Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
Enki made his face attractive and took a staff in his hand. Enki came to a halt at Uttu’s, knocked at her house (demanding): “Open up, open up.” (She asked): “Who are you?” (He answered:) “I am a gardener. Let me give you cucumbers, apples, and grapes for your consent.” Joyfully Uttu opened the house. Enki gave Uttu, the exalted (?) woman, cucumbers in ……, gave her apples with their stems sticking out (?), gave her grapes in their clusters. { (1 line not in the ms. from Nibru:) He poured beer for her in the large ban measure. }
Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
(The fox said to Ninḫursaĝa:) “I have been to Nibru, but Enlil ……. I have been to Urim, but Nanna ……. I have been to Larsam, but Utu ……. I have been to Unug, but Inana ……. I am seeking refuge with one who is …….” (7 lines fragmentary)
Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
Ninḫursaĝa hastened to the temple. The Anuna slipped off her garment, made ……, determined its destiny and ……. Ninḫursaĝa made Enki sit by her vagina. { (1 line not in the ms. from Nibru:) She placed (?) her hands on ……. and ……. on its outside. }
Enki and Ninmaḫ: c.1.1.2
Sixth, she fashioned one with neither penis nor vagina on its body. Enki looked at the one with neither penis nor vagina on its body and gave it the name ‘Nibru eunuch (?)’, and decreed as its fate to stand before the king.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
“I will admire its green cedars. Let the lands of Meluḫa, Magan and Dilmun look upon me, upon Enki. Let the Dilmun boats be loaded (?) with timber. Let the Magan boats be loaded sky-high. Let the magilum boats of Meluḫa transport gold and silver and bring them to Nibru for Enlil, king of all the lands.”
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
He cleansed and purified the land of Dilmun. He placed Ninsikila in charge of it. He gave …… for the fish spawn, ate its …… fish, bestowed palms on the cultivated land, ate its dates. …… Elam and Marḫaši ……. …… to devour ……. The king endowed with strength by Enlil destroyed their houses, demolished (?) their walls. He brought their silver and lapis-lazuli, their treasure, to Enlil, king of all the lands, in Nibru.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
After he had turned his gaze from there, after Father Enki had lifted his eyes across the Euphrates, he stood up full of lust like a rampant bull, lifted his penis, ejaculated and filled the Tigris with flowing water. He was like a wild cow mooing for its young in the wild grass, its scorpion-infested cow-pen. The Tigris …… at his side like a rampant bull. By lifting his penis, he brought a bridal gift. The Tigris rejoiced in its heart like a great wild bull, when it was born ……. It brought water, flowing water indeed: its wine will be sweet. It brought barley, mottled barley indeed: the people will eat it. It filled the E-kur, the house of Enlil, with all sorts of things. Enlil was delighted with Enki, and Nibru was glad. The lord put on the diadem as a sign of lordship, he put on the good crown as a sign of kingship, touching the ground on his left side. Plenty came forth out of the earth for him.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
He filled the E-kur, the house of Enlil, with goods of all sorts. Enlil was delighted with Enki, and Nibru was glad. Enki placed in charge of all this, over the wide extent of the sea, her who sets sail …… in the holy shrine, who induces sexual intercourse ……, who …… over the enormous high flood of the subterranean waters, the terrifying waves, the inundation of the sea ……, who comes forth from the ……, the mistress of Sirara, …… — Nanše.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
He filled the E-kur, the house of Enlil, with possessions. Enlil was delighted with Enki and Nibru was glad. He demarcated borders and fixed boundaries. For the Anuna gods, Enki situated dwellings in cities and disposed agricultural land into fields. Enki placed in charge of the whole of heaven and earth the hero, the bull who comes out of the ḫašur forest bellowing truculently, the youth Utu, the bull standing triumphantly, audaciously, majestically, the father of the Great City (an expression for the underworld), the great herald in the east of holy An, the judge who searches out verdicts for the gods, with a lapis-lazuli beard, rising from the horizon into the holy heavens — Utu, the son born by Ningal.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
“Nanše, the august lady, who rests her feet on the holy pelican, is to be the fisheries inspector of the sea. She is to be responsible for accepting delectable fish and delicious birds from there to go to Nibru for her father Enlil.”
Enki’s journey to Nibru: c.1.1.4
He directed his steps on his own to Nibru and entered the temple terrace, the shrine of Nibru. Enki reached for (?) the beer, he reached for (?) the liquor. He had liquor poured into big bronze containers, and had emmer-wheat beer pressed out (?). In kukuru containers which make the beer good he mixed beer-mash. By adding date-syrup to its taste (?), he made it strong. He …… its bran-mash.
Enki’s journey to Nibru: c.1.1.4
In the shrine of Nibru, Enki provided a meal for Enlil, his father. He seated An at the head of the table and seated Enlil next to An. He seated Nintur in the place of honour and seated the Anuna gods at the adjacent places (?). All of them were drinking and enjoying beer and liquor. They filled the bronze aga vessels to the brim and started a competition, drinking from the bronze vessels of Uraš. They made the tilimda vessels shine like holy barges. After beer and liquor had been libated and enjoyed, and after …… from the house, Enlil was made happy in Nibru.
Enlil and Ninlil: c.1.2.1
There was a city, there was a city — the one we live in. Nibru was the city, the one we live in. Dur-ĝišnimbar was the city, the one we live in. Id-sala is its holy river, Kar-ĝeština is its quay. Kar-asar is its quay where boats make fast. Pu-lal is its freshwater well. Id-nunbir-tum is its branching canal, and if one measures from there, its cultivated land is 50 sar each way. Enlil was one of its young men, and Ninlil was one its young women. Nun-bar-še-gunu was one of its wise old women.
Enlil and Sud: c.1.2.2
After …… had instructed ……, …… and Nuska took his seat on it. (1 line missing)Nanibgal called …… and gave her advice: “My little one, asleep indoors (?) …… your pure ……, the pleasant private quarters ……. …… leave the House of Nisaba’s Wisdom. ……, Nuska is knowing and wise. …… to his presence and pour him beer.” According to the instructions of her mother, she washed his hands and placed a tankard in his hands. The minister opened his left hand and gave her the jewellery, …… everything …… and set it before her. She received the gifts ……. He …… directed his steps to Nibru. …… kissed the ground before Enlil. …… the great Lady had said ……, as she had instructed him, he repeated (?) ……: “(She said:) “Adviser, fit for his (?) king, ever observant (?)! Who like you could give counsel daily to the Great Mountain? How could I contest the king’s message which his slave has received? If there is truth in what you have told me — and may there be no falsehood — who could reject one who bestows such exceedingly great favours? …… makes our mood and hearts happy. Let us consider that amends have been made. By bringing the marriage gifts and the presents in his name the insult is wiped away. Tell him: “You shall become my son-in-law; do as you wish!” Tell Enlil, the Great Mountain: “Do as you wish!” Let his sister come from her side, and she shall accompany Sud from here. Aruru shall become Sud’s sister-in-law: let her be shown the household. Inform your lord thus in his august Ki-ur. Repeat this to Enlil in the privacy of his holy bedchamber.””
Enlil and Sud: c.1.2.2
As the presents are given in the shrine Nibru, a holy song of praise is sung. Enlil, the lord of the countries, …….
Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
She abandoned the office of en, abandoned the office of lagar, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-ana in Unug, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-muš-kalama in Bad-tibira, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Giguna in Zabalam, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-šara in Adab, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Barag-dur-ĝara in Nibru, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Ḫursaĝ-kalama in Kiš, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-Ulmaš in Agade, and descended to the underworld. { (1 ms. adds 8 other lines:) She abandoned the Ibgal in Umma, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-Dilmuna in Urim, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Amaš-e-kug in Kisiga, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-ešdam-kug in Ĝirsu, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-šeg-meše-du in Isin, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Anzagar in Akšak, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Niĝin-ĝar-kug in Šuruppag, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-šag-ḫula in Kazallu, and descended to the underworld. }
Dumuzid’s dream: c.1.4.3
Those who come for the king are a motley crew, who know not food, who know not drink, who eat no sprinkled flour, who drink no poured water, who accept no pleasant gifts, who do not enjoy a wife’s embraces, who never kiss dear little children, who never chew sharp-tasting garlic, who eat no fish, who eat no leeks. There were two men of Adab who came for the king. They were thistles in dried-up waters, they were thorns in stinking waters — ‘his hand was on the table, his tongue was in the palace’ (Alludes to a proverb). Then there were two men of Akšak who came for the king, with …… carried on their shoulders. Then there were two men of Unug who came for the king. With head-smashing clubs tied to their waists, there were two men of Urim who came for the king. With { shining } { (1 ms. has instead:) clean } clothes on the quayside, there were two men of Nibru who came for the king. Crying “Man run after man!”, they came to the sheepfold and cow-pen. They caught Ĝeštin-ana at the sheepfold and cow-pen. They offered a river of water, but she wouldn’t accept it. They offered her a field of grain, but she wouldn’t accept it. The little demon spoke to the big demon, the wise demon, the lively demon, and the big demon who was between them, wise like …… destroying a ……, like …… barring a ……, they spoke:
Nanna-Suen’s journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
“My Nibru, where black birch trees grow in a good place, my sanctuary Nibru, where white birch trees grow in a pure place — my Nibru’s shrine is built in a good place. The sanctuary Nibru’s name is a good name. My Nibru’s shrine is built in a good place. The sanctuary Nibru’s name is a good name. Before Dilmun existed, palm trees grew in my city. Before Dilmun existed, palm trees grew in Nibru and the great mother Ninlil was clothed in fine linen.”
