the garden

Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
“At my command, sheepfolds have been built, cow-pens have been fenced off. When I approach heaven, a rain of abundance rains from heaven. When I approach earth, there is a high carp-flood. When I approach the green meadows, at my word stockpiles and stacks are accumulated. I have built my house, a shrine, in a pure place, and named it with a good name. I have built my Abzu, a shrine, in ……, and decreed a good fate for it. The shade of my house extends over the …… pool. By my house the suḫur carp dart among the honey plants, and the eštub carp wave their tails among the small gizi reeds. The small birds chirp in their nests.”


“The Lydians” writes Pausanias (lib. I. 35. 7) “tell that Geryon, Chrysaor’s son, lived near the torrent called Oceanos potamos and that there was his seat, in a mountain gap”.

[The enclosure] formed by Yim is in the middle of Pars, in Sruva; thus, they say, that what Yim formed (Yim-kan/) is below Mount Yimakan

The reign of Gopatshah is over the country of Gopato, coterminous with Airan-vej, on the bank of the water of the Daitik
The Daitik river is the river which comes out from Airan-vej, and goes out through the hill-country; of all rivers the noxious creatures in it are most, as it says, that the Daitik river is full of noxious creatures.
The good Daitya of Airan-vej is also mentioned in Vend. I, 6, II, 42, 43, Aban Yt. 17, 104, Ram Yt. 2, but this may not be a river, though the phrase has, no doubt, led to locating the river Daitik in Airan-vej

The Daraga river is in Airan-vej, on the bank (bar) of which was the dwelling of Porushasp, the father of Zaratust

In the seventh Menu Satyavrata’s reign, the Hindus believe the whole earth to have been destroyed by a flood, including all mankind that had become corrupt except for the pious prince and the seven Richis and their several wives; who, by command of Vishnu, entered a bahitra, or spacious vessel accompanied by pairs of all animals. Vishnu in the form of a fish commanded that the ark be fastened by a cable, formed by a vast serpent, fastened to his stupendous horn, secured thereby until the flood subsided when he and Brahma slew a monster Hyagriva, who while Brahama was reposing at the end of a Kalpa, stole the Vedas and mankind slipped into ignorance and impioty. This mighty demon is called the Prince of Danavas, his name means horse-necked.

Piut’hivi is the goddess of the Earth. Viswacarma, the artificer of the universe, that is the lord of creation assuming that character, moulded the earth, aud it became prithivi—conspicuous; and therefore is that name, Prithivi, assigned to the earth.—As. Res. Vol. VIII. p. 452.

Prit’hu is her husband : he was an incarnation of Vishnu; as related in the following fable

Vena, being an impious and tyrannical prince, was cursed by the Brahmans; and in consequence died without issue. To remedy this, his left arm was opened, and churned with a stick till it produced a son ; who, proving as wicked as his father, was set aside; and the right arm was in like manner churned, which also produced a boy, who proved to be a form of Vishnu under the name of Prit’hu. *

Gods and men came to make obeisance to him, and to celebrate his appearance on earth. He married a form of the goddess Lakshmi, who was thence named Prit’hivi, or Prit’hwi, and was in fact the earth ; and at this time refused so obstinately to give her wonted supplies to mankind, that Prit’hu was forced to beat and wound her; when she (the earth), assuming the form of a cow, ascended to Meru to complain to the gods ; who, on learning that she refused the common necessaries of life, not only to mankind in general, but to Prit’hu, her husband, rejected her complaint. Prit’hu and his descendants were allowed to beat and wound her in cases of noncompliance, and the earth reluctantly submitted ; and since that time mankind are continually wounding her with ploughs and other implements of husbandry.

Prit’hu was fond of agriculture, became a husbandman, cut down forests, levelled the earth, &c.; which is to be understood by his quarrel with the earth.

In the form of a cow Prit’hivi was milked by Swayambhuva, or Adam, grand ancestor of Prit’hu, who so employed him: perhaps the old sire took delight in attending the dairies and fields of his beloved Prit’hu.— lb. p. 256.

Mr. Wilford thinks this Prit’hu to be the same with Satyavrata, or Noah. His heavenly father was the Sun ; and Satyavrata is also declared to be an incarnation of Vishnu. Here it must be observed, that at night, and in the west, the Sun is Vishnu : he is Brahma in the east, and in the morning : from noon to evening he is Siva.— lb. p. 254.

In another place, (As. Res. Vol. VIII. p. 299.) Mr. Wilford finds Ila, a name of the daughter of King Bharata, the fifth from Swayambhuva, or Adam.—” Her name was Ila, or the earth: this was also the name of the daughter of Satyavrata, or Prit’hu ; for though the earth was his wife, she also became his daughter.”—And in page 318, we find.” Ila to signify the earth: Ila, or Ilas, was the son of Mbnu, or Noah ; called also Mitra VaRuna in the Puranas, or the friendly Varuna, or Neptune.” Sir W. Jones also mentions Ila as the daughter of the seventh Menu, or Satyavrata : he married her to the first Buddha, or Mercury, who was the son of ChanDra, the Moon; whose father was Atri, son of Brahma. Unless Ila be a name appertaining to more persons than one, it is here applied to the wife, daughter, and son, of Prit’hu, or Noah ; or the seventh Menu, surnamed Satyavrata and Vaivaswata.

