizon.

1085c. The two reed-floats of heaven are placed for Horus Śsm.t,

1085d. that he may ferry over to Rē‘, to the horizon.

1085e. The two reed-floats of heaven are placed for Horus of the East,

1085f. that he may ferry over to Rē‘, to the horizon,

1086a. The two reed-floats of heaven shall be placed for me, I, Horus of the gods,

1086b. that I also may ferry over to Rē‘, to the horizon,

1086c. and that I may take my throne, which is in the Marsh of Reeds.

1087a. I descend to the south side of the Marsh of Offerings.

1087b. I am a Great One, son of a Great One;

1087c. I am come forth from between the thighs of the Two Enneads.

1087d. I have adored Rē‘; I have adored Horus of the East;

1087e. I have adored Horus of the horizon,

1088a. as he girded himself with the apron,

1088b. that he might be gracious to me, that he might be gracious to “Horus-on-his-throne(?),”

1088c. that he might be gracious to “Horus-on-his-throne(?),” that he might be gracious to me.

Utterance 505.

1089a. To say: I am come forth from Buto, to the Souls of Buto,

1089b. adorned with the adornment of Horus,

1089c. clothed with the clothes of Thot.

1089d. Isis is before me; Nephthys is behind me;

1090a. Wp-wȝ-wt opens the way for me;

1090b. Shu lifts me up;

1090c. the Souls of Heliopolis construct a stairway for me,

1090d. to unite with the Above (i.e. to reach the top);

1090e. Nut gives her arm to me as she did for Osiris

1090f. the day that he landed there.

1091a. O thou whose face is behind thee, ferry me over to the Marsh of Reeds.

1091b. Whence art thou come here? I am come from ȝwȝr.t;

1091c. my companion is the uraeus-serpent, who comes forth from the god, the ’i‘r.t-serpent, who comes forth from Rē‘.

1092a. Ferry me over; put me in the Marsh of Reeds–

1092b. those four spirits who are with me–

1092c. Ḥpi, Dwȝ-mw-t-f, ’Imś.ti, Ḳbḥ-śn.w.f–

1092d. two on this side, two on that side

1093a. (and) I will be the rudder. I find the Two Enneads.

1093b. It is, they who give me their arm;

1093c. I sit between them to give judgment;

1093d. I command those whom I find there.

Utterance 506.

1094a. To say: I am St.ti, I am Sti-sti;

1094b. I am the Sw-sw-lake;

1094c. I am Swnt, the chest of heaven;

1095a. I am ’Ir-kȝ, the most spiritual of the kings of Lower Egypt;

1095b. I am “he who shall remain hidden,” the ’Imn of this land;

1095c. I am he who made (?) the two lands;

1095d. I am ḳrḳr; I am ḳrḳrw;

1096a. I am Praise; I am Appearance;

1096b. I am Hathor-symbol-of-the-female-soul, who has two faces;

1096c. I am he who is to be delivered; I have delivered myself from all evil things.

1097a. Further, to say: I am Wnš.t (the female wolf); I am he who belongs to the female wolf;

1097b. I am Hpi; I am Dwȝ-mu.t.f.;

1097c. I am ’Imś.ti, I am Ḳbḥ-śn.w.f.;

1098a. I am (Dwn-‘n.wi) he who stretches out the wings;

1098b. I am those great gods who rule over the lake.

1098c. I am the Bȝ-‘nḫ (living soul) with bearded (?) face,

1098d. who has stretched his head high, who has freed himself, who has removed himself,

1099a. (by) the interruption of the action of him who would act,

1099b. (by) putting to sleep the action of him who would act, the command of him who would command.

1099c. I do (good) to him who does what is good; I command (good) to him who commands what is good;

1100a. my lips are as the Two Enneads;

1100b. I am the great spoken word;

1100c. I am a delivered one; I am one worthy of deliverance;

1100d. I am delivered from all evil things.

1101a. Further, to say: Men and gods, your arms under me,

1101b. while you raise me and lift me up to heaven,

1101c. as the arms of Shu (were) under the sky as he lifted her up–

1101d. to heaven, to heaven, to the great seat, among the gods!

Utterance 507.

1102a. To say: ’Iḥmti, say to him who had what is, and to him who has it not: “The entrance of

1102b. the b‘n-canal is open,

1102c. the Marsh of Reeds is inundated,

1102d. the Winding Watercourse is full of water;

1103a. the two reed-floats of heaven are placed for Horus that he may ferry over therewith to Rē‘;

1103b. the two reed-floats of heaven are placed for Rē‘ that he may ferry over therewith to Horus who inhabits the horizon.”

1104a. He (’Iḥmti) commends N. to his father, the moon,

1104b. (and to) the mother of N., the morning star;

1104c. he commends N. to those four youths,

1104d. who sit on the eastern side of the sky;

1105a. he commends N. to those four youths,

1105b. who sit on the eastern side of the sky;

1105c. to those four youths with hair black as coal,

1105d. who sit in the shade (shadow) of the fortress Ḳȝti.

1106a. Further, to say: Great is the father of N.; great is the father of N.;

1106b. N. is great like his father (or, in the greatness of his father).

Utterance 509.

1120a. To say: Heaven speaks; the earth quakes:

1120b. Geb trembles; the two nomes of the god shout;

1120c. the ground is hoed; the wdn.t-offering is made before N., living, enduring,

1121a. when he ascends to heaven, when he ferries over the vault, for life and joy:

1121b. also when he traverses the foaming sea, destroying the walls of Shu.

1122a. He ascends to heaven,

1122b. the tip of his wings being like (that of ) a great bird,

1122c. his entrails having been washed by Anubis;

1122d. the services of Horus having been rendered (lit. served) in Abydos, (even) the embalming of Osiris.

1123a. He ascends to heaven among the imperishable stars;

1123b. his sister is Sothis; his guide is the morning star;

1123c. they two take his arm as far as the Marsh of Offerings.

1124a. He sits upon that (his) firm throne,

1124b. whose knobs are lions,

1124c. whose feet are the hoofs of a great wild-bull.

1125a. He stands (or, he is erect) upon his elevated throne, which is between the two great gods,

1125b. with his sceptre ‘bȝ, the mnḥi, in his hand.

1126a. When he lifts his arm toward the blessed dead (?)

1126b. the gods come to him bowing,

1126c. and the two great gods watch at their side.

1138a. The ground is hoed for him; the wdn.t-offering is made for him,

1138b. when he dawns as king and takes charge of his throne.

1138c. He ferries over the ptr.ti-sea;

1138d. he traverses the Winding Watercourse.

1139a. ’Imt.t lays hold of the arm of N.,

1139b. beginning with her chapel, beginning with her hidden place, which the god made for her,

1139c. for N. is pure (a priest), the son of a pure one (a priest).

