The micro-cosmos or kalam, originally one whole, was presided over by god An, the “king of the kalam”. It was very soon to be looked upon as consisting of two parts: a northern or “lower” and a southern or “upper” part. The latter was represented by the city of Erech with the temple of An: E-an; the former by the city of Nippur with the temple of Enlil: E-kur.

At a later period the south was centered in the city of Eridu with the north in A-HA or HA-A. At still other times the north was either the city of Girsu or Kutha or Akkad or the Armenian mountains or the so-called “Westland” or even Elam. At the time of the kings of the II dynasty of Ur – the time from which a large portion of the Nippur Temple Library dates – Babylonia as a whole was designated by Ki-en-gi-ki-Uri (= BUR-BUR) which the Semites translated by “Shumer and Akkad”, the former being the southern or “upper” and the latter the northern or “lower” part -a designation clearly showing that the physical condition of Babylonia played absolutely no part whatever in the selection of these names, or else the northern mountaineous regions of Babylonia as, e. g., the Armenian mountains, Elam, the Westland, would much rather have deserved the name “highland” or “upper” part of Babylonia.

The southern part was the region of the “Father” and the northern that of the “Son”; and as the north was also the “great abode” (iri-gal) of the Babylonian gods, was, in fact, the “netherworld”, the “Son” came to be looked upon as the “lord of the netherworld”. The first and oldest “lord of the netherworld” was Enlil. The displacing of An by Enlil necessitated a shifting of the “southern” center from Erech to Nippur during the Enlil period: the “southern” or “upper” part of Babylonia, with Girsu or Kutha as the “northern” or “lower” part. Hence, the gods of Girsu (dNinGirsu), Kutha (dNergal), were not only the “Sons” of Enlil, but also and especially the “lords of the netherworld”.

Similar to the micro-cosmos was the development of the Babylonian macro-cosmos, which, though it originally formed but one whole (the An), was later on made to conform with its micro-cosmic pattern, becoming an an-ki, a “heaven” or “upper” and an “earth” or “lower” part. But the Sumerians were apparently not satisfied with this, they subdivided the “heaven” as well as the “earth” into two other parts: the “upper” or “southern” heaven, i. e., the heaven as it appears during the “summer” half of the year, and the “lower” or “northern” heaven, i. e., the heaven as it appears during the “winter” half of the year. This latter division applied to the “earth” gives us the “upper” earth as it appears to man, or the “earth” in opposition to the “heaven”, and the “lower” earth or “netherworld”. Even the very “netherworld” seems to have been subdivided into an “upper” and a “lower” netherworld: an-din ki-din.

At a still later time the boundaries of Babylonia were so far extended as to include not only the Euphrates and the Tigris, but even the “sea of the going down of the sun” and the “sea of the rising of the sun”, in other words, the kalam at this time was a “world” which was on all sides surrounded by water. Also this conception was transferred to both the macro-cosmos with its “heavenly” and “terrestrial” ocean and to the netherworld with its Sahan, which was a river consisting, like the Euphrates and Tigris, of two arms, one in the west and one in the east. When entering or leaving the netherworld this Sahan had to be crossed, becoming in this wise the prototype of the later “Styx” among the Greeks.

The conveyance in ships of the Babylonian gods from one temple to the other, at the time of the Sumerian Akiti of “New Year’s” festival, i. e., at the time, of the vernal equinox, is nothing but a symbolic action indicating that the gods have crossed the Sahan and, by doing so, have left the netherworld, the region of the north, the cold, the winter -a conception revealed in the heavens by the sun crossing the muruban or equator.

Another division of the Babylonian macro- and micro-cosmos, of the heavens and the netherworld is into “seven parts”, which seven parts were again modeled after the seven “UB” or “DA”, i. e., “compartments, divisions, spheres” of Erech.

The god of the Babylonian kalam was An of Erech, “the god of the totality of heaven and earth”. At some as yet undefined period of the Sumerian religion An was differentiated into a husband and wife: An + An -a differentiation still betraying the fact that the wife of a god shared with her husband the same name, functions, attributes, and even gender. The wife of An, therefore, was not only the “queen” or “goddess of the totality of heaven and earth”, but also the “lord of heaven and the mistress of earth”, as is apparent from Zimmern, S. K., p. 32, no. 28: 7a, where ‘Innanna, i. e., ‘Ninanna, the wife of An, speaks of herself: an-na zi-mu-un-bi me-en ki-a ga-sha-an-bi me-en, “of the heaven his lord I am; of the earth her lady I am”, a passage showing that Ishtar -and for that matter any other god or goddess – is both male and female, and that the”heaven” and the “earth”, the two parts of the Babylonian macro-cosmos, stand in the relation of “male” and “female”, or “husband” (umun = en) and “wife” (gashan = nin), where Gashan-anna tells us that she has received into her hands the E-an-na E-ki-a, “the house of heaven and earth”, identifying herself with Enlil and Ninlil,the “lord” and “lady” of heaven and earth during the Enlil period of the Sumerian religion.

This “heaven” and “earth”: an + an, or an + ki, or differentiated into En (Umun)-an + Nin (Gashan)-an and translated into Semitic by An-um — An-tum were the first divine pair, the first “father-mother” (ama-a-a) or parents, the begetters and creators of everything. They had a “Son” (dumu): the god Lil, later on differentiated into En-lil and Nin-lil, the well-known gods of Nippur. This son was the original, only and “true son” (Dumu-zi) -thus called to distinguish him from the later sons of An who usurped the role of Enlil, such as dIm, dMar-tu,d En-zu . Enlil was, as his name indicates, the “god of the powers of nature”, i. e., of thunder, lightning, storm, clouds, rain, and thus necessarily the “god of the fertility of the ground”. An, the heaven, as “Father”, Enlil, the god of the powers of nature, as “Son”, and Nin (Gashan)-a, the earth, as “Mother”, constitute the members of the fist and oldest trinity in the religion of the Sumerians -a trinity, without which an accurate understanding of the so-called Dumuzi-Ninanna myth is evidently impossible.

The origin of this myth is to be sought in the city of Erech (Iriki), signifying in Sumerian merely “city”, “abode”. Here was the temple of An, called E-an, which was the “sphere of influence” of both An and Nin (Gashan)-an, the latter being, therefore, very often called Nin ashan an)-A-anna, “the mistress of the house of An”. This name,together with that of Nin (Gashan)-anna, are the two foremost ones by which the later Ishtar is known.

We find that the “mother”, “bride” and “sister” of Dumuzi is pictured as being on her way to or through the “netherworld” in search for her “beloved”, who is described as being “dead”, having taken up his abode in the Sumerian hades -a locality or state referred to by extremely interesting and highly descriptive names. While on her way to the “abode of Dumuzi”, Nin-anna passes the socalled “street full of wailing” (sil a-si-ga) continually crying out a, or a-a, or u-a, or wa-wa, i. e., “alas”, or “how long still”, or “when at last”, “shall I be joined to my beloved?” Numerous and difficult are the obstacles which Nin-anna has to overcome until she at last is permitted to find her “beloved”, with whom she enters the “bridal chamber”.

Dumuzi as the mulu gu-ba-ra becomes in this wise the “lord of the strange (bar) shores” (land, city, house) – a most important designation, showing that the netherworld bordered on or was surrounded by “water”. “Strange” were these shores, beoause “far distant” (like the “Westland”: MAR-TU = Dumuzi) or “unknown”, “harmful” to man.

The “Mistress of the netherworld”, dNin-edin, is the sha-suk-kat of “heaven and earth” (AN u KI-tim)l or of “the great gods” (ilani ributi )and the “scribe of the netherworld” (ki) being identified with:
a) the “goddess of the strange shores”, Gu-ba(bar)-ra or also called Geshan-gu-edin, the wife of dMulu(Galu)-har-sag= MAR-TU, the well-known god of the “Westland”;
b) the dMu(sh)-tin(-an-na) = dGeshtin(-an-na), the “sister” of Dumuzi, who is likewise the “mistress of scribes” or the “sublime scribe of the netherworld”, and who in our text (col. I1 : 6) appears as the goddess of the “house of the youthful one of An” (E-Kal-an-na), i. e., of the “house of Dumuzi”, the netherworld; hence, the netherworld is called also dGeshtin-an-na-ge-edin-na, “G’s desert”.

The function of “shepherd” is a necessary consequence of the conception which the Sumerians entertained with regard to their edin and is one of the inseparable attributes of the “Son” of a given trinity. The “Son”, being in each and every case the “lord of the netherworld”, was necessarily considered to be the “ruler” and “shepherd”, the “guider” and “care-taker” of all beings to be found in the edin � whether these beings be gods, kings, men or animals.

In the prehistoric or An period, the “shepherd” was the “Son” of An, d En-lil, who even as “Father” retained among his “seven foremost names” that of sib na-am-sag-gi(g)-ga ;or more generally sib sag-gi{g)-ga, “shepherd of mankind”. Though shepherd himself, Enlil had two other shepherds under him, viz. the d Nin-ma-gukal-lu s , “lord of the sheep-fold”, and the d Nin-amash-azag-ga, “lord of the pure fold”, both of whom are designated I am”. Cf. also the name of Dumuzi: Umun-sa-pdr, “lord of the net”, into which are gathered all who go down to the netherworld.

DUR-AN-KI and E-DUR-AN-KI, “(house of) the band of heaven (and earth)”. “band of heaven” = that part of the heaven which has the north pole (an-shag-ga) for its center with the tropic of capricorn (time before Nabonassar) as its periphery. This was pre-eminently the domain of the mar-gi(d)-da (Kugler, Sternk., I, 249 = ursa major; Dhorme,R. A., VIII, p. 47, 111) which ever revolves around the north pole. The opposite of the “band of heaven” is the “band of earth”.

ESH-E-AN-NA, I : 17, the well-known “temple of An”, the “habitation of Anu and Ishtar” at Erech, K. B., VI1, p. 128 : 37. Ishtar appears accordingly very often under the name of Gashan-E-an-na, i. e., “lady of E-an”. In Semitic translations E-an-na is rendered by E-A-A-AG – a name, the meanning of which is not yet apparent. In B. E., XXVII, no. 1, IV: 26, this temple of Ishtar is referred to as E-an-na Eb-7-ne 7gi u-di il-la, i. e., “the E-an-na, the house of the seven spheres, whose seven gi (compartments?) are full of splendor”. In this E-an-nu there was an IB, which could and was burned; Ishtar herself was called Innannu IB-gal, i. e., “Ishtar (of) the great IB”.

Though E-an-na was originally the temple of An and Ishtar at Erech, yet in course of time it came to stand for “temple” in general. We find an &-an at Nippur. Gudea built an E-an-na in Girsu for “‘Innanna, the mistress of the lands” (niu kw-kur-ra), into which he brings the statue called “the life of Gudea, who has built this temple, may belong”. On account of this fact Gudea ascribes to himself the proud title “builder of the E-an-na”. Dungi, king of Ur, restored (ki-gi) and erected the great wall (bad-gal) of an E-an-na for “dInnanna, the mistress of E-an-na, his mistress”, but it is not clear whether this E-an-na was that of Erech or of Ur. Singashid, king of Erech, builds (ba-dim) the E-an-na of his capital and enumerates among his titles that of “caretaker of E-an-na” .

GU-AN-NI-SI became, like Gi-gun, Iri-gal, E-gi(d)-da, a name for “netberworld”. This “netherworld”, like its prototype Erech, was divided into “seven divisions”. Each division was surrounded by a wall with two gates (one in the west and one in the east), presided over by two gate-openers (ni-du) one of whom stood at the outside and one at the inside of the gate. Each of these “seven divisions” had also a “watch-dog”: “the seven dogs of Gula”, which in the Greek mythology became the “dog with the ‘seven heads”‘: “Kerheros”. Ishtar (Venus), being the goddess of the Gu – a n – n i – s i had, therefore, to become also the goddess of the “netherworld”: Ereshkigal, Persephone. The same is true, of course, also of Dumuzi, “the lord of the Aralli”.

The primary conception of the Sumerian netherworld, which, like its terrestrial proto-type, was henceforth considered

a) to be “wide” or “extended” (damal);

b) to form � on account of its vastness � a cosmic quantity by itself, being, therefore, divided into an “upper” and a “lower” edin (an-edin ki-edin);

c) to be surrounded by “water” � hence, the name of Dumuzi: mvlu gu-ba-ra*, “the man of the strange shores”; hence also the occurrence of an u edin, “river of the netherworld”, which was full of fearfulness (ni).

Through this netherworld led a “wagon-road” (har-ra-an guh ginarY or “street” (sil). which was, like the edin itself, “wide” or “extended” (damal). It was a “street of darkness” or “night” a “street full of wailing”, i. e., a street where every one who passed it cried out: “a”, “a-a”, “wa-wan, u-a”, “a-&-a”, “a-dan”, etc., “alas!” “how long still?” “when at last?” This “street” led, no doubt, to the E-edin or the E-Gal-edin which contained the “bridal chamber”.

The Semitic translation “difficult road” (besides “wagon-road”) is due, probably, to the idea that this road, like that which led through the northern part of Babylonia to the Westland, was one over high mountains and steep hills, which made the progress on it slow and difficult. It ought to be noticed, however, that in a good many, if not most, cases the so-called “dreary” aspects of the Sumerian netherworld are of Semitic rather than Sumerian origin. Cf. e. g., the Sumerian E-gal-edin, “palace of the netherworld” (above, p. 19, note 7) and the A(S, E)-ri-a, “house of begetting”, “bridal-chamber”, which are rendered in Semitic by namu.

The netherworld, like its terrestrial and heavenly counterparts, had likewise a Euphrates (in the west) and a Tigris (in the east). When the gods entered or left the netherworld, they had to cross these rivers. This made “ships” necessary. Of such ships or boats we read repeatedly of. dIshum (= Alad = Ninib) is the god of the Tigris, it would follow that the dSahan must be the god of the Euphrates. dDUN-PA-e-a is called, Ium(?) an-edin damal-la, kg ni(g)-d-gdl edin-na, i. e., “sheik (‘old man’ ?)of the cxtended netherworld, lion of (among) the living creatures of the netherworld” including gods, kings, men and “beasts – of whom the dDUN-PA-e-a was the “lion” and the dSumug(gan) the “shepherd”. The edin is apparently a kind of “yard, hurdle, fold”, in whioh these “beasts” are kept.

The god dIM, the Dumuzi of the “Westland”, had according to I1 R., 49 : 30 = V R., 16 : 48, the name Ug-edin-na-gub-ba, “the storm who has his abode in the edin”; cf. below.

EDIN in the Dumuzi texts signifies always the “desert” in the sense of “netherworld”; cf. G. T., XV, 19 : 29, edin A-ra-li, “the netherworld”; Zimmern, S. K., p. 26, no. 31 : 32b, A-ra-li edin-da-ma-la, “the extended netherworld”. Dumuzi is the mulu edin, a title generally rendered by be-el-si-rim”, lord of the desert”, and ascribed to the son of dUtu, dSumug(g)an (= GIR), in the role of Nerga1 as the Dumuzi of the netherworld. Nergal, therefore, appears quite frequently as the Lugal-edin-na, “king of the netherworld”.

This edin, though originally = “desert” or “netherworld”, is very often translated “the house” par excellence, the “house”, “abode”, where Dumuzi lives; but according to M. 3292, the bit d Dumuzi is a syn. of iri-gal or “great abode”, 3 of qabru or “grave” (M. 3293), of irsitim or “netherworld” (M. 3291), and even of A-ra-li (M. 3290).

Dumuzi, therefore, must not only be identified with the Umun-iri-gal, “the lord of the great abode”, or with d En-ki,* “the lord of the netherworld”, but he may and actually does appear in our texts as the U-mu-un(-e) A-ra-li, “the lord of the A.” There seems to have been, however, in this edin a special “house”, or “temple”, or “palace”, which served as a habitation for Dumuzi while in the netherworld, and which was patterned after some terrestrial prototype.

The place where this edin was considered to be situated was the northern part of Babylonia; hence, the “netherworld” appears in the Dumuzi texts as the edin(-na) A-HA ki-ge = si-e-ri (si-ir) Shu(Su)’-a-ra. But the northern part of Babylonia served merely as the prototype or pattern of the north of the macro-cosmos. The netherworld, therefore, as a macro-cosmic quantity must be sought in the north, the region of the cold, the winter.

The “god of HA-Aki -a” was d Silig-galu-du(g), i. e. Marduk, the “son of Ea (Eridu, the ocean)”, also called d Dumu-zi-abzu or dDumu-zi dumu dE-a. Uru-si-ib (= Eridu), esh-mah, esh-abzu (two temples of Eridu), A-HAki , while in G. T. XVI, 6 : 239, NUNki A-HA ki= Eri-du(g) u Su-ba-ri are mentioned together.

ki-kal = “netherworld” (syn. of edin, A-ra-li, which latter is here parallel with ki-dDumu-zi, ki-kal). Seeing, however, that the “netherworld” was according to Semitic conception a somewhat dreary place, a place of ruins, the ki-kal acquired in course of time the meaning “ruined, desolated, uncultivated place”. This place, being within or in the innermost and most secret parts of the great fold (tur), and hiding within itself all dead and living things, came to be looked upon as the great “womb”.