Yama is a very important deity: his name occurs frequently in the sacrificial ceremonies of the Hindus; oblations and invocations to him, forming a portion of several of those ceremonies. He is regent of the south, or lower world, in which the Hindus place the infernal regions; thus corresponding, as the judge of departed souls, with the Grecian Pluto, or Minos. Minos has before been supposed the same with Menu; with whom, especially with the seventh, Satyavrata, Yama also agrees in character, as well as in name; both being called Vaivaswata, or offspring of the Sun, and Srad’hadeva, or lord of the SraSha.

Among his names are Dharma-raja, or king of justice; Pitripeti, or lord of the Pitris, or patriarchs; Mritu, or Mrityu, or Death, a title also of Siva, or Kala. Susanyama, and Vaivaswata Yama, are derivatives: the first from a word implying comeliness, or beauty; the other from his solar origin. KriTanta is another name; and Kritamala being the name of a river connected with the history of Satvavrata, the epithets may have a common origin.

ancestral gods at edfu


“The first record…of the Sanctified God who came into being at the First Occasion, sets out a picture of a primaeval island (iw). This island has a principal name Island of Trampling [or Crushing] (iw titi)…the name of a region in which the creation took place, is known to us only from the first Edfu cosmogonical record…The sacred place Djeba in Wetjeset-Neter having been created, the Sanctified Ruler…appeared. He came from the underworld…as a protector, and is said to resemble the Nefer-her. [the sanctified {nefer also means beautiful} falcon- hr or Hor-Light] Subsequently the sacred place received the name Underworld of the Soul…Then the Lord of the Wing (ndm ndb) arrived in the island…the Place-of-Uniting-of-Company. The meaning of the name…might refer to a group of divine beings who had died…[the word smd describes the arrival of gods in which a new settlement was to be founded] Wetjeset-Neter…is interpreted as…restoring the Ancestors.” Pages 12-22 “Mythical Origin of the Egyptian Temple” by E.A.E. Reymond.

“The domain of the Wetjeset-Neter is now attacked by the enemy-snake, [interpreted in Oahspe as corporeality] and Heter-Her [Hor-Or-Light] is hard pressed…When the enemy, the snake, appeared at the landing stage of that domain, a bw-titi, Place-for-crushing, was planned and protective guards of the god were formed…The Place-for-crushing resembled a ifdw [four sides] of the divine shelter (nwt) within that domain…there is an allusion to a fight on the earth in front of the shelter. Another fight took place at the same time in the sky, in which the Falcon [Hor] was believed to fight against the snake named sbty.” Pages 23,34,35 “Mythical Origin of the Egyptian Temple” by E.A.E. Reymond.

“The Edfu cosmogonical records begin with a picture of the primaeval island where the gods were believed to have lived first…which, in part, was covered with reeds…We know from the Edfu texts that the Earth-Maker created the grounds for the domains of the gods (niwt)…by virtue of the word of the Earth-Maker…He is said to be the snake who created the Primaeval Ones…who created the Earth…This quotation seems to reveal a tradition according to which the first creative power, represented eventually as a snake, was believed to be the Earth-God…the Sole Unique One without peer, who was first to fashion the Earth upon his (potters) wheel [keep in mind that a pot is round and spinning thus dispelling the myth that the ancients did not know the world to be round, MHJ] who created men, gave birth to the Gods, Lord of the Universe, Ruler of the Primaeval Ones, the First Primaeval One who came into being before the Primaeval Ones.” Pages 59-61 “Mythical Origin of the Egyptian Temple” by E.A.E. Reymond.

“This text seems to imply a belief in the existence of a group of nameless [shmw] deities who existed before the origin of the world, and who were believed to act as a single creating power…these powers are described as the Primaeval Ones…the lords of the light…The Ghosts, the Ancestors…These nameless Creators of the Earth seem to have been regarded as its original inhabitants…they are also described as the Great Ennead…the Sanctified Ones who…created their own bodily form for themselves, who fashioned themselves as their (own) work…divine beings described as…the word Company…[it] may have been the name of some divine beings who eventually formed the company of the nameless god described as Pn…The name Pn as a divine name is known to us…as a subsidiary name of Ptah.” Pages 63,74,77,78,94,95 “Mythical Origin of the Egyptian Temple” by E.A.E. Reymond.

“The general tone of the beginning of the first record seems to convey the view that an ancient world, after having been constituted, was destroyed, and as a dead world it came to be the basis of a new period of creation…life developed within the island; this then became the scene of various mythical events, such as, for instance, the titi. Theoretically titi can be interpreted as trampling or aggression. It may be surmised that there was a fight in the island…the result that the divine inhabitants died. This interpretation accords with other parts of the first Edfu record which alludes to the death of the Company…A further important fact that emerges…the allusion to the underworld…makes it clear that the underworld was believed to have existed before the world was created…the Underworld of the Soul.” Pages 106,107,114 “Mythical Origin of the Egyptian Temple” by E.A.E. Reymond.