1140a. N. is purified with these four nmś.t-jars,

1140b. filled at the divine-lake in Ntr.w;

1140c. (he is dried) by the wind of the great Isis, together with (which) the great Isis dried (him) like Horus.

1151b. He stands on Shu;

1151c. he upholds the stars, in the shadow of the walls of god.

1152a. He crosses the sky like Swnt;

1152b. the third (with him) is Sothis of the pure places,

1152c. for he purifies himself in the lakes of the Dwȝ.t.

Utterance 513.

1168a. To say: When father N. ascends to heaven among the gods who are in heaven;

1168b. and when he stands by the great w‘r.t;

1168c. he hears the words of the blessed dead

1169a. Rē‘ finds thee on the shores (or, lands) of the sky, in the ḥnti-ocean, in Nut.

1169b. “He comes, who should come,” say the gods.

1170a. He gives thee his arm on (at) the ’iskn of the sky.

1170b. “He comes who knows his place,” say the gods.

1171a. Pure one, assume thy throne in the boat of Rē‘,

1171b. that thou mayest sail the sky, that thou mayest mount above the ways (or, the far-off ways);

1171c. that thou mayest sail with the imperishable stars;

1171d. and that thou mayest voyage with the indefatigable (stars).

1172a. Thou receivest the tribute of the evening boat;

1172b. thou becomest a spirit in the Dȝ.t;

1172c. thou livest in this sweet life in which the lord of the horizon lives.

1173a. “Great Flood dwelling in Nut, who indeed has done this for thee?”,

1173b. say the gods who follow Atum.

1174a. A greater than he hath done that for him, he who is north of the ḥnti-ocean of Nut.

1174b. He has heard his appeal; ‘he has done for him what he said.

1174c. He has received his, body in the court of the prince of Nun,

1174d. before the Great Ennead.

1203b. The shoals of the great sea protect him.

1203c. The double doors with windows (of heaven) are open; the double doors of the lower region are open.

1210a. N. is son of Khepri, born from the vulva,

1210b. under the curls of ’Iw.ś-‘ȝ.ś, north of Heliopolis, out of the forehead of Geb.

1211a. N. is he who was between the legs of Mḫnti-’irti,

1211b. that night when be made the bread plain,

1211c. that day when the heads of the mottled serpents were cut off.

1212a. Take thou to thyself thy favourite m‘bȝ-harpoon,

1212b. thy spear which seizes the canals,

1212c. whose two points are the rays of the sun,

1212d. whose two barbs are the claws of Mȝfd.t,

1212e. with which N. cuts off the heads

1212f. of the adversaries, who are in the Marsh of Offerings,

1213a. when he descended to the ocean (great green).

1214b. Bow thy head, decline thine arms (bow in humility), great green.

1217a. (Morning Star), cause thou N. to ferry over with thee,

1217b. to this thy great field, which thou didst subdue with the aid of the gods,

1217c. (where) thou eatest at evening and at dawn, which is full of food.

1227c. He has brought to thee this eye of Horus, bound in the field of wrestlers.

1227d, Bring it to N., namely, the “work of Khnum.”

1228a. O Ḥpi, ’Imś.ti, Dwȝ-mut.f, Ḳbḥ-śn.w.f,

1228b. bring it to N., namely, the “work of Khnum,”

1228c. which is in the Winding Watercourse.

1260a. The keeper (min.w) stands up before thee, so that (the feast) of the New Moon may be celebrated for thee; thou appearest for (the feast of) the month;

1260b. thou advancest to the sea (of N.); thou traversest to the Great Green;

1261a. for thou art “he who stands without being tired” in Abydos;

1261b. thou art spiritualized on the horizon; thou endurest in Dd.t (Mendes);

1261c. thine arm is taken by the Souls of Heliopolis; thine arm is seized by Rē‘.

Amenta in one aspect was the world of the dead, the Kâsu or burial-place in the Osirian cult. In this it was claimed to be “the great resting-place” of Osiris the mummy-god, which it became. But it had been created by Ptah for his son Atum before the Osirian dynasty was founded at Abydos. It was the way of the Egyptians to put all they knew into all they did in bringing on and aggregating their wisdom of the past. Thus the circumpolar paradise is repeated in the earthly paradise of Amenta. The stellar mount of glory in the north was reproduced as solar in the east.
Amongst other reproductions in Amenta we find the Aarru garden; the abyss of the Nun as the womb of earth; the tree or edible plants in the water of the abyss; the dragon of drought or the serpent of darkness; the old first mother; the warring twins, Sut and Horus; the company of seven elemental powers; the lower firmament; the two pillars of Sut and Horus erected in Tattu, the house of eternity; Taht, the bearer of the lunar light; the Sebau, or powers of darkness, fog, mist, cloud, plague, storm, and eclipse – all of which were pre-extant before Amenta had been made by Ptah. The primary group of seven elemental powers was succeeded by the eight great gods, and the eight by the Put-circle of nine. Ptah was then considered to be the one supreme god, begotten by his own becoming, the maker of all things, who himself was not made. The eight were looked upon as his children. The nine formed the Put-circle or cycle of Ptah, who are equivalent to the Elohim of Genesis.
This group of primeval powers described in later times who are said to be “the first company of the gods of Aarru”, or the fields of heaven. They are addressed as the mighty ones, the beneficent ones, the divine ones, who test by their level the words of men as the lords of law, justice, and right; or as the lords of Maat.
This first company of the gods in the fields of heaven were the Ali or Ari asThere are at least three different groups of the Elohim – that is, the Ali or Ili – with the plural ending of the name as Semitic. The first group of these creators was seven in number, with Sut at their head. The second was that of the eight in Am-Khemen, with Anup added to the seven. The third is the company of Ptah, who formed the Put-circle of the nine. These preceded Atum, who was Ra in his first sovereignty. And to show how the past of Egypt opens into immensity, Ptah is credited with being the supreme ruler for 9,000 years. Still earlier the followers of Horus reigned for 14,000 years and, as the astronomical legends show, the primary seven creators had previously marked out one great year in the circle of precession before they could become those lords of eternity at, the north celestial pole, which were represented by a group of seven stars that never set. Under the title of Elohim, both the one god and the company of gods are present, though concealed, just as Ptah and his associates the Ali were included in the Put-cycle, as Ptah the god, Ιu the son of god, and the paut as the group of gods. And if the Put-cycle of the Ali, as now maintained, are the originals of the Phoenician and Hebrew Elohim, it follows that the deity Ptah is the one god of the group in the Genesis as well as in the original mythos. in the seven Kab-ari) by name, and the Ali are a group of companions who are herein set forth as co-creators of all that exists in heaven or in earth. The primordial nature-powers are mentioned under several types and names. They are the seven Uraeus-gods, born of Mother-earth as non-sentient elemental powers (Rit., ch. 83). They are the seven Khus or glorious ones whose place in heaven was appointed by Anup on the day of “come thou to me” (Rit., ch. 17). They are the seven who assist the great judge in the Maat at the pole on the night of the judgment day, called “the seven arms of the balance”, as executioners of the guilty, who accomplish the slaughter in the tank of flame when the condemned are exterminated (ch. 71,7). They are the seven wise masters of arts and sciences who assisted Taht in his measurements of earth and heaven. In the solar mythos they are to be seen in several characters with Horus, Ptah, and Ra. They were portrayed as the seven with Horus, in the eight great stars of Orion. They are the seven souls of Ra, also the seven divine ancestors in the boat of the sun, the seven who support Osiris in Amenta. In whichever phase of phenomena, they are a group, a brotherhood, a companionship of powers originally seven in number.

