qerut-shetaut in pari-dhi

“The representation of the netherworld on this “map” is limited to concentric circles around an island on which Osiris, ruler of the dead, can be seen wearing the typical atef crown. ” Egypt: the world of the pharaohs
Regine Schulz, Matthias Seidel, Hartwig Altenmüller

“The number of gates vary from spell to spell: twenty one, fourteen, fifteen, seven. The key idea is that of a concentric ring of protective walls around Osiris at the center.”
Journey Through the Afterlife: Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead
John H. Taylor

“These are they who are in the Land of Serser; ‘they have received their bread, and they have gained the mastery over this Lake, and they praise this great god. Ra saith unto them:–’Eat ye your green herbs, and satisfy ye yourselves with your cakes; let there be fulness to your bellies, and satisfaction to your hearts. Your green herbs are of the Lake of Serser, the Lake which may not be approached. Praise ye me, glorify ye me, for I am the Great One of terror of the Tuat.’ They say unto Ra:–’Hail to thee, O thou Great One of the SEKHEMU (i.e., Powers)! Praise is thine, and majesty is thine. The Tuat is thine, and [is subservient] to thy will; it is a hidden place [made] by thee for those who are in its Circles. The height of Heaven is thine, and [is subservient] to thy will; it is a secret place [made] by thee for those who belong thereto. The Earth is for thy dead Body, and the Sky is for thy Soul. O Ra, be thou at peace (or, be content) with that which thou hast made to come into being.’ Their food consisteth of bread-cakes, their green herbs are the plants of the spring, and the waters wherein they refresh themselves are cool”

“These are they who make souls to have a right to the green herbs in the Lake of Serser. Ra saith unto them:–’[Hail, ye] divine sovereign princes of the gods, and ye chiefs of the Lake of Serser, who place souls over their green herbs, let them have dominion themselves over their bread; give ye your bread which is appointed, and bring ye your green herbs to the souls who have been ordered to exist in the Lake of Serser.’ They say unto Ra:–’The bread appointed hath been and the green herbs have been brought to the divine souls whom thou hast ordered to exist in the Lake of Serser. Hail! Verily, the way is fair; for KHENTI-AMENTI praiseth thee, and those who dwell in TA-THENEN praise thee.’ Their food is of bread-cakes, and their beer is the tchesert beer, and their libations are of cool water; and offerings are made unto them upon earth by those who are with TUI by the divine sovereign princes.”

“Hail to thee, O thou Thigh which dwelleth in the northern heaven in the Great Lake, which art seen and which dieth not. I have stood up over thee when thou didst rise like a god. I have seen thee, and I have not lain down in death; I have stood over thee, and I have risen like a god. I have cackled like a goose, and I have alighted like a hawk by the divine clouds and by the great dew. I have journeyed from the earth to heaven. The god Shu–made–me to stand up, the god of Light hath made me to be vigorous by the two sides of the ladder, and the stars which never rest set–me–on–my–way and bring–me–away from slaughter. I bring along with me the things which drive back calamities as I advance over the passage of the god Pen; thou comest, how great art thou, O god Pen! I have come from the Pool of Flame which is in the Sekhet-Sasa–i.e., the Field of Fire.–Thou livest in the Pool of Flame in Sekhet-Sasa, and I live upon the staff of the hold–god. Hail, thou god Kaa, who dost bring those things which are in the boats by the . . . I stand up in the boat and I guide myself–over–the water: I have stood up in the boat and the god hath guided me. I have stood up. I have spoken.–I am master of the–crops. I sail round about as I go forward, and the gates which are in Sekhem–Letopolis–are opened unto me, and fields are awarded unto me in the city of Unni–Hermopolis–, and laborers (?) are given unto me together with those of my own flesh and bone.”


“Hail to you, you plateau which is in the sky north of the Great Waterway, for whoever sees it will not die. I stand upon you, I appear as a god, I have seen you and I will not die. I stand upon you, I appear as a god, I cackle as a goose, I fly up thence as the falcon upon the branches. O Dew of the Great One, I cross the earth towards the sky, I stand up as Shu, I make the sunshine to flourish on the sides of the ladder which is made to mount up to the Unwearying Stars, far from decapitation. Bring me those who repel evil when I have passed you by at the polar region of Tepen. ‘Where have you come from?’ ‘O Tepen, I have come from the Lake of Burning in the Field of Fire.’ ‘What did vou live on in the Lake of Burning in the Field of Fire?’ ‘I lived on that noble tree of Ikaa who brought these boats from the Dried-up Lake for me. The water-jar was on … that I might stand in the Sacred Bark and guide the waters; that I might stand in the Sacred Bark and conduct the god;that I might stand up, mv staff being a rod.’ ‘ Go aboard and sail.’ The gates are opened for me in Letopolis,the earth is split open for me in Wenu, and the staffs have been given to me in respect of my inheritance.”


“Hail to Thee. thou district in the northern sky, even the great island. He who sees thee dies not; he who stands upon the dawns as a god. I have seen thee, and I have not died. I stand upon thee; I dawn as a god. I have honked as a smn-goose;I hover yonder as this falcon over the pate and fragrance of Horus. I cross the earth to the sky. While Shu stands still, I make fast the Sunlight on the sidepieces of the ladder that lets the Unweariable Stars ascend exempt from decapitation. I have brought these warders-off of evil as I passed thee on thy wooden wrt on my way to Tepen. “Whence hast thou come to Tepen?” I have come from the Isle of Fire, from the Field of Flame.”What dost thou live on in the Isle of Fire, in the Field of Flame”? I live on this august tree. “O PLanner, bring to him these ships from the hair-lake while the znbt-vase…..” I stand in the bark and rule the water; I stand in the bark and guide the god. I stand, I address the crop, when the traveler embarks. Opened for me are the gates in Letopolis; set aside for me are fields in Hermopolis. Given me are my brothers and sisters in the presence of my heir.”

“Praise be to thee O Ra, exalted Sekhem, Lord of the hidden circles of the Tuat…

“Praise be to thee, O Ra… and thou makest thy creations as Governor of thy circle.

“Praise be to thee, O Ra… Thou art he who gathereth together thy gods when thou goest into thy hidden circle.

“Praise be to thee, O Ra… the sender of light into his circle… thou art he who makest the darkness to be in his circle, and thou coverest those who are therein.

“Praise be to thee, O Ra… the illuminator of bodies in the horizens… thou art he who entereth into his circle.