Nanna-Suen’s journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
She laid out flour before the barge and spread bran. At her feet stood a covered bronze gakkul vat. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) With her fingers she pulled out the boxwood bung (?) for him (declaring): } “I shall rub precious oil on this peg. May ghee, syrup and wine be abundant in your midst, may the suḫur carp and the eštub carp rejoice at the prow of your boat!” But the boat did not give her its cargo: “I am going to Nibru!”
Nanna-Suen’s journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
She laid out flour before the barge and spread bran. At her feet stood a covered bronze gakkul vat. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) With her fingers she pulled out the boxwood bung (?) for him (declaring): } “I shall rub precious oil on this peg. May ghee, syrup and wine be abundant in your midst, may the suḫur carp and the eštub carp rejoice at the prow of your boat!” But the boat did not give her its cargo: “I am going to Nibru!”
Nanna-Suen’s journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
She laid out flour before the barge and spread bran. At her feet stood a covered bronze gakkul vat. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) With her fingers she pulled out the boxwood bung (?) for him (declaring): } “I shall rub precious oil on your peg. May ghee, syrup and wine be abundant in your midst, may the suḫur carp and the eštub carp rejoice at the prow of your boat!” But the boat did not give her its cargo: “I am going to Nibru!”
Nanna-Suen’s journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
She laid out flour before the barge and spread bran. At her feet stood a covered bronze gakkul vat. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) With her fingers she pulled out the boxwood bung (?) for him (declaring): } “I shall rub precious oil on this peg. May ghee, syrup and wine be abundant in your midst, may the suḫur carp and the eštub carp rejoice at the prow of your boat!” But the boat did not give her its cargo: “I am going to Nibru!”
Nanna-Suen’s journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
She laid out flour before the barge and spread bran. At her feet stood a covered bronze gakkul vat. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) With her fingers she pulled out the boxwood bung (?) for him (declaring): } “I shall rub precious oil on this peg. May ghee, syrup and wine be abundant in your midst, may the suḫur carp and the eštub carp rejoice at the prow of your boat!” But the boat did not give her its cargo: “I am going to Nibru!”
Nanna-Suen’s journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
Nibru lay ahead of the offerings, Tummal lay behind them. At the Shining Quay, the quay of Enlil, Nanna-Suen finally docked the boat. At the White Quay, the quay of Enlil, Ašimbabbar finally docked the boat.
Ninurta’s return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
When, at Enlil’s command, he was making his way towards E-kur, the warrior of the gods was levelling the Land; and before he had yet approached Nibru from afar, Nuska, the chancellor of Enlil, came forth from the E-kur to meet him.
Ninurta’s return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
“Let my beloved city, the sanctuary Nibru, raise its head as high as heaven. Let my city be pre-eminent among the cities of my brothers. Let my temple rise (?) the highest …… among the temples of my brothers. Let the territory of my city be the freshwater well of Sumer. Let the Anuna, my brother gods, bow down there. Let their flying birds establish nests in my city. Let their refugees refresh themselves in my shade.”
Ninurta’s return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
“My sovereign, may you be well-disposed towards your beloved city. Lord Ninurta, may you be well-disposed towards your beloved city. May you be well-disposed towards the sanctuary Nibru, your beloved city. When you enter E-šu-me-ša, your beloved temple, alone, tell your wife, young lady Ninnibru, what is in your heart, tell her what is on your mind. Make an enduring favourable pronouncement to her for the king.”
Ninurta’s return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
When Ninurta entered E-šu-me-ša, his beloved temple, alone, he told his wife, young lady Ninnibru, what was in his heart, he told her what was on his mind and he made an enduring favourable pronouncement to her for the king.
Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The weapon which loved the lord, obedient to its master, the Šar-ur …… for Lord Ninurta to his father in Nibru ……. The awesome splendour enveloped Ninurta like a garment, ……. …… bound him: therefore the lord ……. The weapon …… spoke to Enlil.
Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
While the lord was fixing the destiny of the mountains, as he walked about in the sanctuary of Nibru, the good lady whose powers excel all powers, Lady-creatrix-of-the-womb, Aruru, Enlil’s elder sister, stood before him:
Pabilsaĝ’s journey to Nibru: c.1.7.8
The wild bull with brindled thighs, whose house is noble! My king, the wild bull with brindled thighs, whose house is noble! Pabilsaĝ, the wild bull with brindled thighs, whose house is noble! His house, the house of Larag, is noble, his house is noble! His city, a mighty city, is abundant, and his house is noble! The warrior’s house is the house of Larag; Lord Pabilsaĝ’s city is a mighty city ……. His birthplace was the shrine Nibru ……. The place where he drank good milk was the house ……. From the place, the pure place, ……. Isin, the unique house ……. The place which the bull embraces ……. Like a scorpion rising up from among the thorns, he is a fearsome scorpion; like a wolf rising up from his lair, he is likely to growl; like a lion rising up in the pathway, he is likely to beat …….
Pabilsaĝ’s journey to Nibru: c.1.7.8
At that time, he wished to dig (?) in the meadows; the lord wished to dig (?) in the meadows. Lord Pabilsaĝ wished to dig (?) in the meadows; in all the meadows of Isin, my king wished to dig (?). So then my king set off for Nibru.
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
{ (Several mss. preserve a more elaborate, but repetitive, narrative built on the pattern of lines 145-148. Some preserve the repetitions in an extremely abbreviated form. No ms. known to be from Nibru preserves the additional lines. One ms. of unknown origin adds at least 53 lines (and another fragmentary ms. of unknown origin gives an abbreviated version of these, always replacing ‘terror’ by ‘aura’):) And again he addressed him: “By the life of my mother Ninsumun and of my father, holy Lugalbanda! No one really knows where in the mountains you live; they would like to know where in the mountains you live. Here, I have brought to the mountains for you ……. Couldn’t I get close to you and your family? Just hand over your terrors to me! I want to become your kinsman!” Then Ḫuwawa handed over to him his second terror. Gilgameš’s fellow-citizens who had come with him began to lop off the branches and bundle them together, so as to lay them down at the foot of the hills. }
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
As Ḫuwawa spoke thus to him, { Enkidu, full of rage and anger, cut his throat } { (2 mss. from Nibru have instead:) they cut his throat }. { He put } { (1 ms. has instead:) He chucked } { (the same 2 mss. from Nibru have instead:) They put } his head in a leather bag.
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
At that time, Suen, Enki, Inana, Ninurta, Iškur, Utu, Nuska, and Nisaba, { the great gods } { (1 ms. has instead:) all the gods whosoever }, { cooled } { (1 ms. has instead:) sprinkled } Enlil’s heart with cool water and prayed to him: “Enlil, may the city that destroyed your city be treated as your city has been treated! May the one that defiled your giguna be treated as Nibru! In this city, may heads fill the wells! May no one find his acquaintances there, may brother not recognise brother! May its young woman be cruelly killed in her woman’s domain, may its old man cry in distress for his slain wife! May its pigeons moan on their window ledges, may its small birds be smitten in their nooks, may it live in constant anxiety like a timid pigeon!”
The building of Ninĝirsu’s temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
“Warrior, rampant lion, who has no opponent! Ninĝirsu, important in the abzu, respected in Nibru! Warrior, I want to carry out faithfully what you have commanded me; Ninĝirsu, I want to build up your house for you, I want to make it perfect for you, so I will ask your sister, the child born of Eridug, an authority on her own, the lady, the dream-interpreter among the gods, my divine sister from Sirara, Nanše, to show me the way.” His call was heard; his master, Lord Ninĝirsu, accepted from Gudea his prayer and supplication.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
He has abandoned his cow-pen and has let the breezes haunt his sheepfold. The wild bull has abandoned his cow-pen and has let the breezes haunt his sheepfold. The lord of all the lands has abandoned it and has let the breezes haunt his sheepfold. Enlil has abandoned the shrine Nibru and has let the breezes haunt his sheepfold. His wife Ninlil has abandoned it and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. Ninlil has abandoned that house, the Ki-ur, and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. The queen of Keš has abandoned it and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. Ninmaḫ has abandoned that house Keš and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
O brick-built Urim, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O E-kiš-nu-ĝal, your lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O shrine Agrun-kug, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O great place Ki-ur, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O shrine Nibru, city, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O brick-built E-kur, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O Ĝa-ĝiš-šua, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O Ubšu-unkena, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O brick-built Iri-kug, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
Mother Ningal, return like a bull to your cattle-pen, like a sheep to your fold, like a bull to your cattle-pen of former days, like a sheep to your fold. My queen, like a young child to your room, return to your house. May An, king of the gods, declare “Enough!” to you. May Enlil, king of all the lands, decree your fate. May he restore your city for you — exercise its queenship! May he restore Nibru for you — exercise its queenship! May he restore Urim for you — exercise its queenship! May he restore Isin for you — exercise its queenship!