“The Pn-God…is to be linked with the gnn, the Weak One…believed to reside in a field of reeds, who died there and whose mortuary image was hidden in the same field of reeds…the first act of creation…in the Island of Trampling was solely an act of recreation of a divine world which once existed…in the first place a bw-titi, Place-for-Crushing, was planned. Then appeared on the scene a large company of divine beings…the whole company (tt) was then divided into four groups; each group was placed along one side of the bw-titi…Thereafter the snake was overthrown and the victorious gods are said to have settled (sndm) beside him…The divine powers who were believed to have acted in this phase of creation were the deities who took part in the former process; they were the Progeny of the Earth-God.” Pages 125,195,214 “Mythical Origin of the Egyptian Temple” by E.A.E. Reymond.

“Imitating the physical appearance of the first domain that ever came into existence…the vanished realm of the Pn-God…marks the starting-point in the creation of the new type of sacred abode: the temple…In fact a well-known text on the inner face of the enclosure wall of the temple at Edfu tells us that the temple was built at the dictates of the Ancestors according to what was written in this book which descended from the sky to the north of Memphis…We are of the opinion that the Edfu records preserve the memory of a predynastic religious center…on which the Egyptians looked as the homeland of the Egyptian temple…It looks as though the Egyptians believed that there was one land only in which all the orders of creation were effected…in which the Lord of All was the Earth-God and his immediate successor the Winged One.” Pages 215,262,263,274 “Mythical Origin of the Egyptian Temple” by E.A.E. Reymond.


‘Enclosed in a box’ is given on the tablets as the equivalent of ‘Nu-u-Hu.’ This, says the translator, will afford us a new meaning for the name of Noah, and perhaps the derivation of the word. Unfortunately for the suggestion, this enclosure of Noah, according to the hieroglyphics, might have been nnuh, a rope-noose, to twist and tie, as this is one of the signs of enclosing, and is really a form of the ark itself, a determinative of ark, to surround, envelop, enclose, to appoint a limit, fix by decree, the end of a period. The noose of Ta-urt was, so to say, the first form of the ark enclosure. This enclosure of Noah (or Nun) may also be a water-vase, can, or khen, a house, or a box even, with which the god Nu ‘s name is written as a phonetic nu, ideographic Nun. The meaning of Nu-u-Hu does not start from the box interpreted by the ark of Noah.

In the Babylonian creation Anu is said to select certain stars as measuring stars, and regulators of time and period called ‘period stars.’ A list of seven of these is given named the ‘Measures.’ The proper name is tamsil and the determinative denotes a sheep or flock. These were the shepherding stars of the celestial flock. Sil, or ser , means to regulate, dispose, arrange, be at the head. The ser is also the name of the builder’s measuring-line. The guiding-stars and timekeepers were known by the name of the Disposers. Tam, in Akkadian, is a day, but the word tamsil is the amsil formed with the t prefix, and t-am is the equivalent of am-t . Am is written with the cross sign, and is a figure of crossing, like tek of the tekani (decani), or stars that crossed every ten days. Amt means in the middle of; that is, in the mid-heaven, the centre at the moment of culmination, the transit or crossing. In the calendar of astronomical observations found in the royal tombs of the twentieth dynasty, the crossing stars are described in seven different positions portrayed by means of the human figure, thus: 1—left shoulder; 2—left ear; 3—left eye; 4—in the middle; 5—right eye; [p.472] 6—right ear; 7—right shoulder. This chart of the seven positions, and measure of seven degrees, will probably be found to be connected with the Akkadian tamsil, and the seven measures of starry time.

The first tamsil, whether as constellation or crossing-stars, were the seven stars of Ursa Major, the seven of the Chinese bushel measure, and the seven in number still dominates in the measure by seven vertical lines being drawn to determine the passage of the stars. As so often iterated, for the sake of saving the reader the trouble of continual cross reference, the Great Bear constellation was depicted as the typhonian goddess of gestation, the hippopotamus, one of whose names is Teb. The star Dubhe, in the Great Bear, still preserves the name of Teb or Typhon in heaven. Also tabi is an Egyptian name of the bear. The Assyrian name of the bear is dabu, and this is applied to the constellation Kakabu dabi, the star of the Bear. But the difficulty of Assyriologists has been to determine the nature of the animal when the name was used. For instance, the word sakh is the Akkadian equivalent for the Assyrian dabu, and one translator finds the name to be more appropriate to the hippopotamus than to the bear; another doubtfully suggests the beaver, and each without reference to those Egyptian things which determine the names. The teb was the hippopotamus of Egypt, and the name was afterwards given to the bear, or rather the bear followed the water-horse as the image of the bearing mother, Teb. The Akkadian name of the bear is sakh, and in Egyptian sakh denotes the illuminator and enlightener. Sâhu (sakhu) also means to perambulate, go round, a revolving group of stars. Orion, for instance, is a sahu or sakhu. But the seven stars constituted the first sakhu. These, with Sirius added, are the eight signified by the eight-pointed star of Sut as before explained.

In Egyptian the number seven in one form is written sefekh, in another sekhef. My own conclusion is that these resolve into sef or kef with the value of number five, or the hand, which with the terminal ti signifies number seven, as sebti, hepti or khepti, and that the name of the goddess Seven (read Sefekh) really denotes the secondary form of sef or khef, needing the two horns or tongues, as the ti to make the full sign of number seven.