“Praise be to thee, O Ra… thou goest in and comest out and thou comest out and goest in to thy hidden circle…

“Praise be to thee, O Ra_lord of the hidden circles_

“Praise be to thee, O Ra_ who resteth in the Tuat_

“Praise be to thee, O Ra_Governor of thy Circle_

“Praise be to thee, O Ra_the sender forth of light into his Circle_

“Praise be to thee, O Ra_thou art he who entereth into his circle_

“Praise be to thee, O Ra_of the Circles of Ament_”
Another Egyptian nome was called the Serpent-mountain, which was also repeated above with the great serpent winding round the tree or mountain of the north celestial pole. Thus the beginnings of the race and the environment were depicted for a purpose in the heaven of the north, and the field of the papyrus-reed that furnished the primeval food in the southern birthplace was set in Heaven, as the Aarru-field of peace and everlasting plenty on the summit of Mount Hetep at the pole.

In the Ritual (ch. 109) the paradise of plenty, first denoted by the water plants, has become the harvest-field which is surrounded and protected by a wall of steel. The wheat in this divine domain grew seven cubits high and was two cubits long in the ear. The barley, from which beer was brewed, was four cubits in the ear, but the original paradise, the Aarru or Allu, from which the Greeks derived their Elysian fields, was constellated as the land of the papyrus reed, the shoots of which were eaten as the primitive food that grew in the greatest abundance in the region of the two great lakes.

The most primitive ideal of paradise was that of an ever-green oasis, in the midst of the African desert, welling with life-giving water, and with the large-leaved sycamore fig tree or dom-palm or the papyrus plant at the centre as a figure of food. Inner Africa contains the prototype of the Egyptian paradise in a land of welling waters where the food came of itself and was perpetually renewed, and there was little need for labour. And when the outward movements of the wandering nomads began, and thirst and hunger were to be faced in waterless wastes of rootless desert sand, there would be yearnings of regret for the old lost home and birth-land left behind, now glorified by distance and the glamour of tradition. And so the universal legend grew which was not absolutely baseless. The felicity enjoyed in this primeval land of legendary lore is such as was possessed at one time on the earth, the upper paradise being a sublimated replica of a lower or terrestrial paradise. Thus, the primitive paradise of the Egyptians, as a land from which the human race had come, was constellated in the northern heaven as the top of attainment in a world to which they were going for an everlasting home, and in a clime where food and air and water never failed.

In the North, an Egypt of the heavens was figured first within the circle of the Greater Bear. This was the land of Khept, as a celestial locality. The circle was then divided into south and north, as double Egypt, upper and lower, and the two halves were described as the domains of Sut and Horus, who were the first two children of the ancient Genetrix, the mother of seven offspring altogether.

Hail, thou Runner, Lord, Only One, thou maker of the things that are, thou hast fashioned the tongue of the Company of the Gods, thou hast produced whatsoever cometh forth from the waters, thou springest up out of them above the submerged land of the Lake of Horus. Let me breathe the air which cometh forth from thy nostrils, and the north wind which cometh forth from thy mother Nut.

Papyrus of Hu : each of the qerets [circles] has an arret [hall] and these are seven in number traveling to the center where the god resides.

The Egyptian Ta-Nuter or divine land of the gods is usually described as being in the Orient. But there was also a Ta-Nuter Meh-ti, which is rendered by Brugsch, “das nordliche Gottesland” (Brugsch, Astron. and Astrol. Inscript., p. 179). This was the land of the gods in the north — that is, the polar paradise in heaven, not an elevated part of our earth. The breeze of the north was the breath of life to the Egyptians. It is synonymous with blessedness. The paradise of Hetep is the garden blessed with breezes. The breeze of the north, however, would not represent heaven to the dwellers in the northern quarter of the world. But the paradise was figured in the north originally, and there it remained in every land to which the wisdom of Old Egypt went. This will explain the paradise of Airyana Vaejo described in the Avesta. Ahura-Mazda tells Zarathustra that he has created a delectable spot which was previously unapproachable or nowhere habitable. But in this first of regions and best of countries there was winter during ten months of the year. “Ten months of winter are there, two of summer, and these (latter) are cold as to water, cold as to earth, cold as to plants; then as the snow falls around there is the direst disaster” (Vendidad, Fargard i.). The good god made the good creation, and Angro-Mainyus, the dark and deadly, is said to have formed a mighty serpent and brought on the frost that was created by the Dgevas, who correspond to the Sebau in the Ritual as agents of evil in physical phenomena. It is also said in the Minokhird (p. 322, ff.) the Dev of winter is most vehement in Airyana Vaejo. Which does not mean that the primal paradise was created at the northern pole of the earth, to be overtaken by the glacial period. The true interpretation is that the legendary paradise was astronomical, and that it was an enclosure at the north celestial pole, and not in the northern regions of the earth. In the Vendidad version it has been made geographical and rendered according to climate in some northern region of the earth; the evils of a winter world being then attributed to the devil, or the opposition of the black mind, Angro-Mainyus.

There is no Garden of Eden created in the first chapter of Genesis. No tree of life or knowledge was planted, nor is there any prohibition against eating the fruit of the tree. On the contrary, the primal pair, the male and female, are told that every herb and every tree are given to them for food. The theology of the Elohim differs from that of Iahu-Elohim. This agrees with a non-Semitic version of the creation legend (Records, New Series, vol. vi.), in which there is no garden created, no mention of man being placed in the garden to tend it; no tree of life, nor tree of knowledge; and no temptation by the serpent, or story of the Fall. The primal paradise, that of Shu and the seven support- gods in Am-Khemen, is thus differentiated from the garden of Ptah in the secondary creation or representation. To reach the Kamite root of the matter we have to distinguish betwixt the making of Amenta and the planting of the garden eastward. When “the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them,” man was formed; then Iahu-Elohim planted a garden eastward, in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had formed, to dress it and to keep it. We have now to tell the story of Eden from the indefinitely older documents, legendary fragments of which have been mixed up together by the Elohistic and Jehovistic narratives in the book of Genesis.

Amenta and the garden of rest were not created for man the mortal, as mortal, on this earth. The man who was brought into being and placed in the garden to protect the tree of life and defend it from the depredations of the evil Apap, the serpent of darkness, the dragon of drought, the devouring reptile, was man in the likeness of Atum, or man the manes; the only man in the garden of Amenta, whether this is called the Aarru-Sekhet (field) or gan-Eden. The primal paradise was founded on the natural fact of the oasis. Following this, the fundamental idea of a paradise made by human workmanship is an enclosure in which there was a tree or plants for food and an unfathomable well-spring of water for drink. It was the oasis with some kind offence about it, which survives in the “little garden walled around” that is sung of in a modern hymn. Now, when the nomads of the equatorial regions wandered northward they left their primal paradise behind them as a geographical locality. This suffered a subsidence, in common with the southern pole, and was hidden beneath the horizon to become the legendary paradise that sank down under the waters and was lost, as would be indicated by the disappearing guide-stars, to become a subject of the Egyptian astromythology.

Chapter whereby one Saileth a Ship in the Netherworld.