The netherworld was surrounded by water. That part of the netherworld which adjoined the water was “marshy” and “moory”, like its terrestrial prototype at the conflux of the Tigris and the Euphrates; hence, Karash = kardshu, “morass”, “mire”, “Matsch”, Jensen, K. B., VI 1 , p. 504.

This marshy condition made the landing of the ship, on which the dead were conveyed to the netherworld, difficult, and the progress over it hazardous, causing sometimes utter ruin; hence Karash = “place of misery”.

The netherworld was “walled” in by seven walls, like a fortress; hence Karash = kardshu, “fortified camp”, Delitzsch, H. W. B., p. 356, b. Cf. here “dig”, i. e., the “walled in place of the dead”, and Ishtar’s name: dNin-tin-dig-ga, “the mistress who brings back to life, delivers all those who are within this ‘walled in place’, this fortress or fortified camp (cf. the “prison” of I St. Peter, III : 19), who saves and restores to health and new life all those who are at the very ‘gates of hell’ or ‘hades’,” KA karash-a-ta = ina pi-i ka-ra-she-e, IV R., 22, no. 2 : 20, 21; cf. I. c, 54, no. 1 : 41.

The netherworld is the “great fold” where the flocks of the shepherd Dumuzi were kept and from which they were led out; hence Dumuzi’s name d En-ga-ra GA-RASH.

The netherworld, lastly, is the “place of judgment;” hence karash = ga-rash = purussu, shiptu, ” Strafgericht” , Jensen, K. B., VI 1 , p. 504.

——————————————————————————————

Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
He filled the E-kur, the house of Enlil, with possessions. Enlil was delighted with Enki and Nibru was glad. He demarcated borders and fixed boundaries. For the Anuna gods, Enki situated dwellings in cities and disposed agricultural land into fields. Enki placed in charge of the whole of heaven and earth the hero, the bull who comes out of the ḫašur forest bellowing truculently, the youth Utu, the bull standing triumphantly, audaciously, majestically, the father of the Great City (an expression for the underworld), the great herald in the east of holy An, the judge who searches out verdicts for the gods, with a lapis-lazuli beard, rising from the horizon into the holy heavens — Utu, the son born by Ningal.

Ninĝišzida’s journey to the nether world: c.1.7.3
“The river of the nether world produces no water, no water is drunk from it. { (1 ms. adds:) Why should you sail? } The fields of the nether world produce no grain, no flour is eaten from it. { (1 ms. adds:) Why should you sail? } The sheep of the nether world produce no wool, no cloth is woven from it. { (1 ms. adds:) Why should you sail? } As for me, even if my mother digs as if for a canal, I shall not be able to drink the water meant for me. The waters of springtime will not be poured for me as they are for the tamarisks; I shall not sit in the shade intended for me. The dates I should bear like a date palm will not reveal (?) their beauty for me. I am a field threshed by my demon — you would scream at it. He has put manacles on my hands — you would scream at it. He has put a neck-stock on my neck — you would scream at it.”

Ninĝišzida’s journey to the nether world: c.1.7.3
He …… to the empty river, the rejoicing (?) river: “You (addressing Ama-šilima) shall not draw near to this house, ……. …… to the place of Ereškigala. My mother …… out of her love. As for you (addressing the demon), you may be a great demon ……, …… your hand against the nether world’s office of throne-bearer.”

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
” (3 lines fragmentary) Sisig (a god of dreams), the son of Utu, will provide light for him in the nether world, the place of darkness. When a funerary statue is made in honour of someone, whoever they may be, for future days, mighty youths and …… will form (?) a semicircle at the door-jambs and perform wrestling and feats of strength before them (?). In the month Neneĝar, at the festival of the ghosts, no light will be provided before them without him (i.e. Gilgameš).”

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
(1 line fragmentary) …… Gilgameš …… (2 lines fragmentary) …… they answered him. …… he weeps. Why is …… made ……? …… Nintur has not given birth yet. (2 lines fragmentary) (1 line unclear) “The birds of the sky …… cannot escape. The fish of the deep water cannot see ……. Having spread his net, the young fisherman will catch you (?). Who has ever seen anyone who could ascend …… from (?) the …… of the nether world? No king has ever been destined a fate like yours. Who …… anyone among mankind, whoever they may be, …… like you? …… the governorship of the nether world. You …… your ghost …… pass judgments …….” (unknown no. of lines missing)

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
(Another god speaks:) “Let Gilgameš as a ghost, below among the dead, be the governor of the nether world. Let him be pre-eminent among the ghosts, so that he will pass judgments and render verdicts, and what he says will be as weighty as the words of Ninĝišzida and Dumuzid.”

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
“He will now be counted among the Anuna gods. He will be counted a companion of the { (1 ms. adds:) great } gods. …… the governor of the nether world. He will pass judgments and render verdicts, and what he says will be as weighty as the words of Ninĝišzida and Dumuzid.”

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
(Another god speaks:) “Let Gilgameš as a ghost, below among the dead, be the governor of the nether world. Let him be pre-eminent among the ghosts, so that he will pass judgments and render verdicts, and what he says will be as weighty as the words of Ninĝišzida and Dumuzid.”

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
“Go ahead to the place where the Anuna gods, the great gods, sit at the funerary offerings, to the place where the en priests lie, to where the lagar priests lie, to where the lumaḫ priests and the nindiĝir priestesses lie, to where the gudug priests lie, to where the linen-clad priests lie, to where the nindiĝir priestesses lie, to where the …… lie, to the place where your father, your grandfather, your mother, your sisters, your ……, to where your precious friend, your companion, your friend Enkidu, your young comrade, and the governors appointed by the king to the Great City are, to the place where the sergeants of the army lie, to where the captains of the troops lie. …… the Great City Arali …… (1 line fragmentary)”

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
“Oh Gilgameš! Enlil, the Great Mountain, the father of gods, has made kingship your destiny, but not eternal life — Lord Gilgameš, this is how to interpret (?) …… the dream. The …… and …… of life should not make you feel sad, should not make you despair, should not make you feel depressed. You must have been told that this is what the bane of being human involves. You must have been told that this is what the cutting of your umbilical cord involved. The darkest day of humans awaits you now. The solitary place of humans awaits you now. The unstoppable flood-wave awaits you now. The unavoidable battle awaits you now. The unequal struggle awaits you now. The skirmish from which there is no escape awaits you now. But you should not go to the underworld with heart knotted in anger. May …… before Utu. …… palm-fibre …….”

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
“You must have been told (?) that this is what your being (?) a human involves. You must have been told (?) that this is what the cutting of your umbilical cord involved. The darkest day of humans awaits you now. The solitary place of humans awaits you now. The unstoppable flood-wave awaits you now. The unequal struggle awaits you now. The unavoidable battle awaits you now. The evil (?) from which there is no escape awaits you now. But you should not go to the underworld with heart knotted in anger. May it be …… before Utu. Let it be unravelled like palm-fibre and peeled (?) like garlic.”

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
When dawn was breaking, when the horizon became bright, when the little birds, at the break of dawn, began to clamour, when Utu had left his bedchamber, his sister holy Inana said to the young warrior Utu: “My brother, in those days when destiny was determined, when abundance overflowed in the Land, when An had taken the heavens for himself, when Enlil had taken the earth for himself, when the nether world had been given to Ereškigala as a gift; when he set sail, when he set sail, when the father set sail for the nether world, when Enki set sail for the nether world — against the lord a storm of small hailstones arose, against Enki a storm of large hailstones arose. The small ones were light hammers, the large ones were like stones from catapults (?). The keel of Enki’s little boat was trembling as if it were being butted by turtles, the waves at the bow of the boat rose to devour the lord like wolves and the waves at the stern of the boat were attacking Enki like a lion.”

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
He played with the ball (?) in the broad square, never wanting to stop playing it, and he praised himself in the broad square, never wanting to stop praising himself. { (mss. from Urim add:) The young men of his city were playing with the ball (?). } For (?) him who made the team of the widows’ children ……, they lamented: “O my neck! O my hips!” For those that had a mother, the mother brought bread for her son; for those that had a sister, the sister poured water for her brother. As the evening came, he marked the spot where the ball (?) had been placed, and he picked up his ball (?) from in front of him and took it home. But early in the morning as he …… the place marked, the widows’ accusation and the young girls’ complaint caused his ball (?) and his mallet (?) to fall down to the bottom of the nether world. { (1 ms. adds:) He could not reach them by ……. } He tried with his hand but could not { reach } { (1 ms. has instead:) touch } them, tried with his foot but could not { reach } { (1 ms. has instead:) touch } them.

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
At the gate of Ganzer, in front of the nether world, he sat down. Gilgameš wept, crying bitterly: “O my ball (?)! O my mallet (?)! O my ball (?), I am still not satiated with its charms, the game with it has not yet palled for me! If only my ball (?) waited still in the carpenter’s house for me! I would treat the carpenter’s wife like my own mother — if only it waited still there for me! I would treat the carpenter’s child like my little sister — if only it waited still there for me! { My ball (?) has fallen down to the nether world — who will retrieve it for me? } { (1 ms. has instead:) Who will retrieve my ball (?) from the nether world? } { My mallet (?) has fallen down to Ganzer — who will retrieve it for me? } { (1 ms. has instead:) Who will retrieve my mallet (?) from Ganzer? }”

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
His servant Enkidu { answered } { (1 ms. has instead:) said to } { him } { (1 ms. has instead:) Gilgameš }: “My king, you weep; why does your heart worry? Today I shall retrieve your ball (?) from the nether world, I shall retrieve your mallet (?) from Ganzer.” Gilgameš answered Enkidu: “{ If today } { (1 ms. has instead:) If } you are going to go down to the nether world, let me advise you! My instructions should be followed. Let me talk to you! { Pay attention to my words } { (1 ms. has instead:) My words should be followed }!”

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
“You should not put on your clean garments: they would recognise immediately that you are alien. You should not anoint yourself with fine oil from a bowl: they would surround you at { its } { (1 ms. has instead:) your } scent. You should not hurl throw-sticks in the nether world: those struck down by the throw-sticks would surround you. You should not not hold a cornel-wood stick in your hand: the spirits would feel insulted by you. You should not put sandals on your feet. You should not shout in the nether world. You should not kiss your beloved wife. You should not hit your wife even if you are annoyed with her. You should not kiss your beloved child. You should not hit your son even if you are annoyed with him. The outcry aroused would detain you in the nether world.”

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
The warrior Gilgameš, son of Ninsumun, directed his steps on his own to E-kur, the temple of Enlil. He cried before Enlil: “Father Enlil, my ball (?) fell down into the nether world, my mallet (?) fell down into Ganzer. Enkidu went down to retrieve them but the nether world has seized him. Namtar did not seize him, the Asag did not seize him; but the nether world has seized him. The udug demon of Nergal, who spares nobody, did not seize him, but the nether world has seized him. He did not fall in battle on the field of manhood, but the nether world has seized him.” Father Enlil did not stand by him in the matter, so he went to Eridug.

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
In Eridug he directed his steps on his own to the temple of Enki. He cried before Enki: “Father Enki, my ball (?) fell down into the nether world, my mallet (?) fell down into Ganzer. Enkidu went down to retrieve them but the nether world has seized him. Namtar did not seize him, the Asag did not seize him; but the nether world has seized him. The udug demon of Nergal, who spares nobody, did not seize him, but the nether world has seized him. He did not fall in battle on the field of manhood, but the nether world has seized him.” Father Enki stood by him in this matter.

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
He said to the young warrior Utu, the son born by Ningal: “Open a hole in the nether world immediately, and then bring up his servant from the nether world!” He opened a hole in the nether world and brought up his servant with his breeze (?) from the nether world.

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
They hugged and kissed. They wearied each other with questions: “Did you see the order of the nether world? — If only you would tell me, my friend, if only you would tell me!” “If I tell you the order of the nether world, sit down and weep! I shall sit down and weep! ……, which your heart rejoiced to touch, is ……, worms infest it like an old garment (?); like …… of (?) a crevice, it is full of dust.” “Alas!” he said and sat down in the dust.

The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
He ……, stretched forth his hand and induced terror in the land. Enlil struck out with great ferocity. He announced: “A deluge dashing the hoe on the ground shall be invoked. At its front war shall be a …… axe, at its rear it shall be a ……. Its overgrown hair shall be a harrow, its back shall be flames. Its countenance shall be a malevolent storm that enshrouds heaven and earth. The glint of its eyes shall be lightning that flashes far like the Anzud bird. Its mouth shall rage — a blazing fire that extends as far as the nether world. Its tongue shall be an inferno, raining embers, that sunders the Land. Its arms shall be the majestic Anzud bird that nothing can escape when it spreads wide its talons.”

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O Enegir, great libation pipe, libation pipe to the underworld of Ereškigala, Gudua (Entrance to the nether world) of Sumer where mankind is gathered, E-gida (Long house), in the land your shadow has stretched over the princes of the land. Your prince, the seed of the great lord, the sacred one of the great underworld, given birth by Ereškigala, playing loudly on the zanaru instrument, sweet as the voice of a calf, Ninazu of the words of prayer, has erected a house in your precinct, O house Enegir, and taken his seat upon your dais.

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O house where lustrous herbs are strewn upon the flowery bed, the bed-chamber of holy Inana, where the lady of the plain refreshes herself! Brick-built E-muš (House which is the precinct) is flowery and holy, its …… clay established for him who tends the ewes on the high plain. Your …… house of Arali (House which is the nether world) gives shade (?) to the shepherd. Your prince, a raging lion on the plain, the šuba jewel of the Mistress whose breast is holy and marvellous, the lord who is holy Inana’s husband, Dumuzid, the sovereign of E-muš, has erected a house in your precinct, O Bad-tibira, and taken his seat upon your dais.

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O house where lustrous herbs are strewn upon the flowery bed, the bed-chamber of holy Inana, where the lady of the plain refreshes herself! Brick-built E-muš (House which is the precinct) is flowery and holy, its …… clay established for him who tends the ewes on the high plain. Your …… house of Arali (House which is the nether world) gives shade (?) to the shepherd. Your prince, a raging lion on the plain, the šuba jewel of the Mistress whose breast is holy and marvellous, the lord who is holy Inana’s husband, Dumuzid, the sovereign of E-muš, has erected a house in your precinct, O Bad-tibira, and taken his seat upon your dais.

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O Enegir, great libation pipe, libation pipe to the underworld of Ereškigala, Gudua (Entrance to the nether world) of Sumer where mankind is gathered, E-gida (Long house), in the land your shadow has stretched over the princes of the land. Your prince, the seed of the great lord, the sacred one of the great underworld, given birth by Ereškigala, playing loudly on the zanaru instrument, sweet as the voice of a calf, Ninazu of the words of prayer, has erected a house in your precinct, O house Enegir, and taken his seat upon your dais.

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O primeval place, deep mountain founded in an artful fashion, shrine, terrifying place lying in a pasture, a dread whose lofty ways none can fathom, Ĝišbanda, neck-stock, meshed net, shackles of the great underworld from which none can escape, your exterior is raised up, prominent like a snare, your interior is where the sun rises, endowed with wide-spreading plenty. Your prince is the prince who stretches out his pure hand, the holy one of heaven, with luxuriant and abundant hair hanging at his back, Lord Ninĝišzida. Ninĝišzida has erected a house in your precinct, O Ĝišbanda, and taken his seat upon your dais.

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O E-ĝiškešda-kalama (House which is the bond of the Land), bull …… great strength among the gods, terrifying wild cow, wild bull which causes lament, Gudua, your quay is a low quay which bestows water, your interior is artfully built, your mace is a …… mace released from heaven, your platform is a lustrous platform spreading over Mešlam. Your prince, the mighty god, the sovereign of Mešlam, the fierce god of the underworld, the sovereign of Ud-šuš (Sunset), Nergal, Mešlamta-ea, has erected a house in your precinct, and taken his seat upon your dais.

Dumuzid and Ĝeštin-ana: c.1.4.1.1
A small demon opened his mouth and said to the big demon,” Come on, let’s go to the lap of holy Inana.” The demons entered Unug and seized holy Inana.” Come on, Inana, go on that journey which is yours alone — descend to the underworld. Go to the place which you have coveted — descend to the nether world. Go to the dwelling of Ereškigala — descend to the underworld. Don’t put on your holy ba garment, the pala dress of ladyship — descend to the underworld. Remove the holy headdress, that splendid ornament, from your head — descend to the underworld. Don’t enhance your appearance with a wig — descend to the underworld. Don’t adorn your feet with …… — descend to the underworld. When you descend, …….”

Dumuzid and Ĝeštin-ana: c.1.4.1.1
The lad raises his hands heavenward to Utu: “O Utu, I am your friend, I am a youth. Do you recognise me? Your sister, whom I married, descended to the underworld. Because she descended to the underworld, it was me that she was to hand over to the underworld as a substitute. O Utu, you are a just judge, don’t disappoint me! Change my hands, alter my appearance, so that I may escape the clutches of my demons! Don’t let them seize me! Like a saĝkal snake that slithers across the meadows and mountains, let me escape alive to the dwelling of my sister Ĝeštin-ana.”

Dumuzid’s dream: c.1.4.3
“My sister, I will duck down my head in the grass! Don’t reveal my whereabouts to them! I will duck down my head in the short grass! Don’t reveal my whereabouts to them! I will duck down my head in the tall grass! Don’t reveal my whereabouts to them! I will drop down into the ditches of Arali! Don’t reveal my whereabouts to them!”