IU, Iao, Y-ah-Weh, IU-sa
The name Jehovah was esteemed sacred among the Egyptians. They called it IU; of which variants include Ieu, Iao, Jao, Jaou, J-ha-vo, Y-HA-HO, Y-AH-WEH, Yahweh, Yaho, JAH, Jahveh… (Higgins, vI, 329, 330, vII,17; Doane, 48, Walker, 463,1094-5)
Jehovah (JHVH) JHWH) and Yaweh (YHVH, YHWH) are variants of the same name. The Latin form of Jehovah is Jove or Jupiter (IU-piter), meaning Father IU. Jesus is Latin form of Hebrew Jehoshua/Yeshua, also from IU.

DIVINE NAMES:
Five famous Saviors:
Asar (Osiris), also known as IU, IAO, IAH, JAH the Great
Heru (Horus) : also known as SON/SUN of IU, IAH, JAH the Great
Krishna: JAH is AJI in India. Sanskrit IA means victory. “YA” is chanted in Indian ceremonies. Indian divine names often end in JI: MaharaJI.
Judah = IU-TA
Heru was also known as “IU-SA,” the “ever-becoming son” of “Ptah,” the “Father.” Heru was called “the KRST,” or “Anointed One,” long before the Christians duplicated (plagerized) the story.

Io is a variant spelling of Iu, a name identified with the Sun, the same Iu from whence Jesus (Iu-su or Iu-Sa, Jehoshua), Joseph (Iu-Sif), and Judah (Iu-Ta) are derived. IU means Ever Coming One, and double. Egyptian Neba was a royal title and name of a FIYAH GOD. Nebaui (Neba-IU) was the name of “a double fire god.” The Lion was a solar symbol in ancient Egypt. Neb means lord of master; the Sun was called “Lord” and “Savior” by the ancients. Neb (NUB) also means GOLD (fiyah) and gives its name to NUBIA (Ethiopia).

The first phase of the Solar Cult was that of Tem and Tum brought on from the Stellar and
Lunar Cults under the name Atum-Iu as the child (Tem) and Atum Ra as the father (Tum); it
was far older than the Osirian Cult, which might be termed a continuation of it under
different names. Iu was another name for Tem, who proclaims himself to be the Sayer…He
ways “I have come forth with the tongue of Tum and the throat of Hathor that I may record
words of my father Tum with my mouth, which draweth to itself the spouse of Seb.” That is
the mother on earth who was represented in this Cult as Hathor-Iusaas. The speaker here is
Horus as Iu, the coming…son who in Egyptian is Iu or Iusa the child of Iusaas the consort of
Tum or Atum Ra
“Followers of Horus [son of Isis]” called the Shemsu Heru, mentioned in the Liturgy of Funeral Offerings and purification ceremony. These were a group of beings who were closely connected with Osiris, and having “followed” him in this world they passed after him into the Other World (of the dead), where they became his ministrants and messengers. There were also followers (a different group) of Horus the Elder called the Mesentiu who are “workers in metal” or blacksmiths
Horus Iun-mutef, or “pillar of his mother” is evocative of Horus’ success in regaining the throne of his father Osiris, because of Isis’ careful upbringing of her son. At funeral ceremonies the eldest son of the deceased — or a mortuary priest — dressed in panther skin, played the role of Horus Iun-mutef burning incense and scattering purified water before the coffin.
Now, no Egyptologist whose work is known to the present writer has ever discriminated betwixt the “making of Amenta” and the cosmological creation in the Hebrew book of Genesis, which is a chief object of the present section. In his work on The Dawn of Civilization (Eng. Tr., pp. 16-19) M. Maspero has given a version of what he supposes the Egyptians thought of the earth. He tells us “they imagined the whole universe to be a large box, nearly rectangular in form, whose greatest diameter was from south to north, and its least from east to west. The earth with its alternate continents and seas formed the bottom of the box; it was a narrow, oblong, and slightly concave floor, with Egypt in its centre”. M. Maspero’s oblong box, which is longest from the south to the north, is just a figure of the Nile valley, reproduced in the nether earth of Amenta as a mythical locality, not as a picture of the universe. He has taken the cover off Amenta and exposed its depths to the stars of heaven, as if it were the cavity of an immeasurable crater, and has left no ceiling to the lower earth, no nether sky of Nut for the sun to traverse when it was day in the under-world; consequently he has failed to reproduce the double earth that was the creation of Ptah and his co-workers.
The creation of Amenta by Ptah the opener was the cutting, carving, and hollowing out of the earth as tunnel for the heavenly bodies and the manes,. which were now to make the passage through instead of round the mount. This for the first time renders the fundamental meaning of the Hebrew Bara ( אךפ) to create, as when it is said (Gen. i. I) that the Elohim created the heaven and the earth. Bara, applied to the creation of the world by the Elohim, signifies to cut, carve, fashion, and, in the form of Bari, to divide. The Elohim are the Ali or companions who, as the Khnemmu or moulders with Ptah the opener, were the cutters, carvers, or potters, as fashioners of Amenta in the work of dividing the upper from the lower earth. The divine creation of the world resolves itself into the creation attributed to Ptah the opener and his co-workers the Ali, who divided the earth into upper and lower, and thus created, shaped, or moulded a nether world as the secret earth of eternity, the next world made tangible for foothold in spirit life. There was no use for one firmament above and one below until the double earth was created by the opener Ptah, and it was in the making of Amenta that the firmament was duplicated.
Amenta, in the solar mythos, was looked on as the graveyard of the buried sun that died or became inert upon his journey through the under world. In the eschatology it was also depicted as a sort of cemetery or burial-place. Hence the chapter of “introducing the mummy into the tuat on the day of burial” (Naville, Todt. Kap. I. B) – not the earthly mummy, but the mummy of the dramatic mystery as a figure of the living personality. In the book of knowing that which is in Amenta there is a description of the sandy realm of Sekari and of those who are resting on their sand. This points to the sandy district as a primitive burial-place in which the bodies of the dead were first preserved from corruption and decay.
Whilst the under-world was yet the primordial abyss, it was the void of Apap, the dwelling-place of the things of darkness; but now it was the work of Atum as the master of Amenta to make war on Apap; to protect the tree or plants and the water of life; to bruise the serpent’s head or slay the dragon of drought and the destroyer of vegetation.
Now , according to a very ancient myth, there had been war in heaven from the time when the slayer of the dragon was female, and the Great Mother protected her child from the devouring reptile of the dark with her arrow or lance of light in the moon. This is seen when Isis pierces the head of Apap in the firmamental water
But when Amenta was formed the scene of strife was shifted to the new earth that was shaped by Ptah the divine artificer. As it is said in the Book of the Dead, when Amenta was created, and Ra assumed the sovereignty, Amenta also became “the scene of strife among the gods”. The speaker, who is Atum-Ra, says, “I am Ra at his first appearance. I am the great god self-produced. A scene of strife arose among the gods when I assumed command”. The great cause of strife in Amenta is depicted as the Apap-reptile, of whom it is said, “Eternal devourer is his name”