Oh thou Leg in the Northern Sky,  and in that most conspicuous but inaccessible Stream; I rise up and come to light as a god, I am conspicuous but inaccessible.
I rise up and live, and bring myself to light as a god.
I cackle even as the Smen-goose, but I stoop like the Hawk at the nets of the Great Fowler.
I sail across the Sky, and Shu standeth erect and the Achmiu Stars are instantly active in raising the ladder which lifts the Setting Stars away from destruction.
And I bear that which repelleth mischief as I make my voyage over the Leg of Ptah.
I come from the Lake of Flame, from the Lake of Fire, and from the Field of Flame, and I live I stand erect in the Bark which the god is piloting at the head of Aarru, and the Achmiu Stars open to me and my fellow citizens present to me the sacred cakes with flesh.

Oh thou who sailest the ship of Nu over that chine which is void, let me sail the ship; let me fasten my tackle  in peace; in peace! Come, come; Fleet one. Fleet one! Let me come to see my father Osiris.
Oh thou who art veiled, let me enjoy happiness.
Oh thou who art clouded, but manful, and who sailest round over that chine of Apepi; thou of firm head and steadfast breast when coming forth from the fiery blows: Oh thou who art at the ship, let me sail the ship, let me fasten my tackle and come forth.
This place is empty, into which the starry ones fall down head-long upon their faces, and find not aught whereby they can raise themselves up.
Narrow is the path as the tongue of Ra.  The Patrol who goeth rounds and who piloteth the Double Earth: Seb abideth stably by means of their rudders: the divine Porch which revealeth the Solar Orb: and He who presideth over the Red ones.
Let me be brought in as a distressed mariner, and let my Soul come to me, which is my brother, and go to that place which thou knowest.
“Let me be told my name” say,
1. The Mooring-post. “Lord of the Double-Earth in the Shrine” is thy name.
2. The Blade of the Rudder. “Leg of Apis” is thy name.
3. The Hawser. “The Side-Lock which Anubis fastens on to the swathing work” is thy name, look.
4. The Stern or Stern Posts. “The two columns of the Netherworld” is thy name.
5. The Hold. “Akar” is thy name.
6. The Mast. “Bearer of the Great one whilst she passeth” is thy name.
7. The Keel. “Backbone of Apuat” is thy name.
8. The Mast-head. “Throat of Emsta” is thy name.
9. The Sail. “Nut” is thy name.
10. The Leathers. Made of the hide of Mnevis, “which Sutu hath scorched,” is thy name.
11. The Oars. “Fingers of the elder” is your name.
12. The Bracement. “Hand of Isis, stanching the blood of the Eye of Horus,” is thy name.
13. The Ribs. “Emsta, Hapi, Tuamautcf, Kebehsenuf, He who taketh captive. He who taketh by force, He who seeth his Father, and He who maketh himself,” are your names.
14. The Look-out:  “Master of the (Ground)”  is thy name.
15. The Tiller:  ”Merit”  is thy name.
16. The Rudder: “The Umpire, beaming forth from the water,” is thy name.
17. The Hull: “The Leg of Hathor, which Ra wounded, on his lifting her into the Sektit Boat,” is thy name.
18. The Boatman: “Off” is thy name.
19. The Breeze, since thou art conveyed by me: “The Northern Breeze proceeding from Tmu to the Nose of Chent-Amenta” is thy name.
20. The Stream, since thou sailest upon me: “Their Mirror” is thy name.
21. The Shallow:  “Destroyer of the large-handed at the place of purification” is thy name.
22. The Laud, since thou walkest upon me: “The Tip of Heaven, the Coming forth from the swathings in the Garden of Aarru, and the Coming forth in Exultation,” is thy name.
To be said before them.
Hail to you. Fair in Form, Lord of issues, who are springing up for ever, and whose double goal is eternity: turn to me your hands, give to me food and offerings for my mouth; let me eat the Baat bread, the Shensu-cake and the Abti-cake: let my place be in the Great Hall in presence of the mighty god.
I know that mighty god to whose nostrils ye present delicacies. Tekmu is his name: and whether he, whose name is Tekmu, turneth from the East or advanceth to the West, let his course be my course.
Let me not be stopped at the Meskat ; let not the Sebau have mastery over my limbs.
I have bread in Pu and beer in Tepu. Let your largesses of this day be granted to me; offerings of wheat and barley, offerings of anta and of vestments, offerings of oxen, and ducks, which are offerings for life, health and strength, and also offerings for coming forth by day, in all the forms in which it pleaseth me to come forth in the Garden of Aarru.
If this chapter be known he will come forth at the Garden of Aarru; there will he given to him the Shensu-cake, the measure of drink and the persen-cake, and fields of wheat and barley of seven cubits. (It is the followers of Horns who reap them), for he eateth of that wheat and barley, and he is made whole in his limbs through that wheat and barley, and his limbs spring up even as with those gods. And he comet h forth in the Garden of Aarru in all the forms in which it pleaseth him to come forth.


Give me your arm, I am made as ye. Let him explain it. The blood is that which proceeds from the member of the Sun, after he goes along cutting himself. Those Gods who are made attached to the generation of the Sun are Hu, Ka: they are followers of their father Tum daily.

The Osiris has filled the Eye after he went and woke it the day of contending of the two Lion-Gods. Let him explain it. It is the day of the battle between Horus and Set, when [Set] he puts forth the ropes against Horus, when Horus has [not] taken the gemelli of Set. Thoth did the same with his own fingers.

The Osiris has bound his hair to the Eye at the time of battle. Let him explain it. It is the left Eye of the Sun when it sheds blood after he sends it, for Thoth is the binder of his hair, he brings it round, not fallen down, to its Lord; or, for the Eye wastes when it weeps. The second time Thoth was wiping it [?].

The Osiris has seen the Sun who is born in the star [morn] at the thigh of the Great Water. The Osiris goes forth, he goes forth in turn. Let him explain it. Nu  is the Water of the heaven; or, the image of the Eye of the Sun is the Gate in which he has been born daily. The Great Water  is the Eye of the Sun, because it is one of the Gods who belong to Horus; whose words exceed the wish of the Lord. Let him explain it. [They are] Amset, Hapi, Tuautmutf, Kabhsenuf.