Dumuzid’s dream: c.1.4.3
“My friend, I will duck down my head in the grass! Don’t reveal my whereabouts to them! I will duck down my head in the short grass! Don’t reveal my whereabouts to them! I will duck down my head in the tall grass! Don’t reveal my whereabouts to them! I will drop down into the ditches of Arali! Don’t reveal my whereabouts to them!”

Dumuzid’s dream: c.1.4.3
“Who since the most ancient times has ever known a sister reveal a brother’s whereabouts? Come! Let us go to his friend!” Then they offered his friend a river of water, and he accepted it. They offered him a field of grain, and he accepted it.” My friend ducked down his head in the grass, but I don’t know his whereabouts { (1 ms. adds:) Dumuzid ducked down his head in the grass, but I don’t know his whereabouts }.” They looked for Dumuzid’s head in the grass, but they couldn’t find him.” He ducked down his head in the short grass, but I don’t know his whereabouts.” They looked for Dumuzid’s head in the short grass, but they couldn’t find him.” He ducked down his head in the tall grass, but I don’t know his whereabouts.” They looked for Dumuzid’s head in the tall grass, but they couldn’t find him.” He has dropped down into the ditches of Arali, but I don’t know his whereabouts.”

Dumuzid’s dream: c.1.4.3
They caught Dumuzid in the ditches of Arali. Dumuzid began to weep and was tear-stricken: “In the city my sister saved my life, my friend caused my death. If a sister leaves (?) a child in the street, someone should kiss it. But if a friend leaves (?) a child in the street, no one should kiss it.”

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
“Lord, great meš tree in a watered field, hero, who is like you? My master, beside you there is no one else, nor can anyone stand like you, nor is anyone born like you. Ninurta, from today no one in the mountains will rise against you. My master, if you give but one roar, …… how they will praise you!” (1 line unclear) “Lord Ninurta …….” (7 lines fragmentary) After he had pulled up the Asag like esparto grass in the rebel lands, torn it up like esparto grass, Lord Ninurta …… his club: (1 line unclear) “From today forward, do not say Asag: its name shall be Stone. Its name shall be zalag stone, its name shall be Stone. This, its entrails, shall be the underworld. Its valour shall belong to the lord.”

A šir-namšub to Ninurta (Ninurta G): c.4.27.07
My king, you covered the edge of the sea with rays of light. On that day from the gold (?) of Ḫarali you are Ena-tum. From the cornelian and lapis lazuli of the land of Meluḫa you are Ena-tum. From the dušia stone of the land of Marḫaši you are Enakam. From the silver of fifteen cities you are Enakam. From the copper and tin of Magan you are Enakam. From the bronze of …… you are Enakam (?). From the silver of Dilmun you are Ena-tum. From the im-kalaga clay of the mouth of the hills you are Enakam. From the gypsum of the shining hills you are Enakam. (10 lines missing or fragmentary)

A hymn to Nergal (Nergal B): c.4.15.2
Then Erra welcomed his king: “They have come! You surpass An! Perform the stewardship for An the king! In accordance with destiny you determine fates with him, Nergal!” Ninšubur, the minister of the great place, the underworld, greeted Nergal: “You are the lord who has made the bandits come forth (?) from the mountains. As with Enlil ……, no part of a foreign land escapes your grasp. Hero, for Enlil you piled up Enlil’s enemies (?) in a single day. Hating ……, Nergal, …… as fire, you rise up in the lands where the sun rises.” The Anuna gods stepped forward: “Like …… cracks ……, ……, you are Nergal!”

A hymn to Nergal (Nergal B): c.4.15.2
…… in the hushed streets, your …… awesomeness covers the city. The majestic and just crown …… your awesomeness. The …… is a south wind that none can withstand. At the place of the queen, the most precious place, you exercise the role of supreme deity! Directing a noble gaze, you exercise kingship in the Land! For his father he has led the people from afar. He, Nergal, has brought them to the …… of the nether world.

An axe for Nergal: c.5.7.3
Should it break, I will repair it for Nergal. Should it disappear, I will replace it for him. May Nergal look after me during my life, and may he provide me with clean water in the underworld after my death.

A prayer to Nanna for Rīm-Sîn (Rīm-Sîn F): c.2.6.9.6
In this place, you see numerous tall birch trees. The door frame, the architrave, the lock, the fence (?) around the threshold, the door-leaves, the bolt, the bar of the temple, the supporting wall of the temple terrace, foundation of the innermost holy pure buildings — all these are of very holy reeds, golden yellow or silver white. Beside the marsh of the abzu of the E-kiš-nu-ĝal, in the holy enclosure where cattle mill about, for the many lustrous …… calves to receive their presents, the …… with their calves stand before you in the sacred ……. You see the old reeds, the old reeds in the water meadows ……, the old lying reeds, the upright reeds …… well-established in these fields. Within the marsh of the abzu of the E-kiš-nu-ĝal, the holy lagoon, the reedbeds in the holy water, you see the …… reeds growing.

Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
“May the land of Tukriš hand over to you gold from Ḫarali, lapis lazuli and ……. May the land of Meluḫa load precious desirable cornelian, meš wood of Magan and the best abba wood into large ships for you. May the land of Marḫaši yield you precious stones, topazes. May the land of Magan offer you strong, powerful copper, dolerite, u stone and šumin stone. May the Sea-land offer you its own ebony wood, …… of a king. May the ‘Tent’-lands offer you fine multicoloured wools. May the land of Elam hand over to you choice wools, its tribute. May the manor of Urim, the royal throne dais, the city ……, load up into large ships for you sesame, august raiment, and fine cloth. May the wide sea yield you its wealth.”

Enki and Ninmaḫ: c.1.1.2
In those days, in the days when heaven and earth were created; in those nights, in the nights when heaven and earth were created; in those years, in the years when the fates were determined; when the Anuna gods were born; when the goddesses were taken in marriage; when the goddesses were distributed in heaven and earth; when the goddesses …… became pregnant and gave birth; when the gods were obliged (?) …… their food …… dining halls; the senior gods oversaw the work, while the minor gods were bearing the toil. The gods were digging the canals and piling up the silt in Ḫarali. The gods, crushing the clay, began complaining about this life.

Enlil and Ninlil: c.1.2.1
Enlil went. Ninlil followed. Nunamnir went, the maiden chased him. Enlil approached the man of the Id-kura (river of the underworld), the man-eating river.” My man of the Id-kura, the man-eating river! When your lady Ninlil comes, if she asks after me, don’t you tell her where I am!” Ninlil approached the man of the Id-kura, the man-eating river.” My man of the Id-kura, the man-eating river! When did your lord Enlil go by?”, she said to him. Enlil answered as the man of the Id-kura: “My lord has not talked with me at all, O loveliest one. Enlil has not talked with me at all, O loveliest one.” “I will make clear my aim and explain my intent. You can fill my womb once it is empty — Enlil, lord of all the lands, has had sex with me! Just as Enlil is your lord, so am I your lady!” “If you are my lady, let my hand touch your ……!” “The seed of your lord, the bright seed, is in my womb. The seed of Suen, the bright seed, is in my womb.” “My master’s seed can go up to the heavens! Let my seed go downwards! Let my seed go downwards, instead of my master’s seed!” Enlil, as the man of the Id-kura, got her to lie down in the chamber. He had intercourse with her there, he kissed her there. At this one intercourse, at this one kissing he poured into her womb the seed of Ninazu, the king who stretches measuring lines over the fields.

Enlil in the E-kur (Enlil A): c.4.05.1
Enlil, holy Uraš is favoured with beauty for you; you are greatly suited for the abzu, the holy { throne } { (1 ms. has instead:) engur }; you refresh yourself in the deep underworld, the holy chamber. Your presence spreads awesomeness over the E-kur, the shining temple, the lofty dwelling. Its fearsomeness and radiance reach up to heaven, its shadow stretches over all the foreign lands, and its crenellation reaches up to the midst of heaven. All lords and sovereigns regularly supply holy offerings there, approaching Enlil with prayers and supplications.

Enlil and Sud: c.1.2.2
Ores (?) from Ḫarali, the faraway land, …… storehouses, ……, rock-crystal, gold, silver, ……, the yield of the uplands ……, heavy loads of them, were despatched by Enlil toward Ereš. After the personal presents, the transported goods ……, Ninmaḫ and the minister ……. The dust from their march reached high into the sky like rain clouds. Enormous marriage gifts were being brought for Nanibgal to Ereš; the city was getting full inside and out, …… it was to be replete. The rest …… on the outlying roads ……. …… blue sky ……. (1 line missing) (2 lines fragmentary)

A balbale to Ninĝišzida (Ninĝišzida A): c.4.19.1
The king who is the lord of broad understanding (i.e. Enki) has determined a good destiny for you on your elevated throne-dais; the god who loves justice (probably Utu) has spoken these favourable words: “Foremost one, leader of the assembly, glory of ……, king endowed with awesomeness, sun of the masses, advancing in front of them! Who can rival you in the highest heaven? What can equal you?” Hero who, after surveying the battle, goes up to the high mountains! Ninĝišzida, who, after surveying the battle, goes up to the high mountains! King, you who carry out commands in the great underworld, you who carry out the underworld’s business! Any youth who has a personal god is at your disposal, there where your commands are issued. O king, honeyed mouth of the gods! Praise be to Enki. Ninĝišzida, son of Ninazu! Praise be to Father Enki.

Inana and Bilulu: an ulila to Inana: c.1.4.4
She can make the lament for you, my Dumuzid, the lament for you, the lament, the lamentation, reach the desert — she can make it reach the house Arali; she can make it reach Bad-tibira; she can make it reach Du-šuba; she can make it reach the shepherding country, the sheepfold of Dumuzid

Inana and Bilulu: an ulila to Inana: c.1.4.4
“Let me utter the lament for you, the lament for you, the lament! Brother, let me utter the lament for you, the lament! …… let me utter the lament for you, the lament! Let me utter the lament for you, the lament in the house Arali! Let me utter the lament for you, the lament in Du-šuba! Let me utter the lament for you, the lament in Bad-tibira! Let me utter the lament for you, the lament in the shepherding country!”

Inana and Bilulu: an ulila to Inana: c.1.4.4
“Let me utter the lament for you, the lament for you, the lament! Let me utter the lament for you, the lament for you, the lament! In the birthplace let me utter the lament for you, the lament! In the desert, O Dumuzid, let me utter the lament for you, the lament! In the house Arali let me utter the lament for you, the lament! In Du-šuba let me utter the lament for you, the lament! In Bad-tibira let me utter the lament for you, the lament! In the shepherding country let me utter the lament for you, the lament!”

A hymn to Inana: c.4.07.a
You are she who raises …… in their prayers. You are she who displays shining cornelian from the mountains to be admired. Bringing shining lapis lazuli from the bright mountain on special rafts, you are she who, like fire, melts (?) gold from Ḫarali. You are she who creates apples in their clusters (?). You are she who demands ……. You are she who creates the date spadices in their beauty.

A hymn to Inana: c.4.07.a
(Inana speaks:) “…… stands ……. Dumuzid stands in beauty like an ildag tree. I will fill my heart with joy. The one who makes food plentiful …… in Du-šuba (?). My heart is filled with joy, …… in heaven and earth. The house of Arali …….” (3 lines fragmentary or unclear) …… the houses in the broad streets. (One blank line on the tablet)

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
“Where are constancy, ……, ……, going down to the underworld, coming up from the underworld, the kur-ĝara priest?” “My master has given them to his daughter.”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
“You have brought with you constancy, you have brought with you ……, you have brought with you ……, you have brought with you going down to the underworld, you have brought with you coming up from the underworld, you have brought with you the kur-ĝara priest.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
From the great heaven she set her mind on the great below. From the great heaven the goddess set her mind on the great below. From the great heaven Inana set her mind on the great below. My mistress abandoned heaven, abandoned earth, and descended to the underworld. Inana abandoned heaven, abandoned earth, and descended to the underworld.

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
She abandoned the office of en, abandoned the office of lagar, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-ana in Unug, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-muš-kalama in Bad-tibira, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Giguna in Zabalam, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-šara in Adab, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Barag-dur-ĝara in Nibru, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Ḫursaĝ-kalama in Kiš, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-Ulmaš in Agade, and descended to the underworld. { (1 ms. adds 8 other lines:) She abandoned the Ibgal in Umma, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-Dilmuna in Urim, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Amaš-e-kug in Kisiga, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-ešdam-kug in Ĝirsu, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-šeg-meše-du in Isin, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Anzagar in Akšak, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Niĝin-ĝar-kug in Šuruppag, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-šag-ḫula in Kazallu, and descended to the underworld. }

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Inana travelled towards the underworld. Her minister Ninšubur travelled behind her.

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
“On this day I will descend to the underworld. When I have arrived in the underworld, make a lament for me on the ruin mounds. Beat the drum for me in the sanctuary. Make the rounds of the houses of the gods for me.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
“When you have entered the E-kur, the house of Enlil, lament before Enlil: “Father Enlil, don’t let anyone kill your daughter in the underworld. Don’t let your precious metal be alloyed there with the dirt of the underworld. Don’t let your precious lapis lazuli be split there with the mason’s stone. Don’t let your boxwood be chopped up there with the carpenter’s wood. Don’t let young lady Inana be killed in the underworld.””

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
“If Enlil does not help you in this matter, go to Urim. In the E-mud-kura at Urim, when you have entered the E-kiš-nu-ĝal, the house of Nanna, lament before Nanna: “Father Nanna, don’t let anyone kill your daughter in the underworld. Don’t let your precious metal be alloyed there with the dirt of the underworld. Don’t let your precious lapis lazuli be split there with the mason’s stone. Don’t let your boxwood be chopped up there with the carpenter’s wood. Don’t let young lady Inana be killed in the underworld.””

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
“And if Nanna does not help you in this matter, go to Eridug. In Eridug, when you have entered the house of Enki, lament before Enki: “Father Enki, don’t let anyone kill your daughter in the underworld. Don’t let your precious metal be alloyed there with the dirt of the underworld. Don’t let your precious lapis lazuli be split there with the mason’s stone. Don’t let your boxwood be chopped up there with the carpenter’s wood. Don’t let young lady Inana be killed in the underworld.””

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When Inana travelled on towards the underworld, her minister Ninšubur travelled on behind her. She said to her minister Ninšubur: “Go now, my Ninšubur, and pay attention. Don’t neglect the instructions I gave you.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When Inana arrived at the palace Ganzer, she pushed aggressively on the door of the underworld. She shouted aggressively at the gate of the underworld: “Open up, doorman, open up. Open up, Neti, open up. I am all alone and I want to come in.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Neti, the chief doorman of the underworld, answered holy Inana: “Who are you?” “I am Inana going to the east.” “If you are Inana going to the east, why have you travelled to the land of no return? How did you set your heart on the road whose traveller never returns?”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Neti, the chief doorman of the underworld, answered holy Inana: “Stay here, Inana. I will speak to my mistress. I will speak to my mistress Ereškigala and tell her what you have said.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Neti, the chief doorman of the underworld, entered the house of his mistress Ereškigala and said: “My mistress, there is a lone girl outside. It is Inana, your sister, and she has arrived at the palace Ganzer. She pushed aggressively on the door of the underworld. She shouted aggressively at the gate of the underworld. She has abandoned E-ana and has descended to the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she heard this, Ereškigala slapped the side of her thigh. She bit her lip and took the words to heart. She said to Neti, her chief doorman: “Come Neti, my chief doorman of the underworld, don’t neglect the instructions I will give you. Let the seven gates of the underworld be bolted. Then let each door of the palace Ganzer be opened separately. As for her, after she has entered, and crouched down and had her clothes removed, they will be carried away.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Neti, the chief doorman of the underworld, paid attention to the instructions of his mistress. He bolted the seven gates of the underworld. Then he opened each of the doors of the palace Ganzer separately. He said to holy Inana: “Come on, Inana, and enter.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
And when Inana entered, { (1 ms. adds 2 lines:) the lapis-lazuli measuring rod and measuring line were removed from her hand, when she entered the first gate, } the turban, headgear for the open country, was removed from her head.” What is this?” “Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she entered the second gate, the small lapis-lazuli beads were removed from her neck.” What is this?” “Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she entered the third gate, the twin egg-shaped beads were removed from her breast.” What is this?” “Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she entered the fourth gate, the “Come, man, come” pectoral was removed from her breast.” What is this?” “Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she entered the fifth gate, the golden ring was removed from her hand.” What is this?” “Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she entered the sixth gate, the lapis-lazuli measuring rod and measuring line were removed from her hand.” What is this?” “Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she entered the seventh gate, the pala dress, the garment of ladyship, was removed from her body.” What is this?” “Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she had entered the E-kur, the house of Enlil, she lamented before Enlil: “Father Enlil, don’t let anyone kill your daughter in the underworld. Don’t let your precious metal be alloyed there with the dirt of the underworld. Don’t let your precious lapis lazuli be split there with the mason’s stone. Don’t let your boxwood be chopped up there with the carpenter’s wood. Don’t let young lady Inana be killed in the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
In his rage Father Enlil answered Ninšubur: “My daughter craved the great heaven and she craved the great below as well. Inana craved the great heaven and she craved the great below as well. The divine powers of the underworld are divine powers which should not be craved, for whoever gets them must remain in the underworld. Who, having got to that place, could then expect to come up again?”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Thus Father Enlil did not help in this matter, so she went to Urim. In the E-mud-kura at Urim, when she had entered the E-kiš-nu-ĝal, the house of Nanna, she lamented before Nanna: “Father Nanna, don’t let your daughter be killed in the underworld. Don’t let your precious metal be alloyed there with the dirt of the underworld. Don’t let your precious lapis lazuli be split there with the mason’s stone. Don’t let your boxwood be chopped up there with the carpenter’s wood. Don’t let young lady Inana be killed in the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
In his rage Father Nanna answered Ninšubur: “My daughter craved the great heaven and she craved the great below as well. Inana craved the great heaven and she craved the great below as well. The divine powers of the underworld are divine powers which should not be craved, for whoever gets them must remain in the underworld. Who, having got to that place, could then expect to come up again?”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Thus Father Nanna did not help her in this matter, so she went to Eridug. In Eridug, when she had entered the house of Enki, she lamented before Enki: “Father Enki, don’t let anyone kill your daughter in the underworld. Don’t let your precious metal be alloyed there with the dirt of the underworld. Don’t let your precious lapis lazuli be split there with the mason’s stone. Don’t let your boxwood be chopped up there with the carpenter’s wood. Don’t let young lady Inana be killed in the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
{ Then Father Enki spoke out to the gala-tura and the kur-ĝara: } ” { (1 ms. has instead the line:) One of you sprinkle the life-giving plant over her, and the other the life-giving water. } Go and direct your steps to the underworld. Flit past the door like flies. Slip through the door pivots like phantoms. The mother who gave birth, Ereškigala, on account of her children, is lying there. Her holy shoulders are not covered by a linen cloth. Her breasts are not full like a šagan vessel. Her nails are like a pickaxe (?) upon her. The hair on her head is bunched up as if it were leeks.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Ereškigala said to the gala-tura and the kur-ĝara: “Bring your queen ……, your …… has been seized.” Inana, because of Enki’s instructions, was about to ascend from the underworld. But as Inana was about to ascend from the underworld, the Anuna seized her: “Who has ever ascended from the underworld, has ascended unscathed from the underworld? If Inana is to ascend from the underworld, let her provide a substitute for herself.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
So when Inana left the underworld, the one in front of her, though not a minister, held a sceptre in his hand; the one behind her, though not an escort, carried a mace at his hip, while the small demons, like a reed enclosure, and the big demons, like the reeds of a fence, restrained her on all sides.