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
Lugal-Marda stepped outside his city. Ninzuana took an unfamiliar path away from her beloved dwelling.” Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house,” she cried bitterly. Isin, the shrine that was not a quay, was split by onrushing waters. Ninisina, the mother of the Land, wept bitter tears.” Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house,” she cried bitterly. Enlil smote Dur-an-ki with a mace. Enlil made lamentation in his city, the shrine Nibru. Mother Ninlil, the lady of the Ki-ur shrine, wept bitter tears.” Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house,” she cried bitterly.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
The Shining Quay of Nanna was silted up. The sound of water against the boat’s prow ceased, there was no rejoicing. Dust piled up in the unuribanda of Nanna. The rushes grew, the rushes grew, the mourning reeds grew. Boats and barges ceased docking at the Shining Quay. Nothing moved on your watercourse which was fit for barges. The plans of the festivals at the place of the divine rituals were altered. The boat with first-fruit offerings of the father who begot Nanna no longer brought first-fruit offerings. Its food offerings could not be taken to Enlil in Nibru. Its watercourse was empty, barges could not travel.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
Suen wept to his father Enlil: “O father who begot me, why have you turned away from my city which was built (?) for you? O Enlil, why have you turned away from my Urim which was built (?) for you? The boat with first-fruit offerings no longer brings first-fruit offerings to the father who begot him. Your food offerings can no longer be brought to Enlil in Nibru. The en priests of the countryside and city have been carried off by phantoms. Urim, like a city raked by a hoe, is to be counted as a ruin-mound. The Du-ur, Enlil’s resting-place, has become a haunted shrine. O Enlil, gaze upon your city, an empty wasteland. Gaze upon your city Nibru, an empty wasteland.”
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
After the cattle pen had been built for the foremost divine powers — how did it become a haunted place? When will it be restored? Where once the brick of fate had been laid — who scattered its divine powers? The lamentation is reprised: how did the storeroom of Nibru, the shrine Dur-an-ki, become a haunted place? When will it be restored? After Ki-ur, the great place, had been built, after the brickwork of E-kur had been built, after Ubšu-unkena had been built, after the shrine Egal-maḫ had been built — how did they become haunted? When will they be restored?
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
How did the true city become empty? Its precious designs have been defiled! How were the city’s festivals neglected? Its magnificent rites have been thrown into disorder! In the heart of Nibru, where the divine powers were allotted and the black-headed people prolificly multiplied, the city’s heart no longer revealed any sign of intelligence — there where the Anuna used to give advice! In Ubšu-unkena, the place for making great judgments, they no longer impart decisions or justice!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Where its gods had established their dwellings, where their daily rations were offered, their daises erected, where the sacred royal offering (?) and the evening meal in their great banquet hall were destined for the pouring out of choice beer and syrup — Nibru, the city where the black-headed people used to cool themselves in its spreading shade — in their dwellings Enlil fell upon them as if they were criminals. It was he who sent them scattering, like a scattered herd of cattle. How long until its lady, the goddess Ninlil, would ask after the inner city, whose bitter tears were overwhelming?
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
As though it were empty wasteland, no one enters that great temple whose bustle of activity was famous. As for all the great rulers who increased the wealth of the city of Nibru — why did they disappear? For how long would Enlil neglect the Land, where the black-headed { people } { (1 ms. has instead:) Land } { (another ms. has instead:) city }ate rich grass like sheep? Tears, lamentation, depression and despair! How long would his spirit burn and his heart not be placated? Why were those who once played the šem and ala drums spending their time in bitter lamenting? Why were the lamenters sitting in its brick buildings? They were bewailing the hardship which beset them.
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Now, city, your lord who has had compassion and mercy for you, Father Enlil, lord of all countries, who has commanded that you be restored, and the great mother Ninlil, who entreated him in prayer there, and the brickwork itself which said to him “Steady the trembling of Nibru!” and said to him “Rebuild my women’s quarters for me! Re-establish my temples for me!” — he who mulled things over so that he came to a decision about them, Enlil, who found agreeable his command of true words, who beneficently entered the true temple which had suffered destruction — he himself is removing what he turned upon you in distress.
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Just as he silenced you, when he made joy enter again he decreed as your fate the sound of choice beer and syrup being poured out to overflowing.” Enough! It is time to stifle the lament” he said to you himself. Because you have been living in a state of neglect, Enlil who has decreed your fate has said “My city, you have placated my sacred heart towards you.” He has returned to you!” Nibru, you have placated my sacred heart towards you.” He has returned to you! True city, he has decreed your great fate and made your reign long! Nibru, he has decreed your great fate and made your reign long!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Enlil himself has commanded Išme-Dagan that the E-kur should shine like the day! Steady sunlight shines into the Ki-ur; he has brought daylight in there again for you! Ninlil has decreed your fate in the Ĝaĝiššua! Enlil and Ninlil together founded daises in the E-kur! They dined there and enjoyed choice beer! They deliberated how to make the black-headed people secure in their dwellings! They have brought back to you the people who had been completely devastated! They have gathered back together the children whom they turned away from their mothers! The populace goes with you in their strongholds! Shrine Nibru, the Great Mountain Enlil has returned to you!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Now see! Enlil has fixed a good day in the land! He has even now ordered the day for Nibru to raise its neck to heaven! He himself has provided a good day for the E-kur to shine! He himself has raised up the day for the Ki-ur’s magnificent manifestation! He himself has restored the day for Sumer and Akkad to expand! He himself has set aside the day for houses to be built and storerooms to be enclosed! He himself has brought out the day for seeds to sprout and living things to be born! He has brought out the day for building cattle pens and founding sheepfolds!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Although Sumer and Akkad had been desecrated by the foe, afterwards hearts were appeased, spirits soothed! All the great gods thus had compassion! They looked upon those sunk in exhaustion and brought them up out of it! They restored your city which had been razed to ruins! Enlil, king of all countries, restored its shining property which had been scattered, which had been devastated! There where the populace rested in the cool after building their nests, in Nibru, the mountain of the greatest divine powers, from where they had taken an unfamiliar path — at Enlil’s word the Anuna, those very lords who determine the fates, ordered that the temples which they had forsaken and the jewels, put there long ago, which had been carried off by the wind, should all be restored!
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
“But the sensible shall beat their breasts and droop (?) their heads. At midnight they shall be afraid and tearful, and suffer insomnia. In bed, under the covers, they shall be unable to sleep soundly, they shall wander about the city. They shall be immobilised, their courage shall run out: “May our allies serving in times of war raise their forces for peace. May the word of Enlil be sent back, may it turn tail. May the venom of Nunamnir’s anger become exhausted. May those vicious men who have seized the E-kur be punished. May those who have set their sight upon Nibru be swept away.””
Ur-Namma the canal-digger (Ur-Namma D): c.2.4.1.4
My king, Lord Ašimbabbar, you are on your throne because of Enlil. Youthful Suen, Lord Ašimbabbar, you are on your throne because of Enlil. I, the king, whose fate was already decreed in the true womb, who raises his head in authority, Ur-Namma, the youth who caught the eyes of the Great Mountain Enlil, was chosen by Nunamnir in Sumer and Akkad. He decreed my fate in Nibru, in the mountain of life. He beamed at me approvingly and bestowed the kingship on me. In Urim, in the E-mud-kura, he made the foundation of my throne firm. He …… the holy sceptre to guide the numerous people in my hand. He …… the staff and the shepherd’s crook to …… the expanding and teeming people. Lord Ašimbabbar …… a long-lasting life. Enlil …… of the four quarters of the world. He …… a lasting name, a name worthy to be praised. Enki presented me with my broad wisdom.
Ur-Namma the canal-digger (Ur-Namma D): c.2.4.1.4
King of the four quarters, you who make Enlil content, Ur-Namma, provider of Nibru, supporter of Urim, with you (?) the people pass the time joyously at (?) moonlight over the Land of Urim.
Ur-Namma the canal-digger (Ur-Namma D): c.2.4.1.4
I, the king, whose fate was already decreed in the true womb, who raises his head in authority, Ur-Namma, the youth who caught the eyes of the Great Mountain Enlil, was chosen by Nunamnir in Sumer and Akkad. He decreed my fate in Nibru, in the mountain of life. In Urim, in the E-mud-kura, he made the foundation of my throne firm. He placed the awesome crown, the adornment of kingship, on my head. He put (?) the holy staff to guide the numerous people in my hand. He …… the staff, the shepherd’s crook into my hand, and the nose-rope to lead the living. He …… the amazing house ……. (2 lines fragmentary) (1 line missing) …… strengthened the roots of E-kiš-nu-ĝal, ……, E-temen-ni-guru, a delightful residence. (1 line unclear)…… standing in silver …….