Hail, ye Lords of Truth, Chiefs behind Osiris, smiting for faults, Followers of Her whose peace is sure [Heptskhes]! Let me come to you without fault. I do as ye do to the Seven Great Spirits in the service of their Lord, the Creator [or Judgment]. Anup made their places on that day [they answer] of our coming to you. Let him explain it. The Gods, Lords of Truth, I am Thoth and Astes Lord of the West; the Chiefs behind Osiris are Amset, Hapi, Tuautmutf, and Kabhsenuf. These same are behind the constellation of the Thigh [Ursa major] of the Northern heaven. The Givers of blows for sins, the Followers of Heptskhes, are crocodiles in the water. Heptskhes is the Eye of the Sun or Fire, the Followers of Osiris burning the wicked souls of his enemies. For if there is evil I guard his Eye from the Lords of the Age, whilst he proceeds from the belly of his mother. These Seven Spirits are Amset, Hapi, Tuautmutf, and Kabhsenuf, Maaentefef, Karbukef, Harkhent S’Khem. Anup places them for the protection of the coffin of Osiris, behind the wash-house of Osiris; or, these Seven Spirits are Het-het, Ket-ket, The Bull who never made smoke to swell in his flames, Going eating his hour, Red-eyes, Follower of the House of Ans, Hissing to come forth and turn back, seeing at night and bringing at day. The Chiefs are of Anrutf; the eldest is of his father the Sun. It is the day when we come to you. Says Osiris to the Sun: Come, behold me! The Sun stops himself in the West.

I am the Soul in his two halves. Let him explain it. Osiris goes into Tattu, he binds the soul of the Sun there. One and the other are united. He is transformed into his soul from his two halves, who are the sustainer of his father, and Horus who dwells in the shrine; or, the soul in his two halves is the soul of the Sun and the soul of Osiris, the soul of Shu, the soul of Tefnu, the souls who belong to Tattu.

I am the Great Cat which is in the Pool of Persea, which is at Annu, the night of the battle made to bind the wicked, the day of strangling the enemies of the Universal Lord there. Let him explain it. The Great Cat which is in Tattu, at the Pool of the Persea, placed in Annu, is the Sun himself, called a cat. For he has been called cat [by name] Ra, for it is like what he has done, he has made his transformation into a cat; or it is Shu making the likeness [?] of Seb and Osiris. For those who are in the Pool of the Persea, which is in Annu, are those born wicked justifying what they do. For the night of the battle their march is from the East of the heaven. The battle is made in heaven and on the whole earth.

The Sun in his egg, gleaming in orb, shining from his horizon, floating in his clouds, who hates sins, forced along by the conducting of Shu, without an equal among the Gods, who gives blasts of flame from his mouth, illuminating the world with his splendour. Save thou the Osiris from that God whose forms are mystic. His eyebrows are the arms of the Balance, the night of Theft-reckoning. Let him explain it. He is Arm-bringer. The night of Theft-reckoning is the night [ending] of flame against the fallen. The accuser of the sinful to be dragged to his block, punishing souls. Let him explain it. It is Maget, it is the annihilator of Osiris; or, it is Sap, he is with a head bearing Truth; or, it is the Hawk, who is with heads, one is having [or supporting] Truth, another has Sin, he has made the one having Sin to cause Truth to come under [bearing] it; or, it is Har who dwells in Skhem; or, it is Thoth; or, it is Nefer-Tum son of Bast. Oh Chiefs who return things to the enemies of the Universal Lord. Save ye the Osiris from the chief conductors, and the inferior executioners. The meek man injured does not escape from their custody. Those attached to Osiris do not prevail over me, I do not proceed to their braziers, because I know them, I know the name of Maget, who belongs to them in the House of Osiris. His bow is in his hand; he is invisible, going round in that region, with flame in his mouth, to Hapi he gives orders. He is invisible. The Osiris lived sound on earth like Ita; he has a good sleep like Osiris. I have made no opposition to those who are over their [lamps] censers, because they are the servants of the Universal Lord [or] Khepra in the pictures. The Osiris flies as a hawk and cackles as a goose; he does not perish for an age like Nahab. Let him explain it. It is Anup, it is Horus, it is he who dwells in S’Khem; or, it is Horus of the place of turning back; or, it is the Chiefs stopping the enemies of the Universal Lord there; or, it is the Great Opener of the place of Rejection. They do not exult there. I do not proceed to their braziers. Let him explain it. The images there over their censers are the image of the Sun, and the image of the Eye of Horus.

Oh, Lord of the Great Abode, Chief of the Gods! save thou the Osiris from the God whose face is in the [shape of] a dog, with the eyebrows of men; he lives off the fallen at the angle of the Pool of Fire, eating the body and digesting the heart, spitting out the bodies. He is invisible. Let him explain it. Eater of Millions is his name. He is in the Pool of Pant. For there is the Pool of Fire, which is in the Region of Anrutft at the Place of the Rejection. Every one who treads in it deficient falls to his blows; or, Hardness [Sword] is his name, he who is the doorkeeper of the West; or, Beba is his name, he who is the watcher of the of the West; or, He who is over Time is his name.

“I behold Ra who was born yesterday from the buttocks of the cow Meh-urt; his strength is my strength, and my strength is his strength.”
What then is this? It is the water of heaven, or (as others say),  It is the image of the eye of Ra in the morning at his daily birth. Meh-urt is the eye of Ra. Therefore Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant, [is] a great one among the gods who are in the train of Horus. The words are] spoken for him that loveth his lord.
What then is this? Mestha, Hapi Tuamautef, and Qebhsennuf.
“Homage to you, O ye lords of right and truth, and ye holy ones who [stand] behind Osiris, who utterly do away with sins and crime, and [ye] who are in the following of the goddess Hetep-se-khus, grant that I may come unto you. Destroy ye all the faults which  are within me, even as ye did for the seven Shining Ones who are among the followers of their lord Sepa. Anubis appointed their place on the day [when was said], ‘Come therefore thither.'”
What then is this? These lords of right and truth are Thoth and Astes, lord of Amenta. The holy ones who stand behind Osiris, even Mestha,  Hapi, Tuamautef, and Qebhsennuf, are they who are behind the Thigh in the northern sky. They who do away with  sins and crime and who are in the following of the goddess Hetep-se-khus are the god Sebek in the waters. The goddess Hetep-se-khus is the eye of  Ra, or (as others say), It is the flame which followeth after Osiris to burn up the souls of his foes. As concerning all the faults which are in Osiris, the scribe of the holy offerings of all the gods, Ani, triumphant, [they are all that he hath done against the lords of eternity] since he came forth from his mother’s womb. As concerning the seven Shining Ones, even Mestha, Hapi, Tuamautef, Qebhsennuf, Maa-atef-f, Kheri-beq-f, and Horus-Khenti-maa, Anubis appointed them protectors of the body of Osiris, or (as others say), [set them] behind the place of purification of Osiris; or (as others say), Those seven glorious ones are Netcheh-netcheh, Aqet-qet, An-erta-nef-bes-f-khenti-heh-f, Aq-her-unnut-f, Tesher-maa-ammi-het-Anes,
Ubes-hra-per-em-khet khet, and Maa-em-qerh-an-nef-em-hru. The chief of the holy ones who minister in his chamber is Horus, the avenger of his father. As to the day [upon which was said] “Come therefore thither,” it concerneth the words, “Come then thither,” which Ra spake unto Osiris. Lo, may this be decreed for me in Amentet.
“I am the soul which dwelleth in the two tchafi.”
What then is this? It is Osiris [when] he goeth into Tattu and findeth there the soul of Ra; there the one god embraceth the other, and souls spring into being within the two tchafi.
[“I am the Cat which fought (?) by the Persea tree hard by in Annu, on the night when the foes of Neb-er-tcher were destroyed.”]
What then is this? The male cat is Ra himself, and he is called Maau by reason of the speech of the god Sa [who said] concerning him: “He is like (maau) unto that which he hath made, and his name became Maau”; or (as others say), It is Shu who maketh over the possessions of Seb to Osiris. As to the fight (?) by the Persea tree hard by, in Annu, it concerneth the children of impotent revolt when justice is wrought on them for what they have done. As to [the words] “that night of the battle,” they concern the inroad [of the children of impotent revolt] into the eastern part of heaven, whereupon there arose a battle in heaven and in all the earth.
“O thou who art in the egg, who shinest from thy disk and risest in thy horizon, and dost shine like gold above the sky, like unto whom there is none among the gods, who sailest over the pillars of Shu, who givest blasts of fire from thy mouth, [who makest the two lands bright with thy radiance, deliver] the faithful worshippers from the god whose forms are hidden, whose eyebrows are like unto the two arms of the balance on the night of the reckoning of destruction.”
Who then is this? It is An-a-f, the god who bringeth his arm. As concerning [the words] “that night of the reckoning of destruction,” it is the night of the burning of the damned, and of the overthrow of the wicked at [the sacred] block, and of the slaughter of souls.