Skhef will deposit both sef and khef as types for number seven skhef and sefkh will modify and meet in sekhu with the passing of f into u. Here alone, in Egyptian, do we unearth a root or type-word for a particular form of the seven found in schuh, Norway gipsy; sik, Arago, (Papuan); tsook, Skwali; tseek-wah, Skittegats; huisca, Guajiquiro; shakoee, Yankton (Sioux); shahko, Winebago; shakopi, Dakota; seigbe, Khotovzi (Yeniseian); sqwithi, Mingrelian; s’kit, Lazic; isgwit, Suanic; s’widi, Georgian; Targumic, zgtha (אתגז), synonymous with gaish for a group of (seven?) stars; seacht, Irish; seachd, Scotch; shiaght, [p.473] Manx, which latter modify into seyth, Cornish, and saith, Welsh. Sekhf then is probably the older form of sakhu and sâhu, the constellation which is identified by the Akkadian sakh as the seven stars or the sevenfold-star of the Bear. Nor is this the only form of the seven or seventh to be found under the name, for sakus was the Assyrian kaivanu, the Hebrew ןויכ Kivan, the star of Israel which has been mixed up with the male Saturn; Lubatu sakus being a title of Saturn. Sakus as the planet Seven agrees with this derivation of sakh for the seven stars, whilst the seven and seventh of sakhu and sakus afford good evidence that the earlier typical sakhu or sâhu was the constellation of seven stars, and that all these are forms of the word skhf for number seven.

The Bear is also named Sakh-Khussu, in Assyrian Russu. In Egyptian khus means the turner back or returning one, and rus signifies to rise up, watch, and be vigilant. The seven stars of the Bear were the earliest revolvers and watchers, the illuminators of the mind’s eye of the first observers. The Bear is likewise designated, in Akkadian, sakh-sika. Sika means to drag and draw with the leg for determinative, and the Bear is the constellation of the hinder thigh. Sika is also the plough, another name of the same constellation. Further, the Bear is called Sakh-Maganna, and Magan or Makan has been identified as Egypt, or the ship-region. The Bear of Egypt is the hippopotamus, the Egyptian type of the goddess of the seven stars. The pregnant hippopotamus, the bearer of the waters, was the primordial ark; she was Teb, the living Teba; before boats were built she was the ship of the north.

Ma-Khan means the bearer of the waters, and when the Egyptians could build a boat they named it the makhan, from ma, water (or the mother), and khan, to carry, bear, transport, navigate. The makhennu is the boat of souls, and the primordial image of this in heaven was the group of seven stars, whose khenit or sailors were the seven Cabiri, of the Sakh-Maganna, the bearer as the Bear. The proof of this is furnished by the seven spirits of the Great Bear being called the planks in the boat of souls, which is the makhehnu. The mundane type of the boat appears in the magana (Tasmanian), the name of the mons veneris or uterus, the primordial makhen as the boat of the living. In the Kiwomi and Coehetimi dialects maichana is the name for number seven, which illustrates the interchange of the original type-names. In the same way maganna as the name of Egypt equates with khebt which also has the value of number seven, from khep the hand, and ti, two, whence hepti for no.7.

In the Chaldean creation it is said of the god, ‘He made the year into quarters,’ and the word for quarters is mizrata, sometimes written mizriti; the etymology is uncertain. Mest represents the Hebrew mitz in Mitzraim, and is the birthplace; ret or rat is to repeat, be repeated, several. Mest-rat yields the divisions of the [p.474] birthplace, and these were the four quarters. Mazzaroth then is first-named from the birthplace of the beginning, formed of the four quarters of the Great Bear, where we find the star Mizar in the tail or Mest-ru. Moreover the Hebrew terminal in תורזמ, represents the aft of the four quarters, and Mitzr-aft is the Mitzr of the four quarters, which belonged either to the constellation or the circle of the Great Bear before Mazzaroth had been extended to the circle of the signs and the four quarters of the solar zodiac. The moon is said to complete its hours (make its dual lunation) in arbati miskriti, or four quarters. The division of the circle of the constellation into quarters is marked in the Umazzir for ‘He divided’ the year into the twelve months. The Maz-arta, a watch, was then derived from the division of the night or circle of the stars into quarters. A watch was a piece of time long before it was a timepiece.

In one of the twelve romances of mythology, as the Assyrian version of the ancient legends may be termed, in the sixth tablet of the story of Izdubar, the god Anu is described as creating a bull at the request of Ishtar, who is desirous of being revenged on the solar hero who resisted her blandishments. Ishtar with her two attendants (a form of the two divine sisters) leads the bull against the city of Erech. With this bull Izdubar and his companion Heabani struggle; Heabani holding it by the head and tail, while Izdubar pierces the animal with his sword. This subject is represented on the cylinders where we see the god or hero fighting with the bull. Sometimes two persons are seen in conflict with two bull-beings, and these two bulls correspond to the double-headed bull of Egypt, whose mythology will help us here as elsewhere.