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
So that my name should be established for distant days and never fall into oblivion, so that my praise should be { uttered } { (1 ms.:) spread } throughout the Land, and my glory should be proclaimed in the foreign lands, I, the fast runner, summoned my strength and, to prove my speed, my heart prompted me to make a return journey from Nibru to brick-built Urim as if it were only the distance of a double-hour.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
Then I arose like an owl (?), like a falcon to return to Nibru in my vigour. But a storm shrieked, and the west wind whirled around. The north wind and the south wind howled at each other. Lightning together with the seven winds vied with each other in the heavens. Thundering storms made the earth quake, and Iškur roared in the broad heavens. { The rains of heaven mingled with the waters of the earth. } { (1 ms. has instead:) The rains of heaven competed with the waters of the earth. } Small and large hailstones drummed on my back.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
I, the king, however, did not fear, nor was I terrified. I rushed forth like a fierce lion. I galloped like an ass in the desert. With my heart full of joy, I ran (?) onward. Trotting like a solitary wild ass, I traversed a distance of fifteen double-hours by the time Utu was to set his face toward his house; { my saĝ-ursaĝ priests looked at me with admiration. } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… numerous (?) ……; I prayed in the …… of Enlil and Ninlil. } I celebrated the ešeš festival in both Nibru and Urim on the same day!
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
In the south, in Urim, I caused a House of the Wisdom of Nisaba to spring up in sacrosanct ground for the writing of my hymns; up country in Nibru I established another. May the scribe be on duty there and transcribe with his hand the prayers which I instituted in the E-kur; and may the singer perform, reciting from the text. The academies are never to be altered; the places of learning shall never cease to exist. This and this only is now my accumulated knowledge! The collected words of all the hymns that are in my honour supersede all other formulations. By An, Enlil, Utu and Inana, it is no lie — it is true!
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
“My king, ……, you have destroyed the foreign lands and plundered their cities ……; like a wild bull …… the hills ……”, sang the singers for him in a song. His boatmen, in tireless effort, (1 line unclear)These, citizens of Enegir and citizens of Urim, thrust forth their …… oars at the command of the lord. He moored the boat at the temple area of Nibru, the temple area Dur-an-ki, at Enlil’s Kar-ĝeština. He entered before Enlil with the silver and lapis lazuli of the foreign lands loaded into leather pouches and leather bags, all their heaped-up treasures, and with the amassed (?) wealth of the foreign lands.
An adab to Enlil for Šulgi (Šulgi G): c.2.4.2.07
Šulgi, the shepherd is the honey man beloved by Nibru; may the true shepherd, Šulgi, refresh himself in the pleasant shade of Enlil’s brickwork!
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi O): c.2.4.2.15
Thus he eulogised him who was born …… in Kulaba. (1 line unclear) Gilgameš, lord of Kulaba, seed of lordship, righteous hero …… (5 lines fragmentary or unclear) (approx. 4 lines missing)(Gilgameš continues speaking:) “Like ……, falsely (?) ……, you trampled underfoot ……, …… as if in a mighty clamp. You gathered its …… like swallows rising into the air. You entered with them into the presence of Enlil in the shrine of Nibru. Even those …… who escaped from the ……, wail bitterly ……. …… a copper (?) statue fashioned (?) in Urim, …… the seven gods, stationed beside, wielding battle-axes. Fearsome (?) hero ……, king of Sumer, you stand firm in your strength (?).”
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi O): c.2.4.2.15
” (1 line fragmentary) In the judgments that you pronounce ……. Who else like you has gone directly on the road to the mountains and has travelled the way to ……? Valiant one, …… the mountain cedars, …… the tall forests, …… the boats. …… Huwawa. …… his seven terrors. …… the small ……. …… from his well-established dwelling. …… to Enlil, in the shrine of Nibru ……. …… your captured hero. You allowed the mother of the sick man to fetch her son to her embrace. Your battle-mace, its mouth gaping wide, attacks the foreign lands for you. Gilgameš, noble one of Unug, violent storm, at whose oppression ……. The inimical rebel land, like ……. You have revealed your immense majesty! May you extend your protective arms over me!”
An adab (?) to Utu for Šulgi (Šulgi Q): c.2.4.2.17
Youthful Utu chose the shepherd in his heart. Years of plenty are assigned to Šulgi, the trustworthy shepherd, the king, as his fate. From the shrine in Nibru, Enlil bestowed this on the trustworthy shepherd, whose fate is determined by Utu.
Šulgi and Ninlil’s barge: a tigi (?) to Ninlil (Šulgi R): c.2.4.2.18
The faithful shepherd Šulgi established the holy festival and the great rituals. The great gods bathe in holy water in Nibru. He assigns the fates to their places in the city and allocates the right divine powers. The mother of the Land, Ninlil the fair, comes out (?) from the house, and Enlil embraces her like a pure wild cow. They take their seats on the barge’s holy dais, and provisions are lavishly prepared.
Šulgi and Ninlil’s barge: a tigi (?) to Ninlil (Šulgi R): c.2.4.2.18
Then light shines up at the edge of the Land as Utu rises refulgently. As the barge is travelling upstream, it …… radiates (?) and creaks (?). …… in the Ninmutum, the canal of the year of abundance ……. As the carp make their bellies (?) sparkle, Enlil rejoices. As the mušu fish play noisily there, Ninlil rejoices. As the …… fish ……, Enki rejoices. As the suḫurmaš fish dart about, Nanna rejoices. The Anuna gods rejoice at ……. …… lifts its head in the Euphrates; it ……. In the midst of …… ever-flowing water is carried. In joyous Nibru, he moors the holy barge at the quay.
A tigi to Ninurta for Šulgi (Šulgi T): c.2.4.2.20
Lord, perfect warrior, beloved by ……. Ninurta, meš tree with a broad shining canopy, ……. Weapon striding into battle, …… foreign countries. A dragon with a terrifying face, venomous snake who …… its venom against the rebel lands. …… overpowering ……, foremost lion ……. Ninurta, who …… with the great prince Enki. My king, in your city, shrine Nibru, ……. E-šu-me-ša, where …… for you. Lord, the kingship is perfect with you ……. Adviser, the dragon of the Land, ……. Ninurta, the great wall of Nibru, ……. My king, whose divine powers cannot be scattered, warrior ……. Forceful lion, ……. King with the broad wisdom of heaven and earth, ……. Exalted sceptre rising above the Land, ……. Ninurta, who …… the enemy, …….
A dedication of a statue (Šulgi V): c.2.4.2.22
On a day that dawned for prosperity, that was destined for rain-clouds, he ran from the Ki-ur of Nibru to the shrine of Urim, the E-temen-ni-guru; and provided the princely bowls of Nanna, set up in the morning dining-hall, with a copious ration. On that day, prosperity was decreed for him. In a violent storm, a whirlwind that broke out, Utu ……; Šulgi returned to the lustrous E-kur.
A song of Šulgi: c.2.4.2.a
My king went to Nibru. Great Mountain, Father Enlil, rejoice! Šulgi went to Nibru. Great Mountain, Father Enlil, rejoice!
A praise poem of Šulgi: c.2.4.2.b
Let praise be sung, that I have shown strength in grappling and wrestling. Let deserved praise be sung for me, that I have …… in the Land, that I have made a return visit to the shrine Nibru and back along the road to Urim, and have marched a distance of 30 dana.
An ululumama to Suen for Ibbi-Suen (Ibbi-Suen D): c.2.4.5.4
At the foundations of heaven and earth, Father Nanna appears in the night time over Urim, the city that is the cosmic bond for Sumer, whose divine powers can never be altered. He has called the name, he has filled the heart with joy, my Ibbi-Suen! At the shrine Nibru, whose interior is a mountain of abundance, the dwelling-place of the Ki-ur, he spreads his majestic light from above over the land in princely style, in the august courtyard, the unceasing …… of its majestic light determining great destinies. Suen offers a prayer in the Ubšu-unkena to the father who begot him, the great …… of heaven and earth, Lord Nunamnir:
A hymn to Suen for Ibbi-Suen (Ibbi-Suen E): c.2.4.5.5
Mighty (?) one of the dais, …… good seed ……, my Ibbi-Suen, …… from holy An, lord who sanctifies the divine powers, who purifies the divine powers, who makes brilliant the purification rites, ……, with shining horns, the light of heaven, youthful Suen ……, great ……, ……. Wide-armed Nibru, …… in his holy heart by Nanna, beneficent prince over the full extent of heaven and earth, …… moonlight ……, manifest bull, as august as Enlil, …… (2 lines broken) (unknown no. of lines missing)
A praise poem of Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan A + V): c.2.5.4.01
Enki and Ninki, Enul and Ninul, the Anuna, the lords who determine destiny there, the spirits of Nibru, and the protective goddesses of the E-kur, those who among the great gods determine destinies there, have uttered an unchangeable “So be it!” On his most favourable day, Enlil, king of the foreign lands, chose me, Išme-Dagan, son of Dagan, by extispicy. He looked upon me joyfully in E-kur, and spoke well of me to Sumer. …… a favourable reign in Nibru. I, Išme-Dagan …… restored Urim ……. …… in splendour. Enlil has commanded the favourable …… of my throne, the promotion of concord in Sumer and Akkad in their power, and restoration (?) of the …… brick buildings; and that I should daily tend the E-kur, that I should unceasingly provide for Nibru, and that I should care after the Ki-ur, the great place.