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
After Inana had ascended from the underworld, Ninšubur threw herself at her feet at the door of the Ganzer. She had sat in the dust and clothed herself in a filthy garment. The demons said to holy Inana: “Inana, proceed to your city, we will take her back.”

—————————————————–

Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana Segment A

1-5. Brickwork rising out {from the pristine mountain} {(on the edge of ms. C:) of the shining plain} — Kulaba, city which reaches from heaven to earth; Unug, whose fame like the rainbow reaches up to the sky, a multicoloured sheen, as the new moon standing in the heavens.

6-13. Built in magnificence with all the great powers, lustrous mount founded on a favourable day, like moonlight coming up over the land, like bright sunlight radiating over the land, the rear cow and …… cow coming forth in abundance: all this is Unug, the glory of which reaches the highland and its radiance, genuine refined silver, covers Aratta like a garment, is spread over it like linen.

14-24. At that time the day was lord, the night was sovereign, and Utu was king. Now the name of the lord of Aratta’s minister was minister Ansiga-ria. The name of the minister of Enmerkar, the lord of Kulaba, was Namena-tuma. He with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the man born to be a god; he with a man manifest as a god, with the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba — En-suḫgir-ana, the lord of Aratta, is to make a contest with him, saying first to the messenger concerning Unug:

25-39. “Let him submit to me, let him bear my yoke. If he submits to me, indeed submits to me, then as for him and me — he may dwell with Inana within a walled enclosure (?), but I dwell with Inana in the E-zagin of Aratta; he may lie with her on the splendid bed, but I lie in sweet slumber with her on the adorned bed, he may see dreams with Inana at night, but I converse with Inana awake. He may feed the geese with barley, but I will definitely not feed the geese with barley. I will …… the geese’s eggs in a basket and …… their goslings. The small ones into my pot, the large ones into my kettle, and the rulers of the land who submitted will consume, together with me, what remains from the geese.” This is what he said to Enmerkar.

40-51. The messenger runs like a wild ram and flies like a falcon. He leaves in the morning and returns already at dusk, like small birds at dawn, he …… over the open country, like small birds at midnight, he hides himself in the interior of the mountains. Like a throw-stick, he stands at the side. Like a solitary donkey of Šakkan, he {runs over} {(1 ms. has instead:) cuts through} the mountains, he dashes like a large, powerful donkey. A slim donkey, eager to run, he rushes forth. A lion in the field at dawn, he lets out roars; like a wolf which has seized a lamb, he runs quickly. The small places he has reached, he fills with …… for him; the large places he has reached, he …… boundary (?).

52-69. He entered the presence of the lord in {his holy ĝipar} {(1 ms. has instead:) in his most holy place}. {(1 ms. adds 1 line:) He entered the presence of Enmerkar in his most holy place.} “My king has sent me to you. The lord of Aratta, En-suḫgir-ana, has sent me to you.” {(some mss. add the lines:) “What does your king have to tell me, what does he have to add to me? What does En-suḫgir-ana have to tell me, what does he have to add to me?” “This is what my king said, what he added, this is what En-suḫgir-ana said, what he added.”} “This is what my king says: “Let him submit to me, let him bear my yoke. If he submits to me, indeed submits to me, then as for him and me — he may dwell with Inana within a walled enclosure (?), but I dwell with Inana in the E-zagin of Aratta; he may lie with her on the splendid bed, but I lie in sweet slumber with her on the adorned bed, he may see dreams with Inana at night, but I converse with Inana awake. He may feed the geese with barley, but I will definitely not feed the geese with barley. I will …… the geese’s eggs in a basket and …… their goslings. The small ones into my pot, the large ones into my kettle, and the rulers of the land who submitted will consume, together with me, what remains from the geese.””

70-76. The lord of Unug …… he is their ……, he is their rudder. …… he is the neck-stock which clamps down upon them, …… to the place of its foundation. He is their falcon which flies in the sky, he is their bird-net. The brickwork of the great temple of Aratta ……. …… in Aratta …… great ……. …… bring (?) …….

77-113. He patted it like a lump of clay, he examined it like a clay-tablet: “He may dwell with Inana in the E-zagin of Aratta, but I dwell with her …… as her earthly companion (?). He may lie with her in sweet slumber on the adorned bed, but I lie on Inana’s splendid bed strewn with pure plants. Its back is an ug lion, its front is a piriĝ lion. The ug lion chases the piriĝ lion, the piriĝ lion chases the ug lion. As the ug lion chases the piriĝ lion and the piriĝ lion chases the ug lion, the day does not dawn, the night does not pass. I accompany Inana for a journey of 15 leagues and yet Utu the sun god cannot see my holy crown, when she enters my holy ĝipar. Enlil has given (?) me the true crown and sceptre. Ninurta, the son of Enlil, held me on his lap as the frame holds the waterskin. Aruru, the sister of Enlil, extended her right breast to me, extended her left breast to me. When I go up to the great shrine, the Mistress screeches like an Anzud chick, and other times when I go there, even though she is not a duckling, she shrieks like one. She …… from the city of her birth. No city was made to be so well-built as the city of Unug (?). It is Unug where Inana dwells and as regards Aratta, what does it have to do with this? It is brick-built Kulaba where she lives, and as regards the mount of the lustrous me, what can it do about this? For five or 10 years she will definitely not go to Aratta. Since the great holy lady of the E-ana took counsel with me (?) about whether to go also to Aratta, since she {let me know} {(1 ms. has instead:) told me} about this matter, I know that she will not go to Aratta. He who has nothing shall not feed the geese with barley, but I will feed the geese with barley. I will …… the geese’s eggs in a basket and …… their goslings. The small ones into my pot, the old ones into my kettle, and the rulers {of the Land} {(some mss. has instead:) of Sumer} who submitted will consume, together with me, what remains from the geese.”

114-127. The messenger of Enmerkar reached En-suḫgir-ana, reached his holy ĝipar, his most holy place, the most holy place where he was sitting, its ……. En-suḫgir-ana asked for instructions, he searched for an answer. He summoned the išib priests, the lumaḫ priests, the gudug priests, and girsiga attendants who dwell in the ĝipar and took counsel with them. “What shall I say to him? What shall I say to him? What shall I say to the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba? His bull stood up to fight my bull and the bull of Unug has defeated it. His man has been struggling with my man and the man of Unug has defeated him. His warrior (?) has been struggling with my warrior (?) and the warrior (?) of Unug …… him.”

128-134. The convened assembly answered him straightforwardly: “It was you who first sent a boastful (?) message to Unug for Enmerkar. You cannot hold back (?) Enmerkar, you have to hold back (?) yourself. Calm down; your heart will prompt you to achieve nothing, as far as can be known (?).” “If my city becomes a ruin mound, then I will be a potsherd of it, but I will never submit to the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba.”

135-150. A sorcerer whose skill was that of a man of Ḫamazu, Ur-ĝiri-nuna, whose skill was that of a man of Ḫamazu, who came over to Aratta after Ḫamazu had been destroyed, practised (?) sorcery in the inner chamber at the E-ĝipar. He said to minister Ansiga-ria: “My lord, why is it that the great fathers of the city, the founders in earlier times (?), do not ……, do not give advice. I will make Unug dig canals. I will make Unug submit to the shrine of Aratta. After the word of Unug ……, I will make the territories from below to above, from the sea to the cedar mountain, from above to the mountain of the aromatic cedars, submit to my great army. Let Unug bring its own goods by boat, let it tie up boats as a transport flotilla towards the E-zagin of Aratta.” The minister Ansiga-ria rose up in his city, he …….

151-162. …… Ansiga-ria ……, if only ……. “My lord, why is it that the great fathers of the city, the founders in earlier times (?), do not ……, do not give advice. I will make Unug dig canals. I will make Unug submit to the shrine of Aratta. After the word of Unug ……, I will make the territories from below to above, from the sea to the cedar mountain, from above to the mountain of the aromatic cedars, submit to my great army. Let Unug bring its own goods by boat, let it tie up boats as a transport flotilla towards the E-zagin of Aratta.”

163-169. This made the lord extremely happy, so he gave five minas of gold to him, he gave five minas of silver to him. He promised him that he would be allotted fine food to eat, he promised him that he would be allotted fine drink to drink. “When their men are taken captive, your life …… happiness (?) in your hand (?) prosperity (?),” he promised to him.

170-184. The sorcerer, farmer of the best seeds, directed his steps towards Ereš, the city of Nisaba, and reached the animal pen, the house where the cows live. The cow trembled with fear at him in the animal pen. He made the cow speak so that it conversed with him as if it were a human being: “Cow, who will eat your butter? Who will drink your milk?” “My butter will be eaten by Nisaba, my milk will be drunk by Nisaba. My cheese, skilfully produced bright crown, was made fitting for the great dining hall, the dining hall of Nisaba. Until my butter is delivered from the holy animal pen, until my milk is delivered from the holy byre, the steadfast wild cow Nisaba, the first-born of Enlil, will not impose any levy on the people.” “Cow, your butter to your shining horn; your milk to your back.” So the cow’s butter was …… to its shining horn; its milk was …… to its back …….

185-197. He reached the holy byre, the byre of Nisaba. The goat trembled with fear at him in the byre. He made the goat speak so that it conversed with him as if it were a human being. “Goat, who will eat your butter? Who will drink your milk?” “My butter will be eaten by Nisaba, my milk will be drunk by Nisaba. My cheese, skilfully produced bright crown, was made fitting for the great dining hall, the dining hall of Nisaba. Until my butter is delivered from the holy animal pen, until my milk is delivered from the holy byre, the steadfast wild cow Nisaba, the first-born of Enlil, will not impose any levy on the people.” “Goat, your butter to your shining horn, your milk to your back.” So the goat’s butter was …… to its shining horn; its milk was made to depart to its back.

198-205. On that day the animal pen and the byre were turned into a house of silence; they were dealt a disaster. There was no milk in the udder of the cow, the day darkened for the calf, its young calf was hungry and wept bitterly. There was no milk in the udder of the goat; the day darkened for the kid. The buck-goat lay starving, its life ……. The cow spoke bitterly to its calf. The goat …… to its kid. The holy churn was empty, …… was hungry, …… lay starving.

206-221. On that day the animal pen and the byre were turned into a house of silence; they were dealt a disaster. The cow-herd dropped his staff from his hand: he was shocked. The shepherd hung the crook at his side and wept bitterly. The shepherd boy did not enter (?) the byre and animal pen, but took another way; the milk carrier did not sing loudly, but took another road. The cow-herd and shepherd of Nisaba, sons born of the same mother, were brought up in the animal pen and byre. The name of the first one was Maš-gula, the name of the second one was Ur-edina. At the great gate, facing sunrise, the place marvelled at by the land, both of them crouched in the debris and appealed to Utu for help: “The sorcerer from Aratta entered the animal pen. He made the milk scarce, so the young calves could not get any. {In the animal pen and the byre he caused distress; he made the butter and milk scarce} {(1 ms. has instead:) …… diminished ……, …… he made the milk of the goat scarce}. He threw its ……, …… was dealt a disaster.”

222-227. …… approached. …… caused damage (?) ……. …… turned toward Ereš. …… the Euphrates …… the river of the gods. She made her way to the city whose destiny was decreed by An and Enlil ……. Wise Woman Saĝburu …… hand …… for him.

228-231. Both of them threw fish spawn (?) into the river. The sorcerer made a giant carp {come out} {(1 ms. has instead:) arise} from the water. Wise Woman Saĝburu, however, made an eagle {come out} {(1 ms. has instead:) arise} from the water. {The eagle seized the giant carp and fled to the mountains} {(1 ms. has instead:) The eagle seized the giant carp out of the waves and went up to the sky}.

232-235. A second time they threw fish spawn (?) into the river. The sorcerer made a ewe and its lamb {come out} {(1 ms. has instead:) arise} from the water. Wise Woman Saĝburu, however, made a wolf {come out} {(1 ms. has instead:) arise} from the water. The wolf seized the ewe and its lamb and dragged them to the wide desert.

236-239. A third time they threw fish spawn (?) into the river. The sorcerer made a cow and its calf {come out} {(1 ms. has instead:) arise} from the water. Wise Woman Saĝburu, however, made a lion {come out} {(1 ms. has instead:) arise} from the water. The lion seized the cow and its calf and {took} {(some mss. have instead:) dragged} them to the reedbeds.

240-243. A fourth time they threw fish spawn (?) into the river. The sorcerer made an ibex and a wild sheep {come out} {(1 ms. has instead:) arise} from the water. Wise Woman Saĝburu, however, made a mountain leopard {come out} {(1 ms. has instead:) arise} from the water. The leopard seized the ibex and the wild sheep and took them to the mountains.

244-248. A fifth time they threw fish spawn (?) into the river. The sorcerer made a gazelle kid come out from the water. Wise Woman Saĝburu, however, made a tiger and a …… lion come out from the water. The tiger and the …… lion seized the gazelle kid and {took} {(1 ms. has instead:) dragged} them to the forest. What happened made the face of the sorcerer darken, made his mind confused.

249-254. Wise Woman Saĝburu said to him: “Sorcerer, you do have magical powers, but where is your sense? How on earth could you think of going to do sorcery at Ereš, which is the city of Nisaba, a city whose destiny was decreed by An and Enlil, the primeval city, the beloved city of Ninlil?”

255-263. The sorcerer answered her: “I went there without knowing all about this. I acknowledge your superiority — please do not be bitter.” He pleaded, he prayed to her: “Set me free, my sister; set me free. Let me go in peace to my city. Let me return safely to Aratta, the mount of the lustrous me. I will {make known} {(1 ms. has instead:) declare} your greatness in all the lands. I will sing your praise in Aratta, the mount of the lustrous me.”

264-273. Wise Woman Saĝburu answered to him: “You have caused distress in the animal pen and the byre; you have made the butter and milk scarce there. You have removed the lunch-table, the morning- and evening-table. You have cut off butter and milk from the evening meal of the great dining hall, ……… distress ……. Your sin that butter and milk …… cannot be forgiven. Nanna the king …… the byre …… milk; …… established that it was a capital offence and I am not pardoning your life.” Wise Woman Saĝburu …… her decision about the sorcerer in the assembly (?). She threw her prisoner from the bank of the Euphrates. She seized from him his life-force and then returned to her city, Ereš.

274-280. Having heard this matter, En-suḫgir-ana sent a man to Enmerkar: “You are the beloved lord of Inana, you alone are exalted. Inana has truly chosen you for her holy lap, you are her beloved. From the south to the highlands, you are the great lord, and I am only second to you; from the moment of conception I was not your equal, you are the older brother. I cannot match you ever.”