The bull has the most important role in the Egyptian conception of how one enters the Elysian Fields. Raymond Weill in the first part of his study of The Elysian Fields in Egyptian Texts, has clarified the role of the bull, except that he has not seen the astronomical meaning. To gain admittance to the Elysian Fields, the hero must defeat the bull; he enters as the conqueror of the bull that guards the route to the West, that guards the Elysian Fields. One of Pyramid texts reads: “The Bull of the Sky inclines his horn, so that he [the deceased] may pass.” At times the bull instead of being presented as an enemy is a friend who helps in crossings; the bull itself is identified with the hero and becomes the actor of the triumphant crossing: “He comes out into the sky. He crosses the vault of heaven, lively and powerful, he crosses the foamy Oceanus, overthrowing the wall of Shu.”

Aaru Also called: Aa Sekhemu, Aalu, Aat, Sekhet-Aaru and Sekhethetep. This is the place of bliss for “good” souls. This is the land where the Ka rests after traveling through the Tuat. It is sometimes described as a tower or teh Field of Peace. This land is cultivated in order to provide food for the dead. Many historians believe this to be the first historical referance to the “Elysian Fields”.
Amentet Also called: Amenthes, Amenti, Ker-neter, Tan, the West, The Underworld, Tuat. Literally “the hidden place” Amentet is the place where the sunsets. When the deceased arrive.. they encounter the dietied they had worsipped in life. The deceased must then recite the proper words in order to gain access to the solar Barque and pass into the underworld.
Neter- Ta A word for “heaven”. In the Hymn to Ra it is described as the “Divine Land”.
Tuat Also called: Duat, Khert Neter, Neter-khertet, Ta-djesant, Ta-tchesert and Twert The underworld. It is divided into 12 nomes, one for each hour of the night. Each had an ordeal which could be avoided by the soul of the deceased by reciting the appropriate spells/prayers. This is where a mortal soul proves it is worthy of an eternal life with Osiris.
The hieroglyphic determinative of the name “Duat” itself which is simply depicted as a star surrounded by a circle.
The Fields of Aaru and Hetep. The souls of the dead made their way to their abode in the “other world” by a ladder, according to a very ancient view, or through a gap in the mountains of Abydos called Peka according to another; but, by whichever way they passed from earth, their destination was a region in the Tuat which is called in the pyramid and later texts Sekhet-Aaru, which was situated in the Sekhet-Hetep,and was supposed to lie to the north of Egypt. Here dwell Horus and Set, for the fields of Aaru and Hetep are their domains, and here enters the deceased with two of the children of Horus on one side of him, and two on the other, and the “two great chiefs who preside over the throne of the great god proclaim eternal life and power for him.”
Horus between the mountains of Bekhatet and Manu, the most easterly and westerly points of the sun’s course, and the places where he rose and set.
Lake of Khemta the boat of the Eye of Khnemu
Sekhet-Aanru, the “Field of the Aanru plants,” was a name originally given to the islands in the Delta where the souls of the dead were supposed to live. Here was the abode of the god Osiris, who bestowed estates in it upon those who had been his followers, and here the beatified dead led a new existence and regaled themselves upon food of every kind, which was given to them in abundance. According to the vignette of the CXth Chapter of the Book of the Dead, the Sekhet-Aanru is the third division of the Sekhet-hetepu, or “Fields of Peace,” which have been compared with the Elysian Fields of the Greeks.
Set Amentet, i.e., “the mountain of the underworld,” a common name of the cemetery, which was usually situated in the mountains or desert on the western bank of the Nile.
Tanenet, a district sacred to the gods Osiris and Ptah
Neter-khertet, a common name for the abode of the dead; it means the “divine subterranean place.”
Manu is the name given to the region where the sun sets, which was believed to be exactly opposite to the district of Bekha, where he rose in the east; Manu is a synonym of west, just as Bekha is a synonym of east.