The bull, like the crocodile of the west, was made into an image of the swallower, the mouth of Hades, the Kr-p-Ru, Kherp-ru, or Cerberus. The earth that swallows up the sun and the souls in the west is described in certain passages of the Book of Hades as a two-headed bull which swallowed them in the west to reproduce them in the east. ‘Honour to the soul which was swallowed by the double bull,’ says the same text, ‘the god (Ra) rests in what he has created.’ The mummies standing waiting in their porch cry to the sun-god, ‘Open the earth! Traverse Hades and sky! Dissipate our darkness! O Ra, come to us! The earth is open to Ra.’ The swallowing earth being typified by the bull will serve to explain the subject of Mithras slaying the bull, which it was impossible to read until we knew what it was the bull represented. The bull being also a well known symbol of the sun, and Mithras a solar god, it was impossible to see how Mithras, the sun personified, could be slaying the sun. The Egyptian symbolism explains both the Assyrian and the Mithraic. The sun is in Scorpio, but he enters the underworld as the destined [p.475] conqueror of the devouring Earth, or comes into conflict with the bulli. The great mountain of Mul-Gelal, the glory of the mountains, the mountain of the west where the sun set, is said in an Akkadian inscription to lie like a buffalo in repose. That will serve for an image of the bull, the earlier cow of the west, or crocodile, or whale. In the Akkadian Magical Texts the gate of Hades is kept by the bull who is invoked, ‘Oh bull, very great bull, which opens to the interior. The entrance to the tomb is thy act; the lady with the magic wand—Nin-gis-zida, a title of the goddess Nin-ki-gal—fashioned thee for eternity.’ The station is at the boundaries, the limits which fix the division between heaven and earth, where the sun entered the underworld of the souls, the mouth of the swallower, whether considered as an animal, a fish, or the gaping grave.

A passage is quoted by Lenormant from the inscriptions to this effect, ‘afterwards they lead the bull into the Bit-Mummutu,’ with the remark, ‘It seems to me that it is connected with the word mummu, chaos, Hebrew המהמ, confusion; it would then be the abode of confusion, the state of chaos, which is a very suitable name for the gloomy and infernal region.’ But as the Akkadian name of Hades, Gi-umuna, is identical with the Egyptian Ki-amen, the hidden land of the interior, and as the mamit can be identified as the mummy-type, the Hebrew תוממ, it seems more probable that the Bit-Mummutu is the house of the dead, who are called the mum (or mummies) in Egyptian. Also the mum or mam , a name for the crossing or passage, precedes the form of am for the west or mouth of the Ament. The bull is a personification of the swallowing earth, hence an emblem at the gate of the mummy-house of Hades.

A curious figure is mentioned on the tablets and called the assinnu. In the descent of Ishtar to Hades the god Hea creates a sort of phantom figure, or he takes the figure assinnu, breathes life into it, and sends it on an errand to Hades. Talbot rendered the Assinnu by the ‘figure of a man of clay,’ Lenormant by the ‘phantom of a black man.’ But the Assinnu is comparatively common. We have it in the English scin of the dead, a phantom; also swyn in Welsh, as a charm; zona, Cornish, to charm; the tseen, Chinese, a demon; the asna, Sanskrit, a demon; aasan or usun, Arabic, a typical image or idol; sona, Biafada (African), an idol or sacred image; and ziney, Wolof (African), for the devil. The hieroglyphics will show us the character, shape, and colour of the image. Ssenu means a typical figure. San is an image, and the word signifies to charm, preserve, and save. Ssenu and sena mean to breathe, and the ssenu is an image of breath. Possibly the Assyrian as-sinnu includes the as as statue or type, and sena for breath or breathing. The [p.476] sennu itself is a black statue, and as an image of breath or a breathing image it is a variant of the noose sign of life. The Assinnu was black; it is called Namir and Khamir. Na is coloured or black in Egyptian. The Na people, or Nahsi, are negroid, and kham is also black.

The black Assinnu then is identical with the black doll of the hieroglyphics, which is an image of life in the underworld, or, as we say, of death, the shadow of life, hence its blackness. The sennu is portrayed by the side of Atum, the god of the lower world, who equates with Hea in the male solar triad.

On the death of a righteous man they ‘bring a khisibta from the heavenly treasury; they bring a sisbu from their lofty storehouse; into the precious khisibta they pour bright liquor. That righteous man, may he now rise on high! May he be bright as that sisbu; like pure silver may his garment be shining white.’ The sisbu agrees with the ssheba , a life-giving image, the mummy-figure which was carried round at the feast when the guests were told to look on it as the type of immortality, and rejoice because they also were immortal. Sesh means to pass, and ba is to be or become a soul, hence the ssheba. Khisibta renders the Egyptian khesbet for blue, the lapis lazuli symbol of heaven and of eternal truth. Khesbet or khisba is lapis lazuli, the hard blue stone and image of solid heaven, the throne of Ra in the highest heaven, like the Hebrew ‘paved work of a sapphire stone, as it were the body of heaven in its clearness.’ This was the foundation-stone of the other world, the stepping-stone of the southern height at the threshold of the door of heaven.