281-283. In the contest between Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana, Enmerkar proved superior to En-suḫgir-ana. Nisaba, be praised!
Segment B

1-7.
3 lines unclear
The sorcerer ……. Ur-ĝiri-nuna ……. The sorcerer …… minister Ansiga-ria.
1 line unclear

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8 lines missing
09. The great gods (?) the great tar-ri steward appointed.
10. The length (?) of the garden was kaskal-gid.
11. The cold filled the land, it darkened it,
12. The houses of the young hero of Enlil,
13. The house of life, the temple of Enlil he built,
14. Ishtar-cakes he prepared,
15. The cattle of his lady, the sheep of Kharsag,
16. In houses, apart from cold, drink and food with full
17. heart are poured out.
18. Strong are they, like roaming wild-oxen
19. verily they advance.
20. The cold-god is mighty, the four walls protect thee.
21. The grain, luxuriant on the broad banks,
22. From its power (?) preserves them.
23. Not like an enemy in hostility does he come,
24. His people he does not destroy.
25. Kharsag for the cold constructed a furnace,
26. For the houses it appointed comfort
27. The houses my brethren inhabit,
28. Edible fruits for food the palace . . . . .

01. Myprotector(?) . . . . .
02. Thou art exalted, what . . . . .?
03. Food and drink abundantly thou . . . . .
04. For the people as protector thou . . . . .
05. My king, known of Nannar, exalted one of Enlil,
06. Ibi-Sin, in exalted power he is alone.
07. In brilliant garments, lamkbussu garments his wife and he converse,
07. The feasts of the gods as seer he celebrates.
09. The great god, the spirit of bright fire, brilliantly he raises up
10. The house of life with the bright weapon of royalty he establishes,
11. Below favor, below food, a good possession, in fullness he pours out.
12. In the midst full pails, festal vessels full for watering he makes abundant.
13. Mighty one, life of thy soldiers, exultant warrior, the enclosure thou didst protect,
14. day and night thou dost illumine.
15. The palace of the king is fortunate, great are the acclamations!
16. His beneficent power gives joy.
17. With his . . . . . with majesty the seers at his side go forth,
18. . . . . . strong houses of Sumer
19. . . . . .at his right(?)they go

Obverse
01. The mountain of heaven and earth
02. The assembly of the great gods,
03. A tree of Ezinu had not been born, had not become green,
04. Land and water Takku had not created,
05. For Takku a temple-terrace had not been filled in,
06. A ewe (?) had not bleated, a lamb had not been dropped
07. An ass (?) there was not to irriragate the seed,
07. A well and canal (?) had not been dug,
09. Horses and cattle had not been created.
10. The name of Ezinu, spirit of sprout and herd,
11. The Anunna, the great gods, had not known,
12. There was no ses-grain of thirty fold,
13. There was no ses-grain of fifty fold,
14. Small grain, mountain grain, cattle-fodder, there were not,
15. Possessions and dwellings there were not,
16. Takku had not been brought forth, a shrine not lifted up,
17. Together with Ninki the lord had not brought forth men.
18. Shamsah as leader came, unto her desire came forth;
19. Mankind he planned; many men were brought forth;
20. Food and sleep he did not plan for them;
21. Clothing and dwellings he did not plan for them;
22. The people with rushes and rope came,
23. By making a dwelling a kindred was formed.
24. To the gardens they gave drink;
25. On that day they were green;
26. Their plants. . . . .

Reverse
01. . . . . . . . . . .
02. Father Enlil (?)….
03. . . . . . . . . . .
04. Of mankind. . . . .
05. . . . . . creation(?) ofEnki. . . ..
06. FatherEnlil. . . . .
07. Duazagga is surrounded, O god,
07. Duazagga, the brilliant, I will guard (?) for thee, O god.
09. Enki and Enlil cast a spell . . . .
10. A flock and Ezinu from Duazag [ga] they cast forth,
11. The flock in a fold they enclosed (?)
12. His plants as food for the mother they created.
13. Ezinu rained on the field for them;
14. The moist (?) wind and the fiery storm-cloud he created for them;
15. The flock in the fold abode;
16. For the shepherd of the fold joy was abundant.
17. Ezinu as tall vegetation stood;
18. The bright land was green, it afforded full joy.
19. From their field a leader arose;
20. The child from heaven came to them;
2 . The flock of Ezinu he made to multiply for them;
2 . The whole he raised up, he appointed for them;
2 . The reed-country he appointed for
2 . The voice of their god uttered just decisions for them.
2 . A dwelling place was their land;
2 . The prosperity of their land
2 . They made bricks of clay of the land for its protection.
2 . The lord caused them to be; they came into existence.
2 . Companions were they; a man with a wife he made them dwell;
30. By night, by day they are set as helpers.
31. .. . . . . . .

Obverse
01. . . . . . makes it bright, exalts the word;
02. Enlil fixes its destiny as great;
03. Eanungal of the great god he founded, he named;
04. Eshubaim for the distant future the great gods blessed;
05. The house of heaven and earth, its structure he built, to brilliance he exalted it;
06. Ekalam is a structure appointed as a sanctuary;
07. Ekur abundance proclaimed; then there was abundance;
07. The house of Ninkharsag is the life of the land; for its land there is food;
09. Ekharsaggal is devoted to cerenamonies; its fate he established;
10. Eutug had neither oracles nor decisions;
11. E . . . sharkalam, for the mother was raised up;
12. . . . . . the whole land was born; the seed of the kir-tree the garden received;
13. . . . . . the king was born, the fate of the land determined
14. Ebarbargan, the brilliant, as his dwelling he made;
15. Like Enkhar, verily was the form which it bore;
16. Its hero, like Ashirig in form, verily the mother bore;
17. Its lady, like Nintu in form, gives the land abundance.
18. . . . . . . . . . .
19. To the field he went, to the city he went; into it who shall enter?
20. To the field of Enkhar, to the city he went; into it who shall enter?
21. In it their heroes were collected; they were noble
22. In decisions rendered, the word of all the gods; they rejoiced;
23. The fields, the sheep and oxen were like an ox of the stall;
24. The cedars spoke; they were their messengers;
25. The field invited the oxen, all of them;
26. The field strengthened (?) the sheep, all of them;
27. Their fig-trees on the bank the boat filled;
28. The weapon the lord, the prince . . . . . lifted up;
29. The luluppi-tree of the wife of the god, the pi-pi plantsof . . . ..
30. In Kharsag the garden of the god were green . . . . .
31. Like Enkhar was the form which verily it bore;
32. Its hero was Ashirgi . . . . .

Reverse
01. The field . . . . . who shall enter?
02. In it were their heroes collected; they were noble;
03. Ninkharsag, unique in heaven and earth . . . . .
04. Nintu, the great mother, the begetress . . . . .
05. Dunpae for the Patesi, the lordship . . . . .
06. Ashirgi, the hero, the dwelling . . . . .
07. Dimmi, steward of the plain, made alive . . . . .
07. The house of the wild goat and the ram occupied the bank . . . .
09. Like Enkhar was the form which it bore;
10. Its hero, like Ashirgi in form, verily the mother bore;
11. Its lady, like Nintu in form, gave the land abundance.
Prof. Marcella Frangipane, Lecturer of Italian La Spienza University and chief of excavations in Aslantepe, told A.A correspondent that the adobe palace, dated back to the 3300 BC., was the oldest palace of the world.

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O ……, bolt founded by An, (4 lines fragmentary) (1 line missing) (1 line fragmentary) (approx. 2 lines missing)…… has erected a house in your precinct, O ……, and taken a seat upon your dais.

And Ellil took the earth for his people.
The bolt which bars the sea
Was assigned to far-sighted Enki.
When Anu had gone up to the sky,
And the gods of the Apsu had gone below,
The Annunaki of the sky
Made the Igigi bear the workload.

At that time Adapa, the son of Eridu, When he had got the leader Enki out of bed, Used to `feed’ the bolt of Eridu every day.

The noise of humankind has become too loud for me, with their uproar I can not go to sleep.
Command that Anu and Adad guard the upper realm, Sin and Nergal guard the middle earth,
and that Ea may guard, together with his plants, the bolts, the bar of the sea
Thus no water or food escaped,. and the rigours of famine returned

Again Enki accedes to the pleas of Atrakhasis and somehow the bolt barring the sea is broken and hoards of fish (one shar, 3600) are released to starving humanity. Enlil accuses him:
I ordered that Anu and Adad should guard the upper regions,
that Sin and Nergal should guard the middle earth,
while I myself guard the earth below,
and that you should guard, together with your plants, the bolt and bar of the sea.
But you released an abundance to the people. . . .

The one who rides the great storm, who charges with lightening, who, with the holy bolt blocks up the inside of heaven,
son of An, the canal-inspector of heaven and earth.
Iskur, the man of abundance, the son of An,Enki placed in charge of it

Who closes the holy bolt in the “heart” of heaven,
The son of An, the GUGAL of the universe,
Ishkur . . , the son of An,
Enki placed in charge of them.
He directed the plow and the . . yoke,
The great prince Enki put the “horned oxen” in the . . . ,
Opened the holy furrows,
Made grow the grain in the cultivated field.
The lord who dons the diadem, the ornament of the high plain,
The robust, the farmer of Enlil,
Enkimdu, the man of the ditch and dike,
Enki placed in charge of them.

My brother, I will go round in the streets …….” (The demons said:) “Unless Geštin-ana is aware of Dumuzid’s whereabouts, she is indeed looking frightened! She is indeed screaming in a frightened way! Come, let us go to the sheepfold and cow-pen!” When the first demon entered the sheepfold and cow-pen, {he set fire to the bolt} {(1 ms. has instead:) he shouted ……}. When the second entered the sheepfold and cow-pen, he set fire to the shepherd’s stick. When the third entered the sheepfold and cow-pen, he removed the cover of the holy churn.

Marduk then creates the new Universe. First, he splits Tiamat’s fallen body into two parts. With one half of her body, he creates the visible heavens; the other half he secures in the Underworld with a bolt, so that her waters cannot escape. Having done this, Marduk measures the fallen body of Apsu and creates an invisible Heaven, Esharra, in its image.

O Shamash, king, who maketh
known to the prince his command
of
The brilliant mountain, the great
bolt, its neck
O Shamash, inmidst of the heaven
greatly
Inmidst of the world (and) its wide
desert thou dwellest.
O Shamash, judge, O Shamash,
decider,
O Shamash, judge of the gods,
O Shamash, decider, father of the
Anunaki,
O Shamash, born of father Enlil,
O Shamash, powerful lord of the
splendid heaven,
O Shamash, just god of judgment,
O Shamash, shepherd, father of the
black-headed,
O Shamash, chief judge of the land,
O Shamash, a judge art thou!
O Shamash, a decider art thou!
O Shamash, truth art thou!
O Shamash, life art
thou!

The roar of its splendor
Help thee!
Smear meal-water,
The powerful protection !
Smear the doors
With meal-water!
The house-door
The bolt of the house!
The hand that tears (it) off
Cut off!

By the seven winds, by the four
regions of heaven and earth may-
est thou be exorcised.
By the night which overcometh the
dawn mayest thou be exorcised.
By the pillar, the bolt, which submit
the lands, the devastating wind
of the ocean-floods mayest thou
be exorcised.
Not a single tree shall thou root out !
Not a single reed shall thou pluck
out!

Ningal calleth to thee: lord give rest!
May the bar of Ur, the enclosure of E-giSsirgal and the building
of Ezida be established!

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
“Lord of lofty station, foremost one, who presides over all lords from the throne dais, Ninurta, whose orders are unalterable, whose allotted fates are faithfully executed; my master! Heaven copulated with the verdant Earth, Ninurta: she has born him a warrior who knows no fear — the Asag, a child who sucked the power of milk without ever staying with a wet-nurse, a foster-child, O my master — knowing no father, a murderer from the mountains, a youth who has come forth from ……, whose face knows no shame; impudent of eye, an arrogant male, { Ninurta } { (1 ms. has instead:) Ninĝirsu }, rejoicing in his stature. My hero, you who are like a bull, I will take my stand beside you. My master, who turns sympathetically towards his own city, who is effective in carrying out his mother’s wishes: it has sired offspring in the mountains, and spread its seeds far and wide. The plants have unanimously named it king over them; like a great wild bull, it tosses its horns amongst them. The šu, the saĝkal, the esi (diorite), the usium, the kagena (haematite), and the heroic nu stones, its warriors, constantly come raiding the cities. For them a shark’s tooth has grown up in the mountains; it has stripped the trees. Before its might the gods of those cities bow towards it. My master, this same creature has erected a throne dais: it is not lying idle. Ninurta, lord, it actually decides the Land’s lawsuits, just as you do. Who can compass the Asag’s dread glory? Who can counteract the severity of its frown? People are terrified, fear makes the flesh creep; their eyes are fixed upon it. My master, the mountains have taken their offerings to it.”

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
“Hero! They have appealed to you, because of your father; son of Enlil, lord, because of your superior strength they are looking to you here; since you are strong, my master, they are calling for your help, saying, Ninurta, that not a single warrior counts except for you! They wanted to advise you about ……. Hero, there have been consultations with a view to taking away your kingship. Ninurta, it is confident that it can lay hands on the powers received by you in the abzu. Its face is deformed, its location is continually changing; day by day, the Asag adds territories to its domain.”

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
“But you will force it into the shackles of the gods. You, Antelope of Heaven, must trample the mountains beneath your hooves, Ninurta, lord, son of Enlil. Who has so far been able to resist its assault? The besetting Asag is beyond all control, its weight is too heavy. Rumours of its armies constantly arrive, before ever its soldiers are seen. This thing’s strength is massive, no weapon has been able to overturn it. Ninurta, neither the axe nor the all-powerful spear can penetrate its flesh, no warrior like it has ever been created against you. Lord, you who reach out towards the august divine powers, splendour, jewel of the gods, you bull with the features of a wild bull, with a prominent backbone, …… this fellow is clever! My Ninurta, whose form Enki contemplates with favour, my Uta-ulu, lord, son of Enlil, what is to be done?”

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The hero Ninurta led the march through the rebel lands. He killed their messengers in the mountains, he crushed (?) their cities, he smote their cowherds over the head like fluttering butterflies, he tied together their hands with hirin grass, so that they dashed their heads against walls. The lights of the mountains did not gleam in the distance any longer. People gasped for breath (?); those people were ill, they hugged themselves, they cursed the Earth, they considered the day of the Asag’s birth a day of disaster. The lord caused bilious poison to run over the rebel lands. As he went the gall followed, anger filled his heart, and he rose like a river in spate and engulfed all the enemies. In his heart he beamed at his lion-headed weapon, as it flew up like a bird, trampling the mountains for him. It raised itself on its wings to take away prisoner the disobedient, it spun around the horizon of heaven to find out what was happening. Someone from afar came to meet it, brought news for the tireless one, the one who never rests, whose wings bear the deluge, the Šar-ur. What did it gather there …… for Lord Ninurta? It reported the deliberations of the mountains, it explained their intentions to Lord Ninurta, it outlined (?) what people were saying about the Asag.

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
“But lord, do not venture again to a battle as terrible as that. Do not lift your arm to the smiting of weapons, to the festival of the young men, to Inana’s dance! Lord, do not go to such a great battle as this! Do not hurry; fix your feet on the ground. Ninurta, the Asag is waiting for you in the mountains. Hero who is so handsome in his crown, firstborn son whom Ninlil has decorated with numberless charms, good lord, whom a princess bore to an en priest, hero who wears horns like the moon, who is long life for the king of the Land, who opens the sky by great sublime strength, inundation who engulfs the banks ……, Ninurta, lord, full of fearsomeness, who will hurry towards the mountains, proud hero without fellow, this time you will not equal the Asag! Ninurta, do not make your young men enter the mountains.”

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The Asag leapt up at the head of the battle. For a club it uprooted the sky, took it in its hand; like a snake it slid its head along the ground. It was a mad dog attacking to kill the helpless, dripping with sweat on its flanks. Like a wall collapsing, the Asag fell on Ninurta, the son of Enlil. Like an accursed storm, it howled in a raucous voice; like a gigantic snake, it roared at the Land. It dried up the waters of the mountains, dragged away the tamarisks, tore the flesh of the Earth and covered her with painful wounds. It set fire to the reedbeds, bathed the sky in blood, turned it inside out; it dispersed the people there. At that moment, on that day, the fields became black scum, across the whole extent of the horizon, reddish like purple dye — truly it was so! An was overwhelmed, crouched, wrung his hands against his stomach; Enlil groaned and hid himself in a corner, the Anuna flattened themselves against walls, the house was full of fearful sighing as of pigeons. The Great Mountain Enlil cried to Ninlil:

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
“My master, …… for you, Enlil has said: “As the Deluge (i.e. Ninurta), before whom the venom has piled up, attacks the enemy, let him take the Asag by the shoulder, let him pierce its liver, let my son enter with it into the E-kur. Then, Ninurta, to the limits of the earth my people will deservedly praise your power.” You, lord who trusts in the word of his father, do not tarry, great strength of Enlil. Storm of the rebel lands, who grinds the mountains like flour, Ninurta, Enlil’s seal-bearer, go to it! Do not tarry. My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart; the fortress is too high and cannot be reached, …… its fierceness does not diminish.” (3 lines unclear)”My master, …….”