A praise poem of Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan A + V): c.2.5.4.01
I, Išme-Dagan, have bent my neck to the commands of Father Enlil; I have paid attention to the utterances of my master. I have established justice in Sumer; I have secured (?) Nibru like heaven itself. I have gathered together the divine powers of the E-kur, I have paid attention to its old ordinances, and I have restored its neglected rites. I, Išme-Dagan, have ……. Enlil’s very precious divine powers. …… Ninlil’s ……. …… the interior of E-kur …… good, …… its exterior. ……, when I venerate ……. …… Enlil and ……, its favourable spirits in the courtyard, and I introduced its favourable protective goddesses into the E-kur. I have presented marvellous food offerings to Enlil. In the …… of Enlil, established with bread, …… great regular offerings, I made numerous the fat bulls and fat sheep, ……, fish and birds, in the house of my master. I made them smell tasty in the great ovens. I contested ……. With …… I doubled (?) the regular offerings. Like water I poured out …… and liquor in unadulterated strength, from the offerings storeroom, like the rainwater that is released from heaven.
A praise poem of Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan A + V): c.2.5.4.01
I bring great gladness to the city whose interior and exterior are as blue-green as the sky, Nibru, the mooring pole of heaven and earth. I have exempted its labourers from carrying earth in baskets, and I have freed its troops from fighting. I have released its gold, silver, cattle and sheep, the tribute of the citizens of Nibru. As for the temple of Enlil my master, for Ninlil, and for Ninurta, the mighty hero of Enlil, I have exempted their labourers from service. Filtered beer (?), barley, oil and sheep’s wool have been made a tithe. I …… Sumer and Akkad. I …… wickedness and violence, and established justice in Sumer and Akkad. I am the shepherd who loves justice. I am born of Sumer, a son of Nibru.
A praise poem of Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan A + V): c.2.5.4.01
I have …… the regular offerings of Enlil. …… Nibru, the pleasant place; I have put in order the plans of Sumer and Akkad. Therefore Enlil my master has made my days ……, and as he has made my reign follow another reign, so may he make my descendants even greater.
A praise poem of Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan A + V): c.2.5.4.01
(1 line fragmentary) …… of Enlil ……. (1 line unclear) …… diorite in the shrine of Nibru …… (1 line unclear) …… did not move …… from its place, did not write ……, did no wickedness or violence, then may he lift …… in the shining E-kur of Enlil and raise its head to heaven. …… that he bestowed on the Land, may he prolong ……. But that he swore (?) ……, or wrote his name ……, or who violently (?) cursed the enemy, then Enlil, king of the gods, (1 line fragmentary)
An adab to Bau for Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan B): c.2.5.4.02
Enlil, the king of all the foreign countries, Nunamnir, the lord who determines the fates, decreed something of great importance in the shrine Nibru, in Dur-an-ki: he made you exalted in the shining E-kur, ……. You are the strong spread-net of Nunamnir. Anguba priestess, who provides the E-kur with food, you are in charge of the wine. You are Enlil’s exalted daughter-in-law, you are the one who stands next to him with the libation water (?). Because you prostrated yourself humbly with supplications, Nunamnir, the prince of all the foreign countries, entrusted to you the exalted office of accountant of heaven and earth, and exalted you, giving you the rank of lady of the shrine which brought the seeds of mankind forth.
A hymn to Nibru and Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan C): c.2.5.4.03
Shrine of Nibru, shrine surpassing the abzu, shining E-kur; your prince is the Great Mountain Enlil who surpasses the Prince (i.e. Enki). Your great lady is the good woman, Mother Ninlil, excelling in refinement. Your caretaker is one whose vigour is surpassing, the hero Ninurta. The chief minister (i.e. Nuska), who is worthy of your fair copper vessels, who makes your bedchamber exceedingly pleasant, is also the guardian watching over your honourable divine powers; he is the shepherd watching over your honourable divine powers. Your provider, who was engendered by the Great Mountain and was born by Ninlil — Išme-Dagan, who was engendered by the Great Mountain, and was born by Ninlil, he who has achieved a high reputation among his numerous people, throws himself at your feet.
A hymn to Nibru and Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan C): c.2.5.4.03
Nibru, your praise suits the mouth! May it be uttered by every mouth! The Anuna gods always stand by your truthful utterances. Shrine Nibru, primeval city, where the divine powers are allotted, sweet is your praise! At the great festivals prepared with care in Nibru, all the great gods …… the majesty of Enlil and Ninlil.
A hymn to Inana for Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan K): c.2.5.4.11
August Nibru, no god excels like your lord and lady! In your midst they have bestowed the divine powers on the young woman Inana. I, Išme-Dagan, have put this (i.e. this composition) in everyone’s mouth for all time.
A dedication of a statue (Išme-Dagan S): c.2.5.4.19
Then Išme-Dagan the youthful, the mightiest hero among swift athletes, the fearsome runner, who serving night and day never ceases caring for Nibru — the city where the seed of the numerous people came forth and where life and birth came into existence — and who provides daily for everything, established justice (?) on a grand scale. The king whose rising is a hurricane, a flood, a wind blowing in its fury, who swinging his wide open arms flashes away into the distance, who is like a fierce lion of the desert which advances in full strength and vigour, who runs fast on the roadway …… battle and combat, a horse waving its tail on the highway, who like a young deer …… running, …… knees are swift and indefatigable, the son who provides Enlil with everything, who causes joy to Ninlil’s heart — he will never stop caring for the shining shrine.
A hymn to Nibru and Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan W): c.2.5.4.23
City whose terrifying splendour extends over heaven and earth, whose towers are exceptionally grand, shrine Nibru! Your power reaches to the edges of the uttermost extent of heaven and earth. Of all the brick buildings erected in the Land, your brickwork is the most excellent. You have allowed all the foreign lands and as many cities as are built to receive excellent divine powers. Your name is as excellent as your excellent divine powers. Your soil is soil as good as your name. City, { your name towers } { (1 ms. has instead:) your divine powers tower } over heaven and earth.
A hymn to Nibru and Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan W): c.2.5.4.23
Your interior towers up, and your exterior is awesome. You were built as life-giving food for the Anuna gods; you were beautified for their eating and drinking. You are the sheepfold which is there for their life. Nothing escapes your grasp, as if caught in the threads of an outspread net. Shrine Nibru, your activities are quite excellent, quite surpassing all description. The divine powers that you allocate are a good fortune which cannot be overturned.
A hymn to Nibru and Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan W): c.2.5.4.23
(3 lines fragmentary) Enlil and Ninlil …… (5 lines fragmentary)Enlil and Ninlil have bestowed this on Nuska, the lord who stands ……. Nibru, no god excels like your lord and lady; they are powerful princes, brilliantly revealed deities. No god excels like Enlil and Ninlil; they are powerful princes, lords who can decide destinies. In your midst they have given divine powers to Nuska as minister. Nibru, your holy songs are exceptionally precious, surpassing all praise. I, Išme-Dagan, have put them in everyone’s mouth for all time.
A praise poem of Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan AA): c.2.5.4.27
In Isin, the royal city, Išme-Dagan, …… for you in masterly fashion a fifty-headed battle-mace to destroy the rebel lands, chosen for your great power. For you he gave it fifty names. From Isin he …… it for you into Nibru, the primeval, well-established city and …… to be marvelled at in the E-šu-me-ša, the majestic residence that …… fearsomeness, at the gate of Igi-šu-galam, the place where fates are decided.
A praise poem of Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan AA): c.2.5.4.27
Išme-Dagan, provider of Nibru, constant attendant of Urim, he who is daily in the service of Eridug; en priest of Unug, king of Isin (unknown no. of lines missing)
A hymn to Ninurta for Išme-Dagan: c.2.5.4.29
They (Enlil and Ninlil) are powerful princes, lords who decides the fates; in your midst they have bestowed the divine powers on Lord Ninurta. Nibru, your pure songs are most precious, surpassing all praise! I, Išme-Dagan, have made every mouth utter them forever.
A hymn to Enki for Išme-Dagan: c.2.5.4.b
August Nibru! No deity excels like your lord and lady! They are powerful princes; they are brilliantly revealed deities. No deity excels like Enlil or Ninlil! They are powerful princes; they are lords who can decide destinies. In your midst they have given divine powers to King Enki. Nibru, your holy songs are exceptionally precious, surpassing all praise! I, Išme-Dagan, have placed them in everyone’s mouths for all time.