“Glory be to Osiris Un-nefer, the great god within Abydos, king of eternity, lord of the everlasting, who passeth through millions of years in his existence. Eldest son of the womb of Nut, engendered by Seb the Erpat, lord of the crowns of the North and South, lord of the lofty white crown. As Prince of gods and of men he hath received the crook and the flail and the dignity of his divine fathers. Let thy heart which is in the mountain of Amenta be content, for thy son Horus is stablished upon thy throne.  Thou art crowned lord of Tattu and ruler in Abtu. Through thee the world waxeth green in triumph before the might of Neb-er-tcher. He leadeth in his train that which is and that which is not yet, in his name Ta-her-seta-nef; he toweth along the earth in triumph in his name Seker. He is exceeding mighty and most terrible in his name Osiris. He endureth for ever and for ever in his name Un-nefer. Homage to thee, King of kings, Lord of lords, Prince of princes, who from the womb of Nut hast possessed the world and hast ruled all lands and Akert. Thy body is of gold, thy head is of azure, and emerald light encircleth thee. O An of millions of years, all-pervading with thy body and beautiful in countenance in Ta-sert. Grant thou to the ka of Osiris, the scribe Ani, splendour in heaven and might upon earth and triumph in Neter-khert; and that I may sail down to Tattu like a living soul and up to Abtu like a bennu (phœnix); and that I may go in and come out without repulse at the pylons of the Tuat. May there be given unto me loaves of bread in the house of coolness, and offerings of food in Annu, and a homestead for ever in Sekhet-Aru with wheat and barley therefore.”

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O ……, bolt founded by An, (4 lines fragmentary) (1 line missing) (1 line fragmentary) (approx. 2 lines missing)…… has erected a house in your precinct, O ……, and taken a seat upon your dais.

And Ellil took the earth for his people.
The bolt which bars the sea
Was assigned to far-sighted Enki.
When Anu had gone up to the sky,
And the gods of the Apsu had gone below,
The Annunaki of the sky
Made the Igigi bear the workload.

At that time Adapa, the son of Eridu, When he had got the leader Enki out of bed, Used to `feed’ the bolt of Eridu every day.

The noise of humankind has become too loud for me, with their uproar I can not go to sleep.
Command that Anu and Adad guard the upper realm, Sin and Nergal guard the middle earth,
and that Ea may guard, together with his plants, the bolts, the bar of the sea
Thus no water or food escaped,. and the rigours of famine returned

Again Enki accedes to the pleas of Atrakhasis and somehow the bolt barring the sea is broken and hoards of fish (one shar, 3600) are released to starving humanity. Enlil accuses him:
I ordered that Anu and Adad should guard the upper regions,
that Sin and Nergal should guard the middle earth,
while I myself guard the earth below,
and that you should guard, together with your plants, the bolt and bar of the sea.
But you released an abundance to the people. . . .

The one who rides the great storm, who charges with lightening, who, with the holy bolt blocks up the inside of heaven,
son of An, the canal-inspector of heaven and earth.
Iskur, the man of abundance, the son of An,Enki placed in charge of it

Who closes the holy bolt in the “heart” of heaven,
The son of An, the GUGAL of the universe,
Ishkur . . , the son of An,
Enki placed in charge of them.
He directed the plow and the . . yoke,
The great prince Enki put the “horned oxen” in the . . . ,
Opened the holy furrows,
Made grow the grain in the cultivated field.
The lord who dons the diadem, the ornament of the high plain,
The robust, the farmer of Enlil,
Enkimdu, the man of the ditch and dike,
Enki placed in charge of them.

My brother, I will go round in the streets …….” (The demons said:) “Unless Geštin-ana is aware of Dumuzid’s whereabouts, she is indeed looking frightened! She is indeed screaming in a frightened way! Come, let us go to the sheepfold and cow-pen!” When the first demon entered the sheepfold and cow-pen, {he set fire to the bolt} {(1 ms. has instead:) he shouted ……}. When the second entered the sheepfold and cow-pen, he set fire to the shepherd’s stick. When the third entered the sheepfold and cow-pen, he removed the cover of the holy churn.

Marduk then creates the new Universe. First, he splits Tiamat’s fallen body into two parts. With one half of her body, he creates the visible heavens; the other half he secures in the Underworld with a bolt, so that her waters cannot escape. Having done this, Marduk measures the fallen body of Apsu and creates an invisible Heaven, Esharra, in its image.

O Shamash, king, who maketh
known to the prince his command
The brilliant mountain, the great
bolt, its neck
O Shamash, inmidst of the heaven
Inmidst of the world (and) its wide
desert thou dwellest.
O Shamash, judge, O Shamash,
O Shamash, judge of the gods,
O Shamash, decider, father of the
O Shamash, born of father Enlil,
O Shamash, powerful lord of the
splendid heaven,
O Shamash, just god of judgment,
O Shamash, shepherd, father of the
O Shamash, chief judge of the land,
O Shamash, a judge art thou!
O Shamash, a decider art thou!
O Shamash, truth art thou!
O Shamash, life art

The roar of its splendor
Help thee!
Smear meal-water,
The powerful protection !
Smear the doors
With meal-water!
The house-door
The bolt of the house!
The hand that tears (it) off
Cut off!