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The lord …… the wind. In his battle he smote the mountains with a cudgel. The Šar-ur made the storm-wind rise to heaven, scattering the people; like …… it tore. Its spittle alone destroyed the townspeople. The destructive mace set fire to the mountains, the murderous weapon smashed skulls with its painful teeth, the club which tears out entrails piled up noses. The lance was stuck into the ground and the crevasses filled with blood. In the rebel lands dogs licked it up like milk. The enemy rose up, crying to wife and child,” You did not lift your arms in prayer to Lord Ninurta.” The weapon covered the mountains with dust, but did not shake the heart of the Asag. The Šar-ur threw its arms around the neck of the lord:

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
But the lord howled at the mountains, could not withhold a roar. The hero did not address the rebel lands, he ……. He reversed the evil that it had done ……. He smashed the heads of all the enemies, he made the mountains weep. The lord ranged about in all directions, like a soldier saying “I will go on the rampage.” Like a bird of prey the Asag looked up angrily from the mountains. He commanded the rebel lands to be silent and ……. Ninurta approached the enemy and flattened him like a wave (?). The Asag’s terrifying splendour was contained, it began to fade, it began to fade. It looked wonderingly upwards. Like water he agitated it, he scattered it into the mountains, like esparto grass he pulled it up, like esparto grass he ripped it up. Ninurta’s splendour covered the Land, he pounded the Asag like roasted barley, he …… its genitals (?), he piled it up like a heap of broken bricks, he heaped it up like flour, as a potter does with coals; he piled it up like stamped earth whose mud has been dredged. The hero had achieved his heart’s desire. Ninurta, the lord, the son of Enlil, …… began to calm down.

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
In the mountains, the day came to an end. The sun bade it farewell. The lord …… his belt and mace in water, he washed the blood from his clothes, the hero wiped his brow, he made a victory-chant over the dead body. When he had brought the Asag which he had slain to the condition of a ship wrecked by a tidal wave, the gods of the Land came to him. Like exhausted wild asses they prostrated themselves before him, and for this lord, because of his proud conduct, for Ninurta, the son of Enlil, they clapped their hands in greeting. The Šar-ur addressed these flattering words { aloud to its master } { (1 ms. has instead:) to Lord Ninurta }:

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
“Lord, great meš tree in a watered field, hero, who is like you? My master, beside you there is no one else, nor can anyone stand like you, nor is anyone born like you. Ninurta, from today no one in the mountains will rise against you. My master, if you give but one roar, …… how they will praise you!” (1 line unclear) “Lord Ninurta …….” (7 lines fragmentary) After he had pulled up the Asag like esparto grass in the rebel lands, torn it up like esparto grass, Lord Ninurta …… his club: (1 line unclear) “From today forward, do not say Asag: its name shall be Stone. Its name shall be zalag stone, its name shall be Stone. This, its entrails, shall be the underworld. Its valour shall belong to the lord.”

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
Since the hero had killed the Asag, since the lord had made that pile of stones, since he had given the order “Let it be called Stone”, since he had …… the roaring dragon, since the hero had traced the way of the waters …… down from above, since he had brought them to the fertile fields, since he had made famous the plough of abundance, since the lord had established it in regular furrows, since Ninurta son of Enlil had heaped up grain-piles and granaries — Ninurta son of Enlil entrusted their keeping to the care of the lady who possesses the divine powers which exist of themselves, who is eminently worthy of praise, to Nisaba, good lady, greatly wise, pre-eminent in the lands, her who possesses the principal tablet with the obligations of en and lugal, endowed by Enki on the Holy Mound with a great intelligence.
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Five days passed. On they sixth day they bathed. …… on the seventh day they entered the mountains. When they had crossed over on the paths — an enormous flood billowing upstream into a lagoon …… Their ruler (i.e. Enmerkar), riding on a storm, Utu’s son, the good bright metal, stepped down from heaven to the great earth. His head shines with brilliance, the barbed arrows flash past him like lightning; at his side the bronze pointed axe of his emblem shines for him, he strides forward keenly with the pointed axe, like a dog set on consuming a corpse.

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
“The plenty of Dumuzi’s holy butter churn, whose butter is the butter of all the world, shall be granted (?) to you. Its milk is the milk of all the world. It shall be granted (?) to you.” — Lugalbanda who loves the seed will not accept this. As a kib bird, a freshwater kib, as it flies along a lagoon, he answered him in words.

A balbale to Ninĝišzida (Ninĝišzida B): c.4.19.2
Lord with holy dignity, imbued with great savage awesomeness! My king, Lord Ninĝišzida, imbued with great savage awesomeness! Hero, falcon preying on the gods, my king — dignified, with sparkling eyes, fully equipped with arrows and quiver, impetuous leopard, murderous, howling mušḫuš, { …… } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… }, dragon snarling (?) in the lagoon, raging storm { reaching } { (1 ms. has instead:) covering } all people! Lofty-headed prince, resting in the midst of the mountains, …… smashing heads!

Ninurta’s journey to Eridug: a šir-gida to Ninurta (Ninurta B): c.4.27.02
To see that the Tigris and the Euphrates should roar, to see that ……, to see that the subterranean waters should be terrifying, to see that in the lagoons the carp and the goat-fish ……; to see that in the reed thickets mature and fresh reed, first fruits, ……; to see that the numerous animals, the creatures of the plain, the ……, the stag, the deer, the great ……; to see that ……; to see that the living creatures should not diminish, to see that ……; to see that the divine powers of Sumer shall not be forgotten, nor the divine plans of all the lands altered; to see that ……, to see that faithfulness will prevail (?), Ninurta, the son of Enlil, in order to make judgments …… (unknown no. of lines missing)

A balbale to Ninurta (Ninurta F): c.4.27.06
Through the king, flax is born; through the king, barley is born. Through him, carp floods are made plentiful in the river. Through him, fine grains are made to grow in the fields. Through him, carp are made plentiful in the lagoons. Through him, mature and fresh reed are made to grow in the reed thickets. Through him, fallow deer and wild sheep are made plentiful in the forests. Through him, mašgurum trees are made to grow in the high desert. Through him, syrup and wine are made plentiful in the watered gardens. Through him, life which is long is made to grow in the palace.

The debate between Hoe and Plough: c.5.3.1
“I build embankments, I dig ditches. I fill all the meadows with water. When I make water pour into all the reedbeds, my small baskets carry it away. When a canal is cut, or when a ditch is cut, when water rushes out at the swelling of a mighty river, creating lagoons on all sides (?), I, the Hoe, dam it in. Neither south nor north wind can separate it.”

The debate between Winter and Summer: c.5.3.3
By hand Winter guided the spring floods, the abundance and life of the Land, down from the edge of the hills. He set his foot upon the Tigris and Euphrates like a big bull and released them into the fields and fruitful acres of Enlil. He shaped lagoons in the sea. He let fish and birds together come into existence by the sea. He surrounded all the reedbeds with mature reeds, reed shoots and …… reeds.

The debate between Winter and Summer: c.5.3.3
Winter made the ewe give birth to the lamb, he gave the kid to the goat. He made cows teem together with their calves, he provided butter and milk. On the high plain he made the deer and stag glad of heart. He made the birds of heaven set their nests in the broad spaces. The fish of the lagoons laid eggs in the reedbed. In all the orchards he made honey and wine drip (?) to the ground. He made the trees, wherever planted, bear fruit. He established gardens and provided plants. He made grain abundant in the furrows. He made Ezina appear radiant as a beautiful maiden. The harvest, the great festival of Enlil, rose heavenward.

The debate between Bird and Fish: c.5.3.5
…… Enki knit together the marshlands, making young and old reeds grow there; he made birds and fish live in the pools and lagoons ……; he gave …… all kinds of living creatures as their sustenance, …… placed them in charge of this abundance of the gods. When Nudimmud, august prince, the lord of broad wisdom, had fashioned ……, he filled the reedbeds and marshes with fish and birds, indicated to them their positions and instructed them in their divine rules.

The debate between Bird and Fish: c.5.3.5
Then Fish laid its eggs in the lagoons; Bird built its nest in a gap in the reedbeds. But Bird frightened the Fish of the lagoons in its ……. Fish took up a stand and cried out. Grandiosely it initiated hostilities. It roused the street by quarrelling in an overbearing manner. Fish addressed Bird murderously:

The debate between Bird and Fish: c.5.3.5
“How has your heart become so arrogant, while you yourself are so lowly? Your mouth is flabby (?), but although your mouth goes all the way round, you cannot see behind you. You are bereft of hips, as also of arms, hands and feet — try bending your neck to your feet! Your smell is awful; you make people throw up, they sneer at you! No trough would hold the kind of prepared food you eat. He who has carried you dare not let his hand touch his skin! In the great marshes and the wide lagoons, I am your persecuting demon. You cannot eat the sweet plants there, as my voice harasses you. You cannot travel with confidence in the river, as my storm-cloud covers you. As you slip through the reedbeds you are always beneath my eyes. Some of your little ones are destined to be my daily offering; you give them to me to allay my hunger. Some of your big ones are just as certainly destined for my banqueting hall …… in the mud. (1 line unclear)”

The heron and the turtle: c.5.9.2
What do they say in the reedbeds whose growth is good? In the wide reedbeds of Tutub, whose growth is good? In the marshes of Kiritaba, whose growth is good? In the adara thickets of Akšak, whose growth is good? In Enki’s interconnecting (?) lagoons, whose growth is good? In the smaller lagoon, Enki’s lagoon, whose growth is good? In Enki’s barbar reeds, whose growth is good? In the little zi reeds of Urim, whose growth is good? In Urim, where cows and calves abound, whose growth is good?

The heron and the turtle: c.5.9.2
The gift-giving bird made a plea; the heron entered the house of King Enki and spoke to him: “Give me …… a wide-open place to lay my eggs in.” He gave her ……, and did …… for her. …… is indeed …… (1 line fragmentary)She laid eggs in the ……. She laid eggs in the wide reedbeds of Tutub. She laid eggs in the marshes of Kiritaba. She laid eggs in the adara thickets of Akšak. She laid eggs in Enki’s interconnecting (?) lagoons. She laid eggs in the smaller lagoon, the lagoon of Eridug. She laid eggs in Enki’s barbar reeds. She laid eggs in the little zi reeds of Urim. She laid eggs in Urim, where cows and calves abound.

The heron and the turtle: c.5.9.2
{ It dug in the ground, …… its head upwards ……. } { (1 ms. has instead:) The heron ……, ……. } She (the heron) { (1 ms. adds:) entered the house and } cried out to King Enki: “My king, you gave me the wide reedbeds, and I laid eggs there. I laid eggs in the wide reedbeds of Tutub. I laid eggs in the marshes of Kiritaba. I laid eggs in the adara thickets of Akšak. I laid eggs in Enki’s interconnecting (?) lagoons. I laid eggs in the smaller lagoon, the lagoon of Eridug. I laid eggs in Enki’s barbar reeds. I laid eggs in the little zi reeds of Urim. I laid eggs in Urim, where cows and calves abound.”

The heron and the turtle: c.5.9.2
The prince called to his minister, Isimud: “My minister, Isimud, my Sweet Name of Heaven!” “I stand at Enki’s service! What is your wish?” “First …… is filtered on the left side, then a copper box is made, so that …… is covered. Then you tie ……, and you tie the top with string ……; then you …… with a piece of dough, and you irrigate the outer enclosure (?); and you put …… (?) Enki’s interconnecting (?) lagoons. Then let him sit …… (1 line missing) (1 line fragmentary)”

The heron and the turtle: c.5.9.2
Isimud …… paid attention. First he filtered …… on the left side, then he made a copper box and covered ……. Then he tied the top with string ……; then he …… with a piece of dough, and he irrigated the outer enclosure (?); and he …… (?) Enki’s interconnecting (?) lagoons. (Enki speaks:) “Then I, the prince, will make …… stand …….”

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Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
On that day the animal pen and the byre were turned into a house of silence; they were dealt a disaster. The cow-herd dropped his staff from his hand: he was shocked. The shepherd hung the crook at his side and wept bitterly. The shepherd boy did not enter (?) the byre and animal pen, but took another way; the milk carrier did not sing loudly, but took another road. The cow-herd and shepherd of Nisaba, sons born of the same mother, were brought up in the animal pen and byre. The name of the first one was Maš-gula, the name of the second one was Ur-edina. At the great gate, facing sunrise, the place marvelled at by the land, both of them crouched in the debris and appealed to Utu for help: “The sorcerer from Aratta entered the animal pen. He made the milk scarce, so the young calves could not get any. { In the animal pen and the byre he caused distress; he made the butter and milk scarce } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… diminished ……, …… he made the milk of the goat scarce }. He threw its ……, …… was dealt a disaster.”
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
Its king, the shepherd Naram-Suen, rose as the daylight on the holy throne of Agade. Its city wall { , like a mountain, } { (1 ms. has instead:), a great mountain, } reached the heavens. It was like the Tigris { going to } { (some mss. have instead:) flowing into } the sea as holy Inana opened the portals of its city-gates and made Sumer bring its own possessions upstream by boats. The highland Martu, people ignorant of agriculture, brought spirited cattle and kids for her. The Meluḫans, the people of the black land, brought { exotic wares } { (some mss. have instead:) wares of foreign countries } up to her. Elam and Subir loaded themselves with goods for her as if they were packasses. All the governors, the { temple administrators } { (1 ms. has instead:) generals }, and the accountants of the Gu-edina regularly supplied the monthly and New Year offerings. What a weariness all these caused at Agade’s city gates! Holy Inana could hardly receive all these offerings. As if she were a citizen there, she could not restrain (?) the desire (?) to prepare the ground for a temple.
The building of Ninĝirsu’s temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Now the ruler imposed a levy on his Land. He imposed a levy on his realm of abundant ……, on Ninĝirsu’s Gu-edina. He imposed a levy on his built-up cities and settlements, on Nanše’s Gu-ĝišbara.
The building of Ninĝirsu’s temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely to see that the great fields grow rich; to see that the levees and ditches of Lagaš will be full to the brim; to see that Ezina-Kusu, the pure stalk, will raise its head high in the furrows in Gu-edina, the plain befitting its owner; to see that after the good fields have provided wheat, emmer and all kinds of pulses, numerous grain heaps — the yield of the land of Lagaš — will be heaped up, Gudea introduced Ĝišbar-e, Enlil’s surveyor, the farmer of Gu-edina, to Lord Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu’s temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely to make sure that Imin-šatam, the messenger of Gu-edina, informs Ninĝirsu in the E-ninnu about the amount of carp and perch (?) yielded by the marshes, and about the quantity of new shoots of reed yielded by the green reedbeds, Gudea introduced Lama, the inspector of the fisheries of Gu-edina, to Lord Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu’s temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely to administer the open country, the pleasant place; to give directions concerning the Gu-edina, the pleasant open country; to make its birds propagate (?); to have them lay their eggs in nests (?); to have them rear their young; to see that the multiplication of the beasts of Ninĝirsu’s beloved countryside does not diminish, Gudea introduced Dim-gal-abzu, the herald of Gu-edina, to Lord Ninĝirsu.
A hymn to Inana as Ninegala (Inana D): c.4.07.4
When bright …… had raised its head in the Land, and when you live …… with ……, the young woman …… the hero for you, she has grasped …… for you. …… has brought the numerous …… to you. They raise …… to your ……; kids …… are ordered, and your Egal-edina, the place of calm, has been arranged for you. You are the good woman who appears radiantly throughout the Land.
A hymn to Inana as Ninegala (Inana D): c.4.07.4
(5 lines unclear) (20 lines missing) (1 line fragmentary)…… has presented (?) …… to you there. Your position ……. If …… beside the Egal-edina, then the evil demons and demonesses oppose it.

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mh-gur azag an-na se-ir-ma-cd nl-te-na
shining ship of the heavens, majestic by thyself!
mh-gur is a boat of crescent form. Sin is a man sitting in
the half circle of the moon and sailing across the firmament of
the heavens as in a majestic ship, mh: the sign MU was originally
pictorial and represented the rudder of the ship. The sign of our
tablet is New-Babylonian and can be found in the inscriptions of
Nebuchadrezzar II. It is half way between the old pictorial and
the usual Assyrian MU. gur: the sign HAR probably refers to
the body of the ship as “an enclosure”, or more particularly to “the
crescent form” of the ship, since HAR means “circular enclosure”.
The HAR of our text is much like the linear form found in the
Stile des Vautours.

u I di-zu-ka hhr-ha-ra ab-ba ti um-me-&i-ld-ld
It was the day of the word of thy judgment, bull-god
of the abyss, the day thou didst look.
I equals amdtu, “word” (Br. 518, see also Hymn to Sin, line 16).
di-zu-ka: di equals ddnu, “judgment” (Br. 9525 and Hymn
to Bel, line 7). zu (Hymn to Bel, line 21). lea = nota genitivi
(Hymn to B61, line 1).
hhr-ha-ra is the same as hhr-har-a. hhr is a value of GUTTU,
meaning kardu, “heroic one” (MSL. p. 174). We have had the
sign with the value gu (Hymn to Bel, line 9). ha-ra, phonetic
representation of har-a, with the same meaning as har of GUTTU,
plus phonetic complement.
ab-ba: ab equals tamtu, “sea” (Br. 3822). The common word
for “sea” is AB.ZU, written ZU.AB, meaning ‘sea of wisdom”, the
abode of Ea, the god of wisdom, ab also equals aptu, “abyss”
(Br. 3815). ab, “sea”, or “abyss” is a shortened form of a-ab,
“water enclosure”, “water space”. AB with the value s we have
had (Hymn to Sin, line 10).

it-sun a-ra-liu-sun gurun-gurun yes-mu u-sun gurun- gurun
The germinator of the lower world, the germinator of many
fruits, my brother, the germinator of many fruits!
u-sun (line 6).
a-ra-li has passed over into Assyrian as arallu, “lower world”.
a-ra-li is phonetic. There is a sign, URUGAL, translated by
arallu. URUGAL consists of the “enclosure” sign containing the
sign GAL and means “great house”, e-kur-be is also translated
by arallu and is equal to bit muti, “house of the dead” (Br. 6259);
more literally the meaning is “house of the land of the dead”.