Amenta or Amentet, or was originally the place where the sun set, but subsequently the name was applied to the cemeteries and tombs which were usually built or hewn in the stony plateaus and mountains on the western bank of the Nile. Some believe that Amenta was, at first, the name of a small district, without either funereal or mythological signification. The Christian Egyptians or Copts used the word Amend to translate the Greek word Hades, to which they attributed all the ideas which their heathen ancestors had associated with the Amenta of the Book of the Dead.
Wa and Aa are referred to as the “Lords of the Island of Aggression” who “founded this place and who were the first to exist therein in the company of Re.”
“Isle of Aggression” (Egy. iu titi) and “Isle of Combat” (Egy. iu aha)
An-tes, an unknown locality where a light tower, was adored.
” Praise be to thee O Ra, exalted Sekhem, Lord of the hidden of the Tuat…
” Praise be to thee, O Ra… and thou makest thy creations as Governor of thy circle.
” Praise be to thee, O Ra… Thou art he whose forms are his own creations, and thou makest thy creations in thy great disk.
” Praise be to thee, O Ra… Thou art he who gathereth together thy gods when thou goest into thy hidden circle.
” Praise be to thee, O Ra… the sender of light into his circle… thou art he who makest the darkness to be in his circle, and thou coverest those who are therein.
” Praise be to thee, O Ra… the illuminator of bodies in the horizens… thou art he who entereth into his circle.
” Praise be to thee, O Ra… thou goest in and comest out and thou comest out and goest in to thy hidden circle…
According to the Theban doctrine of Egypt’s New Kingdom, the Netherworld, that is the Daut, consisted of a great valley enclosed by mountains. Through this valley ran a river on the banks of which lived a multitude of monstrous beasts and devils. These were evil spirits who were supposed to be hostile to the souls of the dead.
Theban priesthood who thought of the Duat as a river in a valley through which the soul must pass, a clue as to its real nature comes to us from its description as having been divided into regions each of which, among other things, was called qerert-an Egyptian word that means “circle.” That the Duat was a circular enclosure is further evidenced by a representation found on the sarcophagus of Seti I in which “the Tuat is likened to the body of Osiris, which is bent round like a hoop in such a way that his toes touch the back of the head.” Moreover, as Budge informs us, the text accompanying this representation itself states that “it is Osiris himself who forms the encircling border of the Tuat_”
Ra was also an abider in the Duat. And that here, again, the Duat was represented as a circle is evidenced by some of the Seventy Five Praises of Ra that are found inscribed on the walls of some tombs from the 19th and 20th Dynasties in Thebes in which the deity is lauded as “Lord of the Circles” and “he who entereth [or liveth] in the Circle,” in which Budge makes it clear that the Circles being alluded to are the Circles of the Duat.
“Praise be to thee, O Ra_lord of the hidden circles_ “Praise be to thee, O Ra_ who resteth in the Tuat_ “Praise be to thee, O Ra_Governor of thy Circle_ “Praise be to thee, O Ra_the sender forth of light into his Circle_ “Praise be to thee, O Ra_thou art he who entereth into his circle_ “Praise be to thee, O Ra_of the Circles of Ament_”
Besides being called qerert, each division of the Duat was also referred to as arret, that is a hall. What is of interest here is that, according to the “Papyrus of Nu,” these halls of the Duat were seven in number which, among other things, explains the plurality of circles associated with Ra’s habitation.
Hail, thou Runner, Lord, Only One, thou maker of the things that are, thou hast fashioned the tongue of the Company of the Gods, thou hast produced whatsoever cometh forth from the waters, thou springest up out of them above the submerged land of the Lake of Horus. Let me breathe the air which cometh forth from thy nostrils, and the north wind which cometh forth from thy mother Nut.

Homage to thee, O An in Antes, Heru-khuti, who dost with long strides march across the heavens,
O Ra, the dweller in thy Shrine. Thou swallowest the winds, thou drawest into thyself the north wind
Isis saith:- I have come to be a protector unto thee. I waft unto thee air for thy nostrils, and the north wind which cometh forth from the god Tem unto thy nose
Hail, thou who bringest the Ferry- Boat of Ra, thou holdest thy course firmly and directly in the north wind as thou sailest up the river towards the Island of Fire which is in Khert-Neter.
“I am purified in my great double nest which is in Hensu on the day of the offerings of the followers of the Great God who dwelleth therein.”
What is the “great double nest”
“The name of one nest is ‘Millions of years,’ and ‘Great Green’ is the name of the other, that is to say ‘Lake of Natron’ and ‘Lake of Salt.’
“Others, however, say the name of the one is ‘Guide of Millions of Years,’ and that ‘Great Green Lake’ is name of the other. Yet others say that ‘Begetter of Millions of Years’ is the name of one, and ‘Great Green Lake’ is the name of the other. Now, as concerning the Great God who dwelleth therein, it is Ra himself.

Amenti (Egypt, Egyptian) Esoterically and literally, the dwelling of the God Amen, or Amoun, or the “hidden”, secret god Exoterically the kingdom of Osiris divided into fourteen parts, each of which was set aside for some purpose connected with the after state of the defunct Among other things, in one of these was the Hall of Judgment It was the “Land of the West”, the “Secret Dwelling”, the dark land, and the “doorless house” But it was also Ker-noter, the “abode of the gods”, and the “land of ghosts” like the ” Hades” of the Greeks (q v ) It was also the “Good Father’s House” (in which there are “many mansions”) The fourteen divisions comprised, among many others, Aanroo (q v ), the hall of the Two Truths, the Land of Bliss, Neter-xev “the funeral (or burial) place” Otamer-xev, the “Silence-loving Fields”, and also many other mystical halls and dwellings, one like the Sheol of the Hebrews, another like the Devachan of the Occultists, etc , etc Out of the fifteen gates of the abode of Osiris, there were two chief ones, the “gate of entrance” or Rustu, and the “gate of exit” (reincarnation) Amh But there was no room in Amenti to represent the orthodox Christian Hell The worst of all was the Hall of the eternal Sleep and Darkness As Lepsius has it, the defunct “sleep (therein) in incorruptible forms, they wake not to see their brethren, they recognize no longer father and mother, their hearts feel nought toward their wife and children This is the dwelling of the god All-Dead Each trembles to pray to him, for he hears not Nobody can praise him, for he regards not those who adore him Neither does he notice any offering brought to him ” This god is Karmic Decree; the land of Silence – the abode of those who die absolute disbelievers, those dead from accident before their allotted time, and finally the dead on the threshold of Avitchi, which is never in Amenti or any other subjective state, save in one case, but on this land of forced re-birth These tarried not very long even in their state of heavy sleep, of oblivion and darkness, but, were carried more or less speedily toward Amh the “exit gate”
The underworld (Tuat), the hidden place or secret region The 15th or last house (Aat) of the Tuat, called Amentet-nefert (beautiful Amenti) and described as the dwelling place of the gods, where they live upon cakes and ale — in this respect similar to the Scandinavian Valhalla, the heaven world or devachan The afterworlds were also referred to as Sekhet-hetep or -hetepet (the fields of peace), called in Greece the Elysian Fields, under the dominion of Osiris, lord of Amenti Some of the texts speak of Amenti as situated far to the north of Egypt, although it is more commonly referred to as the Silent Land of the West Other texts place it either below or above the earth, and the deceased is pictured as needing a ladder to ascend to the region The deceased, entering the domain as a khu, performs the same activities that he did on earth: plowing, reaping, sailing his boat, and making love On entering Amenti, Anubis conducts the soul to the hall of Osiris where it is judged by the 42 judges and its heart is weighed against the feather of truth If the soul passes the test, it goes to the fields of Aalu If the names of the 15 Aats, the 7 Arrets (circles), the 21 Pylons, as well as the gods and guardians of these domains are all known, the deceased is enabled to pass from one mansion to the other, and finally to enter the Night Boat of the Sun, which passes through the Tuat on its way to arise in the heavens The shades who miss this boat, the unprogressed egos, must remain in the afterworld or kama-loka, while those who enter the boat are carried to the heaven world or devachan where they wander about until they return to earth for rebirth This refers to the passing from world to world by the ego proficient in knowledge of the “names,” and thereafter entering the secret or invisible pathways to the sun The knowledge of the names indicates spiritual, intellectual, and psychic development, by which the ego of the defunct is no longer attracted to the lower spheres, but having knowledge of them correctly answers the challenges and thereafter follows the attraction upwards and onwards Writing on the symbol of the egg which is often depicted as floating above a mummy, Blavatsky says: “This is the symbol of hope and the promise of a second birth for the Osirified dead; his Soul, after due purification in the Amenti, will gestate in this egg of immortality, to be reborn from it into a new life on earth For this Egg, in the esoteric Doctrine, is the Devachan, the abode of Bliss; the winged scarabeus being alike a symbol of it” (SD 1:365) The mystical and mythologic teachings concerning Amenti were all more or less symbolic descriptions of the series of afterdeath states and adventures experienced by the excarnate entity Thus kama-loka, devachan, and the postmortem peregrinations of the excarnate monad are all combined under the one term Amenti Aanroo, Aanre (Egyptian) More fully, Sekhet-Aanre (the fields of the reeds); more often called Aarru or Sekhet-Aarru; also Aanru, Aaru The first region of the Afterworlds (Amenti) reached by the deceased in the afterdeath state, which he enters as a khu “The second division of Amenti The celestial field of Aanroo is encircled by an iron wall The field is covered with wheat, and the ‘Defunct’ are represented gleaning it, for the ‘Master of Eternity’; some stalks being three, others five, and the highest seven cubits high