A praise poem of Lipit-Eštar (Lipit-Eštar A): c.2.5.5.1
Bringing first fruits, I do not pass by the E-babbar. I am he who records abundance for Nibru. I serve Keš as its purification priest. I am first-rate butter and first-rate milk for Urim. I am indefatigable with respect to Eridug. I am he who increases the food offerings for the place Unug. I am he to whom life was given in the E-kur. I am he who desires liveliness for his city. I am Lipit-Eštar, the shepherd of all foreign lands.
A praise poem of Lipit-Eštar (Lipit-Eštar B): c.2.5.5.2
Lipit-Eštar, king of Isin, king of Sumer and Akkad, you are the tablet writer of Nibru; Lipit-Eštar, you are the constant attendant of the E-kur, Enlil’s house. You are the beloved one of Enlil’s and Ninlil’s hearts. Hero Ninurta is your mighty commissioner. Chief minister Nuska is your aid in all matters. You have been rightly chosen by Nintur as the purification priest of Keš. When in Urim, you are the youth who has the attention of Suen. You are the one to whom Enki gave the good headdress in Eridug. In Unug, Lipit-Eštar, you are the delight of holy Inana’s heart. In Isin, Ninisina set up your lofty throne-dais.
An adab to Ninurta for Lipit-Eštar (Lipit-Eštar D): c.2.5.5.4
(3 lines unclear) You have counted …… as ruin-mounds, to be mixed with dust. You have swept over ……, you obliterated it. Ninurta, hero of Enlil, as you are sitting on your throne-dais, may your spouse, the true lady Ninnibru, who embraces you, step before you daily with friendly words on behalf of Lipit-Eštar! Uta-ulu, may you be his aid when he prays! May he be able to rely on your words, may he be peerless! May he be the king whose fate Ninurta decides, the one endowed with attractiveness! Lipit-Eštar, the prince who is a supporter of yours, the son of Enlil, has established justice in Sumer and Akkad, and made the Land feel content.
An adab to An for Ur-Ninurta (Ur-Ninurta E): c.2.5.6.5
An raised his far-reaching gaze to the good shepherd. He spoke to Ur-Ninurta, his beloved son, with kindly words: “May there be shame at your awe-inspiring splendour, while you (?) ride as if on a great storm. May you have no rival in your youthful power. May the Land remain (?) under your rule. May you make your name supreme in the foreign lands, and may they speak good of you. May the land that is of its own will unbending to you, submit to you. Ur-Ninurta, to whom I have given great power: you should trust in my name. May your words clamp down upon the wicked like a great neck-stock. May the rebel land approach at your command, and do reverence to you. In your lordliness may you hold your head high. May you be good to the people. May you be the man of justice, and may it come to your aid. You have justice that comes from the heart; you are one of Utu’s retainers. May Inana, who is assuredly your beloved, provide you with long life. May the good protective deities of the en priesthood and of kingship stand faithfully at your side. My Ur-Ninurta, named with the name of Sumer! Go with your head high to the shrine of Nibru, to Dur-an-ki. Brick-built E-kur accepts your offerings: “May the awe-inspiring shepherd stand in attendance with his great food offerings for the house.””
An adab to Enlil for Būr-Suen (Būr-Suen B): c.2.5.7.2
…… who alone surpasses heaven and earth, the exalted one, prominent among the Anuna gods, whose utterances cannot be overturned! Nunamnir, whose decisions cannot be altered, proud one imbued with terrifying awesomeness, { who alone is exalted } { (1 ms. has instead:) who alone is eminent, the foremost one } among the Great Princes, has taken his seat in the shrine of Nibru, in Dur-an-ki, in E-kur, the temple where the fates are determined, in the holy shining temple. When Mother Ninlil, who is equal in rank with the Great Mountain, embraces him ……, …… says to ……: “…… chosen in the heart by …….” (unknown no. of lines missing)
A praise poem of Enlil-bāni (Enlil-bāni A): c.2.5.8.1
Enlil-bāni, king who gladdens the heart of his city, you speed offerings into Nibru. You bring the best corn into E-kiš-nu-ĝal; daily you ensure that it does not cease. You are him whom Enlil has summoned by name; you are the property of Ninlil. As for the lands rebellious against you, Ninurta the strong hero of Enlil, in triumph has dissolved into ruins those that are hostile and are not supporters of yours, and has spread them out as heaps for you. Nuska, the lord who stocks the E-kur, (1 line missing)a favourable omen.
A praise poem of Sîn-iddinam (Sîn-iddinam A): c.2.6.6.1
Suen put in order the food offerings and, after he had taken them to Nibru, { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) and had brought them into the E-kur, the house of Enlil, } Enlil, delighted with the food offerings, fixed a good destiny. His own mother, the great lady Ninlil, expressed deserved affection.
A prayer to Enlil for Rīm-Sîn (Rīm-Sîn A): c.2.6.9.1
May Enlil, king of heaven and earth, whose utterances are trusty and whose words are ……, …… the shepherd Rīm-Sîn, …… my king ……. May he who gives him life-giving (?) food-offerings in Nibru stand in prayer before him. May Enlil bestow upon him grain, the benefit of mankind. May he pass his time in joy in the …… of his country. They will …… Rīm-Sîn my king. May he strengthen for him his royal throne and extend his reign. May he decree his sceptre for the south and the uplands. May he make the king’s inferiors bow down before him. The offerings of Rīm-Sîn my king, small or great, at Nibru in the E-kur ……. Syrup shall drip like ghee from its fingers. I am as the son of one man, honey and ghee. My king, let offerings …… in my joy. They give me silver …….
A prayer to Enlil for Rīm-Sîn (Rīm-Sîn A): c.2.6.9.1
(1 line fragmentary) I am like …… a man’s son. (1 line unclear) ……, may he …… you. Alone (?) Rīm-Sîn, my king, …… like syrup and ghee. (1 line unclear) …… Enlil, his Great Mountain, in accordance with your name may Rīm-Sîn be your Great Mountain. May Ninurta declare …… life for you, and may Ninnibru, the lady who founds cities, ……, enclose you mercifully and kindly …… to protect your life. May Ninšubur, …… whom Nanna declared (?), …… good fortune on your head, and declare life for you. (1 line unclear)
A praise poem of Anam (Anam A): c.2.7.1.1
Anam, lord, ……, ……, perfect in your broad wisdom, ……, who preserves Nibru, who prevents the city from having ……! Sweet breeze (?) of his city, father of the region of Unug, judge who …… in his verdicts, reverent ……, who fears An and Inana! Who cherishes E-ana, who is happy there …… in friendly words! Mighty ……, heart’s desire of Inana, who reveres the …… of the Land, …… with head high, en priest of Inana, ……, all-knowing!
A praise poem of Anam (Anam A): c.2.7.1.1
You are grandly there for Enlil! As befits your calling as lord, you have freed from Unug and its settlements, and released to Nibru, the citizens of Nibru, slaves and slavegirls, who have much …….
A hymn to Enlil for Samsu-iluna (Samsu-iluna F): c.2.8.3.6
He is the man to whom Enlil has given …… and the shepherdship over the widespread people, the beloved (?) shepherd of Nibru, the constant servant of E-kur; he is the trustworthy farmer of the house of Asalim, who takes care that provisions do not cease in E-saĝ-ila. For you to exercise your divine powers of shepherdship in the Land, Enlil has placed the foreign lands at your feet. Obedient to Utu, beloved (?) of Inana, Samsu-iluna, the king whose fate is never altered by Enlil, my king, at the command uttered by Enlil, Enki and Asalim, Zababa, Lugal-gu-dua, the king who builds temples, …… the rebel lands …… (unknown no. of lines missing)
An excerpt from a royal praise poem (?): c.2.99.d
Nibru, the city where the divine powers are presented (?) to the gods ……. Nunamnir, the Great Mountain, the lord who embraces heaven and earth ……. My king, the shepherd of the black-headed people already in the womb ……. Adviser, who …… the divine powers of a supreme deity and the shepherd’s crook ……. Enlil, your orders …… by the king.
Letter from Išbi-Erra to Ibbi-Suen about the purchase of grain: c.3.1.17
{ That I should guard for you } { (2 mss. have instead:) To guard } { (1 ms. adds:) the city of } Isin, and Nibru: { let it be my responsibility. } { (1 ms. has instead:) my lord, is this my responsibility? } My lord should know this! (end of shorter version)
Letter from Išbi-Erra to Ibbi-Suen about the purchase of grain: c.3.1.17
My lord, I am without fear! I will not delay (?); I will not …… in their midst. Each one of Isin’s and Nibru’s gods may search there for faces (?); I have indeed looked for them. Their widespread people, their population ……, huge ……, are indeed healthy; the true seed is { indeed great there } { (1 ms. has instead:) precious }.