When Babylon became the chief city of all Babylonia, it was
natural that its god should be regarded as supreme. It was at
this point that political lordship seemed to pass from the old Bel
to the new, namely to Marduk. Hammurabi, one of the early
kings at Babylon, speaks of Bel as voluntarily transferring his
power to Marduk. In the Assyrian legend of the Creation this
transfer is dramatically enacted. The task of overcoming the monster
Tiamat naturally belonged to Bel. But Marduk, the youthful god
of Eridu, the son of Ea, was urged to attempt the feat. When
he had slain the monster, there was joy among the gods. They
vied with each other in bestowing honor on the victor. Finally
Bel steps forward and confers an honor also. He bestowed on
Marduk his own title with these words: “Father Bel calls Marduk
the lord of the world.” 2 Marduk, therefore, is sometimes called
the new Bel in distinction from En-lil, the old Bel.
The idea of origins is apparently not very fully elaborated in
Babylonian literature. For instance, the Babylonians did not come
so near to the idea of creation ex nihilo as the Hebrews. Their
cosmogony starts with chaos. The expanse of the heavens appears
specked with stars, some of which move with regularity. The moon
travels across the expanse according to a prescribed order. Then
the Babylonian bilingual account of the Creation gives a short state-
ment of the creation of the land and sea, of man and beast.
Generally, however, the divinity that planned and perfected order
seems to be far in the background. The bilingual account says:
“Marduk constructed an enclosure before the waters,
He made dust and heaped it up within the enclosure.

Throughout Mesopotamian history, Dilmun has been an important trade centre, and ‘one of the remote areas which was at times within the reach of Mesopotamian political influence. Noticeable among the early texts mentioning Dilmun is that of Urnanshe who had wood transported to Mesopotamia from Dilmun (ca. 2500 BC). In the same early period copper is known to hae been exported from Dilmun to Sumer. About 2100 BC Urnammu of the 3rd dynasty of Ur reopened the Arabian Gulf trade, this time with direct contact with Magan, from which copper was exported to Mesopotamia. The Dilmun trade flourished in the Larsa period (ca. 2000-1763 BC), but then died out. After an interim of 400 years Kassite influence appears in Dilmun (early 14th century BC). It seems that at this time the only export article was dates. Under Sargon of Assyria (end of 8th century BC) Upe_ri, king of Dilmun, is recorded to have sent tribute to the Assyrian empire. In 544 BC, Dilmun disappears from Mesopotamian history when, according to an administrative document, Nabonidus, king of Babylon, had a governor there. Dilmun is also mentioned in Sumerian literary texts as a famous place of prosperity and happiness, and even of eternal life, with the result that comparisons with the Biblical paradise have been made.’

In the Old Babylonian period, some Mesopotamian seals depict a deity holding a crook. (cf. Seal 124 in Macropoli Collection). The deity also appears with his foot on a gazelle, but sometimes on a small pedestal; he wears a long robe or a kilt and on his head a horned headdress or a tall cylindrical hat. He has been identified as the god AMURRU. In texts and cylinder seal impressions his name is written d/AN.MAR.TU or d/MAR.TU, i.e., AMURRU(M), ‘GOD OF THE WEST’ in Akkadian. He is often loosely called the god of the Amorites because of his association in texts with the desert and steppe. He became the son of Anu the sky god and was often associated with Sin the moon god. He was referred to as the warrior god.

“From the Ur III (2112-2004 BC) and Isin-Larsa (2025-1763) periods, we have a number of textual sources which suggest that an ethnic group of people called MAR-TU were associated with the land of Dilmun– the first of three entities found to be trade partners with Mesopotamia from at least 2500 BC (the others being Makkan and Meluhha). From Drehem, a city near Nippur, we note the occurrence in two texts (dated to AS 2-2044 BC)(CST 254 and TRU 305) of a colophon which reads ‘MAR-TU (and) Diviners coming from Dilmun’ (or MAR-TU Diviners coming from Dilmun)(BUccellati 1966: 249)… In addition, other evidence suggests that the MAR-TU were associated with (sea) fishing (Civil 1961: Buccellati 1966: 90). Thus Buccellati and later Gelb concluded that the MAR-TU existed in the south in the area of the Gulf as far as Bahrain (Gelb 1968: 43; 1980: 2). Finally, this linkage is suggested by a text from Eshnunna, a Mesopotamian city on the Diyala river. In this text most likely dated to Is’aramas’u (c. 1970 BC) MAR-TU are arranged by segmented lineage affiliation (babtum). The total states that twenty-six MAR-TU are e-lu-tum-me, a term perhaps best translated as meaning’ trustworthy’ or ‘reliable’ vis-a-vis the local Eshnunna officials. One MAR-TU from the lineage of Bas’anum is said to be a-ab-ba-ta or ‘from the sea (lands)’ or the land across the sea (Gelb 1968: 43)… the newely discovered Ibla texts mention the MAR-TU principally in connection with metal daggers (Pettinato 180: 9 and commentary) and prisoners of war (Pettinato 1981b: 120, see text TM 75G.309). (Note also the MAR-TU name Iblanum as meaning man from Ibla, Buccellati 1966: 155, 246)… From the early second millennium BC, we have a much wider body of evidence dealing with the MAR-TU. This is due to the greatly increased numbers of MAR-TU escaping the hamad and entering the settled zones. As early as S’u-Sin year (2034 BC) we see that a large defensive wall was being built in central Mesopotamia for the express purpose of keeping out the MAR-TU (the MAR-TU wall (called) the one which keeps Didanum away, Buccellati 1966: 92). Unfortunately, by the early reign of the succeeding king, Ibbi-Si, things had changed:

Reports that hostiel MAR-TU had entered the plains having been received, 144,000 gur grain (representing) the grain in its entirety was brought into Isin. Now the MAR-TU in their entirety have entered the interior of the country taking one by one all the great fortresses. Because of the MAR-TU I am not able to provide… for that grain… (Jacobsen 1953: 40)

According to the year date of Ibbi-Sin 17, some of these MAR-TU apparently came from the Gulf region: ‘The year the MAR-TU, the powerful south wind who, from the remote past, have not known cities, submitted to Ibbi-Sin, the king of Ur.’ (cf. also Gelb’s views, 1961: 36)… Oppenheim’s review of UET V suggests that Ur apparently served as a focal point and port for foreign trade, specifically with Dilmun (Oppenheim 1954: 8, n.8). A number of texts describe this activity as traders called alik Dilmun sailed to Dilmun and exchanged goods. A number of texts (e.g. UET V 286, 297, 549 and 796) clearly demonstrate that individuals with MAR-TU names were involved in the trade (e.g. in UET V 297 a certain Zuabbaum; in UET V 549 a person named Milkudanum; and in UET V 796 Alazum). This then is a clear link between Dilmun and the MAR-TU– a hypothesis already formulated from a number of literary texts and Ur III economic records… It seems clear in summary that the MAR-TU were linked to Dilmun in a political sense (rulers in southern Mesopotamian towns), commercial agents in Mesopotamia (alik Dilmun), and inhabitants of Dilmun itself (Susa Tablet, UET V 716).

Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
He filled the E-kur, the house of Enlil, with possessions. Enlil was delighted with Enki and Nibru was glad. He demarcated borders and fixed boundaries. For the Anuna gods, Enki situated dwellings in cities and disposed agricultural land into fields. Enki placed in charge of the whole of heaven and earth the hero, the bull who comes out of the ḫašur forest bellowing truculently, the youth Utu, the bull standing triumphantly, audaciously, majestically, the father of the Great City (an expression for the underworld), the great herald in the east of holy An, the judge who searches out verdicts for the gods, with a lapis-lazuli beard, rising from the horizon into the holy heavens — Utu, the son born by Ningal.

Enlil and Ninlil: c.1.2.1
Enlil went. Ninlil followed. Nunamnir went, the maiden chased him. Enlil approached the man of the Id-kura (river of the underworld), the man-eating river.” My man of the Id-kura, the man-eating river! When your lady Ninlil comes, if she asks after me, don’t you tell her where I am!” Ninlil approached the man of the Id-kura, the man-eating river.” My man of the Id-kura, the man-eating river! When did your lord Enlil go by?”, she said to him. Enlil answered as the man of the Id-kura: “My lord has not talked with me at all, O loveliest one. Enlil has not talked with me at all, O loveliest one.” “I will make clear my aim and explain my intent. You can fill my womb once it is empty — Enlil, lord of all the lands, has had sex with me! Just as Enlil is your lord, so am I your lady!” “If you are my lady, let my hand touch your ……!” “The seed of your lord, the bright seed, is in my womb. The seed of Suen, the bright seed, is in my womb.” “My master’s seed can go up to the heavens! Let my seed go downwards! Let my seed go downwards, instead of my master’s seed!” Enlil, as the man of the Id-kura, got her to lie down in the chamber. He had intercourse with her there, he kissed her there. At this one intercourse, at this one kissing he poured into her womb the seed of Ninazu, the king who stretches measuring lines over the fields.

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
“Where are constancy, ……, ……, going down to the underworld, coming up from the underworld, the kur-ĝara priest?” “My master has given them to his daughter.”

Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
“You have brought with you constancy, you have brought with you ……, you have brought with you ……, you have brought with you going down to the underworld, you have brought with you coming up from the underworld, you have brought with you the kur-ĝara priest.”

Dumuzid and Ĝeštin-ana: c.1.4.1.1
A small demon opened his mouth and said to the big demon,” Come on, let’s go to the lap of holy Inana.” The demons entered Unug and seized holy Inana.” Come on, Inana, go on that journey which is yours alone — descend to the underworld. Go to the place which you have coveted — descend to the nether world. Go to the dwelling of Ereškigala — descend to the underworld. Don’t put on your holy ba garment, the pala dress of ladyship — descend to the underworld. Remove the holy headdress, that splendid ornament, from your head — descend to the underworld. Don’t enhance your appearance with a wig — descend to the underworld. Don’t adorn your feet with …… — descend to the underworld. When you descend, …….”

Dumuzid and Ĝeštin-ana: c.1.4.1.1
The lad raises his hands heavenward to Utu: “O Utu, I am your friend, I am a youth. Do you recognise me? Your sister, whom I married, descended to the underworld. Because she descended to the underworld, it was me that she was to hand over to the underworld as a substitute. O Utu, you are a just judge, don’t disappoint me! Change my hands, alter my appearance, so that I may escape the clutches of my demons! Don’t let them seize me! Like a saĝkal snake that slithers across the meadows and mountains, let me escape alive to the dwelling of my sister Ĝeštin-ana.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
From the great heaven she set her mind on the great below. From the great heaven the goddess set her mind on the great below. From the great heaven Inana set her mind on the great below. My mistress abandoned heaven, abandoned earth, and descended to the underworld. Inana abandoned heaven, abandoned earth, and descended to the underworld.

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
She abandoned the office of en, abandoned the office of lagar, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-ana in Unug, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-muš-kalama in Bad-tibira, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Giguna in Zabalam, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-šara in Adab, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Barag-dur-ĝara in Nibru, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Ḫursaĝ-kalama in Kiš, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-Ulmaš in Agade, and descended to the underworld. { (1 ms. adds 8 other lines:) She abandoned the Ibgal in Umma, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-Dilmuna in Urim, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Amaš-e-kug in Kisiga, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-ešdam-kug in Ĝirsu, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-šeg-meše-du in Isin, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Anzagar in Akšak, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the Niĝin-ĝar-kug in Šuruppag, and descended to the underworld. She abandoned the E-šag-ḫula in Kazallu, and descended to the underworld. }

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Inana travelled towards the underworld. Her minister Ninšubur travelled behind her.

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
“On this day I will descend to the underworld. When I have arrived in the underworld, make a lament for me on the ruin mounds. Beat the drum for me in the sanctuary. Make the rounds of the houses of the gods for me.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
“When you have entered the E-kur, the house of Enlil, lament before Enlil: “Father Enlil, don’t let anyone kill your daughter in the underworld. Don’t let your precious metal be alloyed there with the dirt of the underworld. Don’t let your precious lapis lazuli be split there with the mason’s stone. Don’t let your boxwood be chopped up there with the carpenter’s wood. Don’t let young lady Inana be killed in the underworld.””

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
“If Enlil does not help you in this matter, go to Urim. In the E-mud-kura at Urim, when you have entered the E-kiš-nu-ĝal, the house of Nanna, lament before Nanna: “Father Nanna, don’t let anyone kill your daughter in the underworld. Don’t let your precious metal be alloyed there with the dirt of the underworld. Don’t let your precious lapis lazuli be split there with the mason’s stone. Don’t let your boxwood be chopped up there with the carpenter’s wood. Don’t let young lady Inana be killed in the underworld.””

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
“And if Nanna does not help you in this matter, go to Eridug. In Eridug, when you have entered the house of Enki, lament before Enki: “Father Enki, don’t let anyone kill your daughter in the underworld. Don’t let your precious metal be alloyed there with the dirt of the underworld. Don’t let your precious lapis lazuli be split there with the mason’s stone. Don’t let your boxwood be chopped up there with the carpenter’s wood. Don’t let young lady Inana be killed in the underworld.””

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When Inana travelled on towards the underworld, her minister Ninšubur travelled on behind her. She said to her minister Ninšubur: “Go now, my Ninšubur, and pay attention. Don’t neglect the instructions I gave you.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When Inana arrived at the palace Ganzer, she pushed aggressively on the door of the underworld. She shouted aggressively at the gate of the underworld: “Open up, doorman, open up. Open up, Neti, open up. I am all alone and I want to come in.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Neti, the chief doorman of the underworld, answered holy Inana: “Who are you?” “I am Inana going to the east.” “If you are Inana going to the east, why have you travelled to the land of no return? How did you set your heart on the road whose traveller never returns?”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Neti, the chief doorman of the underworld, answered holy Inana: “Stay here, Inana. I will speak to my mistress. I will speak to my mistress Ereškigala and tell her what you have said.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Neti, the chief doorman of the underworld, entered the house of his mistress Ereškigala and said: “My mistress, there is a lone girl outside. It is Inana, your sister, and she has arrived at the palace Ganzer. She pushed aggressively on the door of the underworld. She shouted aggressively at the gate of the underworld. She has abandoned E-ana and has descended to the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she heard this, Ereškigala slapped the side of her thigh. She bit her lip and took the words to heart. She said to Neti, her chief doorman: “Come Neti, my chief doorman of the underworld, don’t neglect the instructions I will give you. Let the seven gates of the underworld be bolted. Then let each door of the palace Ganzer be opened separately. As for her, after she has entered, and crouched down and had her clothes removed, they will be carried away.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Neti, the chief doorman of the underworld, paid attention to the instructions of his mistress. He bolted the seven gates of the underworld. Then he opened each of the doors of the palace Ganzer separately. He said to holy Inana: “Come on, Inana, and enter.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
And when Inana entered, { (1 ms. adds 2 lines:) the lapis-lazuli measuring rod and measuring line were removed from her hand, when she entered the first gate, } the turban, headgear for the open country, was removed from her head.” What is this?” “Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she entered the second gate, the small lapis-lazuli beads were removed from her neck.” What is this?” “Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she entered the third gate, the twin egg-shaped beads were removed from her breast.” What is this?” “Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she entered the fourth gate, the “Come, man, come” pectoral was removed from her breast.” What is this?” “Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she entered the fifth gate, the golden ring was removed from her hand.” What is this?” “Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she entered the sixth gate, the lapis-lazuli measuring rod and measuring line were removed from her hand.” What is this?” “Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she entered the seventh gate, the pala dress, the garment of ladyship, was removed from her body.” What is this?” “Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she had entered the E-kur, the house of Enlil, she lamented before Enlil: “Father Enlil, don’t let anyone kill your daughter in the underworld. Don’t let your precious metal be alloyed there with the dirt of the underworld. Don’t let your precious lapis lazuli be split there with the mason’s stone. Don’t let your boxwood be chopped up there with the carpenter’s wood. Don’t let young lady Inana be killed in the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
In his rage Father Enlil answered Ninšubur: “My daughter craved the great heaven and she craved the great below as well. Inana craved the great heaven and she craved the great below as well. The divine powers of the underworld are divine powers which should not be craved, for whoever gets them must remain in the underworld. Who, having got to that place, could then expect to come up again?”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Thus Father Enlil did not help in this matter, so she went to Urim. In the E-mud-kura at Urim, when she had entered the E-kiš-nu-ĝal, the house of Nanna, she lamented before Nanna: “Father Nanna, don’t let your daughter be killed in the underworld. Don’t let your precious metal be alloyed there with the dirt of the underworld. Don’t let your precious lapis lazuli be split there with the mason’s stone. Don’t let your boxwood be chopped up there with the carpenter’s wood. Don’t let young lady Inana be killed in the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
In his rage Father Nanna answered Ninšubur: “My daughter craved the great heaven and she craved the great below as well. Inana craved the great heaven and she craved the great below as well. The divine powers of the underworld are divine powers which should not be craved, for whoever gets them must remain in the underworld. Who, having got to that place, could then expect to come up again?”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Thus Father Nanna did not help her in this matter, so she went to Eridug. In Eridug, when she had entered the house of Enki, she lamented before Enki: “Father Enki, don’t let anyone kill your daughter in the underworld. Don’t let your precious metal be alloyed there with the dirt of the underworld. Don’t let your precious lapis lazuli be split there with the mason’s stone. Don’t let your boxwood be chopped up there with the carpenter’s wood. Don’t let young lady Inana be killed in the underworld.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
{ Then Father Enki spoke out to the gala-tura and the kur-ĝara: } ” { (1 ms. has instead the line:) One of you sprinkle the life-giving plant over her, and the other the life-giving water. } Go and direct your steps to the underworld. Flit past the door like flies. Slip through the door pivots like phantoms. The mother who gave birth, Ereškigala, on account of her children, is lying there. Her holy shoulders are not covered by a linen cloth. Her breasts are not full like a šagan vessel. Her nails are like a pickaxe (?) upon her. The hair on her head is bunched up as if it were leeks.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Ereškigala said to the gala-tura and the kur-ĝara: “Bring your queen ……, your …… has been seized.” Inana, because of Enki’s instructions, was about to ascend from the underworld. But as Inana was about to ascend from the underworld, the Anuna seized her: “Who has ever ascended from the underworld, has ascended unscathed from the underworld? If Inana is to ascend from the underworld, let her provide a substitute for herself.”