THE CHAPTER OF BEING TRANSFORMED INTO THE PRINCE OF THE TCHATCHAU CHIEFS. The Osiris Nu, whose word is truth, saith:- I am the god Tem, the maker of the sky, the creator of the things which are, who cometh forth from the earth, who made the seed of man to come into being, the Lord of things, who fashioned the gods, the Great God, who created himself, the Lord of Life, who made to flourish the Two Companies of the Gods. Homage to you, O ye divine Lords of things, ye holy beings, whose seats are veiled! Homage to you, O ye Lords of Eternity, whose forms are concealed, whose sanctuaries are mysteries, whose places of abode are not known! Homage to you, O ye gods, who dwell in the Tenait (Circle of Light)! Homage to you, O ye gods of the Circle of the country of the Cataracts! Homage to you, O ye gods who dwell in Amentet! Homage to you, O ye gods who dwell within Nut! Grant ye to me that I may come before you, I am pure, I am like a god. I am endowed with a Spirit-soul. I am strong. I am endowed with a Heart-soul. I bring unto you incense, and spice, and natron. I have done away with the chidings of your mouths. I have come, I have done away the evil which was in your hearts, and I have removed the offences which appertained to you [against me]. I bring to you deeds of well-doing, and I present before you truth. I know you. I know your names. I know your forms which are not known. I come into being among you. My coming is like unto that god who eateth men, and who feedeth upon the gods. I am strong before you even like that god who is exalted upon his pedestal, unto whom the gods come with rejoicing, and the goddesses make supplication when they see me. I have come unto you. I have ascended my throne like your Two Daughters. I have taken my seat in the horizon. I receive my offerings of propitiation upon my altars. I drink my fill of seth wine every evening. I come to those who are making rejoicings, and the gods who live in the horizon ascribe unto me praises, as the divine Spirit-body, the Lord of mortals. I am exalted like that holy god who dwelleth in the Great House. The gods rejoice greatly when they see my beautiful appearances from the body of the goddess Nut, and when the goddess Nut bringeth me forth.

Of the twelve other gods who grasp the chain it is said:–
“Those who are in this picture [act] as warders of the sons of the helpless one, and they keep guard (over
the deadly chain which is in the HIDDEN HAND, for the dead bodies are placed with the things [which
belong to them] in the circuit of the battlements of KHENTI-AMENTI. And these gods say, ‘Let darkness
be upon thy face, O UAMEMTI, and ye shall be destroyed, O ye sons of the helpless one, by the
HIDDEN HAND, which shall cause evils [to come upon you] by the deadly chain which is in it. SEB
keepeth ward over your fetters, and the sons of the fetters (i.e., Mest, Hapi, Tuamutef, and Qebhsennuf)
put upon you the deadly chain. Keep ye [your] ward under the reckoning of KHENTI-AMENTI.'”

The hazy character of current Egyptological. scholarship is notably manifest in a passage from Budge dealing with the locations of the Tuat. It is clearly given in the Ritual as the gate of entry to the underworld. But Budge gives it as “the name of a district or region, neither in heaven nor upon earth, where the dead dwelt and through which the sun passed during the night.” Where else the Tuat might be, if neither in nor on earth, he does not say. In another place (Egyptian Literature, Vol. I) he defines the Tuat once more. “Tuat is a very ancient name for the Other World, which was situated either parallel to Egypt, or across the celestial ocean which surrounded the world.”

We can identify Kefa or Kep, the Great Mother, with ATUM in the Garden of Amenta.
Book of the Dead again and again tell us that AMENTA is the dwelling of SEB, the God of Earth.

Nine bearded, human-headed and human-handed hawks, which stand with their hands raised in adoration; before each is a loaf of bread, and a few green herbs. These are described as the “souls who are in the Lake of Serser.”

“These are they who make souls to have a right to the green herbs in the Lake of Serser. Ra saith unto them:–‘[Hail, ye] divine sovereign princes of the gods, and ye chiefs of the Lake of Serser, who place souls over their green herbs, let them have dominion themselves over their bread; give ye your bread which is appointed, and bring ye your green herbs to the souls who have been ordered to exist in the Lake of Serser.’ They say unto Ra:–‘The bread appointed hath been and the green herbs have been brought to the divine souls whom thou hast ordered to exist in the Lake of Serser. Hail! Verily, the way is fair; for KHENTI-AMENTI praiseth thee, and those who dwell in TA-THENEN praise thee.’ Their food is of bread-cakes, and their beer is the tchesert beer, and their libations are of cool water; and offerings are made unto them upon earth by those who are with TUI by the divine sovereign princes.”