By the seven winds, by the four
regions of heaven and earth may-
est thou be exorcised.
By the night which overcometh the
dawn mayest thou be exorcised.
By the pillar, the bolt, which submit
the lands, the devastating wind
of the ocean-floods mayest thou
be exorcised.
Not a single tree shall thou root out !
Not a single reed shall thou pluck

An early division of the Duat is the Urnes, 309 iteru long. The other divisions are of equal length, which leads to a length of 12 x 309 = 3708 iteru. To this one must add the width of Egypt. The length of Egypt is stated as early as the Middle Kingdom is 106 iteru.
But Jürgen ZEIDLER proposes a different calculation. The text at the beginning of the Amduat says : “This god enters the Western Gate of the Horizon. Seth stands along the shore. It is 120 iteru coming to this gate, before the bark reaches the Netherworld-dwellers. One then continues to Urnes.” Thus from Egypt to where Re entered the Netherworld, was a distance of 120 iteru, about 1255 km


Upon hearing this, Solon said that he marvelled, and with the utmost eagerness requested the priest to recount for him in order and exactly all the facts about those citizens of old. The priest then said: “I begrudge you not the story, Solon; nay, I will tell it, both for your own sake and that of your city, and most of all for the sake of the Goddess who has adopted for her own both your land and this of ours, and has nurtured and trained them,—yours first by the space of a thousand years, when she had received the seed of you from Ge and Hephaestus,1 and after that ours. And the duration of our civilization as set down in our sacred writings is 8000 years. Of the citizens, then, who lived 9000 years ago, I will declare to you briefly certain of their laws and the noblest of the deeds they performed: the full account in precise order and detail we shall go through later at our leisure, taking the actual writings. To get a view of their laws, look at the laws here; for you will find existing here at the present time many examples of the laws which then existed in your city. You see, first, how the priestly class is separated off from the rest; next, the class of craftsmen, of which each sort works by itself without mixing with any other; then the classes of shepherds, hunters, and farmers, each distinct and separate. Moreover, the military class here, as no doubt you have noticed, is kept apart from all the other classes, being enjoined by the law to devote itself solely to the work of training for war. A further feature is the character of their equipment with shields and spears; for we were the first of the peoples of Asia1 to adopt these weapons, it being the Goddess who instructed us, even as she instructed you first of all the dwellers in yonder lands. Again, with regard to wisdom, you perceive, no doubt, the law here—how much attention it has devoted from the very beginning to the Cosmic Order, by discovering all the effects which the divine causes produce upon human life, down to divination and the art of medicine which aims at health, and by its mastery also of all the other subsidiary studies. So when, at that time, the Goddess had furnished you, before all others, with all this orderly and regular system, she established your State, choosing the spot wherein you were born since she perceived therein a climate duly blended, and how that it would bring forth men of supreme wisdom. So it was that the Goddess, being herself both a lover of war and a lover of wisdom, chose the spot which was likely to bring forth men most like unto herself, and this first she established. Wherefore you lived under the rule of such laws as these,—yea, and laws still better,—and you surpassed all men in every virtue, as became those who were the offspring and nurslings of gods. Many, in truth, and great are the achievements of your State, which are a marvel to men as they are here recorded; but there is one which stands out above all both for magnitude and for nobleness. For it is related in our records how once upon a time your State stayed the course of a mighty host, which, starting from a distant point in the Atlantic ocean [Ἀτλαντικοῦ πελάγους], was insolently advancing to attack the whole of Europe, and Asia to boot. For the ocean [πέλαγος] there was at that time navigable; for in front of the mouth which you Greeks call, as you say, ‘the pillars of Heracles,’ there lay an island which was larger than Libya and Asia together; and it was possible for the travellers of that time to cross from it to the other islands, and from the islands to the whole of the continent over against them which encompasses that veritable ocean [πόντος]. For all that we have here, lying within the mouth of which we speak,  is evidently a haven having a narrow entrance; but that yonder is a real ocean [πέλαγος], and the land surrounding it may most rightly be called, in the fullest and truest sense, a continent. Now in this island of Atlantis [Ἀτλαντίδι νήσῳ] there existed a confederation of kings, of great and marvellous power, which held sway over all the island, and over many other islands also and parts of the continent; and, moreover, of the lands here within the Straits they ruled over Libya as far as Egypt, and over Europe as far as Tuscany. So this host, being all gathered together, made an attempt one time to enslave by one single onslaught both your country and ours and the whole of the territory within the Straits. And then it was, Solon, that the manhood of your State showed itself conspicuous for valor and might in the sight of all the world. For it stood pre-eminent above all in gallantry and all warlike arts, and acting partly as leader of the Greeks, and partly standing alone by itself when deserted by all others, after encountering the deadliest perils, it defeated the invaders and reared a trophy; whereby it saved from slavery such as were not as yet enslaved, and all the rest of us who dwell within the bounds of Heracles it ungrudgingly set free. But at a later time there occurred portentous earthquakes and floods and one grievous day and night befell them, when the whole body of your warriors was swallowed up by the earth, and the island of Atlantis [Ἀτλαντὶς νῆσος] in like manner was swallowed up by the sea [θάλασσα] and vanished; wherefore also the ocean [πέλαγος] at that spot has now become impassable and unsearchable, being blocked up by the shoal mud which the island created as it settled down.”

A. “πελαγέων” Hdt.4.85, S.Aj.702 (lyr.), “πελαγῶν” Th.4.24 ; Ep. dat. πελάγεσσι (v. infr.) :—the sea, esp. high sea, open sea, “π. μέγα” Il.14.16, Od.3.179, etc.; “ἐν πελάγεϊ ἀναπεπταμένῳ” Hdt.8.60.ά ; διὰ πελάγους out at sea, opp. παρὰ γῆν, Th.6.13 : freq. coupled with other words denoting sea, “ἁλὸς ἐν πελάγεσσιν” Od.5.335 ; “π. θαλάσσης” A.R.2.608 ; π. πόντιον, πόντου π., Pi.O.7.56, Fr.235 ; ἅλιον π. E.Hec.938 (lyr.).

2. of parts of the sea (θάλασσα), freq. with geographical epith., Αἰγαῖον π. A.Ag.659, etc., cf. Hdt.4.85 (“π. Αἰγαίας ἁλός” E.Tr.88, Men.Pk.379) ; “Ἰκαρίων ὑπὲρ πελαγέων” S.Aj.702(lyr.), cf. Luc.Icar.3 ; “ἐκ μεγάλων πελαγῶν τοῦ τε Τυρσηνικοῦ καὶ τοῦ Σικελικοῦ” Th.4.24.