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
So when Inana left the underworld, the one in front of her, though not a minister, held a sceptre in his hand; the one behind her, though not an escort, carried a mace at his hip, while the small demons, like a reed enclosure, and the big demons, like the reeds of a fence, restrained her on all sides.

Inana’s descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
After Inana had ascended from the underworld, Ninšubur threw herself at her feet at the door of the Ganzer. She had sat in the dust and clothed herself in a filthy garment. The demons said to holy Inana: “Inana, proceed to your city, we will take her back.”

Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
“Lord, great meš tree in a watered field, hero, who is like you? My master, beside you there is no one else, nor can anyone stand like you, nor is anyone born like you. Ninurta, from today no one in the mountains will rise against you. My master, if you give but one roar, …… how they will praise you!” (1 line unclear) “Lord Ninurta …….” (7 lines fragmentary) After he had pulled up the Asag like esparto grass in the rebel lands, torn it up like esparto grass, Lord Ninurta …… his club: (1 line unclear) “From today forward, do not say Asag: its name shall be Stone. Its name shall be zalag stone, its name shall be Stone. This, its entrails, shall be the underworld. Its valour shall belong to the lord.”

Ninĝišzida’s journey to the nether world: c.1.7.3
The evil demon who was in their midst called out to { Lugal-ki-suna } { (2 mss. have instead:) Ninĝišzida }: “{ Lugal-ki-suna } { (1 ms. has instead:) Lugal-ki-bura }, look at your sister!” Having looked at his sister, { Lugal-ki-suna } { (1 ms. has instead:) Lugal-ki-bura } said to her: “He sails with me, he sails with me. Why should you sail { (1 ms. adds:) to the underworld }? Lady, the demon sails with me. Why should you sail { (1 ms. adds:) to the underworld }? The thresher sails with me. Why should you sail { (1 ms. adds:) to the underworld }? The man who has bound my hands sails with me. Why should you sail? The man who has tied my arms sails with me. Why should you sail?”

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
“Oh Gilgameš! Enlil, the Great Mountain, the father of gods, has made kingship your destiny, but not eternal life — Lord Gilgameš, this is how to interpret (?) …… the dream. The …… and …… of life should not make you feel sad, should not make you despair, should not make you feel depressed. You must have been told that this is what the bane of being human involves. You must have been told that this is what the cutting of your umbilical cord involved. The darkest day of humans awaits you now. The solitary place of humans awaits you now. The unstoppable flood-wave awaits you now. The unavoidable battle awaits you now. The unequal struggle awaits you now. The skirmish from which there is no escape awaits you now. But you should not go to the underworld with heart knotted in anger. May …… before Utu. …… palm-fibre …….”

The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
“You must have been told (?) that this is what your being (?) a human involves. You must have been told (?) that this is what the cutting of your umbilical cord involved. The darkest day of humans awaits you now. The solitary place of humans awaits you now. The unstoppable flood-wave awaits you now. The unequal struggle awaits you now. The unavoidable battle awaits you now. The evil (?) from which there is no escape awaits you now. But you should not go to the underworld with heart knotted in anger. May it be …… before Utu. Let it be unravelled like palm-fibre and peeled (?) like garlic.”

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
“Did you see him who had no respect for the word of his mother and father?” “I saw him.” “How does he fare?” “”O my body! O my limbs!” he never ceases to cry.” “Did you see him who was reached by the curse of his mother and father?” “I saw him.” “How does he fare?” “He is deprived of an heir. His spirit roams about.” “Did you see him who …… the name of his god?” “I saw him.” “How does he fare?” “His spirit …….” “Did you see the spirit of him who has no funerary offerings?” “I saw him.” “How does he fare?” “He eats the scraps and the crumbs …… tossed out in the street.” “Did you see my little stillborn children who never knew existence?””I saw them.” “How do they fare?” “They play at a table of gold and silver, laden with honey and ghee.” “Did you see him who was set on fire?” “I did not see him. His smoke went up to the sky. His spirit does not live in the underworld.”

Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
“In Unug people are dying, and souls are full of distress. People are lost — that fills me with dismay. I lean out over the city wall: bodies in the water make the river almost overflow. That is what I see: that people die thus, which fills me with despair; that the end of life is unavoidable; that the grave, the all-powerful underworld, will spare no one; that no one is tall enough to block off the underworld; that no one is broad enough to cover over the underworld — the boundary that a man cannot cross at the final end of life. By the life of my own mother Ninsumun, and of my father, holy Lugalbanda! My personal god Enki, Lord Nudimmud, (3 lines fragmentary)I will complete …… there. I will bring …… there.”

The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
To Ḫušbisag, the wife of Namtar, in her palace, the shepherd Ur-Namma offered a chest (?) with a lapis-lazuli handle, containing (?) everything that is essential in the underworld, a silver hair clasp adorned with lapis-lazuli, and a comb of womanly fashion.

The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
After the king had presented properly the offerings of the nether world, after Ur-Namma had presented properly the offerings of the nether world, the …… of the underworld, the ……, seated Ur-Namma on a great dais of the nether world and set up a dwelling place for him in the nether world. At the command of Ereškigala all the soldiers who had been killed by weapons and all the men who had been found guilty were given into the king’s hands. Ur-Namma was ……, so with Gilgameš, his beloved brother, he will issue the judgments of the nether world and render the decisions of the nether world.

The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
To Ḫušbisag, the wife of Namtar, in her palace, the shepherd Ur-Namma offered a chest with a lapis-lazuli handle, containing (?) everything that is essential in the underworld, a hair clasp adorned with lapis-lazuli, and seven (?) combs of womanly fashion.

The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
After the offerings were presented to the great …… of the underworld, the Anuna, they (?) seated Ur-Namma on a great dais of the nether world and set up a dwelling place for him in the nether world. At the command of Ereškigala, with (?) Gilgameš, his beloved brother, he will pass the judgments of the nether world and render the …… decisions concerning (?) all the men who fell by weapons and all the men who …… guilty.

An adab (?) to Nergal for Šulgi (?) (Šulgi U): c.2.4.2.21
Nergal who ……, …… great awe, who …… the underworld — its awesome radiance …… the battle-net, its awesomeness has filled heaven and earth.

A šir-namgala to Mešlamta-ea and Lugal-era for Ibbi-Suen (Ibbi-Suen B): c.2.4.5.2
Trustworthy warrior, I will praise you! Lord Lugal-era, I will praise you! You are the great and august neck-stock of the gods, you are a great awesomeness resting heavily upon the Land, a heavy flood-wave covering the foreign land. Your river is a mighty river, the river which determines destinies, an august river where the sun rises, which nobody can bear to look upon. Great barge riding on the flood waters, Lord Lugal-era: when you set foot in the place where all mankind is gathered, the princes of the underworld bow down before you; in the abyss you emit a bright light to them. …… has been placed in your hands. Lord Lugal-era, your greatness extends to the outer limits of heaven.

An adab to Nergal for Šu-ilīšu (Šu-ilīšu A): c.2.5.2.1
Lord who, like his own father Nunamnir, has the power to create life, Nergal, enduring house (?), underworld — you are the junior Enlil! It is in your power to determine destinies, to render judgments and to make decisions, Nergal, your great hands are filled with mighty actions and terrible powers! Great rites which are revealed to no one are organised for you! Nergal, among this people it is you who take charge of the divine plans and the purification rites!

An adab to Nergal for Šu-ilīšu (Šu-ilīšu A): c.2.5.2.1
Lord of the underworld, who acts swiftly in everything, whose terrifying anger smites the wicked, Nergal, single-handed crusher, who tortures the disobedient — the powerful ones, fearsome terror of the Land, respected lord and hero, established offspring of Nunamnir ……! Nergal, who sprinkles cool water on the angry heart of Enlil, great lord ……! Nergal, standing ready for battle, superior with head lifted high, lord who overpowers all the wicked like a lion, ……, unwilling to turn back at the door-pivot! Nergal, great battle-net for malefactors, covering all enemies! Warrior, you are a great and furious storm upon the land which disobeys your father! Nergal, you terrify the walled cities and the settlements as you stand in your path like a wild bull, smiting them with your great horns! Nergal, you have consumed their brickwork as if it were chaff in the air. When you lift your furious face, no one dare look at it. When you have …… { in the Land } { (1 ms. has instead:) among that people }, Nergal, you pour their blood down the wadis like rain. You afflict all the wicked peoples with woe, and deprive all of them of their lives.

A hymn to Ḫaia for Rīm-Sîn (Rīm-Sîn B): c.2.6.9.2
Ḫaia, linen-clad priest of E-unir, who stocks the holy uzga precinct; learned scholar of the shrine E-kiš-nu-ĝal, whose august name is great, whose mind is discerning; who dwells in the great dining-hall alongside the maiden Ningal! Fair of features, beloved spouse of Nun-bar-še-gunu and augustly renowned father-in-law of Father Enlil, the Great Mountain; junior administrator, possessor of wisdom, acknowledged in heaven and earth, who receives the tribute for the gods, the abundance of mountains and seas! Interpreter of the obscurity of Enlil’s (?) words, skilful one who steers the august princely divine powers, with …… girt at his side! Formed (?) with a broad heart, holding in his hands the holy divine plans of the temple of Eridug, Ḫaia, who wears the ceremonial robe during pure lustrations of the engur! Indagara, administrator who performs the opening of the mouth for the gods in the heavens and in the underworld, and who is versed in the meaning of obscure tablets; craftsman of the great gods!

Enlil in the E-kur (Enlil A): c.4.05.1
Enlil, holy Uraš is favoured with beauty for you; you are greatly suited for the abzu, the holy { throne } { (1 ms. has instead:) engur }; you refresh yourself in the deep underworld, the holy chamber. Your presence spreads awesomeness over the E-kur, the shining temple, the lofty dwelling. Its fearsomeness and radiance reach up to heaven, its shadow stretches over all the foreign lands, and its crenellation reaches up to the midst of heaven. All lords and sovereigns regularly supply holy offerings there, approaching Enlil with prayers and supplications.

A hymn to Ḫendursaĝa (Ḫendursaĝa A): c.4.06.1
You have no river where fish could be caught by the fisheries inspector as they dart about there. No produce is derived by the farmer from your fields. The collector of cattle taxes cannot collect a single bull from your cattle; the shepherd cannot penetrate among your flocks, nor can he make an official assessment. There is no reed …… among your stakes (?). Your dough trough does not produce any revenue. But the robber who encounters you is ……. On the quiet streets ……; in the play areas you …… very much. You are the chief constable of the dead people who are brought to the underworld. Ḫendursaĝa, you have great divine powers, more than anyone could require.

A hymn to Ḫendursaĝa (Ḫendursaĝa A): c.4.06.1
(1 line fragmentary) You are the leader of ……. You are the accountant of the black-headed. You are the chief constable of the dead people who are brought to the underworld. Chief herald, who …… playing in streets and on roofs, …… of the dark houses ……, who peers (?) out from the rooftops (?) of the Land, Lord Ḫendursaĝa: because you were that too, after Enki had had intercourse with ……, he destined the seven sons that she had borne to him — those seven sons of a crab — for the starvation of heaven; he placed them by at your behest, for the crushing (?) of the people of earth.

A hymn to Inana as Ninegala (Inana D): c.4.07.4
At the New Year, at the festival of Dumuzid, your spouse Ama-ušumgal-ana, Lord Dumuzid, steps forward to you. …… of weeping are brought to you, Inana, as offerings. The tubes of the underworld are opened for you, and memorial libations are poured down them for you. The en priests, the lumaḫ priests and the nindiĝir priestesses, and the dead luzid and amalu, eat meals for you, to keep away the ghosts, and drink water for you, to keep away the ghosts. Your holy dais is set up beside them.

A hymn to Nergal (Nergal B): c.4.15.2
Then Erra welcomed his king: “They have come! You surpass An! Perform the stewardship for An the king! In accordance with destiny you determine fates with him, Nergal!” Ninšubur, the minister of the great place, the underworld, greeted Nergal: “You are the lord who has made the bandits come forth (?) from the mountains. As with Enlil ……, no part of a foreign land escapes your grasp. Hero, for Enlil you piled up Enlil’s enemies (?) in a single day. Hating ……, Nergal, …… as fire, you rise up in the lands where the sun rises.” The Anuna gods stepped forward: “Like …… cracks ……, ……, you are Nergal!”

A balbale to Ninĝišzida (Ninĝišzida A): c.4.19.1
The king who is the lord of broad understanding (i.e. Enki) has determined a good destiny for you on your elevated throne-dais; the god who loves justice (probably Utu) has spoken these favourable words: “Foremost one, leader of the assembly, glory of ……, king endowed with awesomeness, sun of the masses, advancing in front of them! Who can rival you in the highest heaven? What can equal you?” Hero who, after surveying the battle, goes up to the high mountains! Ninĝišzida, who, after surveying the battle, goes up to the high mountains! King, you who carry out commands in the great underworld, you who carry out the underworld’s business! Any youth who has a personal god is at your disposal, there where your commands are issued. O king, honeyed mouth of the gods! Praise be to Enki. Ninĝišzida, son of Ninazu! Praise be to Father Enki.

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O Enegir, great libation pipe, libation pipe to the underworld of Ereškigala, Gudua (Entrance to the nether world) of Sumer where mankind is gathered, E-gida (Long house), in the land your shadow has stretched over the princes of the land. Your prince, the seed of the great lord, the sacred one of the great underworld, given birth by Ereškigala, playing loudly on the zanaru instrument, sweet as the voice of a calf, Ninazu of the words of prayer, has erected a house in your precinct, O house Enegir, and taken his seat upon your dais.

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O primeval place, deep mountain founded in an artful fashion, shrine, terrifying place lying in a pasture, a dread whose lofty ways none can fathom, Ĝišbanda, neck-stock, meshed net, shackles of the great underworld from which none can escape, your exterior is raised up, prominent like a snare, your interior is where the sun rises, endowed with wide-spreading plenty. Your prince is the prince who stretches out his pure hand, the holy one of heaven, with luxuriant and abundant hair hanging at his back, Lord Ninĝišzida. Ninĝišzida has erected a house in your precinct, O Ĝišbanda, and taken his seat upon your dais.

The temple hymns: c.4.80.1
O E-ĝiškešda-kalama (House which is the bond of the Land), bull …… great strength among the gods, terrifying wild cow, wild bull which causes lament, Gudua, your quay is a low quay which bestows water, your interior is artfully built, your mace is a …… mace released from heaven, your platform is a lustrous platform spreading over Mešlam. Your prince, the mighty god, the sovereign of Mešlam, the fierce god of the underworld, the sovereign of Ud-šuš (Sunset), Nergal, Mešlamta-ea, has erected a house in your precinct, and taken his seat upon your dais.

An elegy on the death of Nannaya: c.5.5.2
“Utu, the great lord of the nether world, after turning the dark places to light, will judge your case. May Nanna decree your fate on the day of sleep. Nergal, the Enlil of the underworld, …… before it, may the …… utter your name, may he cause you to eat fresh food. May you be …… of the underworld, and may she have pity on you. May your household bring fresh water to the libation place. May Lord Ninĝišzida …… the house ……. May the mighty Gilgameš …… health for you. May Neti and Etana be your helpers. May the god of the underworld utter prayers for you.”

An axe for Nergal: c.5.7.3
Should it break, I will repair it for Nergal. Should it disappear, I will replace it for him. May Nergal look after me during my life, and may he provide me with clean water in the underworld after my death.

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