The hill was the first lik, or ark of the living and the dead. Hence the typical burial-place in the Ritual. The mountain-land as the ur-ka, ar-ka or aru-ka, the land of the lofty region, supplied the first form of the ark in the cave or the circle on the mount; the Ark safe from the waters and easily defended. This preceded the ark-cities like eruk and rhagae, which were built on the model of the ark or aru-ka

Nu signifies come, descend. In Akkadian as in Egyptian, nu is no, not, the sign of negation; and the same word denotes the image, or to image. So the nu monogram for zalam (Ass.) signifies an image or picture. Nu is the earlier nun (from nnu), the type, likeness, portrait, and nu-nu is the little boy, the ninny.’ The nunu as child is the elder Horus, who was always the child, the little one, the nursling and ninny of the mother.

iw titi [trampling] / iw aha [combat] / iw htp [peace] – in the hbbt [primeval ocean] waret
djeba in wetjeset-neter attacked by snake
pth comes from duat to protect it
pth made pth-nwyt-water after the snake
sbht-enclosure and channel built in consequence
channel filled with mw-water
shelter [nht] created for pth 5×15 cubits
mansion of isden [which had been planned] is built
the shebtiw build a sbty-enclosure
the hbbt receded and pay-lands emerged
pay-lands called sbnt-place wherein was the dd-pillar
crew of the falcon arrives and the shebtiw sail away
a temple is the built in wetjeset-neter

Temple of the Mansion of Ms-nht [by Ptah / seat of the 2 gods Re & ancestor Tanen]
2 temples of falcon [wetjeset-neter, djeba]
2 temples of sun-god [place for piercing, mansion of ms-nht]
Shebtiw from Neref worshipped in the Mansion of the Ram
Made the poy-lands for his Bw-wr [Great Place]
st-wrt [Great Seat – named by Thoth]
Djeba in Wetjeset-Neter
niwt [primeval domain] Blessed Island, Hareoty
Seat of the First Occasion [st n sp tpy]
sbht-enclosure and channel
nht – shelter for protection 5x15khet
sbty – enclosure
hcy-wr [great primeval mound]
bw-wr [great place / territory of the circuit]
bw-hbbt [place of the primeval water] Waret
pay-lands = snbt-place
inb – vast enclosure [outer enclosure of Re]
ges-waret [landing point of the Shebtiw]
ibn-wr [Enclosure of the Eldest]
hwt-enclosure of the Earthmaker [Tanen / Ir Ta] / Mansion [hwt] of Isden
tit-wrt [great Mound] of Heter-hr [mound of the radiant]
great plain of bja on which the gods stood in the northern sky
the mound of the two sycamores of the flood-land
island of the akhet dwellers
island of the just
hwt-ntr [mansion of the God]
iat mound existed before niwt

the first enclosure of the falcon was constructed on the enclosure of the earthmaker
sbht-enclosure is separate from the enclosure [sbty] in poy-lands and is encircled by mw-water in a channel.

The Thebans, as well as the Thessalians and the Athenians, had also their story of a flood: nor is this any thing more than might be naturally expected; for their city, like the Egyptian Thebes, received its name from the superstitious veneration of Theba or the bovine Ark. Ogyges, the supposed son of Neptune and Alistra, was esteemed the most ancient sovereign of Beotia: and in his time a great deluge was thought to have occurred, which Varro ascribes to an inundation of the sea.’ This fable, though it relates to the Noetic flood, was brought, like many other of the Greek fables, from Egypt: for the Beotian Thebes and the Beotian Ogyges are a mere copy of the Egyptian Thebes and the Egyptian Ogyges. Accordingly, Tzetzes tells us, that Ogyges was king of the Egyptian Thebes; of that Thebes, which alone arose above the water, when in the days of Menes the rest of the country was one great marsh. He further tells us, that Cadmus came from this more ancient Thebes, that he transferred the name to the city which he founded in Beotia, and that from Ogyges he called its gates Ogygian. With respect to the name of Thebes, he informs us, that it was borrowed from Theba the daughter of Jupiter and the wife of Ogyges, who flourished, according to Lycus, immediately after the flood of Deucalion: and he adds, that in the Syriac language Theba signifies a cow; whence originated the fable of Cadmus being led by a cow to the scite of his new city.1

It is not difficult to decypher this legend. Ogyges, who lived at the time of the flood, is Noah: and his allegorical wife Theba, from whom the two cities of that name were called, is the Ark, which the Hebrews and Phenicians and Chaldeans denominated Theba, and which was universally symbolized by a cow or heifer.

Hence we may account for another fable, in which Theba is made the wife of Corybas and the mother of the Samothracian Corybantes or Cabiri.’ These, as their whole history sufficiently shews, were diluvian gods: they were made, consequently, the children of Theba or the Ark.

In fine, the Egyptian goddess Theba was the same as Isis or Argo or Baris; her husband Ogyges was no other than Osiris; and the deluge of Ogyges must clearly be identified with the deluge of Phoroneus: for Clemens Alexandrinus tells us, that Phoroneus and Ogyges were contemporaries, and that the deluge of Ogyges happened in the days of Phoroneus, who was nevertheless reported to be the first man and the father of the human race.’

The Corybantes or Cabiri, who were sometimes thought to be the children of Theba, were worshipped in Crete under the title of Cureies, Id’ei Dactyli, or Tdchines. They were equally venerated in Rhodes: whence, in exact accordance with their general character, we find a Cretan or Rhodian legend of a partial deluge immediately connected with them.