3. flooded plain, γίνεται π. Hdt.2.97, cf. 3.117.


A. “ἐκ ποντόφιν” Od.24.83:—sea, esp. open sea, common from Hom. downwds., exc. in Prose, where it is chiefly used of special seas (v. infr. 11); in the general sense, “ὁπότε πνεῦμα ἐκ πόντου εἴη” Th.4.26, cf. Pl.R.611e, Ti.25a, LXX Ex.15.5; π. ἀπείριτος, ἀπείρων, εὐρύς, μεγακήτης, Od.10.195, Il.1.350,6.291, Od.3.158; π. ἠεροειδής, ἰοειδής, μέλας, οἶνοψ, 2.263, 11.107, Il.24.79, 23.316; π. ἀτρύγετος, ἰχθυόεις, 15.27,19.378; opp. γαῖα, 8.479, etc.; κέλευθοι, πλάξ, πεδίον πόντου, Pi.P.4.195,1.24, A.Fr.150 (anap.); π. ἁλὸς πολιῆς the wide waters of the grey brine, Il.21.59, Thgn.10,106; πόντου γέφυρα, πύλαι, of the Isthmus, Pi.N.6.39,10.27.

2. metaph., “π. ἀγαθῶν” Sophr.159; “π. χρυσίου” Phoen.1.2; “ἐκπεσεῖν εἰς τὸν ἀνομοιότητος π.” Pl.Plt.273d (ap.Dam.Pr.5).

II. of special seas, π. Ἰκάριος, Γρηΐκιος, Il.2.145, 23.230; “ὁ Αἰγαῖος π.” Hdt.2.97, etc.; “ὁ π. οὗτος” Id.4.177 (v.l.); Ἰόνιος, Σαρωνικός, Σικελός, E.Tr.225 (lyr.), Hipp.1200, Cyc.703: esp. π. Εὔξεινος, Id.IT125 (lyr., nisi leg. Ἄξεινος )“; ὁ Εὔξεινος π.” Hdt. 1.6, Th.2.96,97 (called Ἄξεινος, E.IT218 (lyr.)); generally called simply ὁ Πόντος or Πόντος, A.Pers.878 (lyr.), Hdt.7.147, Ar.V.700, Arist.Mete.354a14, al.; but Hdt. has also ὁ πόντος for the sea, 4.99, 177.

2. the country Pontus on the S. shore of the Black Sea, App.Mith.8, etc.: Adj. Ποντικός (q.v.).


A. “θάλασσα” 22.236(338/7 B.C.)), ἡ: —sea, Il.2.294, etc.: freq. of the Mediterranean sea, ἥδε ἡ θ. Hdt.1.1, 185, 4.39, etc.; ἡ παρ᾽ ἡμῖν θ. Pl.Phd.113a; “ἡ θ. ἡ καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς” Plb.1.3.9; ἡ ἐντὸς καὶ κ. ἡ. λεγομένη θ. Str.2.5.18; ἡ ἔσω θ. Arist.Mu.393b29; ἡ ἔξω θ., of the Ocean, Id.Mete.350a22; ἡ Ἀτλαντικὴ θ. Id.Mu.392b22; ἡ μεγάλη θ. Plu.Alex.73; of a salt lake, Arist.Mete.351a9; “ἐς θάλασσαν τὴν τοῦ Εὐξείνου πόντου” Hdt.2.33; “πέλαγος θαλάσσης” A.R.2.608; κατὰ θάλασσαν by sea, opp. πεζῇ, Hdt.5.63; opp. κατὰ γῆς, Th.7.28 codd.; κατά τε γῆν καὶ κατὰ θ. Pl.Mx.241a; “χέρσον καὶ θ. ἐκπερῶν” A.Eu.240; τῆς θ. ἀνθεκτέα ἐστί one must engage in maritime affairs, Th.1.93; οἱ περὶ τὴν θ. sea-faring men, Arist.HA598b24, cf. Pol.1291b20; “θ. καὶ πῦρ καὶ γυνὴ—τρίτον κακόν” Men.Mon.231, cf.264: metaph., κακῶν θ a sea of troubles, A.Th.758 (lyr.); ὁ Κρὴς τὴν θ. (sc. ἀγνοεῖ), of pretended ignorance, Suid.

2. sea-water, ἔστω ἐν χαλκῷ ἡ θ. Hp.Coac.427, cf. Diph.Siph. ap. Ath.3.121d, Moschio ib.5.208a, Plb.16.5.4, Dsc.2.83.

3. well of salt water, said to be produced by a stroke of Poseidon’s trident, in the Acropolis at Athens, Hdt.8.55; “θ. Ἐρεχθηΐς” Apollod.3.14.1.

4. channel, LXX 3 Ki.18.32.