Letter from Puzur-Šulgi to Ibbi-Suen about Išbi-Erra’s claim on Isin: c.3.1.19
He has captured Nibru and installed { his garrison } { (1 ms. has instead:) set guards } there. Also he has captured Niĝdugani, the chief administrator { of Nibru } { (1 ms. has instead:) at Nibru }.
Letter from Lugal-nesaĝe to a king radiant as the moon: c.3.3.02
Say this to the king who has made his radiance resplendent over all the lands like the moonlight. Repeat it to the king who renders just verdicts like Utu and regulates decisions like Ištaran, to my king who heeds prayers. This is what { Lugal-nesaĝe } { (3 mss. have instead:) Lugal-šu }, a citizen of Nibru and your servant, says:
Letter from Lugal-nesaĝe to a king radiant as the moon: c.3.3.02
In the streets of Nibru grief consumes me. A hostile city has taken over my city and I have no protector. A hostile house has taken over my house and …… against me. In my city, like a slave, no …… and I wear a filthy …… fleece.
Letter from Lugal-nesaĝe to a king radiant as the moon: c.3.3.02
…… to my king who heeds prayers. (1 line fragmentary)…… Nibru …….
Letter from Lugal-nesaĝe to a king radiant as the sun: c.3.3.03
Say this to the king who like the sun has made the heart of the Land radiant. Repeat it to the one who removed oppressive toil from the furrow, who { defeated } { (1 ms. has instead:) confronted } Tidnum and holds its sceptre, who is counted as its honoured king. This is what { Lugal-nesaĝe } { (2 mss. have instead:) Lugal-šu }, a citizen of Nibru and your servant, says:
Letter from Lugal-nesaĝe to Enlil-massu: c.3.3.09
Say this to Enlil-massu who { enhances } { (1 ms. has instead:) pronounces } advice and counsel, the mellifluous mouth which makes speech persuasive. Repeat it to the son who serves his god and respects his father and mother. { Say it a third time } { (1 ms. has instead:) Repeat it } to my protective guardian and propitious spirit — the precious powers — whose form and stature are pleasing, honour to the scribal craft, { hero among the administrators and ornament of the palace } { (1 Urim ms. has instead:) hero among the administrators } { (2 mss. have instead:) ornament of the palace and hero among the administrators } who reinstates decrees and greatly pleases the heart of his king. This is what Lugal-nesaĝe, the nueš priest of Enlil and person who brings laughter to the king, son of { Enlil-alsag } { (1 Urim ms. has instead:) Zuzu }, the scholar of Nibru and your father, says:
Letter from the scribe Nanna-manšum to the goddess Ninisina: c.3.3.21
When (?) …… took care (?), she placed on my (?) ……. The barber ……, the throne-bearer of the gods has given me ……. Nine times she (?) has placed on my head …… and battle-axe. …… gathered in Nibru and Isin. They approached me but did not give their …… for my life. They have applied and created a dressing which does not hold. She (?) made a fattened (?) dove come (?), for my …….
Enlil in the E-kur (Enlil A): c.4.05.1
The mighty lord, the greatest in heaven and earth, the knowledgeable judge, the wise one of wide-ranging wisdom, has taken his seat in the Dur-an-ki, and made the Ki-ur, the great place, resplendent with majesty. He has taken up residence in Nibru, the lofty bond (?) between heaven and earth. The front of the city is laden with terrible fearsomeness and radiance, its back is such that even the mightiest god dare not attack, and its interior is the blade of a sharp dagger, a blade of catastrophe. For the rebel lands it is a snare, a trap set with a net.
Enlil in the E-kur (Enlil A): c.4.05.1
The borders of Nibru form a great net, within which the ḫurin eagle spreads wide its talons. The evil or wicked man does not escape its grasp. In this city endowed with steadfastness, for which righteousness and justice have been made a lasting possession, and which is clothed (?) in pure clothing on the quay, the younger brother honours the older brother and treats him with human dignity; people pay attention to a father’s word and reap the benefits; the child behaves humbly and modestly towards his mother and attains a ripe old age.
Enlil in the E-kur (Enlil A): c.4.05.1
In the city, the holy settlement of Enlil, in Nibru, the beloved shrine of father Great Mountain, he has made the dais of abundance, the E-kur, the shining temple, rise from the soil; he has made it grow on pure land as high as a towering mountain. Its prince, the Great Mountain, Father Enlil, has taken his seat on the dais of the E-kur, the lofty shrine. No god can cause harm to the temple’s divine powers. Its holy hand-washing rites are everlasting like the earth. Its divine powers are the divine powers of the abzu: no one can look upon them.
Enlil in the E-kur (Enlil A): c.4.05.1
Enlil, when you marked out the holy settlements, you also built Nibru, your own city. You (?) …… the Ki-ur, the mountain, your pure place. You founded it in the Dur-an-ki, in the middle of the four quarters of the earth. Its soil is the life of the Land, and the life of all the foreign countries. Its brickwork is red gold, its foundation is lapis lazuli. You { made it glisten on high } { (1 ms. has instead:) raised its glistening top } in Sumer as if it were the horns of a wild bull. It makes all the foreign countries tremble with fear. At its great festivals, the people pass their time in abundance.
A balbale (?) to Inana (Inana F): c.4.07.6
The heavens are mine and the earth is mine: I am heroic! In Unug the E-ana is mine, in Zabalam the Giguna is mine, in Nibru the Dur-an-ki is mine, in Urim the E-Dilmuna is mine, in Ĝirsu the Ešdam-kug is mine, in Adab the E-šara is mine, in Kiš the Ḫursaĝ-kalama is mine, in Kisiga the Amaš-kuga is mine, in Akšak the Anzagar is mine, in Umma the Ibgal is mine, in Agade the Ulmaš is mine. Which god compares with me?
A hymn to Inana: c.4.07.a
Lady ……! Returning heroic youth, Inana ……. At the shrine, in Nibru, in the E-du-kug …… by An, with the holy crown of An placed on her head, the most holy ba garment of An draped around her torso, and the holy sceptre of An placed in her hand — seated on a seat in the assembly, rendering great judgments in the mountains, and reaching majestic decisions in all the lands!
A balbale (?) to Inana (Dumuzid-Inana P): c.4.08.16
…… a desire in laudatory words. The lady of all the lands ……, who raises up prayers in Nibru ……, who lowers prayers ……, the lady praises herself; the gala singer …… in song. Inana praises …… her genitals in song:
A balbale to Suen (Nanna A): c.4.13.01
His own mother, the lady of Nibru, speaks a prayer to the lord in his desert: “A prayer, O shepherd! A prayer! May the cows be numerous for you in the good desert. When you arrive at nightfall, may you renew the E-kur, the highly prized sanctuary.”
An ululumama to Nanna (Nanna J): c.4.13.10
Great lion of holy An, first-born of Enlil, seed of a bison, beloved of the gods, great strength inspiring awe in the Land, with the just crown and the shining sceptre, sparkling over the high mountains, …… of Enlil filled with princely divine powers, …… in the centre of Nibru, highly skilled at examining ……, (7 lines fragmentary)
A hymn to Nanna (Nanna O): c.4.13.15
We are going to the shrine Nibru, Dur-an-ki, to …… brick-built Tutub, to the majestic Abzu, brick-built Eridug, to the E-šu-me-ša with the princely divine powers, in Urim to the house of Suen, to the E-kiš-nu-ĝal of Nanna, to the Agrun-kug, the beloved house of the lady, to the E-ḫursaĝ, the house of the king, to the E-namtila of Prince Šulgi. In the …… place of Suen, may you be Utu.
A šir-gida to Ninisina (Ninisina A): c.4.22.1
“The heart of the Great Mountain Enlil became fearsome: he frowned at the enemy land, and cursed the rebel land. My father Enlil despatched me to the rebel land, the enemy land that he had frowned at — me, the young woman, me, the strong heroine — I went there. I made the shepherd of the rebel land there grasp Enlil’s words well in his ears. He became frightened at me and became silent (?) in my presence. Then he was consigned to oblivion. Now no one knows him there in the destroyed city, no one finds the shepherd there in his pastures. After I had destroyed it like water, drowned it like the harvest, after I had grabbed him as a threshing sledge grabs barley, after I had set him ablaze like esparto grass, I struck him with the mace and killed him. I announced the news to my father Enlil in Nibru.”
A hymn to Ninisina (Ninisina D): c.4.22.4
(2 lines fragmentary) Isin, the city ……. The wicked ……. Ninisina ……. Egal-maḫ, the throne-dais ……. The two of them ……. The king summoned by name ……. Ninisina ……. …… desire ……. (1 line fragmentary) Isin …… its offerings and gifts ……, …… chair for you ……. …… enter Nibru. …… rightly ……. …… the gods …… (4 lines fragmentary)Ninisina, exalted child of An, ……, it is sweet to praise you.
Ninisina and the gods (Ninisina F): c.4.22.6
In the shrine of Nibru, Dur-an-ki, the place of Enlil, she is …… indeed. (unknown no. of lines missing)
A hymn to Ninurta (Ninurta C): c.4.27.03
…… favourable before Ninurta, the great governor of Enlil, and Ninnibru, the beloved child of An. (4 lines missing)May …… the beloved spouse, Ninnibru, the great queen, be favourable towards you.