“These are they who are in the Land of Serser; ‘they have received their bread, and they have gained the mastery over this Lake, and they praise this great god. Ra saith unto them:–‘Eat ye your green herbs, and satisfy ye yourselves with your cakes; let there be fulness to your bellies, and satisfaction to your hearts. Your green herbs are of the Lake of Serser, the Lake which may not be approached. Praise ye me, glorify ye me, for I am the Great One of terror of the Tuat.’ They say unto Ra:–‘Hail to thee, O thou Great One of the SEKHEMU (i.e., Powers)! Praise is thine, and majesty is thine. The Tuat is thine, and [is subservient] to thy will; it is a hidden place [made] by thee for those who are in its Circles. The height of Heaven is thine, and [is subservient] to thy will; it is a secret place [made] by thee for those who belong thereto. The Earth is for thy dead Body, and the Sky is for thy Soul. O Ra, be thou at peace (or, be content) with that which thou hast made to come into being.’ Their food consisteth of bread-cakes, their green herbs are the plants of the spring, and the waters wherein they refresh themselves are cool

“Hail to thee, O thou Thigh which dwelleth in the northern heaven in the Great Lake, which art seen and which dieth not. I have stood up over thee when thou didst rise like a god. I have seen thee, and I have not lain down in death; I have stood over thee, and I have risen like a god. I have cackled like a goose, and I have alighted like a hawk by the divine clouds and by the great dew. I have journeyed from the earth to heaven. The god Shu–made–me to stand up, the god of Light hath made me to be vigorous by the two sides of the ladder, and the stars which never rest set–me–on–my–way and bring–me–away from slaughter. I bring along with me the things which drive back calamities as I advance over the passage of the god Pen; thou comest, how great art thou, O god Pen! I have come from the Pool of Flame which is in the Sekhet-Sasa–i.e., the Field of Fire.–Thou livest in the Pool of Flame in Sekhet-Sasa, and I live upon the staff of the hold–god. Hail, thou god Kaa, who dost bring those things which are in the boats by the . . . I stand up in the boat and I guide myself–over–the water: I have stood up in the boat and the god hath guided me. I have stood up. I have spoken.–I am master of the–crops. I sail round about as I go forward, and the gates which are in Sekhem–Letopolis–are opened unto me, and fields are awarded unto me in the city of Unni–Hermopolis–, and laborers (?) are given unto me together with those of my own flesh and bone.”

Thou hast made strong (?) the mouth and the throat (?) of the god Hetep; Qetetbu is its (?) name. He is established upon the watery support (?) of the god Shu, and is linked unto the pleasant things of Ra. He is the divider of years, he is hidden of mouth, his mouth is silent, that which he uttereth is secret, he fulfilleth eternity and taketh possession of everlastingness of existence as Hetep, the lord Hetep. The god Horus maketh himself to be strong like unto the Hawk which is one thousand cubits in length and two thousand–cubits in width–in life; he hath equipments with him, and he journeyeth on and cometh where the seat of his heart wisheth in the Pools thereof and in the cities thereof. He was begotten in the birth-chamber of the god of the city, he hath offerings–made unto him–of the food of the god of the city, he performeth that which is meet to do therein, and the union thereof, in the matter of everything of the birth-chamber of the divine city. When–he–setteth in life like crystal he performeth everything therein, and these things are like unto the things which are done in the Lake of double Fire, wherein there is none that rejoiceth, and wherein are all manner of evil things. The god Hetep goeth in, and cometh out, and goeth backward–in–that, Field that gathereth together all manner of things for the birth-chamber of the god of the city. When he setteth in life like crystal he performeth all manner of things therein which are like unto the things which are done in the Lake of double Fire, wherein there is none that rejoiceth, and wherein are no evil things whatsoever. –Let me–live with the god Hetep, clothed and not despoiled by the lords of the north (?) and may the lords of divine things bring food unto me; may he make me to go forward and may I come forth, and may he bring my power to me there, and may I receive it, and may my equipment be from the god Hetep. May I gain the mastery over the great and mighty word which is in my body in this my place, and by it I will remember and I will forget. Let me go forward in my journey, and let me plough. I am at peace in the divine city 1, and I know the waters, cities, nomes, and lakes which are in Sekhet-hetep. I exist therein, I am strong therein, I become a khu therein, I eat therein, I sow seed therein, I reap the harvest therein, I plough therein, I make love therein, I am at peace with the god Hetep therein. Behold I scatter seed therein, I sail about among its lakes and I come forward to the cities thereof, O divine Hetep. Behold my mouth is equipped with thy horns–for teeth–, grant me an overflowing supply of the food whereon the kas and khus–live–. I have passed the judgment of Shu upon him that knoweth him, so that I may go forth to the cities thereof, and may sail about among its lakes and may walk about in Sekhet-hetep; and behold, Ra is in heaven, and behold, the god Hetep is its double offering. I have come onward to its land, I have put on my girdle (?), I have come forth so that the gifts which are about to be given unto me may be given, I have made gladness for myself. I have laid hold upon my strength which the god Hetep hath greatly increased for me. OF BRINGING A BOAT ALONG IN HEAVEN (From the Papyrus of Nu, British Museum, No. 10,477, sheet 9)

The Garden of Eden
“The Aarru paradise in Amenta is also the garden of the two trees, the same as the Hebrew garden of Eden.
A form of Eden is undoubtedly Babylonian, even by name.
According to ‘the native tradition, the type was localized in Eridu, the place of the eternal tree or stalk at the centre of the circumpolar paradise, or of Eridu in the firmamental water termed “the abyss”.
In the mythos the Great Mother is called ” the divine lady of Edin”, and also “the goddess of the tree of life”.
As the tree she brings forth her child, the branch, the same as Hathor does in Egypt.
The name of Hathor signifies the house of Horus, as the tree.
So the Great Mother Zikum is the house of Tammuz, as the tree that grew in Eridu.
But the Egyptian stalk of the uat or papyrus plant is indefinitely earlier than the typical tree.
One fact of itself will serve to show that the biblical Eden was not derived from the Assyrian Edin, because in this garden there is but a single tree, which is apparently the tree of life.
The divine lady of Edin is the goddess of the tree of life, and there is no mention of a tree of knowledge.
Secondly, the serpent as a type of evil in the book of Genesis is not the Babylonian dragon Tiamat.
The biblical dragon is of neither sex, whereas Tiamat is female.
The Hebrew dragon or evil serpent is the Apap of Egypt from Genesis to Revelation.
Apap is a water-reptile whose dwelling is at the bottom of the dark waters called the void of Apap, from which it rises in rebellion as the representative of drought.
This is the serpent described by Amos: “Though they be hid from my sight in the bottom of the sea, thence will I command the serpent, and he shall bite them” (Amos ix. 3).
Another reason.
The Hebrew Eden is in a land that was watered by a mist that went up from the ground, and where no rain fell on the earth (Genesis 2:5-6). That land above all earthly prototypes was Egypt, which assuredly did not suffer like Babylonia from the “curse of rain”, from which the Akkadian month “As-an” was named.
But there was a pre-solar paradise enclosure which had but one tree in it.

This as Egyptian is the paradise of Am-Khemen, which Shu uplifted with his two-pronged prop that images the pole, when he divided earth from heaven and raised the upper circumpolar paradise.
Paradise, says Ibn Ezra, is the place of one tree. Mount Hetep in the northern heaven is a kind of typical one-tree-hill.