τὸν οὐρανὸν ἡμεῖς ἀκοὴν παρεδεξάμεθα.’ ἀκούσας οὖν ὁ Σόλων ἔφη θαυμάσαι καὶ πᾶσαν προθυμίαν σχεῖν δεόμενος τῶν ἱερέων πάντα δι᾽ ἀκριβείας οἱ τὰ περὶ τῶν πάλαι πολιτῶν ἑξῆς διελθεῖν. τὸν οὖν ἱερέα φάναι: ‘φθόνος οὐδείς, ὦ Σόλων, ἀλλὰ σοῦ τε ἕνεκα ἐρῶ καὶ τῆς πόλεως ὑμῶν, μάλιστα δὲ τῆς θεοῦ χάριν, ἣ τήν τε ὑμετέραν καὶ τήνδε ἔλαχεν καὶ ἔθρεψεν καὶ ἐπαίδευσεν, προτέραν μὲν τὴν παρ᾽ ὑμῖν ἔτεσιν χιλίοις, ἐκ Γῆς τε καὶ Ἡφαίστου τὸ σπέρμα παραλαβοῦσα ὑμῶν, τήνδε δὲ ὑστέραν. τῆς δὲ ἐνθάδε διακοσμήσεως παρ᾽ ἡμῖν ἐν τοῖς ἱεροῖς γράμμασιν ὀκτακισχιλίων ἐτῶν ἀριθμὸς γέγραπται. περὶ δὴ τῶν ἐνακισχίλια γεγονότων ἔτη πολιτῶν σοι δηλώσω διὰ βραχέων νόμους, καὶ τῶν ἔργων αὐτοῖς ὃ κάλλιστον ἐπράχθη: τὸ δ᾽ ἀκριβὲς περὶ πάντων ἐφεξῆς εἰς αὖθις κατὰ σχολὴν αὐτὰ τὰ γράμματα λαβόντες διέξιμεν. τοὺς μὲν οὖν νόμους σκόπει πρὸς τοὺς τῇδε: πολλὰ γὰρ παραδείγματα τῶν τότε παρ᾽ ὑμῖν ὄντων ἐνθάδε νῦν ἀνευρήσεις, πρῶτον μὲν τὸ τῶν ἱερέων γένος ἀπὸ τῶν ἄλλων χωρὶς ἀφωρισμένον, μετὰ δὲ τοῦτο τὸ τῶν δημιουργῶν, ὅτι καθ᾽ αὑτὸ ἕκαστον ἄλλῳ δὲ οὐκ ἐπιμειγνύμενον δημιουργεῖ, τό τε τῶν νομέων καὶ τὸ τῶν θηρευτῶν τό τε τῶν γεωργῶν. καὶ δὴ καὶ τὸ μάχιμον γένος ᾔσθησαί που τῇδε ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν γενῶν κεχωρισμένον, οἷς οὐδὲν ἄλλο πλὴν τὰ περὶ τὸν πόλεμον ὑπὸ τοῦ νόμου προσετάχθη μέλειν: ἔτι δὲ ἡ τῆς ὁπλίσεως αὐτῶν σχέσις ἀσπίδων καὶ δοράτων, οἷς ἡμεῖς πρῶτοι τῶν περὶ τὴν Ἀσίαν ὡπλίσμεθα, τῆς θεοῦ καθάπερ ἐν ἐκείνοις τοῖς τόποις παρ᾽ ὑμῖν πρώτοις ἐνδειξαμένης. τὸ δ᾽ αὖ περὶ τῆς φρονήσεως, ὁρᾷς που τὸν νόμον τῇδε ὅσην ἐπιμέλειαν ἐποιήσατο εὐθὺς κατ᾽ ἀρχὰς περί τε τὸν κόσμον, ἅπαντα μέχρι μαντικῆς καὶ ἰατρικῆς πρὸς ὑγίειαν ἐκ τούτων θείων ὄντων εἰς τὰ ἀνθρώπινα ἀνευρών, ὅσα τε ἄλλα τούτοις ἕπεται μαθήματα πάντα κτησάμενος. ταύτην οὖν δὴ τότε σύμπασαν τὴν διακόσμησιν καὶ σύνταξιν ἡ θεὸς προτέρους ὑμᾶς διακοσμήσασα κατῴκισεν, ἐκλεξαμένη τὸν τόπον ἐν ᾧ γεγένησθε, τὴν εὐκρασίαν τῶν ὡρῶν ἐν αὐτῷ κατιδοῦσα, ὅτι φρονιμωτάτους ἄνδρας οἴσοι: ἅτε οὖν φιλοπόλεμός τε καὶ φιλόσοφος ἡ θεὸς οὖσα τὸν προσφερεστάτους αὐτῇ μέλλοντα οἴσειν τόπον ἄνδρας, τοῦτον ἐκλεξαμένη πρῶτον κατῴκισεν. ᾠκεῖτε δὴ οὖν νόμοις τε τοιούτοις χρώμενοι καὶ ἔτι μᾶλλον εὐνομούμενοι πάσῃ τε παρὰ πάντας ἀνθρώπους ὑπερβεβληκότες ἀρετῇ, καθάπερ εἰκὸς γεννήματα καὶ παιδεύματα θεῶν ὄντας. πολλὰ μὲν οὖν ὑμῶν καὶ μεγάλα ἔργα τῆς πόλεως τῇδε γεγραμμένα θαυμάζεται, πάντων μὴν ἐπὶ τὴν καταντικρὺ πᾶσαν ἤπειρον τὴν περὶ τὸν ἀληθινὸν ἐκεῖνον πόντον. τάδε μὲν γάρ, ὅσα ἐντὸς τοῦ στόματος οὗ λέγομεν, φαίνεται λιμὴν στενόν τινα ἔχων εἴσπλουν: ἐκεῖνο δὲ πέλαγος ὄντως ἥ τε περιέχουσα αὐτὸ γῆ παντελῶς ἀληθῶς ὀρθότατ᾽ ἂν λέγοιτο ἤπειρος. ἐν δὲ δὴ τῇ Ἀτλαντίδι νήσῳ ταύτῃ μεγάλη συνέστη καὶ θαυμαστὴ δύναμις βασιλέων, κρατοῦσα μὲν ἁπάσης τῆς νήσου, πολλῶν δὲ ἄλλων νήσων καὶ μερῶν τῆς ἠπείρου: πρὸς δὲ τούτοις ἔτι τῶν ἐντὸς τῇδε Λιβύης μὲν ἦρχον μέχρι πρὸς Αἴγυπτον, τῆς δὲ Εὐρώπης μέχρι Τυρρηνίας. αὕτη δὴ πᾶσα συναθροισθεῖσα εἰς ἓν ἡ δύναμις τόν τε παρ᾽ ὑμῖν καὶ τὸν παρ᾽ ἡμῖν καὶ τὸν ἐντὸς τοῦ στόματος πάντα τόπον μιᾷ ποτὲ ἐπεχείρησεν ὁρμῇ δουλοῦσθαι. τότε οὖν ὑμῶν, ὦ Σόλων, τῆς πόλεως ἡ δύναμις εἰς ἅπαντας ἀνθρώπους διαφανὴς ἀρετῇ τε καὶ ῥώμῃ ἐγένετο: πάντων γὰρ προστᾶσα εὐψυχίᾳ καὶ τέχναις ὅσαι κατὰ πόλεμον, τὰ μὲν τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἡγουμένη, τὰ δ᾽ αὐτὴ μονωθεῖσα ἐξ ἀνάγκης τῶν ἄλλων ἀποστάντων, ἐπὶ τοὺς ἐσχάτους ἀφικομένη κινδύνους, κρατήσασα μὲν τῶν ἐπιόντων τρόπαιον ἔστησεν, τοὺς δὲ μήπω δεδουλωμένους διεκώλυσεν δουλωθῆναι, τοὺς δ᾽ ἄλλους, ὅσοι κατοικοῦμεν ἐντὸς ὅρων Ἡρακλείων, ἀφθόνως ἅπαντας ἠλευθέρωσεν. ὑστέρῳ δὲ χρόνῳ σεισμῶν ἐξαισίων καὶ κατακλυσμῶν γενομένων, μιᾶς ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτὸς χαλεπῆς ἐπελθούσης, τό τε παρ᾽ ὑμῖν μάχιμον πᾶν ἁθρόον ἔδυ κατὰ γῆς, ἥ τε Ἀτλαντὶς νῆσος ὡσαύτως κατὰ τῆς θαλάττης δῦσα ἠφανίσθη: διὸ καὶ νῦν ἄπορον καὶ ἀδιερεύνητον γέγονεν τοὐκεῖ πέλαγος, πηλοῦ κάρτα βραχέος ἐμποδὼν ὄντος, ὃν ἡ νῆσος ἱζομένη παρέσχετο.”

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