A hymn to Ninurta (Ninurta C): c.4.27.03
Ninurta, lord of the gods, glory of E-šu-me-ša, speaks most generously in praise: “My father Enlil!” Ninurta …… himself like a lion: “I am the hero belonging to Enlil, I am he who controls the affairs of Nibru. ……, and do not let the birds escape. I am a man after the heart of my father Enlil, and I am the hero beloved by my mother Ninlil. I was born in the mountains; I am strong in the mountains.”
A hymn to Ninurta (Ninurta C): c.4.27.03
Ninurta, before whose roaring the mountains tremble, hurricane, south storm that flashes with lightning, you belong to Enlil! May it therefore ……, may Ninurta’s city, the shrine Nibru — therefore ……. He is indeed its beloved, is indeed its beloved; the lord is indeed the beloved of E-kur.
A hymn to Ninurta (Ninurta C): c.4.27.03
He is great in his anger (?)! He (?) alone is a hero! No superior god raises himself against him! King who is great in heaven, great on earth, lordly in the east! Ninurta who is great in heaven, great on earth, lordly in the east! Mighty hero Ninurta! Praise be to Father Enlil! Praise be to the …… of intelligence, the lord who decides destinies, to Father Enki! …… Anuna gods ……, favourable before Ninurta, the great governor of Enlil, and Ninnibru, the beloved child of An.
A tigi to Ninurta (Ninurta D): c.4.27.04
O king, given strength by Enlil, conquer the foreign lands! Lord Ninurta, given strength by Enlil, conquer the foreign lands! Lord, first choice of An, given strength by Enlil, conquer the foreign lands! Lord Ninurta …… (4 lines missing) (6 lines fragmentary)Young woman Ninnibru, lady ……. Lord Ninurta, my king ……. Ig-alim, my king ……. Šul-šagana, my king …….
A šir-namšub to Ninurta (Ninurta G): c.4.27.07
You have taken your place upon the throne-dais of Nibru, where you sit with Father Enlil. You are the heroic son of Father Enlil. He made you stand in service in E-kur. You have taken your place upon the throne-dais of Lagaš. Speak to holy Mother Nanše, so she will cast her protecting arms over you like Utu! May she indicate your station for you! May she who has no fear of your splendour embrace your limbs! May my lady of the beneficent divine powers, with the ornaments of šuba stone about her neck, …… (1 line missing)
A šir-namšub to Utu (Utu E): c.4.32.e
The righteous man, the most righteous of men, has filled them to overflowing. O lord of the storehouse, Great Mountain Enlil, he has filled them to overflowing. O lady of the storehouse, great mother Ninlil, he has filled them to overflowing. The most righteous of men has …… the bowls with your beer. May this bronze vessel increase his long life. When Nibru had been fully built, when …… had been ……, when the brickwork of this house had been ……, the living spouse ……, the seed of the house, the seed …….
The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
Your prince, the great prince Enlil, the good lord, the lord of the limits of heaven, the lord who determines destiny, the Great Mountain Enlil, has erected a house in your precinct, O shrine Nibru, and taken his seat upon your dais.
The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
13 lines: the house of Enlil in Nibru.
The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
8 lines: the house of Ninlil in Nibru.
The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
12 lines: the house of Nuska in Nibru.
The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
15 lines: the house of Ninurta in Nibru.
The debate between Copper and Silver: c.5.3.6
On Ur-Namma receiving …… and kingship, after he …… a good ……, Strong Copper helped him mightily. With it, the shepherd Ur-Namma …… in great amounts. With it, he …… the great temple of Suen in Urim. With it, he …… the E-kur, the house of Enlil in Nibru. He made famous the houses of the great gods, and raised high the banks of the levees and ditches.
The message of Lu-diĝira to his mother: c.5.5.1
Royal courier, start the journey! I want to send you to Nibru — deliver this message! You are going on a long journey. My mother { is worried, she cannot sleep } { (1 ms. has instead:) is too (?) …… to sleep }. Although the way to { her } { (1 ms. has instead:) the closed } woman’s domain is blocked, deliver my letter of greeting into her hands, { as she keeps asking } { (1 ms. has instead:) and then she will not keep asking } the { travellers } { (1 ms. has instead:) wayfarers } about my well-being. Then my mother will be delighted, and will treat you most kindly (?) for it.
An elegy on the death of Nannaya: c.5.5.2
He, not eating, was stricken with illness and was languishing away (?). Having closed his mouth, he ate no food and lay famished. According to a tablet ……. The warrior, a wanderer (?), did not move a foot. From (?) his sick …… he was consumed with wailing for his children. Heart anguished, overcome by wailing, the scholar died a violent death in Nibru.
An elegy on the death of Nawirtum: c.5.5.3
Nibru is covered in fog (?); in the city ……. Over the multitudes a cry of woe (?) has fallen, ……. Lamenting …… like a war-cry in battle ……. (1 line unclear)They are overcome by pity for her whose life has ended. They are anguished (?) at her being laid out like a golden statue. Whoever looks upon her, will they not weep? The weeping women ……. The best songs …… of the bards of sweet words are altered everywhere into laments and moans.
An elegy on the death of Nawirtum: c.5.5.3
Then her beloved husband all alone ……, in his city, in Nibru, the city ……, Lu-diĝira, her beloved husband, all alone ……, in his city, in Nibru, the city ……, approached her with suffering heart in ……, the great dwelling-place. They took his hand, their hearts were overwhelmed (?). His …… was excluded from nourishment, his breath was stifled (?). He uttered moans (?) like a cow, he who had no …… garments.
The song of the hoe: c.5.5.4
The E-kur, the temple of Enlil, was founded by the hoe (al). By day it was building (aldue) it, by night it caused the temple to grow (almumu). In well-founded Nibru, the hero Ninurta entered into the presence of Enlil in the inner chamber of the Tummal — the Tummal, the { bread basket (?) } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… masterpiece (?) } of Mother Ninlil — the innermost chamber of the Tummal, with regular food deliveries. Holy Ninisina entered into the presence of Enlil with black kids and fruit offerings for the lord.
A dog for Nintinuga: c.5.7.2
Lugal-nesaĝe the son of Zuzu, the master-scribe of Nibru, has fashioned for Nintinuga his messenger (?) dog Tuni-lu-sag. That is why the dog will wag his tail or chew for his mistress the queen of heaven and earth, the provider of food, the stewardess of Enlil, the sweet breast satisfying all lands, the bringer of abundance, who can diagnose the intentions of the virulent asag demon and who checks people’s bones; who examines the sinews of life and the sinews of death, comforting those joints; who knows every sick spot where there is affliction, torment or distress — the kindly physician, the exorcist to the sick, who looks after the hearts of humans.
An axe for Nergal: c.5.7.3
Nibruta-lu, the son of the merchant Lugal-šuba, has had this tin axe made for Nergal. Its wooden part is of arganum tree of the mountains, a wood which is superior even to the alal stone; its stone part is of antasura, a stone which has no equal. The arm of the man who strikes with it will never get tired.
Proverbs: collection 3: c.6.1.03
(cf. 3.35, 6.1.09.b1, 6.1.11.18, 6.1.15.b8, 6.1.25.4, 6.2.1: Ni 4469 Seg. A ll. 9-12)Nanni cherished his old age. He built the temple ……. He built a wall around Nibru, but ……. He built E-ana, but after abandoning it, ……. He captured Simurrum, but did not …… its wall. He never saw mighty kingship. Thus Nanni was carried off to the nether world.
Proverbs: collection 11: c.6.1.11
(cf. 6.1.03.31, 6.1.09.b1, 6.1.15.b8, 6.1.25.4, 6.2.1: Ni 4469 Seg. A ll. 9-12)Nanni appreciated his old age. He built Enlil’s temple but did not complete it. He built a wall around Nibru, but ……. He captured Simurrum, but did not suppress it. In misery he ……. Thus Nanni was brought to the nether world depressed at heart.
Proverbs: collection 15: c.6.1.15
(cf. 6.1.03.31, 6.1.09.b1, 6.1.11.18, 6.1.25.4, 6.2.1: Ni 4469 Seg. A ll. 9-12) He started building Enlil’s temple but did not complete it. He built a wall around Nibru, but …… (unknown no. of lines missing)
Proverbs: collection 25: c.6.1.25
(cf. 6.1.03.31, 6.1.09.b1, 6.1.11.18, 6.1.15.b8, 6.2.1: Ni 4469 Seg. A ll. 9-12)Nanni cherished his old age. He had not finished the building of Enlil’s temple. He …… the building of the wall of Nibru. He had abandoned the building of the E-ana, ……. He had captured Simurrum, but had not managed to carry off (?) its tribute. Mighty kingship was not bestowed upon him. Was not Nanni thus brought to the nether world with a depressed heart?

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