The two trees in the garden of Eden can be accounted for upon Egyptian ground, but on no other; one being the tree of the pole in the stellar mythos, the other the tree of life or of dawn in the garden eastward.
The two typical trees are recognizable as Egyptian in the Book of the Dead.
In one chapter (97th) they are called the two divine sycamores of heaven and earth.
The sycamore of heaven is identified as the tree of Nut. It stands in “the lake of equipoise”, which is at the celestial pole.
The tree of earth is the tree of Hathor and of dawn.
Atum-Ra, the solar god, is also described as coming forth from betwixt the two trees.
“I know those two sycamores of emerald, between which Ra cometh forth as he advances over the firmament” ( ch. 109).
The tree of earth, or Hathor, and the tree of heaven, or Nut, were brought on together and united in the tree of burial for the mummy. Wherever it was possible the Egyptian-coffin was made from the wood of the sycamore tree, the khat-en-ankhu, or tree of life, so that the dead might be taken in the embrace of the mother of life, who was represented by the tree.
This was Hathor as bringer to birth in the mythology, and Nut the bringer of-souls to their rebirth in the eschatology.
The relative positions of these two goddesses with the tree were illustrated by the pictures painted on the coffin.
Hathor as a form of the mother-earth, the tree-form, is portrayed inside the coffin on the board upon which the mummy rested, taking the dead to her embrace as the mother of life.
Nut, the mother-heaven, was represented on the inner part of the coffin-lid arching over the mummy as bringer of the manes to new life above. It was burial in the tree when the tree had come to be elaborately carved in the shape of a coffin.
This symbolized a resurrection of the spirit from the tree of life as Horus rose again from out the tree of dawn. Now when Amenta was planted by Ptah, the father of Atum, several features of the circumpolar paradise, as before said, were not only repeated, they were duplicated. One of these was the typical tree.
The tree of the pole remained as the central support of the universe, the tree of the three worlds, i.e., of Amenta, earth and heaven (Egyptian) Arali, earth and heaven (Babylonian) hell, mid-gard and heaven (Norse), and others that might be added.
In Egypt this was almost superseded by the tat of Ptah, which is a pillar of the four corners based upon the tree as type of the pole when this was erected in Amenta.
Thus, the primal paradise was the place of one tree.
The paradise or garden in Amenta is the place of two trees – because the ground-rootage had been doubled in phenomena.
These two trees appear in the Ritual as the tree of Hathor and the tree of Nut; the tree of earth and the tree of heaven; the tree of the north and the tree of the east.

“The Majesty of this great god taketh up its place in the Circles of the hidden gods who are on their sand, and he addresseth to them words in his boat whilst the gods tow him along through this City by means of the magical powers of the serpent MEHEN. The name of the gate of this City is AHA-AN-URT-NEF. The name of this City is TEBAT-NETERU-S. The name of the Hour of the night which guideth this great god is NEBT-USHA.”

The Circles of this Division are thus described:–

“The hidden Circles of Ament which are passed through by the great god, his boat being towed along by the gods who dwell in the Tuat; let them be made according to the figures [which are depicted] on the north of the hidden palace in the Tuat. Whosoever knoweth them by their names shall be the possessor of swathings upon earth, and he shall not be repulsed at the hidden gates, and he shall have offerings in very great abundance regularly and perpetually.”

In the middle register are:–

1. The boat of the sun, in which the god stands under a canopy formed by the body of the serpent Mehen, being towed along by nine gods. His passage is thus described: “This god maketh his way into this City, being towed along by the gods of the Tuat, in his hidden form of MEHEN. This god sendeth forth a cry to the regions of every Circle of this City, and also to the gods who are therein, and it is the voice of them which this god heareth after he hath sent forth a cry to them. The figures of their bodies remain always with their dead bodies which are under their sand, and their gates open to the voice of this god each day, and then they hide themselves after he hath passed by them. Their work in the Tuat is to tow Ra along over the ways of this City, and they rise up after they have towed him along into this Hall, and they say unto him:–O thou god, come thou to thine hidden image, O our god, and to all the sepulchres of KHENTI-AMENTI, unite thyself strongly to it, and mayest thou be entreated to lighten the darkness of those who are on their sands. We beseech thee to come and to unite thyself, O Ra, to those who tow thee along.” The eight gods who tow along the boat of Ra are thus described: “These are the gods of the Tuat who tow alone, Ra in the place where the gods have their sepulchres (TEBAT-NETERU-SET), and he is [acclaimed] by those who are in this City. The images secret of TATHENEN, Of Horus (?), [and of] the gods are with them.”

“Those who are in this picture are [seated] upon their instruments for weaving, which are set firmly on their sand, according to the mystery which Horus made. This god crieth out to their souls in whatsoever regions they are, and there are heard the voices of [those who are] shut in this Circle which are like the sound of the swathed ones [when] their souls cry out to Ra. The name of this Circle is TUAT.”

Dr. Brugsch and others place it under the earth,[4] others have supposed it to be the space which exists between the arms of Shu and the body of Nut,[5] but the most recent theory put forth is that it was situated neither above nor below the earth, but beyond Egypt to the north, from which it was separated by the mountain range which, as the Egyptians thought, supported the sky.[6] The region of the Tuat was a long, mountainous, narrow valley with a river running along it; starting from the east it made its way to the north, and then taking a circular direction it came back to the east. In the Tuat lived all manner of fearful monsters and beasts, and here was the country through which the sun passed during the twelve hours of the night; according to one view he traversed this region in splendour, and according to another he died and became subject to Osiris the king, god and judge of the kingdom of the departed.

The souls of the dead made their way to their abode in the “other world” by a ladder, according to a very ancient view, or through a gap in the mountains of Abydos called Peka according to another; but, by whichever way they passed from earth, their destination was a region in the Tuat which is called in the pyramid and later texts Sekhet-Aaru,[7] which was situated in the Sekhet-Hetep,[l] and was supposed to lie to the north of Egypt. Here dwell Horus and Set, for the fields of Aaru and Hetep are their domains,[2] and here enters the deceased with two of the children of Horus on one side of him, and two on the other,[3] and the “two great chiefs who preside over the throne of the great god proclaim eternal life and power for him.”[4] Here like the supreme God he is declared to be “one,” and the four children of Horus proclaim his name to Ra. Having gone to the north of the Aaru Field he makes his way to the eastern portion of the tuat, where according to one legend he becomes like the morning star, near[6] his sister Sothis.[7] Here he lived in the form of the star Sothis, and “the great and little companies of the gods purify him in the Great Bear.”

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