Nonnus informs us, that they were the sons of Neptune: and Diodorus, what amounts to the same thing, says, that they were the offspring of the sea. He likewise tells us, that Neptune was committed to their care when an infant, and that they educated him in conjunction with Caphira or Cabira the daughter of the ocean.1 Cabira is the same as Theba or the sea-born great mother: and the infancy of Neptune is the infancy of Osiris, Helius, Bacchus, Jupiter, and the other diluvian gods. Noah was thought to have been born from the Ark as from a mother: hence he was represented as an infant, sometimes literally exposed on the ocean in an ark, and sometimes floating upon the mysterious aquatic lotos which among the Hindoos is avowedly a type of the ship Argha or Argo.

Now these Telchines, thus allied to the Ocean, were reckoned magicians, who could produce clouds and rain at pleasure. They first inhabited Rhodes; w here having foretold a deluge, they left the island and were scattered into various regions of the world. The flood punctually took place according to their prediction; and a few persons only escaped, among whom were the sons of Jupiter so famous in Cretan story.’

In this legend we may easily perceive, through the disguise of local appropriation, a very distinct reference to the monitory prophecy of Noah and to the dispersion of his descendants from the plains of Shinar. Jupiter occupies the place of the patriarch; and his children, who escape from the deluge, that of the Noetic family. Nor is this inconsistent with his character: for he is said to have been nursed, while an infant, by doves on the summit of mount Ida, which, like the Hindoo Ida-vratta or Meru, was a transcript of Ararat; and he is feigned to have been at once the father and the lover of that Theba, who was the wife of the dihivian Ogyges. By her he was the parent of Egyptus and Danaus, Danaus being the brother of Egyptus.1 But this Danaus was the navigator of the Argo; which in Egypt was the ship of Osiris, in Greece the ship of Jason, and in Hindostan the ship of Siva.1

3. Theba was sometimes reckoned the daughter of Cilix, the brother of Cadmus and the reputed father of the Cilicians: and then it was, that she is said to be the mother of the Corybantes or Cabiri.’ As she is thus transported into Cilicia, though (as her relationship to Cadmus shews) in palpable connection with the theology of Egypt and Beotia, we shall find a story of a local deluge at Tarsus.

The Tarsians, in their account of this catastrophe, asserted, that, when the waters began to retire, the tops of the Tauric mountains, at the feet of which stood Tarsus, first appeared. Hence it acquired the name of Polis Tersia or the city of dryness; which was afterwards, if we may believe the Greeks who delighted to resolve > every appellation into their own language* corrupted into Tarsus. In its immediate vicinity another tradition prevailed, which has evidently been borrowed from the emission of the Noetic raven. A neighbouring town, called Mallus, was supposed to have received its denomination from the circumstance of a raven’s having brought a lock of wool there. * The Tauric mountains, which rose above their city, were the ridge, to which the Tarsians, in the common spirit of local appropriation, fixed the appulse of the Ark. There was another ridge, bearing the same name and similarly connected with the history of the deluge, which extended from eastern Armenia into Bactriana. The real appellation, as it is still accurately preserved by the natives of the country, is not Tauris, as the Greeks wrote it, but Tabris or Tebriz or Tabaris. This word, in perfect agreement with the Cilician tradition, denotes the place of the Baris: but the Baris was the same as Theba or Argha or the Ark.

In Egypt, the transmigrating patriarch was denominated Osiris; and :the younger god Horus was esteemed his offspring: but this descent is purely mythological: for, as Osiris and Horus are alike declared to be the Sun -in their astronomical capacity; so, in their human capacity, they are each plainly the great father. Hence we find a very strong resemblance between •their several legends. If Horus be constrained by Typhon to take refuge in a floating island; Osiris is similarly compelled by him to enter into a floating ark. If Horus be reputed to surfer death and afterwards to be restored to life; Osiris is thought to have experienced a perfectly analogous death and revival. If Isis wanders over the world in quest of Horus; she makes exactly the same search for the lost Osiris. If she carefully collects the scattered limbs of Horus, and afterwards reanimates his at length united frame; she performs also for the murdered Osiris the self-same good offices. If Horus be torn into seven pieces by the Titans; Osiris is similarly torn by the Titans into fourteen pieces, which nurhber is the mere reduplicate of seven. Thus, their enemies are the same: the calamities, which they endure, are the same: and their final triumph is the same. They plainly, in short, constitute bat a single character: and this character was divided between two deities, because it was viewed under two somewhat different lights; yet one person was still shadowed out by each.

Horus was represented as an infant, cither sailing in a ship, or floating in the golden cup of the lotos, or seated on a crocodile, or swathed (as in the Bem bine table) after the manner of the mummies: and he seems designed to typify the diluvian god, as born again from the Ark like a child from its mother, as returning to life after the period of his mystical death, as entering upon a new state of existence in a new world, and as finally triumphant over every attack of the ocean; designed, that is to say, more peculiarly to exhibit the postdiluvian, or mystically regenerated, great father. • Osiris, on the contrary, appears to be the same person considered more generally; he is Noah in every part of his character, Noah both antediluvian and postdiluvian. Thus, in one point of view, Noah the antediluvian, when considered with reference to the second great father’s existence after the flood, precedes him; and Is then the parent and husband of the Ark, that mysterious mother both of the renovated world, and of the great father himself: as such, he is Osiris, the consort of Isis and the sire of the infant Horus. But, in another point of view, Noah the postdiluvian, when considered with reference to the great father’s existence before the flood, succeeds him; and, proceeding from, the womb of the Ark wliich is the great father’s consort, displays himself in the character of their son: as such, he is Horus or the younger Osiris, the offspring of Isis and the elder Osiris.

Some refinement of this nature, which indeed was the almost inevitable consequence of the various degrees of relationship sustained by the great father towards the great mother, may be traced with sufficient clearness in the avowed notions of the Egyptians themselves. Plutarch tells us, that they esteemed Osiris as the beginning, Isis as the receptacle, and, Horus as the completion:’ and he speaks of Isis, as being the mundane house or habitation of Horus, the scat of generation, the nurse of the world, the universal recipient.1 SimpliGius ascribes the same character to the Syrian fish^goddess Derceto or Atargatis: for he represents her, as being the place or habitation of the gods; and he adds, that, like the Egyptian Isis with whom she ought doubtless to be identified, she contained, inclosed within her womb, what he calls the specialities or proper natures of many deities.’ Such phraseology, when the history of. Osiris and Horus is considered, must relate to the Ark; though, as the great father was Adam no less than Noah, without excluding the Earth or the greater World which was ever associated in the minds of the ancient hierophants with .the Ark or. the smaller World.

Osiris then is Noah anterior to the deluge; yet, as his history shews, , without excluding any other part of that patriarch’s character: while Horus, the mythological son of Osiris and Isis, represents to us the same person, born as an jufant from the womb of the Ark, and finally prevailing over the ravages of the ocean.

1. Agreeably to such an arrangement, Horus, as we have seen, is described as taking refuge in a floating island from the* fury of Typhon or the sea, and as afterwards expelling his enemy and as assuming that sovereignty which the overwhelming monster had for a season usurped. He is also said to have been slain by the Titans, and to have been left by them for dead in the water; where, his mother Isis, at length finding him, by her divine power restored him to life and immortality. *

These legends both relate to the same event: they are merely told in a somewhat different manner. The floating island shadowed out the Ark: whence Typhon, by whom Horus is driven into it, is rightly declared to be the personified ocean. In a similar manner, the Titans were the whole race of antediluvians: and they are generally represented, as being in arms against the navicular hero-gods, but as being finally subdued by them and as being then plunged into the watery depths of the great central abyss. Yet there is an evident distinction made between the impious Titans and certain others of a very different character who yet bore the same appellation: for Horus or Apollo, Cronus or Saturn, Hercules, Prometheus, and Helius, as being fundamentally one person, were all equally called Titan; and we find a particular family of Titans, which, with their parent Cronus at their head, amounted precisely to eight persons.* These are doubtless the eight great gods of Egypt: and the distinction is made, because the whole race of antediluvians comprehended the Noetic family as well as their irreclaimable contemporaries. The supposed death of Horus then by the hands of the Titans is closely allied to Typhon’s inveterate pursuit of him. The Ark was esteemed a coffin; and the inclosure of Noah within it, his death: hence arose the various fables of the death and burial of the principal ship-god. Thus dead, Isis finds Horus in the midst of the waters; and forthwith bestows upon him that new life, which Noah received when he quitted his floating coffin the Ark.

2. The fabled persecution, which Osiris experiences from Typhon, is evidently the same, as the exactly parallel persecution, from which Horus is compelled to take refuge in the floating island Chemmis. Substitute only the ark of Osiris for the island of Horus; and the two stories are palpably identified. The very curious legend of Osiris has been detailed at large by Plutarch. Its substance is, as follows.

Typhoa, we are told, conspired against this hero-god of the Egyptians with an intention to slay him and to usurp the whole of his dominions. For this purpose he contrived an ark of extraordinary workmanship, and persuaded him to enter into it. The credulous deity having assented, Typhon shut him up, and cast him into the Nile which was mystically denominated the ocean. Thus inclosed in what was deemed his coffin, the winds and waves conveyed him as one dead to Phenicia. Isis however rambled over all the world in search of him: and, having at length found the lost object of her tenderness, she succeeded in liberating him from his confinement and in restoring him to life.1 Here we perceive an ancient personage driven into an ark by the violence of the sea, which for a time occupies the whole of his dominions: and we learn, that, as his entrance into it was viewed in the light of -death, so his liberation from it was considered as a revival or as a return from Hades.

The ark of Osiris, in which he was set afloat by his adversary Typhon, was thought by the Egyptians to have been constructed in the form of a lunette or a boat with two similar extremities.* Its shape was in short that of the modern life-boat, which resembles the lunar crescent floating on the water: and it was adopted, because the Moon in her first or last quarter was made the astronomical symbol of the Ark. Osiris accordingly was sometimes said to have entered into this luniform ark, and at other times was fabled to have entered into the Moon: and the Egyptians regularly commemorated by yearly festivals each of these mysterious entrances.’ But they both alluded to the same event, the entrance of Noah into the Ark: for the Moon, into which Osiris was thought to have entered, was no other than the wooden lunette, the ark (as Plutarch fairly speaks out) shaped like the Moon, within which Typhon inclosed him and then set him afloat on the water.



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